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Sample records for adolescents reported significantly

  1. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  2. [The adolescent and his/her significant persons].

    PubMed

    Castellana Rosell, Montserrat

    2005-09-01

    The author publishes the results of a study designed to analyze how an adolescent's social support network is distributed when a teenager has a problem and seeks help. The author analyzes who are the significant persons to whom an adolescent turns to when facing a problem, be it moral, material or sentimental. By means of content analysis technique, the author establishes a seven category system based on the stories told by adolescents; the author plans to discover the attributes and qualities which bring an adolescent close to these significant persons making them, in the eyes of the adolescent, particularly influential. The author plans to observe is differences exist among the persons which adolescents perceive as predisposed to help them and those to who adolescents finally ask for help. The results indicate that the importance of the person varies significantly as a function of the field in which the problem arises and the size of help sought. The results confirm differences based on sex but not on age. Therefore, the importance of the persons remains stable from the first to the last year of adolescence.

  3. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  4. The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…

  5. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  6. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only.

  7. Brief report: Emotional intelligence, victimisation and bullying in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A

    2012-02-01

    In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently they engaged in bullying behaviours and how often they were the target of peer victimisation. Results of the study indicated that the EI dimensions of Emotions Direct Cognition and Emotional Management and Control, significantly predicted the propensity of adolescents to be subjected to peer victimisation. The EI dimension of Understanding the Emotions of Others was found to be negatively related with bullying behaviours. It was concluded that anti-bullying programs in schools could be improved by addressing deficits in EI in adolescents who bully others as well as those who are at a greater risk of being subjected to peer victimisation.

  8. Narrativising Envisioned Futures by Adolescents with Significant Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutua, Kagendo; Swadener, Beth Blue

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand what the narratives of young people with severe intellectual disabilities revealed about their envisioned future, articulated as desired post-school outcomes. Drawing upon a case study involving in-depth interviews of families and adolescents with intellectual disability attending secondary school in the southern…

  9. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible.

  10. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  11. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

    2012-04-01

    Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

  12. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  13. Social intervention for adolescents with autism and significant intellectual disability: initial efficacy of reciprocal imitation training.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether RIT could improve social behaviors in four adolescents with autism and significant ID. All adolescents improved their spontaneous imitation and two improved their joint engagement. In addition, two adolescents decreased their rate of self-stimulatory behaviors over the course of treatment. Overall, these results suggest that RIT may be effective at improving social interaction and decreasing self-stimulatory behavior in adolescents with autism and significant ID.

  14. Foregone Mental Health Care and Self-Reported Access Barriers among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samargia, Luzette A.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Elliott, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents forego mental health care in spite of self-perceived needs for services; this presents a significant public health problem. Using data from the 2001 Adolescent Health Care Access Survey of 16-year-olds in Saint Louis County, Minnesota, we assessed barriers to mental health care among the 878 respondents who reported ever needing…

  15. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism.

    PubMed

    Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teachers of adolescents with AS/HFA completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The informants reported significantly more psychiatric symptoms, especially withdrawn, anxious/depressed, social and attention problems, in adolescents with AS/HFA than in controls. In contrast to findings in the general population, the psychiatric problems of adolescents with AS/HFA are well acknowledged by multiple informants, including self-reports. However, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more commonly reported by adolescents with AS/HFA and their teachers than their parents, indicating that some emotional distress may be hidden from their parents.

  16. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization.

  17. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Olfactory Performance and Significance of Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887

  18. Imagining Wittgenstein's Adolescent: The Educational Significance of Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the philosophical and educational significance of expression in Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations. When the role of expression is highlighted, we will be better able to appreciate Stanley Cavell's insistence that: (i) Wittgenstein offers ways of responding to, though not a refutation of, the problem of…

  19. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  20. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  1. Brief report: improving the validity of assessments of adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; Marrero, Matthew D; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S

    2013-02-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years, 5 months; 47% female; 50% European American, non-Hispanic, 46% African American) and their mothers. A model specifying separate factors for privacy invasion and monitoring behavior fit adolescent-reported and parent-reported data significantly better than a single factor model. Although privacy invasion and monitoring behavior were positively associated, privacy invasion and monitoring behavior correlations were significantly different from one another across all ten variables reported by adolescents and across eight of the nine variables reported by mothers. The pattern of results strongly supports a recommendation for researchers to exclude items assessing monitoring behaviors to provide a more valid assessment of privacy invasion.

  2. Disclosure and Monitoring as Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Agreement in Reports of Early Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome.

  3. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  4. Predictors and consequences of developmental changes in adolescent girls' self-reported quality of attachment to their primary caregiver.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2013-10-01

    In an at-risk community sample of 2101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents' perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls' perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11-14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls' perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

  5. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  6. Identity Development of Literacy Teachers of Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Carly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the theory of identity development and figured worlds to investigate how historical and current education context, preservice and inservice teacher preparation, and school and classroom context influence the development of the literacy teaching identity of teachers of adolescents with significant cognitive disabilities. A…

  7. The Cultural and Developmental Significance of Parenting Processes in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…

  8. The MAPI as a Treatment Outcome Measure for Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersma, Harry L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…

  9. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  10. Brief Report: Emotional Intelligence, Victimisation and Bullying in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently…

  11. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys.

  12. Brief report: Agreement between parent and adolescent autonomy expectations and its relationship to adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J Carola; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto

    2016-12-01

    While disagreement in autonomy expectations between parents and their adolescent children is normative, it may also compromise adolescent adjustment. This study examines the association between parents' and adolescents' agreement on autonomy expectations by cognitive social domains and adolescent adjustment. A sample of 211 Chilean dyads of adolescents (57% female, Mage = 15.29 years) and one of their parents (82% mothers, Mage = 44.36 years) reported their expectations for the age at which adolescents should decide on their own regarding different issues in their life. Indexes of parent-adolescent agreement on autonomy expectations were estimated for issues of personal and prudential domains. Greater agreement in the prudential than in the personal domain was observed. For boys and girls, higher agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the personal domain was associated with lower substance use. A negative association between level of agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the prudential domain and externalizing behaviors and substance use was found.

  13. The Sensitivity of Adolescent School-Based Hearing Screens Is Significantly Improved by Adding High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Zalewski, Thomas R; Beiler, Jessica S; Czarnecki, Beth; Barr, Ashley L; King, Tonya S; Paul, Ian M

    2016-12-01

    High frequency hearing loss (HFHL), often related to hazardous noise, affects one in six U.S. adolescents. Yet, only 20 states include school-based hearing screens for adolescents. Only six states test multiple high frequencies. Study objectives were to (1) compare the sensitivity of state school-based hearing screens for adolescents to gold standard sound-treated booth testing and (2) consider the effect of adding multiple high frequencies and two-step screening on sensitivity/specificity. Of 134 eleventh-grade participants (2013-2014), 43 of the 134 (32%) did not pass sound-treated booth testing, and 27 of the 43 (63%) had HFHL. Sensitivity/specificity of the most common protocol (1,000, 2,000, 4,000 Hz at 20 dB HL) for these hearing losses was 25.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [13.5, 41.2]) and 85.7% (95% CI [76.8, 92.2]), respectively. A protocol including 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000 Hz at 20 dB HL significantly improved sensitivity to 76.7% (95% CI [61.4, 88.2]), p < .001. Two-step screening maintained specificity (84.6%, 95% CI [75.5, 91.3]). Adolescent school-based hearing screen sensitivity improves with high frequencies.

  14. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  15. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  16. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  17. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: a content analysis of media reports.

    PubMed

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  19. [Judicial and administrative consequences of reporting of adolescents in danger].

    PubMed

    Rey, C; Alvin, P

    1995-05-01

    Adolescent victims of abuse or neglect are regularly reported to social agencies and legal authorities. However, decisions following reports often remain unknown, leaving the question of the reporting's relevance open. POPULATION AND METHODS--Forty-one consecutive written reports sent to child protective services were reviewed, and their content analysed. These services were then contacted by telephone, in order to gather information on outcome. RESULTS--Forty-one reports concerned 40 adolescents (32 girls, 8 boys); 36 of whom had been admitted to our adolescent medicine ward. The most common reason for admission was a suicide attempt (20 cases). Thirty-nine reports were destined to legal authorities, while two to social agencies. The reason for reporting was physical or sexual abuse in more than half of the cases. In twenty-five cases, the main request was a separation from the family. Eighteen adolescents were lost from our medical follow-up after reporting. Thirty-two reports to legal authorities had led to a hearing by a juvenile judge answered favorably in two-thirds of the cases, after a mean period of 26 days. All the subjects for whom a separation from the family was not requested in the report remained at home. CONCLUSION--A simple telephone call is enough to gather information about the following of reports and enables an evaluation of the relevancy of its requests. The interface between the health care and legal systems needs improving through better coordination. Pediatricians should be leaders in this field.

  20. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

  1. Unexpected suicide and irrational thinking in adolescence: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akcan, Ramazan; Arslan, M Mustafa; Çekin, Necmi; Karanfil, Ramazan

    2011-08-01

    This report aims to draw attention to the fragility of adolescents' mind and irrational thinking in adolescence that might lead to suicide due to unusual experiences, by presenting a case of completed suicide with its unusual etiology. The victim, a 13 years old boy, had a quarrel with his mother as she sacrificed his pet, a cock, to prepare for dinner. Because of this, the victim had denied to join the family for dinner and wanted to be alone. While the family having dinner, a passing by neighbor realized that the victim was suspended with a ligature around his neck, in the backyard of the house. Meaningfully, there were feathers of cock in pants pockets of the deceased, in the corpse examination. Adolescents are experiencing dramatic physical and emotional changes, and being oversensitive and fragile in that period of life. Thus, a life experience that is tolerable to adults might badly affect adolescents and lead to suicide which is incomprehensible to them.

  2. Adolescent Vocational Exploration. Final Evaluation Report 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGI Educational Services, Inc., Larchmont, NY.

    The 1985 evaluation of the Adolescent Vocational Exploration Program (AVE) found that this New York State Department of Labor intervention and pre-employment project has been successful in increasing young people's chances of gaining employment and functioning productively in the labor market. Primarily for 14- and 15-year-olds, AVE seeks to…

  3. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  4. Adolescent inpatient girls׳ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Liu, Richard T; Yen, Shirley

    2014-09-30

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents׳ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents׳ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls׳ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area.

  5. Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products.

  6. Cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior differences between pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, G W; Nelson, P B; Velasquez, J; Ritchie, K L

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of variables have been related to the occurrence of adolescent pregnancy. However, many previous studies have produced conflicting results and are univariate in nature. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents on variables from three domains: cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior. Sixty-nine pregnant adolescents and 58 comparison adolescents filled out nine questionnaires presented on microcomputers. Significant differences were found on 10 of 24 univariate tests. The strongest differences concerned areas of scholastic functioning and reported sexual behavior; pregnant teenagers were more likely than nonpregnant peers to be doing poorly in school and less likely to use contraceptives. In addition, pregnant teenagers were more likely to have a relative or friend who was an adolescent mother and to expect child rearing to be easier than did the nonpregnant adolescents. A discriminant analysis was computed which correctly classified 83% of the sample, based on variables from each of the three domains. This study has served to replicate, refute, and expand on previous findings concerning the antecedents of teenage pregnancy. More importantly, this study has empirically demonstrated the multivariate and interrelated nature of variables associated with teenage pregnancy.

  7. Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation U.S. immigrants: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Udry, J R

    1998-04-01

    Little is known concerning obesity patterns of ethnic subpopulations in the U.S. and the effects of acculturation on these patterns. Adolescent obesity, a major public health problem, has important health, social and economic consequences for the adolescent. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health survey is unique in the size of the adolescent sample and in its ability to provide large representative samples of Anglo, African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 13,783 adolescents was studied. Measurements of weight and height collected in the second wave of the survey were used to study adolescent obesity. Multivariate logit techniques were used to provide an understanding of the ethnic, age, gender and intergenerational patterns of adolescent obesity. Comparisons are presented between the NHANES III results and those from the Adolescent Health Survey. The smoothed version of the NHANES I 85th percentile cut-off was used for the measure of obesity in this paper. For the total sample, 26.5% were obese. The rates were as follows: white non-Hispanics, 24.2%; black non-Hispanics, 30.9%; all Hispanics, 30.4%; and all Asian-Americans, 20.6%. Important variations within the Hispanic and Asian-American subpopulations are presented. The Chinese (15.3%) and Filipino (18.5%) samples showed substantially lower obesity than non-Hispanic whites. All groups showed more obesity among males than among females, except for blacks (27.4% for males and 34.0% for females). Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents born in the U.S. are more than twice as likely to be obese as are first generation residents of the 50 states.

  8. The Sensitivity of Adolescent School-Based Hearing Screens Is Significantly Improved by Adding High Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhar, Deepa L.; Zalewski, Thomas R.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Czarnecki, Beth; Barr, Ashley L.; King, Tonya S.; Paul, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    High frequency hearing loss (HFHL), often related to hazardous noise, affects one in six U.S. adolescents. Yet, only 20 states include school-based hearing screens for adolescents. Only six states test multiple high frequencies. Study objectives were to (1) compare the sensitivity of state school-based hearing screens for adolescents to gold…

  9. The Relationship Between Reported Sleep Quality and Sleep Hygiene in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy R.; Harsh, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and sleep hygiene in Italian and American adolescents and to assess whether sleep-hygiene practices mediate the relationship between culture and sleep quality. Methods Two nonprobability samples were collected from public schools in Rome, Italy, and Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Students completed the following self-report measures: Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale, Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, Pubertal Developmental Scale, and Morningness/Eveningness Scale. Results The final sample included 776 Italian and 572 American adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Italian adolescents reported much better sleep hygiene and substantially better sleep quality than American adolescents. A moderate-to-strong linear relationship was found between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on both samples. Demographic and individual characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variance in sleep quality (Italians: 18%; Americans: 25%), and the addition of sleep-hygiene domains explained significantly more variance in sleep quality (Italians: 17%; Americans: 16%). A final hierarchical multiple regression analysis with both samples combined showed that culture (Italy versus United States) only explained 0.8% of the variance in sleep quality after controlling for sleep hygiene and all other variables. Conclusions Cross-cultural differences in sleep quality, for the most part, were due to differences in sleep-hygiene practices. Sleep hygiene is an important predictor of sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents, thus supporting the implementation and evaluation of educational programs on good sleep-hygiene practices. PMID:15866860

  10. Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

  11. Is body shame a significant mediator of the relationship between mindfulness skills and the quality of life of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with overweight and obesity?

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls. For boys, higher levels of body shame did not translate into a poorer perception of quality of life, and the indirect effect of mindfulness on quality of life via lower body shame was not significant. These results suggest that body shame is an important mechanism to explain why mindfulness may help girls with overweight/obesity perceive a better quality of life.

  12. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  13. Overview of State Policies Related to Adolescent Parenthood. A Report of the Adolescent Parenthood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sharon J.; And Others

    To help state policy makers and program developers, researchers gathered information on government policies regarding adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. Data were compiled through a questionnaire survey of health, education, and social service agencies in the federal government and all 50 states. The report describes federal programs relevant to…

  14. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Wernicke Encephalopathy in Adolescents After Bariatric Surgery: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Javors, Amy; Pratt, Janey; Kharasch, Sigmund

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 1% of all weight loss surgery is performed in adolescents. There is strong evidence demonstrating significant postsurgical weight loss, improvement in quality of life, and reduction in comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Reports of postoperative complications in adolescents are few because of the small sample size in most series. Despite vitamin supplementation, nutritional deficiencies requiring hospitalization occur occasionally after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Wernicke encephalopathy, a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered mental status, is a serious consequence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Few cases of Wernicke encephalopathy after weight loss surgery have been reported in the literature and even fewer in the pediatric population. Here we describe a teenage girl who develops vomiting after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and presented with nystagmus, irritability, and ataxia. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy in adolescents after bariatric surgery are discussed.

  16. Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring: Comparisons with overt monitoring and links with information management.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Skyler T

    2017-02-01

    This study compared Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring with the overt strategies of solicitation and control. We investigated these behaviors in terms of unique associations with adolescents' perceived privacy invasion and the information management behaviors of disclosure and secrecy. High school students (N = 455, 61.5% female; Mage = 17.39, SD = 0.83) from a predominantly rural province of Mainland China reported a high incidence of covert monitoring (60.40%). Covert monitoring predicted privacy invasion more strongly than solicitation or control. Solicitation positively predicted disclosure, while covert monitoring negatively predicted disclosure and positively predicted secrecy. Privacy invasion fully mediated links between covert monitoring and information management. These latter effects were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. Similar to Western adolescents, Chinese youth might apply selective resistance when parents violate their personal domain. The findings suggest linkage between some parental monitoring behaviors and disruptions in Chinese family communication.

  17. Mental health and adjustment to juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Level of agreement between parent and adolescent reports according to Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna A.; Niedziela, Marek; Głowacki, Maciej; Głowacki, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were threefold. Firstly, to analyze the psychometric properties of the Polish-language Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) questionnaire in the self-report Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (adolescents, 11–18 years of age) and in the parent-report Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (completed by a parent or guardian of an adolescent aged 11–18 years). Secondly, to determine the level of agreement between parents and adolescents in rating dysfunction in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and thirdly, to examine associations between psychological adjustments of patients to JIA and disease as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. The study sample consisted of 52 participants. 26 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 years with a diagnosis of JIA and 26 parents were considered for inclusion. Disease course was classified as pauciarticular (n = 12, 46.2%) and polyarticular (n = 14, 53.8%). Participants completed the PODCI (self- and parent- report) twice and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-25 (SDQ-25). Considering the distribution of results regarding PODCI normative scores, 73.1% of parents and 69.2% of patients scored below 50 on the Global Functioning Scale; that is lower than the average for the general healthy population. Regarding the parent report, the total score of the SDQ-25 equaled 11.86 (SD 2.66), whereas the patient report equaled 11.23 (SD 2.78). The study groups do not differ significantly in regards to either the PODCI or the SDQ-25 results. Parents and adolescents with JIA appear to hold very similar perceptions of patients' health. Greater differences emerge as disease severity and age of patients increase. Excellent internal consistency, intrarater and test-retest reliability of the Global Functioning Scale have been confirmed in the Polish version of the PODCI, the questionnaire may therefore aid identification of patients reporting significant problems in this group. PMID

  18. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Nebraska. Technical Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    This report on adolescent tobacco use in Nebraska focuses on grades 8 and 10. The results presented are based on over time; (2) the changing nature of tobacco use from smoking to use as a chew or snuff; (3) the viewing of smoking and chewing as one health issue of tobacco exposure; (4) definition of a smoker for purposes of this study; (5) data…

  19. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  20. The significance of reciprocal and unilateral friendships for peer victimization in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A T; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor were victimized by others). Three types of friends were distinguished: reciprocal friends, desired friends (who were unilaterally nominated by a target adolescent) and choosing friends (who unilaterally nominated a target adolescent). Between-group comparisons of the three types of friends showed that victims had fewer reciprocal and choosing friends than non-involved adolescents. Compared to bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, victims had reciprocal friends who were socially less well adjusted. No differences existed with respect to the characteristics of the desired friends. In general, victims' choosing friends scored less positive on the personal characteristics than bully-victims' and non-involved adolescents' choosing friends. Within-group comparisons revealed that victims' reciprocal friends showed lower adjustment than victims' desired friends, but higher adjustment than their choosing friends. For bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, such differences between their three types of friends were largely absent. Our findings seem to suggest that victims' reciprocal friendships may not be totally default associations and that out of all possible friends, victims might tend to select those who score most positive on personal or social factors.

  1. Adolescent Dieting and Weight Loss Practices in Nebraska. Technical Report 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina; Newman, Ian M.

    This report describes the dieting practices of 796 Nebraskans in grades 8 and 10. The results presented in this report are based on questions from the 1989 National Adolescent Health Survey administered to a total of 1,689 adolescents. These topics are covered: (1) incidence of dieting in adolescent males and females; (2) methods used by dieters…

  2. Separation Anxiety in Parents of Adolescents: Theoretical Significance and Scale Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Ellen; Eberly, Mary; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Ellwanger, Pamela; Widaman, Keith F.

    2001-01-01

    Developed and validated Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale with parents of sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders, and college freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both showed distinctive change patterns with child age.…

  3. Brief report: sexual sensation seeking and its relationship to risky sexual behaviour among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.

  4. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-03-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care.

  5. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shipper. (3) Each rail hazardous materials receiver located with an HTUA. (4) Each freight railroad... threats and significant security concerns to DHS by telephoning the Freedom Center at 1-866-615-5150. (c... threats, specific and non-specific. (3) Reports or discovery of suspicious items that result in...

  6. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Freight Rail Including Freight Railroad Carriers, Rail Hazardous Materials Shippers, Rail... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105 Section 1580.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  7. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105 Section 1580.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  8. Towards an understanding of salient neighborhood boundaries: adolescent reports of an easy walking distance and convenient driving distance.

    PubMed

    Colabianchi, Natalie; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Almeida, Maria João Ca; Pate, Russell R

    2007-12-18

    Numerous studies have examined the association between the surrounding neighborhood environment and physical activity levels in adolescents. Many of these studies use a road network buffer or Euclidean distance buffer around an adolescent's home to represent the appropriate geographic area for study (i.e., neighborhood). However, little empirical research has examined the appropriate buffer size to use when defining this area and there is little consistency across published research as to the buffer size used. In this study, 909 12th grade adolescent girls of diverse racial and geographic backgrounds were asked to report their perceptions of an easy walking distance and a convenient driving distance. These two criterions are often used as the basis for defining one's neighborhood.The mean easy walking distance in minutes reported by adolescent girls was 14.8 minutes (SD = 8.7). The mean convenient driving distance in minutes reported was 17.9 minutes (SD = 10.8). Nested linear multivariate regression models found significant differences in reported 'easy walking distance' across race and BMI. White adolescents reported on average almost 2 minutes longer for an easy walking distance compared to African American adolescents. Adolescents who were not overweight or at risk for overweight reported almost 2 minutes fewer for an easy walking distance relative to those who were overweight or at risk for overweight. Significant differences by urban status were found in the reported 'convenient driving distance'. Those living in non-urban areas reported on average 3.2 minutes more driving time as convenient compared to those living in urban areas. Very little variability in reported walking and driving distances was explained by the predictors used in the models (i.e., age, race, BMI, physical activity levels, urban status and SES).This study suggests the use of a 0.75 mile buffer to represent an older female adolescent's neighborhood, which can be accessed through walking

  9. Adolescent Coping Profiles Differentiate Reports of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  10. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  11. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between…

  12. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  13. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  14. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitivity to independently observable teen misbehavior as well as long-term, predictive links between maternal symptoms and teen behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted relative increases over time in teen externalizing behavior. Child effects were also found, however, in which teen externalizing behavior predicted future relative increases in maternal depressive symptoms. Findings are interpreted as revealing a tightly-linked behavioral-affective system in families with mothers experiencing depressive symptoms and teens engaged in externalizing behavior, and further suggest that research on depressive symptoms in women with adolescent offspring should now consider offspring externalizing behaviors as a significant risk factor. PMID:21090880

  15. Adolescent inpatient girls’ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey Beth; Liu, Richard; Yen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents’ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents’ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls’ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area. PMID:24893759

  16. Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colver, Allan; Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Ehlinger, Virginie; Thyen, Ute; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4

  17. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point.

  18. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens.

    PubMed

    Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R

    1975-12-01

    The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.

  19. [Sigmoid diverticulitis in adolescent. Case report].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Orozco-Tapia, Luis Manuel; de la Concha Blankenagel, Erika; Gallardo-Ramírez, Mario Alberto; Blas-Franco, Miguel; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad diverticular colónica en niños y adolescentes es poco frecuente y sólo existen reportes de casos aislados en la bibliografía. La mayoría de los casos reportados se asocian con divertículos verdaderos congénitos y enfermedades genéticas de producción de la colágena. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 13 años de edad, que ingresó a la División de Cirugía General y Endoscópica con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. En la laparotomía se encontró enfermedad diverticular complicada de colon sigmoides. Se le practicó sigmoidectomía y colorrecto-anastomosis. El reporte histopatológico evidenció perforación de pseudodivertículo de colon sigmoides y peritonitis. La paciente fue dada de alta del hospital 72 horas posteriores a la cirugía, sin complicaciones. Conclusión: existen sólo reportes de casos aislados de niños y adolescentes con diverticulitis colónica, y su etiología no ha sido aún debidamente establecida. Esta paciente tuvo diverticulitis de sigmoides, similar a la enfermedad en adultos, sin padecimientos genéticos concomitantes. El caso es una excepción a lo reportado en la bibliografía de las diverticulitis en niños y adolescentes.

  20. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting as atypical anorexia nervosa: an adolescent case report.

    PubMed

    Mechelhoff, David; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Weschke, Bernhard; Bachmann, Christian J; Wagner, Christiane; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Winter, Sibylle

    2015-11-01

    Since 2007, more than 600 patients have been diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, with almost 40 % of those affected being children or adolescents. In early phases of the illness, this life-threatening disease is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, obsessions, hallucinations or delusions. Consequently, a high percentage of patients receive psychiatric diagnoses at first, hindering the crucial early diagnosis and treatment of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report on a 15-year-old girl initially presenting with pathological eating behaviour and significant weight loss resulting in an (atypical) anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. Her early course of illness, diagnostic process, treatment and short-term outcome are described. This case report aims to raise awareness about the association between anorectic behaviour and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams in child and adolescent services.

  1. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  2. Carrying the Family through Adolescence: The Significance of Parent-Parent Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Manuela

    The quality of the parent-parent relationship is considered as an important factor for managing stressful family crises. The assumption in this study is that specific patterns of parent-parent communication make it easier or more difficult to adjust to changes in the family that are required when the first child enters early adolescence. In a…

  3. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  4. Life Skills for Adolescents Project. Final Report. September 1, 1985 through August 31, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This document contains the final report on the Life Skills for Adolescents Project in northwestern Texas. The report is in the form of a process evaluation of progress toward achieving the project goal of enabling adolescents leaving substitute care to be better prepared to manage their own lives. The report describes the efforts of the project…

  5. Risk-significant functional dependencies in PWRs: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.; Fleming, K.N.

    1987-12-01

    This report was inspired by the informal observation that functional dependencies among plant systems, particularly those between frontline safety systems and support systems, are often major contributors to the risks calculated in completed PRAs. This study provides evidence that this is indeed the case and seeks to determine how the risk impact of functional dependencies can be reduced in future nuclear power plant designs. Our insights have been summarized by a set of nine design principles that are not new to the nuclear industry and, indeed, have generally been implemented. Their risk significance, however, may not have been fully appreciated in the design process because of the usual practice of not emphasizing the beyond-design basis accidents. It is in pointing out the dependencies that are important to risk that both PRAs and this study make a contribution. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  7. Neural correlates of the self-concept in adolescence-A focus on the significance of friends.

    PubMed

    Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Raufelder, Diana; Pelz, Patricia; Gleich, Tobias; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2017-02-01

    The formation of a coherent and unified self-concept represents a key developmental stage during adolescence. Imaging studies on self-referential processing in adolescents are rare, and it is not clear whether neural structures involved in self-reflection are also involved in reflections of familiar others. In the current study, 41 adolescents were asked to make judgments about trait adjectives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): they had to indicate whether the word describes themselves, their friends, their teachers or politicians. Findings indicate a greater overlap in neural networks for responses to self- and friend-related judgments compared to teachers and politicians. In particular, classic self-reference structures such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and medial posterior parietal cortex also exhibited higher activation to judgments about friends. In contrast, brain responses towards judgments of teachers (familiar others) compared to politicians (unfamiliar others) did not significantly differ. Results support behavioral findings of a greater relevance of friends for the development of a self-concept during adolescence and indicate underlying functional brain processes. Hum Brain Mapp 38:987-996, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identifying disordered eating behaviours in adolescents: how do parent and adolescent reports differ by sex and age?

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-01-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.

  9. Facts on Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Judy Shepps

    Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is currently increasing. Three out of four adolescents report regular drinking. Significant alcohol, inhalant, and cigarette use is reported as early as fourth grade, and alcohol experimentation increases from 6 to 17 percent between fourth and sixth grades. Adolescence is a high risk stage for…

  10. Early Neurodevelopment and Self-Reported Adolescent Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in a National Canadian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    North, C. Rebecca; Wild, T. Cam; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Colman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the mental health outcomes of young children who experience developmental delay. The objective of this study was to assess whether delay in attaining developmental milestones was related to depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Method The sample included 3508 Canadian children who participated in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. The person most knowledgeable about the child reported on attainment of developmental milestones spanning several developmental domains at ages 2–3. The children were followed into adolescence and self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms were used from adolescents ages 12–13. An overall assessment of developmental milestones as well as a supplementary analysis of specific categories of developmental milestones was conducted. Results Cohort members who displayed delayed developmental milestones in early childhood were more likely to experience higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms as adolescents. However, there was no interaction between delayed developmental milestones and stressful life events. In the supplementary analysis, two developmental domains (self-care and speech/communication) were associated with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Conclusion Delay in attainment of early developmental milestones is significantly associated with adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:23437245

  11. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents.

  12. [Urethrovesical foreign body in adolescent boys: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Kuwada, Masaomi; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Nakai, Yasushi; Samma, Shoji

    2009-09-01

    Two cases with a urethrovesical foreign body in adolescent boys are reported. Case 1 was a 12-year-old boy with a stretched safety pin, 7 cm in length, in the urethra. This was probably introduced by him. Case 2 was a 14-year-old boy with a self-introduced metallic bar, 5 cm in length, in the urinary bladder. The foreign bodies were endoscopically removed. Both of the boys had grown in fatherless families. In Case 1, his father had died in a traffic accident while trying to save the patient at the age of 5 years. In case 2, the parents had been divorced. These episodes could have resulted in mental instability in the boys, which possibly led to the self-introduction of the foreign body. Urethrovesical foreign bodies are not rare. However, a foreign body in adolescents under 15 years of age is very rarely reported. It is incumbent upon urologists to thoroughly investigate the psychological conditions in such cases, and to properly judge whether psychiatric cares and follow-up are necessary.

  13. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  14. Comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2010-01-01

    The author begins her comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions" by commending the authors for taking on this rather massive project. The project required not only locating and reading the many lengthy reports that exist on adolescent literacy but also sifting through the numerous claims, ideas, and…

  15. Consistency in the reporting of sensitive behaviors by adolescent American Indian women: a comparison of interviewing methods.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent mothers' reporting of sensitive sexual and drug use behaviors gathered through three distinct interviewing techniques: computer-assisted (ACASI), self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), and face-to-face interview (FTFI). Endorsement of drug use and reporting of sexual activity was highest for ACASI, followed by SAQ, and was significantly lower for FTFI. Relatively strong agreement was measured between ACASI and SAQ, and relatively poor agreement was measured between the ACASI and FTFI. Findings support the use of computer-assisted interviewing techniques with AI adolescents, and implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Clinical significance of intraventricular gradient during effort in an adolescent karate player

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Carlos; Almeida, Ana G; Carrageta, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 16-year-old boy who practices karate, who underwent medical evaluation because of atypical chest discomfort, related to strenuous effort. The ECG and echocardiogram findings were normal. The young boy did a treadmill stress test which was positive for myocardial ischemia. Late during the investigation, he underwent treadmill stress echocardiography, during which he developed intraventricular gradient of over 130 mmHg with end-systolic peak and systolic anterior movement (SAM) of the mitral valve. These echocardiographic findings were not present at rest and disappeared shortly after termination of exercise. The authors discuss the significance of this event. This leads us to advise withdrawal from participation in competitive sport according to the recomendations of the European Society of Cardiology. A possible role of exercise stress echo for intraventricular pressure gradient assessment in symptomatic athletes with structurally normal hearts is suggested. PMID:18021434

  17. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL TEAR OF THE KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM IN A PRE-ADOLESCENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882

  18. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  19. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    PubMed

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  20. Brief report: the influence of posttraumatic stress on unprotected sex among sexually active adolescent girls and boys involved in the child welfare system of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E

    2013-10-01

    While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.

  1. Brief report: parent-adolescent informant discrepancies of social skill importance and social skill engagement for higher-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-10-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement.

  2. Osteomyelitis due to Bacillus cereus in an adolescent: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Schricker, M E; Thompson, G H; Schreiber, J R

    1994-06-01

    Non-anthracis Bacillus species associated with clinical infections are usually dismissed as contaminants or nonpathogens. As opportunists, however, Bacillus organisms can cause significant systemic infections including bacteremia, endophthalmitis, and pneumonia. Osteomyelitis with non-anthracis Bacillus organisms has been described in adults, although to our knowledge it has been described only once in a child. We report a case of chronic osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and superinfection with Bacillus cereus in a 13-year-old adolescent. A Bacillus isolate should be considered a true pathogen in children with chronic osteomyelitis who have a poor clinical response to antistaphylococcal therapy.

  3. Brief Report: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Support--Do They Differ for Pregnant/Parenting Adolescents and Nonpregnant, Nonparenting Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Hockaday, Cathy; McCarville, Pamela Cooper

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine perceptions of type, source, and amount of social support reported by pregnant and/or parenting (PP) and nonpregnant, nonparenting (NPNP) adolescents. Greater support generally was reported by NPNP than by PP adolescents. The groups did not differ with respect to their perceptions of types of support reported on…

  4. Kids Having Kids. A Special Report on the Costs of Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Rebecca A., Ed.

    This report represents a synthesis of research conducted on the consequences of adolescent childbearing for adolescent mothers, their children, the fathers of their children, and the United States. Each year, nearly one million teenagers in the United States become pregnant. About one-third of these 15- to 19-year-old females abort their…

  5. An Analysis of Two Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report for a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed adolescent fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and 27 in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  6. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  7. From Access to Usage: The Divide of Self-Reported Digital Skills among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Zhi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the PISA data in 2003 and 2006, this paper develops a hierarchical linear model to identify multi-level explanatory variables of the divide of adolescents' self-reported digital skills. At the country-level, the study finds a generally negative relationship between the ICT penetration rate of a country and adolescents' digital skills,…

  8. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  9. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  10. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  11. Appalachian Adolescent Health Education Project (AAHEP): First-Year Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Lloyd A.; And Others

    This report is a first year summative and formative evaluation of the Appalachian Adolescent Health Education Project (AAHEP), a program designed to reduce adolescent pregnancy and provide care for pregnant teenagers in East Tennessee. It attempts to determine the impact of the project on teenage pregnancy in the 15-county target area and the…

  12. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  13. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption. PMID:21247417

  14. Hepatitis B vaccination of adolescents: a report on the national program in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zamiri, Nima; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Tehrani, Alireza; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007, Iran's Ministry of Health carried out a nationwide hepatitis-B vaccination campaign for 17-year-old adolescents in four stages. We report the outcomes of the second and third stages targeting adolescents born during 1990 and 1991. The National Committee for Hepatitis selected a passive approach--media education--for mass vaccination. (A community mobilization strategy, for example, would be termed active.) The target populations in 2008 and 2009 included 1 709 337 and 1 673 571 adolescents. In each year, Iran organized three rounds of vaccination throughout the country. At the end of each round, data were collected and sent to Ministry of Health for analysis. The overall coverage rate was 74.9 per cent for one dose of vaccination, and 62.76 per cent for all three doses in 2008; 75.7 per cent and 55.6 per cent, respectively in 2009. Coverage rates in rural areas were significantly higher (P<0.001). The media education approach achieved acceptable outcomes in current campaign. Constant performance monitoring, and perhaps a new catch-up vaccination campaign are warranted to expand coverage.

  15. [Renal handling of beta2 microglobulin. Its significance in carriers of adolescent nephronophthisis (NPH3)].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen; Araque, Carolina; Méndez, Jorge; Angulo, Luisa; Fargier, Bernardo

    2007-06-01

    The adolescent nephronophthisis (NPH3) is a variant of the nephronophthisis. In Venezuela, one to three patients have been registered each year, all of them belonging to the same family tree. The objective of this study was to evaluate the function of the proximal convoluted tubule in NPHP3 carriers; using the beta2M as biological marker. Eight carriers, 7 heterozygotes and 1 homozygote, with normal renal function were compared with a 10 healthy subjects (control group). Serum beta2 microglobulin (beta2M), urinary beta2M, the quotient urinary beta2M/urinary creatinine and the beta2M fractional excretion were determinated. The filtered beta2M and the percentage of reabsortion were calculated. We observed an increase in the plasmatic concentration of beta2M but not related with a decrease of the glomerular filtration. The urinary beta2M, the beta2M/urinary creatinine relation and the fractional excretion of beta2M were normal. The filtered load of beta2M was elevated without increase in the excretion or percentage of reabsortion. We conclude that in our group of NPH3 carriers, functional changes in the proximal convoluted tubule, when measured by urinary excretion of beta2M, were absent. This finding suggests the existence of other mechanism of uptake or degradation of the substance in the proximal convoluted tubule, which have yet to be elucidated.

  16. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships.

  17. Interpersonal and Affective Dimensions of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Self-Report Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and psychometric evaluations of a self-report instrument designed to screen for psychopathic traits among mainstream community adolescents. Tests of item functioning were initially conducted with 26 adolescents. In a second study the new instrument was administered to 150 high school adolescents, 73 of who had school…

  18. Low dose quetiapine in the treatment of an adolescent with somnambulism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Koh, Ong Hui; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan

    2011-06-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.

  19. The Adjudicated Adolescent in Contemporary American Society: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Reilly, Thomas F.

    The purpose of the investigation involving 200 adolescents was to develop a descriptive profile of the adjudicated adolescent. The investigator sought to determine if predictive factors were discernable from an ex post factor analysis of data. Six instruments were utilized in obtaining the data: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC);…

  20. Progress for Children: A Report Card on Adolescents. Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a formative period during which children grow into their rightful place as full citizens and agents of change in their own lives and the lives of their societies. This publication provides an overview of the situation of adolescents, including of their vulnerabilities in critical areas. It makes a compelling case for increased…

  1. Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century. Concluding Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, Washington, DC.

    The Carnegie Corporation's Council on Adolescent Development builds on the work of many organizations and individuals to stimulate sustained public attention to the risks and opportunities of adolescence, and generates public and private support for measures that facilitate the critical transition to adulthood. This document explores some of the…

  2. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  3. The influence of father absence on the self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity of rural southern adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Constance Smith; Cesario, Sandra K; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Gibbons, Mary E; Servonsky, E Jane; Bobadilla, Rodel V; Hendricks, Denisha L; Spencer-Morgan, Barbara; Tavakoli, Abbas

    2005-01-01

    The absence of the father in the resident home is an increasing trend in the United States, and the belief that the absence of fathers is lined with a variety of social pathologies is gaining national momentum. This study explored the relationship of father absence on self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity among rural southern adolescents. A sample of 1,409 adolescents (558 males and 851 females) aged 11 to 18 years was surveyed, and the Miller Self-Esteem Questionnaire (MSQ) was used to measure self-esteem. Analysis revealed that increased sexual activity occurred by adolescents in homes where no father present in the residence. Although a statistical significance was noted in the relationship between father absence and lower self-esteem, the magnitude of the difference was not large. Further, no relationship between self-esteem and sexual activity was noted. Seemingly, the absence of the father has a potentially detrimental effect on adolescents' lifestyle choices. Consideration of the notion that the phenomena of fathering rather than the mere presence of a father may contribute to differences in adolescent's lifestyle choices should be studied.

  4. Marital and severe parent-to-adolescent physical aggression in clinic-referred families: mother and adolescent reports on co-occurrence and links to child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Annette; Donnelly, William O; Boxer, Paul; Lewis, Terri

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the interplay of marital and severe parental physical aggression, and their links to child behavior problems, in 232 families of clinic-referred adolescents. Combined reports from mothers and adolescents indicated that two thirds of adolescents exposed to marital aggression in the past year had also experienced parental aggression. Mothers and fathers who used and/or were victims of marital aggression were both more likely to direct aggression toward their adolescent. Mother and youth reports of marital aggression were tied to each party's report of greater externalizing problems and to youth reports of greater internalizing problems. Severe parental aggression uniquely predicted maternal reports of both behavior problems, after controlling for marital aggression; the reverse was not true. Also, adolescents exposed to both types of family aggression did not display greater maladjustment than those subjected to only one type of family aggression.

  5. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression—younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime—were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed. PMID:24392266

  6. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression-younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime-were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed.

  7. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  8. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  9. Self-reported weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating among high school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F

    2006-03-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data Analysis). Adjusted odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the strength of relationships. Approximately 42% of the sample reported not eating breakfast within the past 5 days, while 41% were trying to lose weight, and 37% were dieting to lose weight. Excessive dietary practices (eg, fasting, taking diet pills or laxatives, and vomiting to lose weight) were reported by approximately 25% of the sample. When compared to those eating breakfast within the past 5 days, all race and gender groups that did not report eating breakfast were significantly more likely to report fasting to lose weight (ORs = 1.70-2.97). In addition, all race/gender groups, with the exception of black females, were significantly more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (ORs = 1.44-1.61) and trying to lose weight (ORs = 1.40-1.72). Among males, not eating breakfast was significantly associated with taking diet pills to lose weight (ORs = 2.31-2.40), eating fewer calories to lose weight (ORs = 1.38-1.49), and inversely associated with trying to gain weight (ORs = 0.71-0.74). Results suggest that these adolescents may be skipping breakfast as part of a patterned lifestyle of unhealthy weight management and that efforts to encourage youth to eat breakfast will likely not ameliorate all dietary challenges that appear beyond the scope of increased breakfast offerings.

  10. When faith divides family: religious discord and adolescent reports of parent-child relations.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Charles E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    What happens to family relations when an adolescent and her parent do not share the same religious convictions or practices? Whereas previous work on religion and intergenerational relations looks at relationships between parents and their adult children, we shift the focus to younger families, assessing how parent-child religious discord affects adolescents' evaluation of their relationship with their parents. Exploring data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find several interesting patterns of association between religious discord and parent-child relations. Overall, religious discord predicts lower quality intergenerational relations. When parents value religion more than their teens do, adolescents tend to report poorer relations with parents. Relationship quality is not lower, however, when it is the adolescent who values religion more highly. We also find that religious discord is more aggravating in families where parent and child share religious affiliation and in families where the parent is an evangelical Protestant.

  11. Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

  12. Daily diary reports of social connection, objective sleep, and the cortisol awakening response during adolescents' first year of college.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D

    2015-02-01

    Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents' well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students' social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23% male; M age = 18.85; 52% non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents.

  13. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  14. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  15. Adolescents in Institutional Care: Significant Adults, Resilience and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory states the importance of secure relationships with significant figures for the development of resilience and well-being. The institutional care context represents a particular environment where relationships beyond the family should be attended for. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship…

  16. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  17. Self-reports versus parental perceptions of health-related quality of life among deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which was adapted to Spanish sign language for children, with a written version for parents. Respondents completed a self-administered paper questionnaire. Parents' and children's mean scores differences were not significant, except for the "Autonomy and Parents" and "Peers and Social Support" dimensions. Children aged 8-11 years scored higher in some domains of QoL compared to those aged 12-18 years. The level of agreement between children/adolescents' and parents/proxies' responses was acceptable, except for the dimension "Autonomy and Parents." Overall, deaf children/adolescents' self-ratings of HRQoL did not differ from their parents' proxy reports; however, differences were found in the dimensions that explored the quality of the interaction of children/adolescents and parents, the perceived level of autonomy, and social relations and support.

  18. Characteristics of adolescent work injuries reported to the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D L; Carl, W R; French, L R; Martin, F B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to provide descriptive data and incidence data on adolescent work-related injuries and to determine whether such injuries are underreported to the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. METHODS. The study consisted of a 1-year survey of 534 adolescent work-related injuries reported to the Department of Labor and Industry and a cross-sectional survey of 3312 public high school students from throughout Minnesota. The high school survey used an abbreviated questionnaire with a subset of items from the Department of Labor and Industry survey. RESULTS. Ninety-six percent of the injuries were strains and sprains, cuts and lacerations, burns, bruises and contusions, and fractures. There were 11 hospitalizations; 4 were for burns that occurred during work in restaurants. Eighty workers (15%) reported permanent impairment as a result of their injuries. It was estimated that there were 2268 reportable injuries to working adolescents in Minnesota during the study year. CONCLUSIONS. The most common serious injuries were injuries to the lower back and burns. The demographic characteristics of adolescents whose injuries were reported to the Department of Labor and Industry were similar to those of injured adolescent workers identified through the high school survey. The results suggest that there is substantial underreporting of adolescent work injuries. PMID:8154564

  19. [The major issues of an "assault and battery" report for an adolescent].

    PubMed

    Depallens, Sarah

    2014-06-11

    Adolescents who are confronted to violence rarely consult health services about this problem. Family maltreatment is the origin of most violence against adolescents, but remains very often hidden from the eyes of professionals. The "assault and battery" reports produced by emergency services are largely about community violence situations. The medical consultation following an assault requires a global evaluation of the teenager confronted to violence. This evaluation will have to take into account not only the adolescent's requests (such as confidentiality), but also professional duties to prevent recidivism.

  20. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  1. Self-reported alcohol use and sexual behaviors of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael S; Bartee, R Todd; Perko, Michael A

    2003-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a relation between alcohol use and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to a host of problems including high-risk sexual behavior, date rape, and academic problems. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption among adolescents and to examine the relations of alcohol use (lifetime, current, binge) with sexual activity variables (sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, condom use, and pregnancy) among adolescents completing the 1993-1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis showed alcohol use was associated with high-risk sexual activity. Binge drinking had stronger relations with sexual activity variables than lifetime use and current use of alcohol. This result is of particular concern, in that binge drinking has been implicated in many problem behaviors. As such, it is of great importance to intervene in the high-risk practices of adolescents before problems occur.

  2. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  3. Quality of life and adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend): the mediating effect of attachment to pets.

    PubMed

    Marsa-Sambola, Ferran; Williams, Joanne; Muldoon, Janine; Lawrence, Alistair; Connor, Melanie; Currie, Candace

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life (KIDSCREEN) was investigated in 2262 Scottish adolescent pet owners. The variable attachment to pets was also tested and assessed as a mediator of this relationship. A positive relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant other (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to dogs. In cat owners, a positive relationship between communication with a best friend and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to cats. In cat and dog owners, attachment to these pets predicted higher levels of quality of life. Higher attachment to dogs and cats was explained by good best friend (IV) and attachment to pets (DV) and best friends. Mediation effects of attachment to dogs and cats might be explained in terms of the caring activities associated with these types of pets.

  4. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood.

  5. Brief report: The role of three dimensions of sexual well-being in adolescents' life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context.

  6. The case report of treatment strategy for Anorexia nervosa with psychotic elements in adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Pozgain, Ivan; Filaković, Pavo

    2010-09-01

    Eating disorders in early childhood are the same frequency in boys and girls. During adolescence eating disorders are ten (10) times more frequent in girls than in boys. Worrying is the fact that eating disorders are the third chronic illness among adolescents after obesity and asthma. Depicting this adolescent we tried to show difficulty of treatment of this disorder, where in the beginning is important to stabilize body weight and prevent somatic damages such as: heart damage, amenorrhoea, changes in EKG (electrocardiogram) and electrolyte dysbalance that could endanger the life of patient. Simultaneously it is important to recognize and treat comorbid psychological disturbances such as in this case: depression, delusions with occasional psychotic reactions combined with unrealistic thinking about the layout of her own body. There is still no cure for the treatment of eating disorders which are in growing number of reports among male adolescents.

  7. Brief report: Executive functions in adolescent offspring of mothers with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Clara; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with unipolar depression, but controversy exists as to whether such deficits are state-dependent or are trait markers that precede disorder onset. The present study examined whether maternal history of unipolar depression was associated with deficits in EFs in early adolescent offspring, a finding that would support a trait marker conceptualization of EF deficits. Participants were a diverse sample (N = 493) of adolescents and their mothers recruited through local schools. Measures included semi-structured diagnostic interviews of mother and adolescent, mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and tests of executive function. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between maternal depression diagnosis and adolescent offspring performance on tests of EF. Maternal lifetime history of depression was not associated with offspring EF task performance. Findings are not consistent with the conceptualization of impaired executive functions as trait markers of unipolar depression.

  8. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  9. Skills for Adolescence. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Lions Quest "Skills for Adolescence" is a schoolwide program designed for middle school students (grades 6-8). The program was designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, and social-emotional skills and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide…

  10. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  11. ACUTE PELVIC PAIN IN THE ADOLESCENT: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Samuels-Kalow, M.; Mollen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of acute pelvic pain in the adolescent female requires differentiating among a broad differential diagnosis that includes potentially serious illness across several organ systems. The case presented provides an illustration of the assessment and management of acute pelvic pain, and key teaching points about important potential causes. PMID:26273230

  12. Adolescent Internet Use: What We Expect, What Teens Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation…

  13. Improving Adolescent Learning: An Action Agenda. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    At a recent national forum at the Ford Foundation in New York, 140 education and youth development professionals discussed how to better support adolescent learning. Drawing on the discussion and the latest research in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive learning science, TASC presents an action agenda that can be tailored to circumstances in…

  14. Measurement of Social Incompetency in Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJung, John E.; Edmonson, Barbara

    Project activities involved: (1) examination of exploratory measures of social incompetency of junior high school adolescents, (2) development and trial of educational units designed in response to problems in black urban schools, and (3) a compilation and review of cross-sectional Test of Social Inference (TSI) data. Extensive test data was…

  15. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    gender, ADHD, and greater number of baseline concussions were significantly associated with inconsistency in reporting. Overall, these findings suggest that student athletes are quite consistent when reporting their concussion history when surveyed twice during high school.

  16. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  17. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  18. Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context.

    PubMed

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca within the context of the Brazilian ayahuasca churches often starts during late childhood or early adolescence. Premature access to psychoactive drugs may represent a risk factor for drug misuse. Conversely, religious affiliation seems to play a protective role in terms of substance abuse. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of drug use in a sample of adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious setting. Forty-one adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 43 adolescents who never drank ayahuasca. No significant differences were identified in terms of lifetime substance consumption. Throughout the previous year period, ayahuasca adolescents used less alcohol (46.31%) than the comparison group (74.4%). Recent use of alcohol was also more frequent among the latter group (65.1%) than among ayahuasca drinkers (32.5%). Although not statistically significant, slight differences in terms of patterns of drug use were definitely observed among groups. Despite their early exposure to a hallucinogenic substance, adolescents using ayahuasca in a controlled setting were mostly comparable to controls except for a considerably smaller proportion of alcohol users. Religious affiliation may have played a central role as a possible protective factor for alcohol use. Thus, ayahuasca seems to be a relatively safe substance as far as drug misuse is concerned.

  19. The Religious and Social Significance of Self-Assigned Religious Affiliation in England and Wales: Comparing Christian, Muslim and Religiously-Unaffiliated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the religious and social significance of self-assigned religious affiliation among young people in England and Wales by investigating religious beliefs and the connection between religion and matters of public concern among a sample of 547 adolescent males between 16 and 18 years of age, distinguishing between three religious…

  20. 40 CFR 725.910 - Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses. (a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a...

  1. 40 CFR 725.910 - Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses. (a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a...

  2. 40 CFR 725.910 - Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses. (a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a...

  3. 40 CFR 725.910 - Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses. (a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a...

  4. 40 CFR 725.910 - Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses. (a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a...

  5. Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan; Yang, Rongwang

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, of which the presence and impact of coexisting psychiatric morbidity has received little attention. The present report describes an adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate. The report suggests us to pay more attention on the mood disorders in children with TS, especially in adolescents. For treatment aspect, medications for improving the puberty development and short stature should be added to in addition to antidepressants if they had mood disorders.

  6. Adolescents' reports of physical violence by peers in residential care settings: an ecological examination.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2014-03-01

    Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.

  7. Clinical significance of psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: subtyping a complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, A E; Morer, A; Moreno, E; Plana, M T; Cordovilla, C; Lázaro, L

    2016-04-01

    A promising approach in relation to reducing phenotypic heterogeneity involves the identification of homogeneous subtypes of OCD based on age of onset, gender, clinical course and comorbidity. This study aims to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of OCD patients in relation to gender and the presence or absence of another comorbid disorder. The sample comprised 112 children and adolescents of both sexes and aged 8-18 years, all of whom had a diagnosis of OCD. Overall, 67 % of OCD patients had one comorbid diagnosis, 20.5 % had two such diagnoses and 2.6 % had three comorbid diagnoses. The group of OCD patients with a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder had significantly more family history of OCD in parents (p = .049), as compared with the no comorbidity group and the group with a comorbid internalizing disorder, and they also showed a greater predominance of males (p = .013) than did the group with a comorbid internalizing disorder. The group of OCD patients with internalizing comorbidity had a later age of onset of OCD (p = .001) compared with both the other groups. Although the initial severity was similar in all three groups, the need for pharmacological treatment and for hospitalization due to OCD symptomatology was greater in the groups with a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder (p = .038 and p = .009, respectively) and a comorbid internalizing disorder (p = .008 and p = .004, respectively) than in the group without comorbidity. Our findings suggest that two subtypes of OCD can be defined on the basis of the comorbid pathology presented. The identification of different subtypes according to comorbidity is potentially useful in terms of understanding clinical variations, as well as in relation to treatment management and the use of therapeutic resources.

  8. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ban Hyung; Kang, Seung Gul; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents.

  9. Identifying key parent-reported symptoms for detecting depression in high risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Ajay K; Hood, Kerenza; Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mars, Becky; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2016-08-30

    Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at particularly heightened risk of developing early onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) yet are unlikely to access services. We therefore aimed to identify a parsimonious combination of parent-reported symptoms that accurately detected offspring MDD. We used a multi-sample study comprising a development sample of 335 offspring of adults with recurrent MDD assessed on three occasions (mean age 12.4-14.8 years) and an independent validation sub-sample of 807 adolescents from a general population cohort (mean age 13.1 years). Parent ratings of psychiatric symptoms in adolescent offspring were assessed using established questionnaires. The best performing four-item combination of symptoms was identified. Accuracy in detecting concurrent DSM-IV MDD diagnosis, assessed by direct adolescent and parent interviews, was compared to the well-established 13-item short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) using ROC curve analysis. The combination identified (concentration problems, anhedonia, worrying excessively and feeling unloved) performed equivalently to the sMFQ both in the development dataset and in the validation dataset. We concluded that a combination of four parent-reported mental health items performs equivalently to an established, longer depression questionnaire measure in detecting a diagnosis of adolescent major depressive disorder among offspring of parents with recurrent MDD and needs further evaluation.

  10. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents. PMID:27822941

  11. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  12. Parent and adolescent reports of parenting when a parent has a history of depression: associations with observations of parenting.

    PubMed

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis).

  13. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA.

  14. Adolescent Self-Reported Health in Relation to School Factors: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…

  15. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Three Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report of a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 27 fathers in Chicago, Illinois, and 48 fathers and…

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  18. Inhalant Use and Delinquent Behaviors among Young Adolescents. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the prevalence of inhalant use among young adolescents aged 12 or 13, the association between inhalant use and delinquent behaviors within this age group, and the association between early onset of inhalant use and problems later in life. Early onset of substance use has been linked to substance use disorders, delinquent…

  19. Are Adolescents Who Report Prior Sexual Abuse at Higher Risk for Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David Y.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…

  20. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  1. Nebraska Adolescents' HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Knowledge and Related Practices: 1989. Technical Report 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This report presents information from a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Nebraska adolescents (N=1,240) in grades 9-12 related to the Human-Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Schools were selected at random from each of the six classifications of Nebraska schools, and two or three…

  2. Staff Behavior toward Children and Adolescents in a Residential Facility: A Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…

  3. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Minority Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleida, Phillip; And Others

    This minority report is a rebuttal to the recommendations made by the Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting of the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. It takes issue with the way in which decisions were made and especially with the recommendation to establish school-based clinics (SBCs) in or near high risk schools. This minority…

  4. Self-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…

  5. Functional Assessment and Treatment of Migraine Reports and School Absences in an Adolescent with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvans, Rebecca K.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions for migraines typically include biofeedback training, stress-management training, or relaxation training and are implemented without consideration of environmental variables that might maintain migraines or complaints of migraines. An adolescent with daily reports of migraines that negatively impacted school attendance…

  6. Age Effects of Reported Child Maltreatment in a Canadian Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…

  7. Brief Report: The Salience of the Family in Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors among Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Ginesa; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between self-report measures of parental support, communication, and psychological control and measures of antisocial and delinquent behavior in a sample of 641 Spanish adolescents (M age = 14.35 years, SD = 1.53 years). Findings revealed similarities in the relations between parenting processes and both measures…

  8. Global Self-Esteem, Appearance Satisfaction, and Self-Reported Dieting in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…

  9. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  10. The Hatfields and the McCoys: Prevalence and Significance of Mutual Antipathies among Preadolescents and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abecassis, Maurissa; Hartup, Willard W.

    In this study, questions regarding the prevalence of mutual antipathies and their relation to the behavior of individual children were examined among preadolescents and adolescents. Mutual antipathies were defined as relationships in which children mutually nominated one another as least liked on a sociometric task. A distinction was drawn between…

  11. Integrating Functional and Academic Goals into Literacy Instruction for Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities through Shared Story Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Carly A.; Leko, Melinda M.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline single-case study examined the integration of functional and academic goals in an individualized story-based lesson plan incorporating an adapted text on grade level content for adolescent students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities across three staff--student dyads. The research team collected data on teacher…

  12. Brief report: The association between adolescents' characteristics and engagement in sexting.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Van Gool, Ellen; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The potential emotional and legal consequences of adolescents' engagement in sending sexually explicit pictures through the internet or the mobile phone (i.e., sexting) have caused significant concern about the behavior among practitioners and academics. The present study compares the characteristics of students who engage in sexting to those who do not. A survey among 1028 adolescents of 11 secondary schools in Belgium was administered. Logistic regression analyses suggest that sexting is significantly linked with sensation seeking, experiential thinking styles and depression, while controlling for gender, age, family status and students' response to economic stress. The results are of importance to practitioners who could adapt their prevention and intervention campaigns to better reach this complex youth. Differences with the findings of previous studies highlight the importance of continuing research on sexting and the need to pay attention to the specific context in which adolescent sexting takes place.

  13. Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts future weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design 253 adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain. PMID:24930597

  14. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  15. Item-level discordance in parent and adolescent reports of parenting behavior and its implications for adolescents' mental health and relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of discordance between parents' and children's ratings of the child's mental health symptoms or of parenting behavior until recently has been treated as a problem of reliability. More recent work has sought to identify factors that may influence discordance, yet much remains to be learned about why informants' ratings of developmental phenomena are discordant and the meaning of such discordance. This study examined the extent to which discordance can be treated as a measure of the difference between two equally valid perceptions, and as such an indicator of the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. One category of concordance and three patterns of discordance were derived from item-level differences in ratings of affection, control, and punitiveness provided by a diverse sample (53% female; 46% Hispanic-American, 35% African-American, 15% European-American, 4% another race/ethnicity) of 484 adolescents aged 12-20 years (M = 15.67, SD = 1.72) and their parents. Over and above adolescents' and parents' independent ratings of parenting, the discordance between these ratings was found to predict adolescent reports of anxiety and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. This was particularly true when adolescents and parents were discordant in their ratings of affection and when adolescents rated their parents higher on affection than did parents themselves. Implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Montalverne Hb; Rösing, Cassiano K; Colussi, Paulo Roberto G; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mg; Linden, Maria Ss

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Passo Fundo, Brazil. Additionally, we studied adolescents' concern with their own breath and whether anyone had ever told them that they had halitosis. A crosssectional observational survey was conducted on 15to 19year old high school students from public and private schools in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil. The random sample consisted of 736 adolescents from 20 schools. An interview with a structured questionnaire was administered. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors was analyzed by either the chisquare test or Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis was 39.67%. The mother's level of education was associated with the outcome. Gender and behavioral habits were not associated with selfreported halitosis. Halitosis reported by others presented a prevalence of 10.73% and was associated to male gender and oral hygiene habits. Individuals with less toothbrushing frequency and no use of dental floss were associated to halitosis reported by others. It was observed that 88.58% of the participants are concerned with halitosis. It is concluded that there is high prevalence of selfreported halitosis, which is associated with a socioeconomic pattern. Most adolescents report concern with their own breath.

  17. The Use of a Group Approach in the Rehabilitation of Severely Retarded Adolescents in Agriculture in Israel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigier, E.

    The project investigated aspects of group dynamics and group behavior with mentally retarded adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years with a mental age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who worked in citriculture in Israel. The report began with an examination of the peer group principle, its relationship to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and its…

  18. Neither too much, nor too little. The dilemma of identifying personality disorders in adolescents patients with self-reports.

    PubMed

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; De la Fuente, José Eugenio; Canalda, Gloria; Forns, Maria; García, Raquel; González, Esther; Lara, Anais; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-03-30

    The study aimed to compare methods of identification of Personality Disorders (PD) in adolescent patients with psychiatric disorders. A sample of 120 Spanish adolescents with clinical disorders was assessed using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) interview, its Screening Questionnaires (IPDE-SQ) comprising the ICD-10 and DSM-IV modules, and also the Temperament Character Inventory (TCI) to identify risk of PD. The IPDE-SQ identified a risk of PD around 92-97% of the sample; 61.7% when adjusting the stricter cut-off points. The TCI showed a PD risk of 20%, whereas the prevalence of PD identified by the IPDE clinical interview was around 36-38%. The differences between the IPDE, IPDE-SQ and TCI were significant, and a low agreement among instruments was obtained. Large discrepancy between self-report instruments in identifying PD with regard to the clinical interview raises several questions concerning the use of these instruments in clinical settings on adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

  19. Brief report: British adolescents' views about the rights of asylum-seeking children.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Martin D; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Sines, Jennie

    2007-08-01

    The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in conflict with the practices of authority. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to endorse asylum-seeker children's nurturance rights over their self-determination rights. Reasoning about both types of rights was multifaceted and focused on moral, social-conventional and psychological considerations. In addition, significant differences were found between males and females with regard to both endorsement and reasoning. The limitations of the study are discussed and future research is considered.

  20. The significance of neighbourhood context to child and adolescent health and well-being: a systematic review of multilevel studies.

    PubMed

    Sellström, Eva; Bremberg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Growing up in a poor neighbourhood has negative effects on children and adolescents. In the literature it has been concluded that the risk of low birth weight, childhood injury and abuse, and teenage pregnancy or criminality double in poor areas. However, the validity of such studies has been questioned, as they have been associated with ecological or individualistic fallacies. Studies using multilevel technique might thus contribute important knowledge in this field. The present review clarifies the importance of neighbourhood contextual factors in child and adolescent health outcomes, through considering only studies using multilevel technique. Keyword searching of the Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Citation Index databases was performed. Original studies using multilevel technique to examine the effect of neighbourhood characteristics on child and adolescent health outcomes, and focusing on populations in high-income countries were included. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and social climate were shown to have small to moderate effects on child health outcomes, i.e. birth weight, injuries, behavioural problems, and child maltreatment. On average, 10% of variation in health outcomes was explained by neighbourhood determinants, after controlling for important individual and family variables. This review demonstrates that interventions in underprivileged neighbourhoods can reduce health risks to children, especially in families that lack resources. An analysis of methodological fallacies indicates that observed effects and effect sizes can be underestimated, and that interventions may well have greater impact than this review was able to establish.

  1. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  2. Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bel, Sarah; Michels, Nathalie; De Vriendt, Tineke; Patterson, Emma; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Diethelm, Katharina; Gutin, Bernard; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Manios, Yannis; Leclercq, Catherine; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frederic; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Garaulet, Marta; Molnar, Denes; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Gilbert, Chantal C; Hallström, Lena; Sjöström, Michael; Marcos, Ascensión; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2013-09-14

    Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ≥ 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (β = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.

  3. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  4. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  5. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  6. Genetic epidemiology of self-reported lifetime DSM-IV major depressive disorder in a population-based twin sample of female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glowinski, Anne L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: In adults, about 40% of the variance in risk of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is due to genetic factors, but little data exist on the heritability of youth MDD. The goal of this study was the genetic analysis of MDD in an epidemiologically and genetically representative sample of adolescent female twins. Methods: A sample of 3416 female adolescent twins systematically ascertained from birth records was assessed using a structured telephone interview that included a comprehensive DSM-IV-based section for the diagnostic assessment of MDD. Mean subject age at time of assessment was 15.5 and participation rate exceeded 85%. Genetic modeling was conducted taking into consideration the problem of censoring, i.e., that younger adolescents were not through their period of risk for adolescent onset of MDD. Results: Lifetime self-reported MDD prevalence ranged from 1% under age 12 to 17.4% at age 19 and older. The genetic variance in risk of MDD was 40.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.9–55.1), with the remaining variance explained by non-shared environmental effects 59.6% (95%CI: 44.9–76.1). Shared environmental effects were not significant. A significant recall bias was observed with older respondents on average reporting later onsets for their first episode of MDD. Conclusions: The genetic and environmental contributions to risk of MDD in this representative sample of female adolescent twins are remarkably analogous to findings from adult samples. These results are congruent with a conceptualization of adolescent MDD and adult MDD as having very similar etiologic determinants. PMID:14531581

  7. [Flight from reality or resilience factor? The significance of the ability of imagination in the psychotherapy with children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The power of imagination refers to the ability of obtaining mental access to an inner world of vision and potential in which change can be believed to be possible. The ability to create inner pictures is dependent on a capacity for symbolisation which is often impaired in deprived or traumatised children and adolescents or those with attachment disorders. Psychotherapy should help foster the ability to create inner pictures, while at the same time remembering that the work of integrating wishes and visions into the real life structure of patients presents a special therapeutic challenge.

  8. Marijuana use in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275

  9. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.

  10. [Atypical celiac disease in an adolescent girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil; Czerwińska, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Coeliac disease is characterized by life-long gluten intolerance. There are a wide variety of clinical presentations, which range from severe diarrhoea and weight loss to asymptomatic forms. The primary treatment for coeliac disease is the removal of gluten from the diet to prevent both immediate and long-term complications. The case of 16-year-old girl with coeliac disease was presented. At the age of 2 years the patient with impaired growth and abnormal stools was suspected to have coeliac disease. She experienced symptomatic improvement on gluten-free diet, but after 3 years the treatment was discontinued. The patient denied gastrointestinal or skin problems. At the age of 14 years Raynaud's phenomenon was observed for the first time. Two years later episodes of Raynaud's phenomenon involved all fingers and toes. Body mass index (BMI) was 23.8 kg/m2. Levels of free-carnitine, tocopherol, vitamin B12 were below normal limits and homocysteine level was increased. Antiendomysial IgA, antireticulin IgA, antigliadin IgA and IgG antibodies were positive. The duodenal mucosa showed total villous atrophy. Gluten free-diet and multivitamin supplementation provided some benefit in reducing Raynaud's phenomenon. The patient's well being has improved markedly. Atypical coeliac disease is usually seen in adolescents and adults in whom features of overt malabsorption are often absent. In cases of health problems occurring in persons with history of malabsorption syndrome in childhood suspicion of coeliac disease should be heightened and appropriate evaluation undertaken.

  11. Sociodemographic, sociocultural, and individual predictors of reported feelings of meaninglessness among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to predict adolescents' sense of meaninglessness about South Africa's sociopolitical situation from sociodemographic, individual level, and sociocultural factors. The participants comprised 39 male and 64 female students from three schools in Cape Town, and had a mean age of 15.2 yr. (SD= 1.8 yr.). They completed an adaptation of Neal and Groat's Meaninglessness scale and measures of sociodemographic (age, sex, and parental occupation, household amenities, and household hunger as proxy measures of socioeconomic status), sociocultural (cultural pride and an adaptation of McClosky and Schaar's anomy scale), and individual level (depression, general life satisfaction, and knowledge of HIV status) factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the adolescents with higher reported scores for meaninglessness about South Africa's sociopolitical situation reported lower socioeconomic status, a stronger sense of anomy, and more symptoms of depression.

  12. Brief report: Violent false memories and engagement in aggressive and delinquent behavior: an investigation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents.

  13. Physeal growth arrest of the distal phalanx of the thumb in an adolescent pianist: a case report.

    PubMed

    Attkiss, K J; Buncke, H J

    1998-05-01

    A case of premature closure of the distal phalanx growth plate of the thumb is reported in an adolescent, presumably caused by accumulated repetitive trauma incurred during years of piano playing. The injury may be analogous to overuse injury to certain growth plates reported in child and adolescent athletes. Upper extremity problems in musicians due to the unusual and excessive demands of playing an instrument are discussed.

  14. Case report: imaging the clinical course of FOPE—a cause of adolescent knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Bochmann, Thomas; Forrester, Richard; Smith, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Focal periphyseal oedema (FOPE) is a rare MRI finding associated with pain in adolescent patients with very few reported cases. We present a case of FOPE in a 13-year-old girl and the only follow-up imaging available for an isolated presentation of this condition.This article describes a clinical course that correlates well with the imaging obtained. This article describes a clinical course that correlates well with the imaging obtained. PMID:27887018

  15. A Validity and Reliability Study of a Report of Self Concept Scale: Adolescent Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    In this self-concept scale for adolescents based on Havighurst's developmental task, the person is asked to read a paragraph which explains the task and to report the way he sees and feels about his ability to achieve the task in relation to what he can do, what others do, and what it takes to be successful at the task. Response is on a scale of…

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Tan, Chai Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Sharip, Shalisah; Omar, Khairani

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary care clinic with school truancy. He was initially treated for depression with oppositional defiant disorder and sibling rivalry. Only following a careful detailed history and further investigations was the diagnosis of ADHD made. He showed a positive improvement with the use of methylphenidate for his ADHD and escitalopram for his depression. The success of his management was further supported by the use of behavioural therapy and parenting interventions. There is a need to increase public awareness of ADHD, especially among parents and teachers so that early intervention can be instituted in these children.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary care clinic with school truancy. He was initially treated for depression with oppositional defiant disorder and sibling rivalry. Only following a careful detailed history and further investigations was the diagnosis of ADHD made. He showed a positive improvement with the use of methylphenidate for his ADHD and escitalopram for his depression. The success of his management was further supported by the use of behavioural therapy and parenting interventions. There is a need to increase public awareness of ADHD, especially among parents and teachers so that early intervention can be instituted in these children. PMID:23205066

  18. Truth or consequences: the intertemporal consistency of adolescent self-report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2009-06-01

    Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents' health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents' responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.

  19. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.

  20. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  1. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development.

  2. Exploration of the Factor Structure of ADHD in Adolescence through Self, Parent, and Teacher Reports of Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J Quyen V A; Shoulberg, Erin K; Garner, Annie A; Hoza, Betsy; Burt, Keith B; Murray-Close, Dianna; Arnold, L Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Factor analytic studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults have shown that second-order and bifactor models better represent ADHD symptoms than two- or three-factor models, yet there is far less evidence for a bestfitting model of ADHD in adolescence. Thus, the current study examined the factor structure of ADHD in adolescence and further evaluated the external validity of the best fitting model. Participants were 588 adolescents (22 % female; 366 with a childhood ADHD diagnosis; mean age 15.9 years) from the 8-year assessment of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). ADHD symptoms were assessed via adolescent self-report, parent report, and teacher report on the SNAP-IV scale. Potential factor structures for the 18 symptoms of ADHD were tested for each informant, which included traditional one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models of ADHD, as well as second-order factor (specific factors loading onto general factor) and bifactor (items loading onto both specific and general factors) models. Unique associations between external criteria and the identified factors of each informant's best fitting model were examined. Although several of the proposed models exhibited good fit, the second-order two-factor model best accounted for ADHD in adolescence according to self-report and parent report, and the second-order three-factor model was optimal according to teacher report. Several key measurement issues emerged for the hierarchical bifactor models, such as numerous Heywood cases and out-of-bound parameter estimates, which rendered them unfit as optimal representations of ADHD in adolescence. These findings and the implications of the best fitting model of ADHD in adolescence suggest that a possible reorganization of this disorder may eventually aid clinicians in the accurate diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents.

  3. The Uses and Effects of Video Viewing among Swedish Adolescents. An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Video Users. Media Panel Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Keith; Salomonsson, Karin

    This report is one in a series dealing with Swedish adolescents' uses of video based upon the Media Panel research program, a three-wave, longitudinal research program on video use conducted at the Department of Sociology, the University of Lund, and the Department for Information Techniques, the University College of Vaxjo, Sweden. Data were…

  4. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  5. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.

  6. Psychopathic-like traits in detained adolescents: clinical usefulness of self-report.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2014-08-01

    Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed.

  7. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  9. Brief report: Performing on the stage, the field, or both? Australian adolescent extracurricular activity participation and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.

  10. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  11. Characterization of Change and Significance for Clinical Findings in Radiology Reports Through Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Saeed; Bay, Graham; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2017-01-03

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) method to automatically extract clinical findings in radiology reports and characterize their level of change and significance according to a radiology-specific information model. We utilized a combination of machine learning and rule-based approaches for this purpose. Our method is unique in capturing different features and levels of abstractions at surface, entity, and discourse levels in text analysis. This combination has enabled us to recognize the underlying semantics of radiology report narratives for this task. We evaluated our method on radiology reports from four major healthcare organizations. Our evaluation showed the efficacy of our method in highlighting important changes (accuracy 99.2%, precision 96.3%, recall 93.5%, and F1 score 94.7%) and identifying significant observations (accuracy 75.8%, precision 75.2%, recall 75.7%, and F1 score 75.3%) to characterize radiology reports. This method can help clinicians quickly understand the key observations in radiology reports and facilitate clinical decision support, review prioritization, and disease surveillance.

  12. Significant effects of birth-related biological factors on pre-adolescent nutritional status among rural Sundanese in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2005-07-01

    The Sundanese inhabiting West Java, the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia, are characterized by a high prevalence of child malnutrition, together with high fertility. Based on an anthropometric measurement and interview survey of 310 children aged 5-12 years in a rural Sundanese village, this study examined the relative significance of the effects of eight biological, eight socioeconomic status (SES) and four health behavioural factors on their Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) in particular. Three biological factors, i.e. birth interval, birth weight and mother's body weight, and one SES factor, i.e. mother's occupation, were selected as the predictors of the two Z scores by regression analysis, indicating more significant effects of the biological factors than the other factors. This pattern is judged to occur in less-developed and high-fertility populations. Since these two Z scores were worse in the subject children than in the under-5-year-old children from the same village, more attention should be paid to the long-lasting effects of birth-related biological factors up to pre-adolescent ages, as an insufficient nutritional status tends to damage growth and health in adolescence and adulthood.

  13. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The reporting responsibilities of the Environmental Quality Committee cover those major federal environmental statutes not covered by the Air Quality, Water Quality, Urban Environment, or Public Lands and Land Use Committees. The 1980 report includes significant developments under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund). The dates of publication and page references in the Federal Register list the final procedures by agency in the appendix. 392 references.

  14. Students' and teachers' perceptions of aggressive behaviour in adolescents with intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Miroslav; Zunić-Pavlović, Vesna; Glumbić, Nenad

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated aggressive behaviour in Serbian adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) compared to typically developing peers. The sample consisted of both male and female adolescents aged 12-18 years. One hundred of the adolescents had ID, and 348 adolescents did not have ID. The adolescents were asked to complete the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and their teachers provided ratings of aggression for the adolescents using the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive-Proactive (C-SHARP). Results indicated that adolescents reported a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than their teachers. Reactive aggression was more prevalent than proactive aggression in both subsamples. In the subsample of adolescents with ID, there were no sex or age differences for aggression. However, in the normative subsample, boys and older adolescents scored significantly higher on aggression. According to adolescent self-reports the prevalence of aggression was higher in adolescents without ID, while teachers perceived aggressive behaviour to be more prevalent in adolescents with ID. Scientific and practical implications are discussed.

  15. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--gynecologic examination for adolescents in the pediatric office setting.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Paula K; Breech, Lesley

    2010-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics promotes the inclusion of the gynecologic examination in the primary care setting within the medical home. Gynecologic issues are commonly seen by clinicians who provide primary care to adolescents. Some of the most common concerns include questions related to pubertal development; menstrual disorders such as dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and abnormal uterine bleeding; contraception; and sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted infections. The gynecologic examination is a key element in assessing pubertal status and documenting physical findings. Most adolescents do not need an internal examination involving a speculum or bimanual examination. However, for cases in which more extensive examination is needed, the primary care office with the primary care clinician who has established rapport and trust with the patient is often the best setting for pelvic examination. This report reviews the gynecologic examination, including indications for the pelvic examination in adolescents and the approach to this examination in the office setting. Indications for referral to a gynecologist are included. The pelvic examination may be successfully completed when conducted without pressure and approached as a normal part of routine young women's health care.

  16. Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescents' reports.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner

    2013-06-01

    Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage.

  17. The role of parent-adolescent attachment in the glycemic control of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tziporah; Shields, Cleveland G

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study explored the associations between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent attachment and glycemic control in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that more secure attachment would correlate with more optimal diabetes control. Thirty-one families completed written self-report questionnaires about adolescent attachment, demographic data, and diabetes control. Adolescents and parents reported on their perceptions of adolescents' attachment to mothers and fathers. Mean HbA1c for the sample was 7.6% (SD = 1.14). Mothers' perceptions of adolescents' attachment were significantly correlated with adolescents' hemoglobin A1c (r = -.42, p = .022), indicating that maternal perceptions of more secure attachment was associated with better glycemic control. Neither fathers' perceptions nor adolescents' reports of attachment was significantly correlated with glycemic control. Attachment appears to be associated with glycemic control in this population though the mechanisms are unclear. Mothers' perceptions of attachment had the strongest associations with control, not adolescent reports. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which parent reports of adolescent attachment are associated with glycemic control.

  18. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Environmental-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The committee found significant developments under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There were no amendments to NEPA, but there were new rules affecting DOE defense-related nuclear facilities. Judicial developments continued a deference to agency discretion in environmental impact statement issues and conflicts with other laws. The administration's budget cuts effectively disabled the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The report also outlines significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Toxic Substances Act. 188 references. (DCK)

  19. Frostbite in an Adolescent Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michael; King, Marnie; Kruse, Richard; Ilyas, Asif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of vascular compromise of a finger from a confluent circumferential blister due to an inappropriately applied commercial cold pack in a high school athlete and to describe the mechanism of iatrogenic injury, acute surgical management, rehabilitation, and pathophysiology of frostbite and constriction injuries. Background: A 17-year-old male football player presented with a frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger secondary to prolonged use of a cooling pack after a mild traumatic injury to the digit. He developed a prolonged sensory deficit from thermal injury, as well as acute vascular compromise requiring urgent operative intervention. Differential Diagnosis: Frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger. Treatment: Emergency surgical decompression and occupational therapy. Uniqueness: Frostbite injuries can occur iatrogenically because of inappropriate use of cooling devices or gel packs. Fingers are commonly injured extremities that are particularly susceptible to frostbite and compression injuries. To our knowledge, no case of vascular compromise from the blister constriction of digits has been reported. Conclusions: Patients and their caregivers must be educated about how to properly use cooling devices. Clinicians need to fully evaluate patients with iatrogenic frostbite injuries, giving particular attention to neurovascular status, and must recognize the need for surgical release of constriction syndrome to prevent substantial morbidity. PMID:24143903

  20. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks.

  1. Gestational Risks and Psychiatric Disorders Among Indigenous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10–12 and 13–15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother’s positive parenting. PMID:18998209

  2. The relationship between adolescents' civic knowledge, civic attitude, and civic behavior and their self-reported future likelihood of voting

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life. PMID:24847376

  3. A Preliminary Study of Self-Reported Food Selectivity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Orionzi, Bako; Simmons, W. Kyle; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that picky eating is a common feature of early development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), far less is known about food selectivity during adolescence and adulthood. Using portions of the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, food selectivity self-ratings were obtained from 65 high-functioning adolescents/young adults with ASD and compared to those of 59 typically developing controls matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Individuals with ASD reported preferring familiar foods (food neophobia) and disliking foods with particular textures and strong flavors. Providing linkage to everyday behavior, parent ratings of daily living skills were lower among individuals with ASD and food neophobia than among those without food neophobia. Food selectivity continues to be an important issue for adolescents/young adults with ASD. PMID:26309446

  4. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  5. The Incidence of Human Papillomavirus in Tanzanian Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; Baisley, Kathy; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Kapiga, Saidi; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women occurs predominantly through vaginal sex. However, HPV has been detected in girls reporting no previous sex. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for HPV acquisition in girls who report no previous sex in Tanzania, a country with high HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence. Methods We followed 503 adolescent girls aged 15–16 years in Mwanza, Tanzania, with face-to-face interviews and self-administered vaginal swabs every 3 months for 18 months; 397 girls reported no sex before enrollment or during follow-up; of whom, 120 were randomly selected. Samples from enrollment, 6-, 12-, and 18-month visits were tested for 37 HPV genotypes. Incidence, clearance, point prevalence, and duration of any HPV and genotype-specific infections were calculated and associated factors were evaluated. Results Of 120 girls who reported no previous sex, 119 were included, contributing 438 samples. HPV was detected in 51 (11.6%) samples. The overall incidence of new HPV infections was 29.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 15.9–54.2). The point prevalence of vaccine types HPV-6,-11,-16, and -18 was .9%, .9%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. Spending a night away from home and using the Internet were associated with incident HPV, and reporting having seen a pornographic movie was inversely associated with HPV incidence. Conclusions Incident HPV infections were detected frequently in adolescent girls who reported no previous sex over 18 months. This is likely to reflect under-reporting of sex. A low-point prevalence of HPV genotypes in licensed vaccines was seen, indicating that vaccination of these girls might still be effective. PMID:26725717

  6. Rumination as a Vulnerability Factor to Depression in Adolescents in Mainland China: Lifetime History of Clinically Significant Depressive Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei; Abela, John R. Z.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Shi, Xiao Ting; Hamel, Anton Van; Starrs, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested the vulnerability and sex differences hypotheses of the response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). Participants included 494 tenth-grade students (M = 15.25 years, SD = 0.47) recruited from two secondary schools in Beijing, China. Participants completed self-report measures assessing rumination and…

  7. Adolescent Self-Reported Physical Activity and Autonomy: A Case for Constrained and Structured Environments?

    PubMed

    Rachele, Jerome N; Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy L; Cuddihy, Thomas F; McPhail, Steven M

    2015-09-01

    The provision of autonomy supportive environments that promote physical activity engagement have become popular in contemporary youth settings. However, questions remain about whether adolescent perceptions of their autonomy have implications for physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between adolescents' self-reported physical activity and their perceived autonomy. Participants (n = 384 adolescents) aged between 12 and 15 years were recruited from six secondary schools in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia. Self-reported measures of physical activity and autonomy were obtained. Logistic regression with inverse probability weights were used to examine the association between autonomy and the odds of meeting youth physical activity guidelines. Autonomy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76) and gender (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83) were negatively associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. However, the model explained only a small amount of the variation in whether youth in this sample met physical activity guidelines (R(2) = 0.023). For every 1 unit decrease in autonomy (on an index from 1 to 5), participants were 1.64 times more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. The findings, which are at odds with several previous studies, suggest that interventions designed to facilitate youth physical activity should limit opportunities for youth to make independent decisions about their engagement. However, the small amount of variation explained by the predictors in the model is a caveat, and should be considered prior to applying such suggestions in practical settings. Future research should continue to examine a larger age range, longitudinal observational or intervention studies to examine assertions of causality, as well as objective measurement of physical activity. Key pointsAutonomy was negatively associated with meeting physical activity recommendationsThe findings suggest that more structured environments would

  8. Clinical Case Report of Expansive Laminoplasty for Cervical Myelopathy Due to Both Disc Herniation and Developmental Cervical Spinal Canal Stenosis in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Fengshan; Dang, Gengting; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reports on adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion are scarce. However, to our knowledge, no cases of expansive laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy associated with progressive neurological deficit after a series of conservative treatment, caused by both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, have been reported. From January 2006 to July 2012, we retrospectively studied 3 patients in late adolescence presenting with cervical myelopathy who underwent expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty at our hospital. The outcomes after the surgery were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. Symptoms presented by these patients were due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis. No major complications occurred after the surgical procedures. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 36–112 months). The Japanese Orthopedic Association scores after surgery showed a significant increase. Long-term outcomes after surgery were satisfactory according to the evaluation criteria for the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. However, the ranges of motion of the cervical spine decreased, especially the ranges of motion on flexion after surgery showed a significant decrease. Expansive laminoplasty is helpful for older adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, presenting with progressive neurological deficit after long conservative treatment. PMID:26937923

  9. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings.

  10. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  11. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in Adolescents: A Preliminary Report of Changes Following Treatment.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica D; Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Eaddy, Michael; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Stewart, Sunita M

    2017-03-31

    This study investigated change in suicide risk in the framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Fifty-four adolescents completed measures of interpersonal needs, acquired capability, depressive symptoms, and suicide risk at entry and exit from treatment. There was a significant drop following treatment in unmet interpersonal needs but not in acquired capability, consistent with the theory. Both change in the interaction between interpersonal needs and in depressive symptoms contributed unique prediction to change in suicide risk. These findings extend the research in understanding changes in suicide risk and inform treatment by suggesting cognitive targets for intervention.

  12. Marijuana-induced mania in a healthy adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history.

  13. Reported electronic cigarette use among adolescents in the Niagara region of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Michael; Manlhiot, Cedric; Fan, Chun-Po Steve; Gibson, Don; Stearne, Karen; Chahal, Nita; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has not been fully described, in particular their motivations for using them and factors associated with use. We sought to evaluate the frequency, motivations and associated factors for e-cigarette use among adolescents in Ontario. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada, involving universal screening of students enrolled in grade 9 in co-operation with the Heart Niagara Inc. Healthy Heart Schools’ Program (for the 2013–2014 school year). We used a questionnaire to assess cigarette, e-cigarette and other tobacco use, and self-rated health and stress. We assessed household income using 2011 Canadian census data by matching postal codes to census code. Results: Of 3312 respondents, 2367 answered at least 1 question in the smoking section of the questionnaire (1274 of the 2367 respondents [53.8%] were male, with a mean [SD] age of 14.6 [0.5] yr) and 2292 answered the question about use of e-cigarettes. Most respondents to the questions about use of e-cigarettes (n = 1599, 69.8%) had heard of e-cigarettes, and 380 (23.8%) of these respondents had learned about them from a store sign or display. Use of e-cigarettes was reported by 238 (10.4%) students. Most of the respondents who reported using e-cigarettes (171, 71.9%) tried them because it was “cool/fun/new,” whereas 14 (5.8%) reported using them for smoking reduction or cessation. Male sex, recent cigarette or other tobacco use, family members who smoke and friends who smoke were strongly associated with reported e-cigarette use. Reported use of e-cigarettes was associated with self-identified fair/poor health rating (odds ratio [OR] 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.0), p < 0.001), high stress level (OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.7), p < 0.001) and lower mean (33.4 [8.4] × $1000 v. 36.1 [10.7] × $1000, p = 0.001) and median [interquartile range] (26.2 [5.6] × $1000 v. 28.1 [5.7]

  14. Familism, Family Ethnic Socialization, and Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Educational Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers’ ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers’ reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers’ familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers’ endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  15. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  16. Adolescent Literacy Programs: Costs of Implementation. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Catlin, Doran; Elson, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Many educators and researchers have proposed reforms for dealing with the ongoing adolescent literacy crisis. Progress in strengthening young people's literacy now depends on schools a) choosing appropriate programs and b) implementing them consistently and effectively. Yet the history of school reform is littered with reforms that were adopted…

  17. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  18. Some Social and Psychological Factors Associated with Black Unmarried Adolescent Fatherhood: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    Preliminary findings are presented to address the issue of the extent to which measures of external locus of control, contraception use, educational achievement, and religiosity discriminate between black unmarried adolescent fathers and nonfathers. Forty-eight unmarried adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried adolescent nonfathers were identified by…

  19. Adolescent Caffeine Consumption and Self-Reported Violence and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…

  20. Extended pathology reporting of resection specimens of colorectal liver metastases: the significance of a tumour pseudocapsule

    PubMed Central

    Wiggans, Matthew G; Shahtahmassebi, Golnaz; Malcolm, Paul; McCormick, Frances; Aroori, Somaiah; Bowles, Matthew J; Stell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of factors reported in the minimum histopathology dataset for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and other pre-operative factors compared with additional data relating to the presence of tumour pseudocapsules and necrosis on recurrence 1 year after a resection. Methods: For a period of 14 months, extended histological reporting of CRLM specimens was performed, including the presence of pseudocapsules and necrosis in each tumour. The details of recurrence were obtained from surveillance imaging. Results: In 66 patients there were 27 recurrences within 1 year. The rates were lower for patients with tumour pseudocapsules (8/27) than for patients without (19/36) (P = 0.030). Pseudocapsules were associated with a younger age (P = 0.005), nodal stage of the primary colorectal tumour (P = 0.025) and metachronous tumours (P = 0.004). In patients with synchronous disease and pseudocapsules, the recurrence rate was 2/12 compared with 13/23 patients without pseudocapsules (P = 0.026). Discussion: These findings demonstrate that histological examination of resection specimens can provide significant additional prognostic information for patients after resection of CRLM, compared with clinical and radiological data. The present finding that the absence of a pseudocapsule in patients with synchronous CRLM is associated with a dramatically worse outcome may help direct patient-specific adjuvant treatment and care. PMID:23458032

  1. Adolescent Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Heidi K; Alves, Marcus Vinicius Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, although on the decline, represents a significant public health concern. Often adolescents present late to prenatal care, either from lack of knowledge, fear of consequences, limited access, stigma, or all of the above. Although multifaceted, there are many risks both to mother and child that are increased in adolescent pregnancy. Many are unintended and are at risk for repeat adolescent pregnancy, especially within the first 2 years. Risks include but are not limited to: low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and preeclampsia, as well as feelings of social isolation, delayed or neglected educational goals, and maternal depression.

  2. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--sport-related concussion in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Mark E; Walter, Kevin D

    2010-09-01

    Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.

  3. 48 CFR 1852.245-79 - Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. 1852.245-79 Section... Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(j), insert the following clause. Records and Disposition Reports...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.245-79 - Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. 1852.245-79 Section... Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(j), insert the following clause. Records and Disposition Reports...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.245-79 - Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. 1852.245-79 Section... Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(j), insert the following clause. Records and Disposition Reports...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.245-79 - Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. 1852.245-79 Section... Records and disposition reports for Government property with potential historic or significant real value. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(j), insert the following clause. Records and Disposition Reports...

  7. Adolescent care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202

  8. Family influences on adolescents' birth control and condom use, likelihood of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-02-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents' self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory secondary data analysis. Hierarchal and logistic regressions were conducted to explore the relationships among personal factors, family factors, and adolescents' self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) over time. Findings suggest that adolescents' racial/ethnic background, parents' disapproving attitudes, and family connectedness are significant predictors for birth control and condom use among adolescents. Although adolescents' personal factor and family structure play a role in their sexual behavior, positive family function significantly protects adolescents from STIs over time. School nurses can provide a vital point of care for at-risk adolescents by finding ways to encourage and incorporate parental and familial influences.

  9. Service Use and Costs of Care for Depressed Adolescents: Who Uses and Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Burns, Barbara J.; Mario, Jeremy; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; May, Diane E.; Feeny, Norah C.; Robins, Michele; Hallin, Mary J.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is common in adolescence and is associated with significant morbidity and family burden. Little is known about service use by depressed adolescents. The purpose of this article is to report the patterns of services use and costs for participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study sample during the 3…

  10. Factors associated with reporting of abuse against children and adolescents by nurses within Primary Health Care1

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, Ana Carine Arruda; Moreira, Gracyelle Alves Remigio; Gondim, Sarah Maria Mendes; Paz, Soraya da Silva; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors associated with the underreporting on the part of nurses within Primary Health Care of abuse against children and adolescents. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 616 nurses. A questionnaire addressed socio-demographic data, profession, instrumentation and knowledge on the topic, identification and reporting of abuse cases. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: female nurses, aged between 21 and 32 years old, not married, with five or more years since graduation, with graduate studies, and working for five or more years in PHC predominated. The final regression model showed that factors such as working for five or more years, having a reporting form within the PHC unit, and believing that reporting within Primary Health Care is an advantage, facilitate reporting. CONCLUSION: the study's results may, in addition to sensitizing nurses, support management professionals in establishing strategies intended to produce compliance with reporting as a legal device that ensures the rights of children and adolescents. PMID:25591102

  11. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  13. Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch. Report to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    This report describes current research activities and future plans of the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS (PAMA) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Center for Research for Mothers and Children. The mission statement of the Branch notes that PAMA develops, implements, and directs a wide range of…

  14. Roles of Interpersonal and Media Socialization Agents in Adolescent Self-Reported Health Literacy: A Health Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…

  15. Brief Report: Parsing the Heterogeneity of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behavior--Relationships to Individual and Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…

  16. Deaf English--An Investigation of the Written English Competence of Deaf Adolescents. Technical Report No. 236.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.

    Presented is support for the existence of "Deaf English," a non-standard dialect common to the prelingually deaf; and reported is an investigation of the written English competence of deaf adolescents. In the first half of the document the author discusses the historical background of deaf education and the linguistic and cognitive abilities of…

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  18. Adolescent bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.

  19. Pedal Gangrenous Changes in the Digits of an Adolescent With Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, Prashant H; Shtofmakher, Garry; Bahri, Ankur; Patel, Ankur A; Barlizo, Sharon R; Trepal, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the colon and is occasionally associated with thrombosis. We report the case of an adolescent with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral gangrenous toes without signs of ascending cellulitis. Radiographs indicated the presence of bilateral and erosive changes in the distal phalanges. The vascular team referred the patient for podiatric intervention for distal vasculitis and thrombosis of the digital vessels. Transphalangeal amputations were performed, and postoperative antibiotics were initiated. The surgical sites healed uneventfully, and the patient was able to resume daily activities. Thrombosis of the foot in the context of ulcerative colitis is a rare, but serious, complication that can lead to serious comorbidities, including amputation.

  20. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  1. Acute lymphocytic leukemia mimicking spondyloarthritis in an adolescent: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, DANYI; XU, GUANHUA; XU, LIQIN; CAO, HENG; XU, BEI; CHEN, WEIQIAN; SUN, CHUANYIN; YUE, LIHUAN; LIN, JIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of an 18-year-old adolescent male exhibiting acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), complicated by the onset of the symptom of sacroiliitis mimicking spondyloarthritis. Atypical features including an enlarged spleen, poor effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy, low levels of hemoglobin, a low platelet count, a low neutrophil count and increased levels of monocytes, indicated the possibility of hematological malignancy. Bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of ALL. The patient received chemotherapy and the symptoms were dramatically relieved. To the best of our knowledge, the current study reports the second published case of a patient with ALL presenting with sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis as an onset manifestation of ALL may result in misdiagnosis, therefore, a differential diagnosis is essential when atypical features are present. PMID:26893708

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  3. [Beta thalassemia major and pregnancy during adolescence: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Trigo, Lucas Augusto Monteiro Castro; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pereira, Belmiro Gonçalves; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia major is a rare hereditary blood disease in which impaired synthesis of beta globin chains causes severe anemia. Medical treatment consists of chronic blood transfusions and iron chelation. We describe two cases of adolescents with beta thalassemia major with unplanned pregnancies and late onset of prenatal care. One had worsening of anemia with increased transfusional requirement, fetal growth restriction, and placental senescence. The other was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism and low maternal weight, and was admitted twice during pregnancy due to dengue shock syndrome and influenza H1N1-associated respiratory infection. She also developed fetal growth restriction and underwent vaginal delivery at term complicated by uterine hypotonia. Both patients required blood transfusions after birth and chose medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive method afterwards. This report highlights the importance of medical advice on contraceptive methods for these women and the role of a specialized prenatal follow-up in association with a hematologist.

  4. Pharmacogenetics Informed Decision Making in Adolescent Psychiatric Treatment: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  5. Cognitive Style and Pleasant Activities among Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…

  6. Impact of Exercise on Clinical Symptom Report and Neurocognition after Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Vicky; Babl, Franz E; Hearps, Stephen; Dooley, Julian; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-03-21

    Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice; however, it is unclear whether subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution after concussion. We recruited children and adolescents with concussion (n = 30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED). At Day 2 and Day 10 post-self-reported symptom resolution, participants completed a strenuous exercise protocol, and pre- and post-exercise assessment of PCS and neurocognition. Results demonstrated an overall reduction in PCS from Day 2 to Day 10 post-symptom resolution, with no evidence of symptom increase after strenuous exercise at either time point. Neurocognitive performance was linked to task complexity: on less cognitively demanding tasks, processing speed was slower post-exercise and, unexpectedly, slower on Day 10 than Day 2, while for more demanding tasks (new learning), Day 2 exercise resulted in faster responses, but Day 10 processing speed post-exercise was slower. In summary, we found the expected recovery pattern for PCS, regardless of exercise, while for neurocognition, recovery was dependent on the degree of cognitive demand, and there was an unexpected reduction in performance from Day 2 to Day 10. Findings provide some suggestion that premature return to normal activities (e.g., school) may slow neurocognitive recovery.

  7. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  8. Early Risk Factors for Violence in Colombian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310

  9. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  10. Exposure to Adult Substance Use as a Risk Factor in Adolescent Substance Use Onset: Part 1. Technical Report #97-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Allison J.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.

    The influence of parents and other important adults on adolescent substance use is becoming recognized as a salient topic of research. A study designed to assess the impact of adult substance use on adolescents' progression through increasingly more advanced stages of substance use is reported here. Latent Transition Analysis was used to estimate…

  11. How Mental Health Interviews Conducted Alone, in the Presence of an Adult, a Child or Both Affects Adolescents' Reporting of Psychological Symptoms and Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-02-01

    The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Brief Report: The Effects of Exercise on the Self-Stimulatory Behaviors and Positive Responding of Adolescents with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal-Malek, Andrea; Mitchell, Stella

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and academic performance of five adolescent males with autism. Results found there was a significant decrease in self-stimulatory behavior following the physical exercise. Academic performance increased after the aerobic exercise as compared to classroom…

  13. Clinically significant differences in acute pain measured on self-report pain scales in children

    PubMed Central

    Tsze, Daniel S.; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Baeyer, Carl L.; Bulloch, Blake; Dayan, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to determine the minimum and ideal clinically significant differences (MCSD, ICSD) of the Faces Pain Scale–Revised (FPS-R) and the Color Analog Scale (CAS) in children and to identify any differences in these estimates based on patient characteristics. Methods This was a prospective study of children aged 4 to 17 years with acute pain presenting to two urban pediatric emergency departments. Participants self-reported their pain severity using the FPS-R and CAS and qualitatively described their changes in pain. Changes in pain score reported using the FPS-R and CAS that were associated with “a little less” and “much less” pain (MCSD and ICSD, respectively) were identified using a receiver operating characteristic–based method and expressed as raw change score and percent reductions. Estimates of MCSD and ICSD were determined for each category of initial pain severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and patient characteristics (age, sex, and ethnicity). Post hoc exploratory analyses evaluated categories of race, primary language, and etiology of pain. Results A total of 314 children with acute pain were enrolled; mean (±SD) age was 9.8 (±3.8) years. The FPS-R raw change score and percent reduction MCSD estimates were 2/10 and 25%, with ICSD estimates of 3/10 and 60%. For the CAS, raw change score and percent reduction MCSD estimates were 1/10 and 15%, with ICSD estimates of 2.75/10 and 52%. For both scales, raw change score and percent reduction estimates of the MCSD remained unchanged in children with either moderate or severe pain. For both scales, estimates of ICSD were not stable across categories of initial pain severity. There was no difference in MCSD or ICSD based on age, sex, ethnicity, race, primary language, or etiology of pain. Conclusions The MCSD estimates can be expressed as raw change score and percent reductions for the FPS-R and CAS. These estimates appear stable for children with moderate to severe pain

  14. Catatonia among adolescents with Down syndrome: a review and 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Jap, Shannon N; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2011-12-01

    Catatonia is a relatively common condition with an estimated prevalence of 0.6% to 17% among youth with psychiatric disorders. Certain patient groups, such as those with autism, may be at a particularly high risk for catatonia. Most of the youth with catatonia are males with a diagnosis of a bipolar disorder. We describe here 2 adolescent females, both with Down syndrome, who presented with catatonia not accompanied by significant affective or psychotic symptoms or with a general medical condition. Both patients had functioned well until the onset of catatonic symptoms. In the current classification system used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, catatonia is described in association with schizophrenia, as a specifier of affective disorders or secondary to general medical conditions. The cases described here highlight the problem with this classification system when patients fail to meet any of the 3 diagnostic categories under which catatonia is currently described.

  15. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures of neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Stark, Daniel; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosenberg, Abby R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral neuropathy is an important, yet poorly studied, side effect of pediatric cancer treatment. There are many measures of patient-reported peripheral neuropathy in adults but very few in children. We aimed to systematically review and summarize reliable and valid patient-reported peripheral neuropathy scales used in pediatrics. Methods Four major electronic databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) were reviewed for studies that measured peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients. Studies eligible for inclusion were those that described use of any patient-reported scale of peripheral neuropathy among children, adolescents, and young adults with any underlying diagnosis (not limited to cancer). Results From a total of 765 articles retrieved, 5 met eligibility criteria and were included. One was a neuropathy symptom score used in patients with diabetes, and the remaining four were in oncology patients and all were based on the total neuropathy score. All involved objective assessments conducted by trained professionals; none relied purely on patient report. Conclusions There are no validated instruments that consist solely of a patient-reported outcome measure of neuropathy in pediatrics and adolescents. Because the clinical evaluation of neuropathy requires specialized training, it is not generalizable in large studies conducted in many diverse institutions. Future studies should validate adult patient-reported neuropathy scales in pediatric and adolescent populations, or develop novel instruments designed for this population. PMID:27037813

  16. Brief report: Benefit finding and identity processes in type 1 diabetes: Prospective associations throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Ramsey, Meagan A; Kelly, Caitlin S; Wiebe, Deborah J; Mello, Daniel; Oris, Leen; Prikken, Sofie; Verschueren, Margaux; Berg, Cynthia A

    2016-06-01

    Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence, but may be challenged when having a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. The present study examined whether viewing positive benefits to one's diabetes across adolescence was related to greater identity exploration and commitment later in time. A total of 55 adolescents (10-14 years; 47% female) with type 1 diabetes participated in a six-wave study spanning 3 years (with six-month measurement intervals). Through latent growth curve modeling, Time 6 identity scores were regressed on intercept and slope terms of benefit finding through Times 1-4, simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Identity exploration (but not commitment) at Time 6 was positively predicted by the intercept and slope of benefit finding: adolescents who find benefits in diabetes are more inclined to explore different alternatives later on in adolescence. Benefit finding may constitute a resource facilitating identity formation in adolescents with diabetes.

  17. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  18. Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report in an Adolescent Nigerian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ikpeme, Anthonia Asanye; Usang, Usang Edet; Inyang, Akan Wilson; Ani, Nchiewe

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This is to report a case of Klippel Trenauay Weber syndrome in a fifteen year old Nigerian boy. This is a rare syndrome and it is the first case to be reported in UCTH Calabar. CASE PRESENTATION: Product of a full term uneventful pregnancy, delivered to non-consanguineous apparently healthy parents. At birth was noted to gradually develop swelling on the right leg, worse at the right foot. There was crossed hemi-hypertrophy with right leg bigger than the left. As child grew symptoms worsened, parents separated and eventually he was abandoned to the streets. He presented at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for medical care at the age of fifteen years with lymphatic obstruction, persistent foul smelling drainage, lipodermatosclerosis of right foot as well psycho-social and financial constraints. The diagnosis was made with x-rays and Doppler studies of the lower limb vessels. He is currently being managed conservatively with compression dressings on the affected limbs, Antibiotics for the infection and analgesics. De-bulking surgery is being anticipated at this time. CONCLUSION: This is a case of KTWS presenting in adolescence and due to its rarity in Nigeria, this report is to increase awareness. PMID:27275244

  19. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  20. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    PubMed

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.

  1. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  2. Significant Issues Raised by the Study Commission on Pharmacy Report--A View From the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    An opinion is offered of the Millis Commission report on pharmacy. Two major areas are considered: levels of pharmacy practice and roles for clinical pharmacy practice. It is concluded that the report failed to explore the issues facing pharmacy in the depth necessary to initiate meaningful change. (LBH)

  3. Mandated Reporters' Perceptions of and Encounters With Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking of Adolescent Females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Trouteaud, Alex R; Matos Johnson, Jodien

    2016-03-17

    This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almost 25% of respondents did not believe DMST existed in their communities. Implications for practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions.

  5. EPA Report: For the US, Global Action Now Saves Lives and Avoids Significant Climate Change Damages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released one of the most comprehensive analyses to date on the economic, health and environmental benefits to the United States of global climate action. The peer-reviewed report, Cli

  6. Report: Significant Modifications Needed To Ensure Success of Fort Worth Asbestos Demolition Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00002, December 19, 2003. According to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Asbestos Registry System, over 166,000 asbestos demolition and/or renovation projects were conducted in the last two years.

  7. Goal Orientations of Adolescents, Coaches, and Parents: Is There a Convergence of Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givvin, Karen B.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relation between goal orientations of 12- to 15-year-old competitive swimmers, and those of parents, and coaches. Found that adolescents' self-reported goal orientations correlated highly with their perceptions of goal orientations of their significant adults but not with self-reports of their significant adults. Adolescents believed…

  8. An Investigation of Verbal Interaction, Knowledge of Sexual Behavior and Self-Concept in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Mary Elaine; Rudolph, Linda B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' communication with significant others and their knowledge about sex, pregnancy, and birth control. Adolescent mothers (N=23) reported their communication with their own mothers to be one of mutual understanding. Most reported obtaining sex, pregnancy, and birth control information from significant others. Respondents'…

  9. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  10. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  11. Racial Differences in Adolescent Self-Report: A Comparative Validity Study Using Homogeneous MMPI Content Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPIs) were administered to an urban mixed-race sample of 218 adolescent psychiatric patients. Wiggins scale elevations for African Americans and whites were compared, and the validity of the scales was assessed through comparison with parent observations. Implications for the MMPI-Adolescent content…

  12. Brief Report: Adolescent Adjustment in Affluent Communities: The Role of Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Lea V.; Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescent adjustment.…

  13. Brief Report: The Assessment of Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Maddox, Brenna B.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of measures of anxiety with a sample (n = 30) of adolescents with HFASD and comorbid anxiety…

  14. The PICA Project. Year 2. Project Interim Report. Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Harold L.; And Others

    An operant conditioning program for 12 problematic adolescent boys is described in detail. Complete procedures are discussed, including criteria for student selection and the Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA) academic and psychological test battery. The academic component of the program focuses on mathematics and English…

  15. Reporting Empirical Research on Adolescence: Reflections on the Appeal of Coherence, Purpose and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Roger J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The study of adolescence has come of age. Many successful journals now provide researchers with a wide variety of reasonable options for contributing to our understanding of adolescents and their place in society. This article explores these options and offers suggestions to prospective authors, especially those who expect to publish in the…

  16. Brief Report: Improving the Validity of Assessments of Adolescents' Feelings of Privacy Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years,…

  17. Brief Report: Piloting the Positive Life Changes (PLC) Program for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ariel A.; Dierkhising, Carly B.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot the Positive Life Changes (PLC) program, a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral intervention for at-risk adolescents that aims to promote social competencies and to prevent aggression. The program was piloted in 4 intervention groups with a sample of 31 self-referred adolescents (M age 15.64) attending an…

  18. Message Processes and Their Associations with Adolescents' Executive Function and Reports of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John P.; Harvey-Knowles, Jacquelyn A.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has identified the negative health outcomes associated with bullying for adolescent victims. Researchers have examined expressive writing as a possible method by which to decrease violence among adolescents. Results of these studies, however, suggest that expressive writing is associated with positive, negative, and neutral…

  19. Retrospective Reports of the Lived School Experience of Adolescents after the Death of a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was done to better understand the school experience of adolescents after the death of a parent. The participants were adults over the age of 19 and between 3 and 43 years past the death of a parent during adolescence. The study involved personal, reflective interviews with each of the participants. The…

  20. Brief Report: A Quality of Life Instrument for Adolescents with Growth Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, J.A.; Claude Simeoni, M.; Auquier, P.; Robitail, S.; Brasseur, P.; Beresniak, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of a recently developed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument (Vecu et Sante Percue de l'Adolescent -Malade, VSP-AM) in 172 adolescents receiving growth hormone. The VSP-AM was cross-culturally adapted into English and tested for internal consistency (@a=0.78-0.89 subscales, 0.74 Summary…

  1. Legislation on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. Wisconsin Legislative Council Report No. 13 to the 1991 Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; And Others

    Wisconsin legislation on adolescent pregnancy prevention is discussed in this document. The 1991 Senate Bill 324 and Assembly Bill 630, identical bills which relate to adolescent pregnancy prevention, school district instruction in human growth and development, medical assistance services, and making appropriations, are discussed. Part I notes…

  2. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  3. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse.

  4. Attribution Style of Adolescents with School-Reported Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…

  5. Examining the Acceptability, Attractiveness, and Effects of a School-Based Validating Interview for Adolescents Who Self-Injure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Pettersson, Kajsa; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents is a significant problem that needs to be addressed, and in some cases managed, in school settings. The current feasibility study uses screening questionnaires and follow up-interviews on NSSI in a community sample of adolescents ("N" = 1,052) in Sweden. Both adolescents reporting self-injury…

  6. The PedsQL™ as a patient-reported outcome in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia: an analysis of OMERACT domains

    PubMed Central

    Varni, James W; Burwinkle, Tasha M; Limbers, Christine A; Szer, Ilona S

    2007-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, multiple tender points on physical examination, generalized muscular aching, stiffness, fatigue, nonrestorative sleep pattern, cognitive dysfunction, and mood disturbance. Recently, the Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Fibromyalgia Syndrome Workshop ranked and prioritized the domains that should be consistently measured in fibromyalgia clinical trials, specifically, pain, generic health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, and physical function. The focus of these deliberations was exclusively on adult patients, and to our knowledge, these domains have not been previously tested within a multidimensional framework in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia. Methods An analysis to determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™) Generic Core Scales, PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module Pain and Hurt Scale as patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures for pediatric patients with fibromyalgia. The PedsQL™ Scales were completed by 59 families in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in a large children's hospital. Results The PedsQL™ evidenced minimal missing responses (0.53% patient self-report, 0.70% parent proxy-report), achieved excellent reliability for the Generic Core Scales Total Scale Score (α = 0.88 patient self-report, 0.87 parent proxy-report), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale Total Scale Score (α = 0.94 patient self-report, 0.94 parent proxy-report), and acceptable reliability for the 4-item Rheumatology Module Pain and Hurt Scale (α = 0.68 patient self-report, 0.75 parent proxy-report). The PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale significantly distinguished between pediatric patients with fibromyalgia and healthy children. Pediatric patients with fibromyalgia self-reported

  7. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participant...

  8. Background factors in craniomandibular disorders: reported symptoms in adolescents with special reference to joint hypermobility and oral parafunctions.

    PubMed

    Westling, L; Mattiasson, A

    1991-02-01

    Correlations between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) symptoms and an inherited factor (general joint hypermobility) were studied in 193 adolescents (96 girls and 97 boys). They answered a questionnaire concerning CMD symptoms, oral parafunctions, head and jaw trauma and symptoms from other joints. Joint mobility was assessed by determining the Beighton score (0-9). Twenty-eight percent of the girls and 21% of the boys could perform four or more of the manoeuvres. Twenty-two percent of the girls and 3% of the boys were extremely hypermobile (score greater than or equal to 5). Eighty-nine percent were aware of some oral parafunction and the prevalences of oral habits were about the same in the two groups. Girls reported significantly more dysfunction symptoms than boys. No indication was found that oral parafunctions generally produced CMD but a systemic factor (joint hypermobility) seemed to play an important role when the masticatory system was exposed to local forces as in oral parafunction. This may be one explanation for the predominance of females among CMD patients.

  9. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  10. The effect of adolescents' sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún

    2013-01-01

    Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way.

  11. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  12. Report: Better Enforcement Oversight Needed for Major Facilities with Water Discharge Permits in Long-Term Significant Noncompliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00023, May 14, 2007. EPA did not provide effective enforcement oversight of major facilities with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits in long-term significant noncompliance.

  13. Self-Reports versus Parental Perceptions of Health-Related Quality of Life among Deaf Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire,…

  14. Objectively measured versus self-reported physical activity in children and adolescents with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Miriam; Seidel, Corinna Caroline; Kesting, Sabine Verena; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Boos, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Existing research recognizes low levels of physical activity in pediatric patients with cancer, but much uncertainty exists about their capability to self-reflect physical activity levels. The objective of this study was to compare results of subjective self-reports and objective accelerometers regarding levels of daily walking as well as moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Methods Results of the objective assessment tool StepWatchTM Activity Monitor and self-reporting with a standardized questionnaire were compared in 28 children and adolescents during cancer treatment. Results The patients were 13.8±2.8 years of age and 3.4±2.0 months after cancer diagnosis. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a fairly symmetrical under- and over-estimation for daily minutes of walking with the limits of agreement ranging from -100.8 to 87.3 min (d = -6.7 min). Mean difference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was almost zero but limits of agreement are ranging from -126.8 to 126.9 min. The comparison for the days with at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a marked difference with 3.0±2.6 self-reported days versus only 0.1±0.4 measured days. Conclusions These findings suggest that physical activity in pediatric cancer patients should preferably be assessed with objective methods. Greater efforts are needed to implement supervised exercise interventions during treatment incorporating methods to improve self-reflection of physical activity. PMID:28207820

  15. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Baisley, Kathy; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Kapiga, Saidi; Godinez, Jose M.; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries. Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15–16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behavior and intravaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes. Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9–11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95% CI, 3.5–7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intravaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (adjusted odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.09–4.39). Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects underreporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or nonpenetrative sexual behaviors. PMID:24740630

  16. Brief Report: Nature and Implications of Personal Projects Among Adolescents With and Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the relation of adolescent goals to psychological well-being and diabetes health. Method We used personal project analysis to elicit the goals that adolescents with (n = 110) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 117) have. Adolescents evaluated several project dimensions (progress, stress, typicality, happiness, extent desired by others). Psychological well-being and diabetes health were assessed. Results Adolescents with and without diabetes described similar projects, with academic projects being most frequently named. Adolescents with diabetes were more likely to identify appearance projects, and healthy adolescents were more likely to identify self-improvement projects. Among the project dimensions, project progress was associated with better psychological and diabetes health, and project stress was associated with poorer psychological and diabetes health. Conclusion Results suggest that aspects of the general goals that adolescents set for themselves may have implications for their psychological well-being as well as how they care for their diabetes. PMID:19372267

  17. Sibling Influences on Adolescent Delinquent Behaviour: An Australian Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines sibling influences on adolescent delinquency. Based on maternal and self reports, a moderately strong association between siblings' delinquency is found. Relationship remains significant controlling for childhood aggression and family environment factors measured during childhood (age 5) and adolescence (age 14). Effect varies according…

  18. Determinants of Coping Responses among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…

  19. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  20. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents.

  1. 12-year old adolescent with super morbid obesity, treated with laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB/BAGUA): A case report after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carbajo Caballero, Miguel Angel; Vázquez-Pelcastre, Raul; Aparicio-Ponce, Rodolfo; Luque de Leon, Enrique; Jimenez, José María; Ortiz-Solorzano, Javier; Castro, María José

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity among adolescents has being on the increased in the recent decades specifically in developed countries around the world. In Europe, Spain has the highest prevalence of obese adolescents with more than 18% of the population of children and adolescents. There is evidence that the only effective and permanent treatment for morbid obesity and the comorbidities is surgical treatment, however there exists many controversies about which treatment is the best for obese adolescents. We report a case of a 12 year old patient with super obesity (58.5 kg/m(2) of BMI) and metabolic syndrome who underwent LOAGB/BAGUA and monitored during the last 5 year. The patient after five years follow-up maintains a 22.4 kg/m(2) of BMI. We consider that LOAGB/ BAGUA could be an effective and safe procedure as a treatment of obesity and comorbidities as well, for adolescent patients.

  2. A Report of a Standard Setting Method for Alternate Assessments for Students with Significant Disabilities. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Barbara; Mead, Ronald; Payne, David

    This report describes one approach toward setting standards to determine performance level cut scores for an alternative assessment for students with disabilities. First, it considers requirements for inclusion of students with disabilities in educational assessments under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The proposed methodology…

  3. Brief report: do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.

  4. Psychosis in an adolescent with Wilson's disease: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Jhanda, Soumya; Chawla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in Wilson's disease and mainly include extrapyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Presentations with psychotic symptoms have been described less frequently. In this report we present the case of a young boy with Wilson's disease who developed psychotic symptoms. A 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with Wilson's disease on the basis of the physical examination findings and low ceruloplasmin levels (8.1 mg/dl). After 2 weeks of being diagnosed with Wilson's disease, he developed an acute onset illness, characterized by delusion of persecution, fearfulness, hypervigilence and decreased sleep. These symptoms were not associated with any confusion, clouding of consciousness, hallucinations and affective symptoms. There was no past or family history of psychosis. One week after the onset of the symptoms he was prescribed tab penicillamine, initially 250 mg/day, which was increased to 500 mg/day after 3 days. After increase in the dose of penicillamine, his psychiatric symptoms worsened and led to hospitalization. A diagnosis of organic delusional disorder (F06.2) due to Wilson's disease was considered. Tab risperidone 1 mg/day was started, and the dose of penicillamine was reduced with which symptoms resolved. Whenever a young adolescent develops psychosis, especially of delusional type, the possibility of Wilson's disease must be considered. PMID:25568485

  5. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  6. Legal Report: Review of Significant Immigration Cases Decided by the Federal Courts in 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgro, Francesco

    1984-01-01

    Reviews significant decisions of the lower federal courts in 1984 affecting the field of immigration, nationality law, and the rights of aliens. Decisions reviewed cover these topics: asylum and withholding of deportation; waivers of inadmissibility; suspension of deportation; adjustment of status; students; visas; deferred action; aliens' rights;…

  7. The significance of medial sural artery integrity in popliteal artery trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tzilalis, V D; Georgiadis, G S; Papas, T T; Arvanitis, D P; Lazarides, M K

    2005-12-01

    Two patients with popliteal artery trauma who underwent secondary amputations due to refractory calf sepsis despite a patent arterial repair are presented in this case report. The medial sural artery, the main arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, was surgically severed in both patients owing to the use of a continuous medial incision from the supra level to infragenicular level. The compromised arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle may have contributed to the devitalization of the muscle and the subsequent calf sepsis, and it is speculated that this was related to the unfavorable outcome.

  8. Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: adolescents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K

    1997-01-01

    By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  13. Evaluation of different criteria for significant threshold shift in occupational hearing conservation programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, J.D.

    1992-12-09

    A comparison was undertaken of six different criteria for determinig significant hearing threshold shift. Each criterion was applied to the first eight audiograms for males participating in 15 different industrial hearing conservation programs. Of the different criteria used, the OSHA STS criterion produced the lowest overall percentage of employees tagged as having suffered a threshold shift. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria produced the highest percentages. The mean percentages of employees tagged on an annual basis generally were small, less than 10 percent in referent data bases and 20 percent or less in the noncontrol data bases. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria tagged 37 percent and 51 percent of employees in noncontrol data bases on the first test comparison and averaged 14 percent and 24 percent of employees even in referent data bases. The purpose of the significant threshold shift criterion was to tag employees with temporary threshold shifts (TTS) before they develop hearing loss. Therefore, the purpose of the threshold shift criterion selected was not to act as a recordable occupational illness but rather to reflect a significant amount of persistent hearing change.

  14. Adolescent-parent conflict in the age of social media: Case reports from India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchita; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Anoop Krishna; Sen, Mahadev Singh

    2016-10-01

    Social media activities have gained popularity amongst children and adolescents as a means of communication; giving them the opportunity for independence and social development as well as rendering them vulnerable to negative influences. In traditionally collectivistic societies like India, moving rapidly towards modernisation, not only is there a divide between parents and adolescents over the endorsement of these sites, but also regarding value systems related to autonomy and dating that are facilitated by such activities. We present cases of two adolescent girls to highlight adolescent parent conflict that arises in the age of social media in a cultural context. Further, the cases underscore that value systems and culture play an important role in resolution of such conflict.

  15. Nonpathological and pathological narcissism: which self-reported characteristics are most problematic in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Barry, Christopher T; Kauten, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates that dimensions of adolescent narcissism differ in their associations with indicators of positive and negative psychological functioning (e.g., Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007 ; Barry & Wallace, 2010 ). This study investigated correlates of 2 empirically derived factors of adolescent narcissism (i.e., pathological and nonpathological narcissism) from 2 measures thought to differ based on their inclusion of pathological versus nonpathological content. In a sample of 188 at-risk adolescents ages 16 to 18, pathological narcissism was associated with various indicators of maladjustment, including aggression, low self-esteem, internalizing problems, and poor perceived interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, nonpathological narcissism was positively associated with self-esteem and aggression but negatively associated with internalizing problems. The implications for the conceptualization of adolescent narcissism are discussed.

  16. Chronic Pulmonary Histoplasmosis and its Clinical Significance: an Under-reported Systemic Fungal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Ritu; Palange, Padmavali; Bhoomagiri, Mohan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. It is a dimorphic fungus which lives as a saprophyte in the environment and occasionally infects immunosuppressed people. H capsulatum is a ubiquitous fungus present throughout the globe and is more common in the temperate world. Human infection with H capsulatum occurs through respiratory route by inhalation of spores present in the air as droplet nuclei. Pulmonary histoplasmosis is difficult to diagnose, more so in the regions where tuberculosis is endemic, and many infected patients remain asymptomatic. In the case of immunosuppression, clinical symptoms of pulmonary infection may be seen along with chances of dissemination. We report a case of chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual. PMID:27688988

  17. De Garengeot's hernia in an 82-year-old man: a case report and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Túlio F.; Chagas, Carlos A.A.; Pires, Lucas A.S.; Cisne, Rafael; Babinski, Márcio A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the appendix within a femoral hernia (FH) sac is known as Garengeot's hernia (GH). We report on current study a rare case of an elderly man with a combined inguinal and Garengeot's hernia and discuss the clinical aspects. An 82-year-old man clinically stable, presented history of pain at the right inguinal region for over a week, without vomit, nausea, fever or any alteration of intestinal or urinary eliminations. Clinical examination revealed a FH and the ultrasonography confirmed the hernia sac. During the surgery, the appendix was recognized within the sac, and then, the patient underwent appendectomy and hernia repair. In conclusion, the presence of the vermiform appendix in a FH sac is rare, thus, requiring knowledge of the surgeon regarding this clinical entity. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment is the key to avoid complications. PMID:27381019

  18. Predictors of parent-adolescent communication in post-apartheid South Africa: a protective factor in adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-04-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0-2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05-6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication.

  19. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Scott, D.; Rowe, C.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, W.

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of this report is to establish a protocol for assessing risks to non-human populations exposed to environmental stresses typically found on many DOE sites. The authors think that they can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity). This research is needed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. The experimental facility will allow them to develop a credible assessment tool for appraising ecological risks, and to evaluate the effects of radionuclide/chemical synergisms on non-human species. This report summarizes work completed midway of a 3-year project that began in November 1996. Emphasis to date has centered on three areas: (1) developing a molecular probe to measure stable chromosomal aberrations known as reciprocal translocations, (2) constructing an irradiation facility where the statistical power inherent in replicated mesocosms can be used to address the response of non-human organisms to exposures from low levels of radiation and metal contaminants, and (3) quantifying responses of organisms living in contaminated mesocosms and field sites.'

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  4. Insights into Adherence among a Cohort of Adolescents Aged 12–20 Years in South Africa: Reported Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Evans, Denise; Govindasamy, Darshini; Jamieson, Lise; Malete, Given; Mongwenyana, Constance; Technau, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date) up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4). A total of 47 (38%) adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years) were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95). Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18) as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents. PMID:27867661

  5. Trombone tongue: a new clinical sign for significant medullary compression at the craniovertebral junction. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheong H; Casey, Adrian T H; Allibone, James B; Chelvarajah, Ramesh

    2006-12-01

    The authors describe a previously unreported clinical sign that may indicate the onset of significant compression of the medulla oblongata in cases of craniovertebral junction abnormalities. This 17-year-old boy presented with mild bilateral leg weakness. Imaging studies revealed severe basilar invagination and a marked Chiari malformation. While awaiting surgery, his tongue developed an involuntary constant protrusion-intrusion repetitive motion. The onset of this so-named "trombone tongue" sign was followed shortly afterward by rapidly progressive spastic tetraparesis. After the authors performed a transmaxillary clivectomy, foramen magnum decompression, and occipitocervical fusion, they noted that the abnormal tongue motion promptly resolved and the tetraparesis gradually improved. The authors discuss their current understanding of the central control of tongue movements and present a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of trombone tongue based on the neuroanatomical basis of another abnormal tongue movement sign, lingual myoclonus.

  6. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Air-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Congress passed no significant amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1983. Under judicial developments, the committee describes seven categories of cases concerning: nonattainment areas under CAA section 107, the adequacy and appropriateness of state implementation plans and regulation of interstate air pollution, new source-permitting cases, regulation of hazardous air pollutants, enforcement and attorneys fees and the scope of section 304 and 307 of the CAA, sections 120 and 123 of the CAA, and 1983 Title II cases. Administration developments included new steps under Titles I and II of the CAA taken by the Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate final regulation on nonattainment sanctions and new source standards and to revise hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide standards for heavy-duty engines and for vehicles at high altitudes. 264 references.

  7. Self-reported sleep disturbances associated with procedural learning impairment in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-03-16

    Sleep disturbance contributes to impaired procedural learning in schizophrenia, yet little is known about this relationship prior to psychosis onset. Adolescents at ultra high-risk (UHR; N=62) for psychosis completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a procedural learning task (Pursuit Rotor). Increased self-reported problems with sleep latency, efficiency, and quality were associated with impaired procedural learning rate. Further, within-sample comparisons revealed that UHR youth reporting better sleep displayed a steeper learning curve than those with poorer sleep. Sleep disturbances appear to contribute to cognitive/motor deficits in the UHR period and may play a role in psychosis etiology.

  8. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  9. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W.

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  10. First report of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) in North Dakota: Paleobiogeographical and paleoecological significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; McDonald, H. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A well-preserved ungual of a pes documents the presence of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) at the end of the Wisconsinan in North Dakota. This is the 1st report of M. jeffersonii in North Dakota, and one of few records from the upper Great Plains. An accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon age of 11,915 ?? 40 years ago was obtained from the specimen, suggesting that the sloth resided in North Dakota during the Rancholabrean Land Mammal Age, just before extinction of the species. Palynological records from sites near the sloth occurrence and of the same age indicate that it resided in a cool, moist, spruce-dominated forest habitat in a riparian setting along the Missouri River. Its presence in that setting corroborates the notion that Jefferson's ground sloth was a browsing inhabitant of gallery forests associated with rivers. It is likely that M. jeffersonii used river valleys, such as the Missouri River valley, as migration routes. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Audit Report The Procurement of Safety Class/Safety-Significant Items at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy operates several nuclear facilities at its Savannah River Site, and several additional facilities are under construction. This includes the National Nuclear Security Administration's Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) which is designated to help maintain the reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOX Facility) is being constructed to manufacture commercial nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from weapon-grade plutonium oxide and depleted uranium. The Interim Salt Processing (ISP) project, managed by the Office of Environmental Management, will treat radioactive waste. The Department has committed to procuring products and services for nuclear-related activities that meet or exceed recognized quality assurance standards. Such standards help to ensure the safety and performance of these facilities. To that end, it issued Departmental Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (QA Order). The QA Order requires the application of Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications (NQA-1) for nuclear-related activities. The NQA-1 standard provides requirements and guidelines for the establishment and execution of quality assurance programs during the siting, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These requirements, promulgated by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, must be applied to 'safety-class' and 'safety-significant' structures, systems and components (SSCs). Safety-class SSCs are defined as those necessary to prevent exposure off site and to protect the public. Safety-significant SSCs are those whose failure could irreversibly impact worker safety such as a fatality, serious injury, or significant radiological or chemical exposure. Due to the importance of protecting the public, workers, and environment, we initiated an audit to determine whether the Department of Energy procured safety-class and safety-significant SSCs that met NQA-1 standards at

  12. Improving social functioning and challenging behaviors in adolescents with ASD and significant ID: A randomized pilot feasibility trial of reciprocal imitation training in a residential setting.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Berger, Natalie; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2016-08-11

    There is a lack of effective social interventions for youths with ASD and co-morbid intellectual disability (ID). A previous single-case design study indicated that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) may improve social interaction and challenging behavior in this population. The current pilot study examined the feasibility of conducting an RCT to investigate the effectiveness of RIT for improving social functioning and challenging behaviors in 20 adolescents with ASD and severe ID in a residential program. The assessment protocol was feasible. RIT was well-tolerated by the adolescents and implemented with fidelity by teaching staff. Preliminary findings indicate that treatment had moderate to large effects on social functioning and challenging behavior, with mixed findings for imitation skills. A larger RCT of RIT for this population is feasible and warranted.

  13. Professional caregiver's knowledge of self-reported delinquency in an adolescent sample in Swiss youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions.

    PubMed

    Dölitzsch, Claudia; Schmid, Marc; Keller, Ferdinand; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Since an important goal of the youth welfare system is to prevent troubled adolescents from committing acts of delinquency in future, professional caregivers need to possess accurate knowledge about past behaviors in order to implement appropriate interventions. As part of a comprehensive study on youth in state care, adolescents at 30 residential care facilities in Switzerland were surveyed about past acts of delinquency, and their responses were compared to those of their professional caregivers to see how well they correlated. A sample of 267 male and female adolescents aged 11-18years completed questionnaires about the frequency, nature, and seriousness of different types of offenses, while a designated caregiver for each resident completed a corresponding questionnaire. The majority of residents (86.1%) reported having committed at least one offense, which confirms the prevalence of problem behaviors in this population and the need for strategies to prevent it. The overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was 77.2%, with both parties reporting that the resident had committed at least one offense in 69.7% of cases, and both reporting that no offense had been committed in 7.5% of cases. Agreement was substantially higher for offenses that were serious than for those that were minor or moderate. Cohen's kappa reached slight to moderate values with regard to individual and categorized offenses. Seriousness scales of delinquency for self-reports and caregiver reports were moderately associated. While the overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was high, increasing it still further might lead to improvements in strategies for the prevention of recidivism.

  14. The roles of adolescent attentional bias and parental invalidation of sadness in significant illness: a comparison between eating disorders and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Scalise, Abby; Connell, Arin

    2014-08-01

    Biopsychosocial conceptualizations of eating disorders (EDs) suggest the combination of an individual's emotional vulnerability and invalidating environment increases the likelihood of developing pervasive emotion dysregulation, and subsequent use of ED behaviors to regulate emotion (Haynos & Fruzetti, 2011; Safer, Telch, & Chen, 2009). The current study aimed to provide initial support for this model in adolescent EDs, through examining the interaction between an adolescent's emotional vulnerability, indexed by attentional biases for emotions, and an invalidating family environment. Specifically, we examined the ability of this interaction to discriminate youth with EDs from a comparison group of youth with chronic pain diagnoses, who were used to control for the presence of non-specific effects of having any illness. Fifty adolescent girls (25 with EDs and 25 with chronic pain) completed an emotional dot-probe task assessing attentional biases for emotional faces, and parents completed the Emotions as a Child Scale (Magai, 1996; Klimes-Dougan et al., 2007) to assess response to teen emotion. Results showed that teen angry attentional bias moderated the relationship between parental response to sadness and teen ED status: for teens with high attention bias towards angry faces, maladaptive parental response to sadness predicted increased odds of ED status versus chronic pain status.

  15. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  16. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  17. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  18. The associations of self-reported and peer-reported relational aggression with narcissism and self-esteem among adolescents in a residential setting.

    PubMed

    Golmaryami, Farrah N; Barry, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism predicted peer-nominated RA, such that narcissism was related to peer-nominated RA particularly for individuals with high self-esteem. Maladaptive, but not adaptive, narcissism uniquely predicted peer-nominated RA. The implications and limitations of this study for research on adolescent self-perception and RA are discussed.

  19. How do different dimensions of adolescent narcissism impact the relation between callous-unemotional traits and self-reported aggression?

    PubMed

    Lee-Rowland, Lauren M; Barry, Christopher T; Gillen, Christopher T A; Hansen, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16-19 enrolled in a 22-week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy-linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non-pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Brief report: Self-blame and PTSD symptoms in adolescents exposed to terrorism: is school connectedness a mediator?

    PubMed

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia; Altoè, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that self-blame predicts increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth exposed to terrorism, but little is known about the factors mediating such relationship. This study aimed to explore whether school connectedness (SC) mediates the effect of self-blame on PTSD in 60 adolescents (aged 14-18 years) who survived the 2004 terrorist attack against school no. 1 in Beslan, Russia. Participants completed measures of coping, SC, and PTSD three years after the traumatic event. Endorsement of self-blaming behaviors was found to be significantly positively related to the presence of PTSD; self-blame was negatively associated with SC, which in turn was negatively related to PTSD. The mediation hypothesis was supported, with SC partially mediating the link between self-blame and PTSD. Adolescents affected by terrorism may benefit from school-based interventions aimed at fostering students' sense of belonging and emotional bonding to teachers, peers, and the school environment.

  1. An adolescent with intact motor skills and intelligence after infant hemorrhagic stroke without rehabilitation therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shenghuo; Yan, Tiebin; Lu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Devastating intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke is rarely encountered in children, but it has a high mortality rate. The case of a 15-year-old boy who survived a major stroke at 40 days old is described. He showed no significant motor or intelligence impairment in adolescence until he was hospitalized for transient left had tremors and slight left hand weakness caused by a cyst. The patient's almost complete motor recovery highlights the power of neural plasticity in young patients. The pediatric stroke was huge, but this did not affect his adolescent movement or intelligence, demonstrating the great neuroplastic potential of the developing human brain. These observations may help increase our knowledge about stroke in children and improve the treatment of pediatric stroke patients.

  2. Brief Report: A Comparison of the Preference for Viewing Social and Non-social Movies in Typical and Autistic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Indu; Ropar, Danielle; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2017-02-01

    The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231-239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the Choose-a-Movie paradigm that measures the social seeking. The results showed a preference for viewing objects over smiling faces in ASC, which is in line with the theory of low social motivation. However, typical adolescents did not show any stimuli preferences, raising questions about developmental changes in social motivation. Age was found to play a significant role in moderating the choice behaviour of the participants. We discuss the implications of these findings in detail.

  3. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tanks upernate solutions - FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-09-16

    ). Solubilities of all the organic salts, except for glycolate, decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Sodium glycolate solubility increased with increasing hydroxide concentration. The complex waste solutions had sodium ion concentrations 3.4 to 7. 0 molar higher than unsaturated solutions. This caused a significant lowering of the solubilities of the organic sodium salts due to the common ion effect of sodium. Results of EDTA adsorption measurements show that EDTA or EDTA-metal complexes can be adsorbed onto hydrous metal oxides (that make up the sludge layers in the tanks) under conditions simulating the high-level waste tanks. The extent of adsorption is not large and depends on the concentration of hydroxide in the waste solutions. Higher hydroxide concentrations lower adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption also depends on the type of metal hydrous oxide present. Adsorption data for Fe(III), Cr(III), and NI(IV) hydrous oxides show that chromium(III) hydrous oxide adsorbs EDTA most effectively.

  4. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  5. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  6. Links of Adolescent- and Parent-Reported Eating in the Absence of Hunger with Observed Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Courville, Amber B.; Field, Sara E.; Matheson, Brittany E.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically is assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There are no validated self-report measures of EAH. We sought to examine the relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents’ measured intake in the absence of hunger. Design and Methods Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children’s EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Results Parents’ reports of children’s EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Conclusions Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents’ observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. PMID:23913735

  7. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in urban Saudi arabian adolescents: a research report

    PubMed Central

    Feteih, Rabab M

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral parafunction habits among Saudi adolescents in the permanent dentition stage. Methods A total of 385 (230 females and 155 males) school children age 12–16, completed a questionnaire and were examined clinically. A stratified selection technique was used for schools allocation. Results The results showed that 21.3% of the subjects exhibited at least one sign of TMD and females were generally more affected than males. Joint sounds were the most prevalent sign (13.5%) followed by restricted opening (4.7%) and opening deviation (3.9%). The amplitude of mouth opening, overbite taken into consideration, was 46.5 mm and 50.2 mm in females and males respectively. TMJ pain and muscle tenderness were rare (0.5%). Reported symptoms were 33%, headache being the most frequent symptom 22%, followed by pain during chewing 14% and hearing TMJ noises 8.7%. Difficulty during jaw opening and jaw locking were rare. Lip/cheek biting was the most common parafunction habit (41%) with females significantly more than males, followed by nail biting (29%). Bruxism and thumb sucking were only 7.4% and 7.8% respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of TMD signs were 21.3% with joint sounds being the most prevalent sign. While TMD symptoms were found to be 33% as, with headache being the most prevalent. Among the oral parafunctions, lip/cheek biting was the most prevalent 41% followed by nail biting 29%. PMID:16914032

  8. Troubled Parents, Motivated Adolescents: Predicting Motivation to Change Substance Use among Runaways

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Erdem, Gizem; Budde, Hannah; Letcher, Amber; Bantchevska, Denitza; Garren, Rikki

    2009-01-01

    Runaway adolescents engage in high rates of substance use and report significant family and individual problems. However, in general, adolescents report low motivation to change their substance use. Because a higher level of motivation for changing substance use is associated with greater substance abuse treatment success, identifying variables associated with motivation for change can be useful for enhancing treatment success. In this study, predictors of motivation for changing substance use were examined among 140 shelter-recruited adolescents and their parents/primary caretakers. Several findings were noteworthy. A perceived negative family environment increased parents' and adolescents' depressive symptoms, which increased adolescent's motivation to change. Also, greater severity of adolescent substance use predicted higher motivation to change. Consideration of the family environment and parent problems when addressing motivation for changing substance use among these adolescents might be important foci for motivational interventions and future research. PMID:19411144

  9. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  10. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  11. Establishing Children's Wishes and Feelings for Family Court Reports: The Significance Attached to the Age of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantle, Greg; Leslie, Jane; Parsons, Sarah; Plenty, Jackie; Shaffer, Ray

    2006-01-01

    Current UK government policy is to promote mediation as a way of avoiding family court proceedings and there is a risk, therefore, that welfare report-writing practice may receive less critical attention than it merits. A largely unstudied aspect of this practice is the significance given by practitioners to the child's age. More widely, across a…

  12. Dimensions of tinnitus-related complaints reported by patients and their significant others: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Haúla; Fackrell, Kathryn; Kennedy, Veronica; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over 70 million people in Europe and >50 million people in the USA are reported to experience tinnitus (the sensation of noise in the absence of any corresponding sound source). Tinnitus is a multidimensional concept. Individual patients may report different profiles of tinnitus-related symptoms which may each require a tailored management approach and an appropriate measure of therapeutic benefit. This systematic review concerns the patient perspective and has the purpose to find what symptoms are reported by people who experience tinnitus and by their significant others. Methods and analysis This protocol lays out the methodology to define what dimensions of tinnitus-related symptoms patients and their significant others report as being a problem. Methods are defined according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses for Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 and data will be collated in a narrative synthesis. Findings will contribute to the eventual establishment of a Core Domain Set for clinical trials of tinnitus. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. Findings will be reported at national and international ENT and audiology conferences and in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42015020629. PMID:27855082

  13. Coping strategies utilized by adolescents with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Kelber, Sheryl; Warady, Bradley A

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) require life-long treatment. The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to identify coping strategies that adolescents with ESRD use to manage their chronic illness. Participants for this investigation were 35 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, with ESRD. The A-COPE survey instrument was used in a clinical and camp setting to measure the coping strategies used by adolescents with ESRD. Analyses revealed that adolescents with ESRD utilized a variety of coping strategies to manage the stresses of living with their chronic condition. Personal characteristics of gender, transplant status, age, and religious views were significantly related to the coping strategies the adolescents reported using.

  14. Brief Report: Apparent Antiretroviral Overadherence by Pill Count is Associated With HIV Treatment Failure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Beiter, Kaylin; Eby, Jessica; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Pill counts with calculated adherence percentages are used in many settings to monitor adherence, but can be undermined by patients discarding pills to hide nonadherence. Pill counts suggesting that >100% of prescribed doses were taken can signal "pill dumping." We defined "overadherence" among a cohort of 300 HIV-infected adolescents as having greater than one-third of pill counts with >100% adherence during a year of follow-up. Apparent overadherence was more common in those with virologic failure than in those with suppressed viral loads (33% vs 13%, χ P = 0.001). Pill count adherence repeatedly >100% may identify HIV-infected adolescents at increased risk of treatment failure.

  15. Anterior and posterior nutcracker syndrome accompanying left circumaortic renal vein in an adolescent: case report.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Mehmet B; Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Hayalioglu, Emre

    2016-04-01

    The left renal vein (LRV) has many developmental variations; the two most common are the circumaortic and the retrocaval. Anterior nutcracker syndrome is the compression of the LRV between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery, whereas posterior nutcracker syndrome occurs between the vertebral column and the aorta. An adolescent male (aged 16 years) was referred to the emergency department for flank pain. CT findings showed the combination of anterior and posterior nutcracker syndrome in the left circumaortic renal vein, which has not previously been described in an adolescent.

  16. Report of Significant Accomplishments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    developed good theoretical models . These theoretical models should help give us the theoretical foundation for further progress in these devices. -5 -- A5Or...programmable surface acoustic wave device using zinc oxide (ZnO) acoustic waveguides on a semiconducting silicon substrate. Surface acoustic wave (SAW...ferroelectric-cum-ferroelastic materials) with potential applications in acoustic waveguiding , steering, and signal processing devices. During the past

  17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Effects on School and Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Kranzler, Amy; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2012-12-12

    This paper reports on school and social functioning outcomes in a randomized depression prevention study that compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST) with usual school counseling (SC). Outcome analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models and mixed model analysis of variance. IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater improvements than SC adolescents in total social functioning and friend functioning during the intervention. IPT-AST adolescents also demonstrated improvements in school, dating, and family functioning and emotional engagement in school, although these improvements were not significantly greater than seen in SC adolescents. Finally, in the 18 months following the intervention, IPT-AST adolescents were less likely than SC adolescents to be asked to leave school for academic or behavioral reasons. These findings extend the potential range of impact of depression prevention programs such as IPT-AST and provide preliminary evidence of the benefits of these programs on school and social functioning.

  18. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  19. Transition from School to Work for Handicapped Adolescents: Swedish Position Report to the OECD/CERI Project concerning the Education of Handicapped Adolescents--Innovative Approaches in the Transition to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soder, Marten

    The report describes the Swedish educational and employment system and efforts underway to facilitate the transition from school to work for handicapped adolescents. A review of the general education system touches upon administrative structure, finance, and trends in compulsory comprehensive school and in upper secondary schools. The next section…

  20. Brief Report: Adolescents' Co-Rumination with Mothers, Co-Rumination with Friends, and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined co-rumination (extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) with mothers and friends. Of interest was exploring whether adolescents who co-ruminate with mothers were especially likely to co-ruminate with friends as well as the interplay among co-rumination with mothers, co-rumination with…

  1. From Research to Intervention: Substance Abuse Prevention among Hispanic Adolescents. Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Merrill; Garcia, Roberto

    Although there is a strong experiential sense among people in the substance abuse prevention field that Hispanic adolescents may be particularly at-risk for the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, this concern has produced only limited research or culturally sensitive, ethnically targeted prevention efforts. The following factors hinder the…

  2. Brief Report: The Association of Autistic Traits and Behavioural Patterns in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Abigail R.; McKechanie, Andrew G.; Johnstone, Eve C.; Owens, David G. Cunningham; Stanfield, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The study aim was to describe behaviours associated with autistic traits. Methods: The Childhood Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were used as measures of behaviour and autistic traits respectively in 331 adolescents receiving educational support. CBCL scores were compared between three groups…

  3. Brief Report: Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Older Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Stale; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Molde, Helge; Sorensen, Eli; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of "behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS)" which is a newly defined hypersomnia, among adolescents. BIISS is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, short habitual sleep duration and sleeping considerably longer than usual during weekend/vacations.…

  4. Case report: an asthmatic adolescent and his "repressed cry" for his mother.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Z

    1975-06-01

    A case of asthma in an adolescent male is presented. Involvement of the patient in individual, group and family psychotherapy is discussed in detail and particular emphasis placed on the use of family sessions as a therapeutic tool. Alexander's concept of the "repressed cry for the lost mother" is suggested as of aetiological importance.

  5. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  6. Factors that Influence the Accuracy of Adolescent Proxy Reporting of Parental Characteristics: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridolfo, Heather; Maitland, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is considered to be an important marker of physical, mental, and social outcomes. However, methods used to gather socioeconomic information vary widely in terms of both the indicators of SES used (e.g., education, occupation, income, etc.) and data collection strategies. In particular, studies of adolescents often rely…

  7. Factorial Validity and Invariance of a Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…

  8. Brief Report: Early VEPs to Pattern-Reversal in Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarski, K.; Thillay, A.; Houy-Durand, E.; Roux, S.; Bidet-Caulet, A.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Batty, M.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical visual perception both in the social and nonsocial domain. In order to measure a reliable visual response, visual evoked potentials were recorded during a passive pattern-reversal stimulation in adolescents and adults with and without ASD. While the present results show the same…

  9. Psychometrics of a Self-Report Version of the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions--sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk--transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions…

  10. Perceptions of Risk from Substance Use among Adolescents. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Although many factors may influence the initiation of drug or alcohol use, the perception of risk associated with these behaviors also varies by gender, age, and type of drug. Understanding the different patterns of risk perceptions that emerge during adolescent development may help to better target health communication messages and increase the…

  11. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  12. Interpersonal Violence in Adolescence: Ecological Correlates of Self-Reported Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Cross, Charlotte; Modecki, Kathryn L.

    2006-01-01

    Although growing attention is being paid to the problem of teen dating violence, to date less is known about perpetrators of victimization. The current article used a subset of 980 adolescents aged 11 to 19 who were surveyed as part of a statewide community service coordinated through Cooperative Extension to survey all youth in target communities…

  13. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  14. Associated Factors for Self-Reported Binge Eating among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…

  15. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  16. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

  17. School-Based Health Centers in Oregon: Adolescents Report Their Needs, Use, Behaviors, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Riddell, Cathy

    This study investigated the patterns of student use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) in Oregon. The study explored adolescents' health care needs and use of services, the reasons students use SBHCs for care, and the type of students who use SBHCs; the study also assessed the relationships between use of SBHC services and student risk…

  18. Hormone Concentrations and Variability: Associations with Self-Reported Moods and Energy in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy Miller

    Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…

  19. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  20. Brief Report: How Do Adolescents Perceive the Risks Related to Cell-Phone Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martha, Cecile; Griffet, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Besides the social risks of incivility and impoliteness (I-incivility), cell-phone use is classically associated with two types of physical risk: microwave radiation (LIMRadiation) and decreased attention while driving (CPUWDriving). As the literature has showed that adolescents' risky behavior was consistent with their risk perception, we ran a…

  1. Adolescents in Rural Communities Seeking Help: Who Reports Problems and Who Sees Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Heather A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether adolescents who were at various stages of the help-seeking process differed on demographic characteristics, use of informal helpers, and markers of emotional and behavioral adjustment. Method: Youths (N = 644; Grades 7-12) living in three rural communities completed a survey at school. Three comparisons were…

  2. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  3. Response to "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGisi, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    The International Reading Association's Position Statement on Young Adolescents' Literacy Learning states, "It is during the middle years of schooling that most students refine their reading preferences, become sophisticated readers of informational text, and lay the groundwork for the lifelong reading habit." As the National Assessment of…

  4. Adolescent Illiteracy: What Libraries Can Do to Solve the Problem--A Report on the Research of the Project on Adolescent Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Describes characteristics of effective adolescent literacy programs and discusses the role of the public library. Library collections for adolescents with literacy needs and the professionals who work with them, referral to literacy programs, library sponsored programs, and staff development are identified as areas that public libraries need to…

  5. Adolescent Literacy Development in Out-of-School Time: A Practitioner's Guide. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Tysvaer, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In response to requests from out-of-school time (OST) providers, the authors have created this practitioner's guidebook for integrating adolescent literacy development initiatives into a wide variety of OST programs. As readers will discover in subsequent chapters, the authors' definition of adolescent literacy development represents a…

  6. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  7. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  8. Effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: exposure to SO/sub 2/ alone or SO/sub 2/ + sodium chloride droplet aerosol during rest and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.; Frank, R.

    1982-01-01

    Statistically significant changes in pulmonary functional measurements in asthmatic adolescents exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at reset and during exercise were recently reported. To determine whether those results were due to the subjects' adolescence or to their asthma, the identical exposures were repeated in healthy adolescents. The healthy subjects showed small, statistically significant changes after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but these changes were slight compared to those seen in the asthmatic adolescents. It was concluded that asthmatic adolescents are much more sensitive to the effects of inhaled SO/sub 2/ than are healthy adolescents. (JMT)

  9. Treatment resistant adolescent depression with upper airway resistance syndrome treated with rapid palatal expansion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to medication but that had recently responded to electroconvulsive therapy. Ancillary, persistent symptoms included mild insomnia, moderate to severe fatigue, mild sleepiness and severe anxiety treated with medication. Our patient had no history of snoring or witnessed apnea, but polysomnography was consistent with upper airway resistance syndrome. Although our patient did not have an orthodontic indication for rapid palatal expansion, rapid palatal expansion was performed as a treatment of his upper airway resistance syndrome. Following rapid palatal expansion, our patient experienced a marked improvement of his sleep quality, anxiety, fatigue and sleepiness. His improvement has been maintained off all psychotropic medication and his depression has remained in remission for approximately two years following his electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions This case report introduces the possibility that unrecognized sleep disordered breathing may play a role in adolescent treatment-resistant depression. The symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome are non-specific enough that every adolescent with depression, even those responding to medication, may have underlying sleep disordered breathing. In such patients, rapid palatal expansion, by widening the upper airway and improving airflow during sleep, may produce a prolonged improvement of symptoms and a tapering of medication. Psychiatrists treating adolescents may benefit from having another treatment option for treatment

  10. Observational assessment and maternal reports of motivation in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Despite a lack of consistent empirical evidence, there has been an ongoing assumption that intellectual disability is associated with reduced levels of motivation. The participants in this study were 33 children with Down syndrome ages 10-15 years and 33 typically developing 3-8-year-old children. Motivation was measured through observational assessments of curiosity, preference for challenge, and persistence, as well as maternal reports. There were no significant group differences on motivation tasks, but mothers of children with Down syndrome rated their children significantly lower on motivation than did parents of typically developing children. There were some intriguing group differences in the pattern of correlations among observations and parent reports. The findings challenge long-held views that individuals with intellectual disability are invariably deficient in motivation.

  11. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  12. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  13. Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents Attitudes toward Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risch, Sharon C.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jaquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of father-adolescent relationships, especially for non-traditional fathers, has been neglected in investigating adolescents beliefs. Closeness of father-adolescent relationships was examined as a predictor of adolescents attitudes toward divorce. A sample of European and African American adolescents N=300 reported on the quality of…

  14. Longitudinal Relationships Between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.

  15. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Co-viewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors. PMID:19750131

  16. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.

  17. Case report: nonarrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia presenting with severe right ventricular failure in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Pac, Mustafa; Pac, Aysenur; Polat, Tugcin Bora; Balli, Sevket; Turhan, Nesrin; Aras, Dursun; Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Kücüker, Seref

    2010-02-01

    Right ventricular dysplasia is usually discovered by the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. As arrhythmia is an epiphenomenon, the first presentation of some cases can be primarily heart failure. We describe an adolescent girl who presented with progressive right heart failure and whose hallmark was fibrofatty replacement of ventricular muscle, especially of the right side, without ventricular arrhythmia. The patient was successfully treated by orthotopic heart transplantation.

  18. Benchmarks and Challenges: Third Report of the Governor's Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Council on Children and Families, New York.

    In 1985 over 60,000 adolescents ages 10-19 became pregnant in New York State. Of these, almost 26,000 gave birth and over 33,000 terminated their pregnancies. While the majority of those who became pregnant were 18- and 19-year-olds, 1,700 were aged 10 to 14. Of the total, 59 percent were white, and 39 percent were black or from another ethnic…

  19. Self-Reported Psychosomatic Complaints In Swedish Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas: An Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Matilda; Chen, Yun; Friberg, Peter; Osika, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background Frequencies in reported psychosomatic illnesses have increased in Sweden among children, adolescents, and young adults. Little is known about demographic differences in self-reported psychosomatic complaints, such as between urban and rural areas, and whether surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling such data. Objectives This study examines the connection between psychosomatic illnesses and demographics in Swedish children and youth. The feasibility of using the Internet to gather large amounts of data regarding psychosomatic complaints in this group is another major objective of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study using 7 validated questions about psychosomatic health, were launched in a controlled way onto a recognized Swedish Internet community site, which targeted users 10 to 24 years of age. The subjects were able to answer the items while they were logged in to their personal domain. The results were analyzed cross-geographically within Sweden. Results In total, we received 100,000 to 130,000 individual answers per question. Subjects of both sexes generally reported significantly higher levels of self-reported psychosomatic complaints in major city areas as compared with minor city/rural areas, even though the differences between the areas were small. For example, 12.00% (4472/37,265) of females in minor regions reported always feeling tense, compared with 13.80% (3156/22,873) of females in major regions (P<.001). In males, the answer pattern was similar, 16.40% (4887/29,801) in major regions versus 15.60% (2712/17,386) in minor regions, (P=.006). Females reported significantly higher frequencies of psychosomatic complaints than males (P<.001). Conclusions In subjects aged 10 to 24 years, higher levels of psychosomatic complaints appear to correlate with living in major city areas in comparison with minor city/rural areas. Surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling data regarding

  20. Help, I Am Losing Control! Examining the Reporting of Sexual Harassment by Adolescents to Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment is often encountered by adolescents on social networking sites (SNS). One option to cope with a situation of harassment on SNS is to alarm the provider by reporting the transgressive content. It is yet unclear what the determinants of reporting a sexual harassment situation on SNS are, as well as the subsequent actions to these reports from the part of the SNS provider. In this article, we seek to address these gaps, and in particular examine whether control-by-the-self over the situation and negative emotions play a role in the reporting of sexual harassment on SNS. Findings indicate that a low situational control-by-the-self, indirectly (namely through a higher experience of negative emotions such as anger and shame) increases the reporting of sexual harassment by the victim. Public visibility of the incident and the impossibility to remove the content reduce the situational control-by-the-self. Results further suggest that SNS providers often ignore reported situations of sexual harassment. The study concludes with suggestions for responses to reported harassment on SNS, which should be directed toward increasing behavioral control and thereby alleviating negative emotions.

  1. Parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Ge, X

    2000-09-01

    This study examined parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that self-reported parenting practices by mothers and fathers and adolescent perception of parenting practices loaded adequately on three subscales: Inductive Reasoning, Monitoring, and Harsh Discipline. Second, parents' depressive symptoms were related to disrupted parenting practices, which, in turn, were significantly related to the negative evaluation of these behaviors by the adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of such parenting practices were significantly associated with their depressive symptoms. Third, the relationships were robust even after parental income, education, and generation status were statistically controlled. Overall, the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans seemed to echo those found among European Americans.

  2. Physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, and beliefs among adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Results Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone to do physical activity with (64% vs. 93%, p<0.001), and a greater proportion of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs. 0%, p<0.001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity is good for their health (92% vs. 100%, p=0.05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (p=0.02). A large proportion of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance. (95% of TD adolescents, p=0.06). Conclusions Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified. PMID:25830443

  3. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  4. Relationship between self-reported task persistence and history of quitting smoking, plans for quitting smoking, and current smoking status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Krejci, Jonathan A; Collett, Kerstin; Brandon, Thomas H; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Chen, Kevin

    2007-07-01

    The task persistence construct has previously been measured primarily behaviorally (e.g., with a mirror-tracing task, or breath holding), and only in adults. It has been shown to differentiate between adult smokers and non-smokers and to predict smoking cessation in adult smokers trying to quit. This theory-based analysis is the first to examine task persistence in adolescent smokers and to examine a two-item, internally consistent, self-report measure of task persistence. Results indicate that task persistence is greater among adolescent non-smokers as compared to adolescent current smokers, and those planning to quit smoking as compared to those with no plans to quit. Contrary to hypotheses, task persistence was not found to be related to prior successful attempts to quit smoking. Our results suggest that a brief, self-report measure of task persistence may be a methodologically sound, practical clinical tool for this population.

  5. Health and Well-Being in Adolescent Survivors of Early Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study1

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Ann C.; Brand, Sarah; Ness, Kirsten K; Li, Zhenghong; Mitby, Pauline A.; Riley, Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the growing number of childhood cancer survivors in the United States, it is important to assess the well-being of these individuals, particularly during the transitional phase of adolescence. Data about adolescent survivors’ overall health and quality of life will help identify survivor subgroups most in need of targeted attention to successfully transition to adulthood. Participants and Methods This ancillary study to the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) focused on children 15–19 years of age who had been diagnosed with cancer before the age of 4 years. A cohort of siblings of pediatric cancer survivors of the same ages served as a comparison sample. Adolescent health was assessed using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) survey. Results The teen survey was sent to 444 survivor teens and 189 siblings. Of these 307(69%) survivors and 97 (51%) siblings completed and returned the survey. Overall health profiles of siblings and survivors were similar. Among survivors, females scored significantly below males on Satisfaction, Discomfort, and Disorders domains. Survivors diagnosed with CNS tumors scored less favorably than leukemia survivors in the global domains of Satisfaction and Disorders. Conclusion In general, adolescent survivors fare favorably compared to healthy siblings. However, identification of the subset of pediatric cancer survivors who are more vulnerable to medical and psychosocial disorders in adolescence provides the opportunity for design and implementation of intervention strategies that may improve quality of life. PMID:24123762

  6. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  7. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  8. The first report of cabergoline-induced immune hemolytic anemia in an adolescent with prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, Fatih; Yağcı-Küpeli, Begül; Kör, Yılmaz; Yüksel, Bilgin; Zorludemir, Suzan; Gürbüz, Berrak Bilginer; Küpeli, Serhan

    2014-01-01

    Prolactinomas are common pituitary tumors that can cause gonadal dysfunction and infertility related to hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists are the first-line treatment in these patients. Cabergoline leads to significant reduction in serum prolactin levels and tumor size in patients with prolactinoma. Dopamine agonists have been associated with adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting and psychosis. We report here a case with cabergoline-induced immune hemolytic anemia. The patient had cabergoline treatment history for prolactinoma and presented with weakness, fatigue, nausea, and paleness. Laboratory findings revealed severe anemia-related immune hemolysis. There were no causes identified to explain hemolytic anemia except cabergoline. Therefore, cabergoline therapy was stopped and subsequently hemolytic anemia resolved and did not occur again. This is the first reported pediatric case with prolactinoma and cabergoline-induced hemolytic anemia. Clinicians should be watchful for this rare side effect induced by cabergoline.

  9. Self-Efficacy and Self-Reported Dietary Behaviors in Adolescents at an Urban School With No Competitive Foods.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Eileen; Loman, Deborah G

    2015-10-01

    Over one third of U.S. adolescents are overweight. A descriptive, cross-sectional study examined the relationship between student dietary self-efficacy (SE), sugar-sweetened beverages, and low-nutrient energy-dense food consumption, and exposure to a healthy school food environment without competitive foods. The sample consisted of 292 urban, primarily African American students aged 11 to 16 years. Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) analyses revealed a significant but weak linear trend for girls between number of school meals and SE to drink less soda, χ(2)(1) = 6.882, p = .008, and between semesters attended with SE to eat more fruits and vegetables, χ(2)(1) = 5.908, p = .015. Obese students had significantly higher scores for two SE items than nonobese students, that is, plan better nutrition, χ(2)(1) = 3.998, p = .045, and eat healthy at a fast-food restaurant, χ(2)(1) = 4.078, p = .043. Further study of adolescent SE for healthy eating and school-based, food-focused obesity prevention interventions is needed.

  10. Do environmental barriers affect the parent-reported quality of life of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Badia, Marta; Begoña Orgaz, M; Gómez-Vela, María; Verdugo, Miguel A; Ullán, Ana M; Longo, Egmar

    2016-01-01

    Physical, social, and attitudinal environment may affect the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants in this study included parents of 206 children and adolescents with CP (55.8% males) aged 8-18 years (M=11.96, SD=3). Distribution according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was 24.3% level I, 18% level II, 18% level III, 12.6% level IV, and 27.2 level V. Environmental barriers were assessed with the Spanish version of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ), and QoL was assessed with the KIDSCREEN parents' version. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that GMFCS level, IQ, and type of schooling are significantly correlated with QoL. Barriers were also associated with QoL. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for the effect of child and parent's variables, barriers at home and at school significantly contribute to QoL. These findings underscore the importance of providing interventions to produce environmental changes that contribute to the improvement of QoL.

  11. Protective factors in American Indian communities and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2013-09-01

    With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.

  12. Brief report: understanding intention to be physically active and physical activity behaviour in adolescents from a low socio-economic status background: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1 participant completed standard measures of TPB variables. One week later (Time 2), participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) as a measure of physical activity behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control jointly accounted for 25% of the variance in intention (p = 0.0001). Perceived behavioural control emerged as the only significant predictor of physical activity behaviour and explained 3.7% of the variance (p = 0.001). Therefore, attitude and PBC successfully predicts intention towards physical activity and PBC predicts physical activity behaviour in British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds.

  13. HPV infection awareness and self-reported HPV vaccination coverage in female adolescent students in two German cities.

    PubMed

    Samkange-Zeeb, F; Spallek, L; Klug, S J; Zeeb, H

    2012-12-01

    Low levels of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and knowledge have been observed in the few studies conducted among school-going adolescents. Such data are lacking in Germany. To assess awareness of HPV and of vaccination status among girls attending grades 8-13 in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two German cities. Participants completed a questionnaire in school including questions on demographic characteristics, about HPV awareness and on vaccination status. We analysed the relationship between awareness of HPV, of vaccination status and vaccine uptake and several variables including age and migrant background using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Six hundred and thirty-two girls aged 12-20 years completed the questionnaire. 50 % had no awareness of HPV, 12 % reported being vaccinated against HPV and 57 % did not know whether or not they were vaccinated against HPV. In multivariate analyses, ever had sex was associated with awareness of HPV, and ever been to a gynaecologist with awareness of vaccination status. Our results may be an indication that female adolescents in Germany are not adequately informed and counselled about HPV and associated issues.

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan

    2013-06-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures (Mage = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers' educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents' social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers' future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents' and mothers' reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented.

  15. Personal and Parental Weight Misperception and Self-Reported Attempted Weight Loss in US Children and Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Barton, Bruce A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of our study was to describe perceptions of child weight status among US children, adolescents, and their parents and to examine the extent to which accurate personal and parental perception of weight status is associated with self-reported attempted weight loss. Methods Our study sample comprised 2,613 participants aged 8 to 15 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the 2 most recent consecutive cycles (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Categories of weight perception were developed by comparing measured to perceived weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight misperception and self-reported attempted weight loss. Results Among children and adolescents, 27.3% underestimated and 2.8% overestimated their weight status. Among parents, 25.2% underestimated and 1.1% overestimated their child’s weight status. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss was 9.5 times as high (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–23.6) among healthy-weight children and adolescents who overestimated their weight status as among those who perceived their weight status accurately; the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4–6.4) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6) times as high among overweight and obese children and adolescents, respectively, who accurately perceived their weight status than among those who underestimated their weight status. Parental misperception of weight was not significantly associated with self-reported attempted weight loss among children and adolescents who were overweight or obese. Conclusion Efforts to prevent childhood obesity should incorporate education for both children and parents regarding the proper identification and interpretation of actual weight status. Interventions for appropriate weight loss can target children directly because one of the major driving forces to lose

  16. Death after closed adolescent knee injury and popliteal artery occlusion: a case report and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jeremy J; Kremen, Thomas J; Oppenheim, William L

    2013-11-01

    A healthy adolescent male soccer player sustained a radiograph-negative, effusion-negative physeal injury of the proximal tibia from a ground-level fall with traumatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. Orthopaedic evaluation and arteriography were delayed for 72 hours after the injury. He arrived at a tertiary referral center in multisystem organ failure secondary to lower extremity ischemic necrosis, septic pulmonary thromboembolism, and systemic shock. Emergent medical evaluation, a high index of suspicion, and a careful neurovascular examination are imperative after every closed knee injury in the young athlete.

  17. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  18. Using Artwork and Photography to Explore Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Forman, Julia; Sikes, April

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 75% of young people report being involved in dating relationships by the eighth grade (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2005). This indicates a significant need to understand how adolescents conceptualize dating relationships. More specifically, there is minimal literature on how adolescents define healthy and unhealthy…

  19. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  20. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  1. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…

  2. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  3. The career aspirations of adolescents with eating disorders: an exploratory study and suggested links to adolescent self-concept development.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis K; Tzavela, Eleni C; Apostolidou, Eftychia; Antonogeorgos, George; Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of eating disorders (EDs) in adolescence have been widely studied, but their impact on present adolescent psychosocial adjustment and development have been overseen. This study aimed to investigate the association between EDs and career aspirations in middle adolescence. The participants were 147 adolescents diagnosed with EDs. Participants reported on their future career aspirations, and these were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education of 1997. Of the participants, 83 adolescents were followed up longitudinally, and their aspirations were reassessed and compared for stability across the two assessments. Moreover, participants' career aspirations were compared to those of healthy (non-ED) best-friend controls. Health-related and social-behavioral science careers were chosen significantly more by adolescents with an ED as compared to their non-ED counterparts. For adolescents with an ED, career choices were consistent across reassessments. These findings suggest that adolescents with an ED gravitate toward careers associated with their pathology, namely, both facets of their mind-body pathology. This finding may indicate restricted identity development for adolescents with an ED. Suggestions for treatments protocols to include identity exploration are discussed.

  4. Family Religious Involvement and the Quality of Family Relationships for Early Adolescents. A Research Report of the National Study of Youth and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christian; Kim, Phillip

    This report examines associations between three dimensions of family religious involvement (number of days per week the family does something religious, parental worship service attendance, and parental prayer) and the quality of family relationships for early adolescents. Out of the 27 family relationship variables examined, all significantly…

  5. A Developmental Analysis of Self-Reported Fears in Late Childhood through Mid-Adolescence: Social-Evaluative Fears on the Rise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenberg, P. Michiel; Drewes, Martine J.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Siebelink, Berend M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The frequently reported decline in the "overall" frequency and intensity of fears during late childhood and adolescence may mask different developmental patterns for two broad subclasses of fears: fears concerning physical danger and fears concerning social evaluation. It was investigated if physical fears decrease between…

  6. Subjective Mental Health, Peer Relations, Family, and School Environment in Adolescents with Intellectual Developmental Disorder: A First Report of a New Questionnaire Administered on Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Petra; Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Thorson, Maria; Broberg, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the subjective mental health of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, while proxy ratings indicate an overrepresentation of mental health problems. The present study reports on the design and an initial empirical evaluation of the Well-being in Special Education Questionnaire (WellSEQ). Questions, response scales,…

  7. Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-10-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition.

  8. Chinese adolescents' coping tactics in a parent-adolescent conflict and their relationships with life satisfaction: the differences between coping with mother and father.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differences of conflict coping tactics in adolescents' grade and gender and parents' gender and explored the relationships among conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, and life satisfaction. A total of 1874 Chinese students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 completed surveys on conflict frequency, coping tactics, and life satisfaction. The results obtained by MANOVA suggested that the adolescents' reported use of assertion and avoidance with either mothers or fathers increased from Grade 7 to Grade 8 and did not change from Grade 8 to Grade 11 in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of paired sample T-tests indicated that adolescents used more conciliation in Grade 7, more conciliation and assertion in Grade 8, and more conciliation and less avoidance in Grade 10 and 11 to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Boys used more conciliation and less avoidance, while girls used more conciliation, assertion and third-party intervention to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated the significance of the primary effects of conflict frequency and coping tactics on life satisfaction. Specifically, conflict frequency negatively predicted life satisfaction. Conciliation positively and avoidance negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with either mothers or fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Assertion negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with fathers. The moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict frequency and life satisfaction were not significant.

  9. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  10. The role of best friends in educational identity formation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Doeselaar, Lotte; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined over-time associations between adolescents' educational identity, perceived best friends' balanced relatedness, and best friends' educational identity. Adolescents (N = 464, Mage = 14.0 years at baseline, 56.0% males, living in the Netherlands) and their self-nominated best friends reported on their educational commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration. Target adolescents also reported on the level of balanced relatedness provided by their best friend. Cross-lagged panel models showed that balanced relatedness significantly predicted adolescents' reconsideration, and was predicted by in-depth exploration and, in an inconsistent pattern, by commitment. Best friends' educational identity did not positively predict adolescents' educational identity. Perceiving a best friend as high on balanced relatedness seems to reduce adolescents' problematic educational reconsideration, while, in turn, adaptive educational identity processes might foster balanced relatedness.

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents: Clinical Considerations and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sprich, Susan E.; Burbridge, Jennifer; Lerner, Jonathan A.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Although ADHD in adolescents is an impairing and prevalent condition, with community prevalence estimates between 2% and 6%, psychosocial treatments for adolescents compared to younger children are relatively understudied. Our group has successfully developed an evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD in medication-treated adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms. In the current paper, we describe an adaptation of this treatment to adolescents, and provide case reports on 3 adolescents who participated in an open pilot trial. The results suggest that the treatment approach was well tolerated by the adolescents and that they experienced clinical benefit. This early report of the approach in adolescents is promising and requires further efficacy testing. PMID:27616874

  12. Research With Adolescent Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Evaluation of Emotional Impact on Participants.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t[109] = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.

  13. Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R

    1984-03-01

    The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.

  14. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  15. An adolescent scuba diver with 2 episodes of diving-related injuries requiring hyperbaric oxygen recompression therapy: a case report with medical considerations for child and adolescent scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Tsung, James W; Chou, Katherine J; Martinez, Charles; Tyrrell, James; Touger, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Worldwide, more than 1000 scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diving injuries per year requiring hyperbaric recompression are documented. Approximately 80 to 90 fatalities per year are reported in North America. On average, there were 16 diving injuries requiring hyperbaric recompression therapy in scuba divers aged 19 years and younger in North America between 1988 and 2002. The youngest injured diver was 11 years old, and the youngest fatality was 14 years old during this time period. In the year 2000, certifying recreational scuba diving organizations lowered the minimum age to 8 from age 12 years for participation in the sport. We report a case of a highly trained adolescent scuba diver who, despite having advanced diving certifications, had 2 separate episodes of diving-related injuries requiring hyperbaric recompression therapy. A discussion of medical considerations in the care of the child and adolescent scuba diver is included.

  16. Decision-making impairments in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kester, Hana M; Sevy, Serge; Yechiam, Eldad; Burdick, Katherine E; Cervellione, Kelly L; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2006-07-01

    Adolescence is a time of vulnerability for risk-taking behaviors. This is particularly true of adolescents with schizophrenia who present with high rates of substance use as compared to the general population. Using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the authors compared decision-making processes in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18) to that of healthy volunteers. Fifteen adolescents with schizophrenia (aged 12-21 years) and 25 demographically similar healthy volunteers were administered the IGT. Overall, adolescents with schizophrenia performed significantly worse on the IGT than healthy adolescents as measured by a significant group by block interaction. Post-hoc testing revealed that adolescents with schizophrenia performed more poorly than healthy adolescents during the last two blocks of the task. Mathematical modeling further indicated that adolescents with schizophrenia allocated significantly more attention to monetary gains than losses encountered during the task, suggesting a hypersensitivity to rewards and relative insensitivity to future consequences. This is similar to what has been reported for adults with externalizing forms of psychopathology, such as those who abuse substances. These findings have potential implications for understanding the increased vulnerability for the development of substance abuse in adolescents with schizophrenia.

  17. Self-reported attachment, interpersonal aggression, and personality disorder in a prospective community sample of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas N; Shaver, Phillip R; Cohen, Patricia; Pilkonis, Paul A; Gillath, Omri; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-08-01

    Anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed in the Children in the Community (CIC) Study during adolescence and adulthood using self-report scales developed for this prospective study. The convergent and discriminant validity of the new CIC attachment scales were evaluated and their stability was assessed across a 17-year interval. Attachment scales predicted DSM-IV personality disorders in theoretically coherent and clinically meaningful ways, especially when supplemented with a separate measure of interpersonal aggression. Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms were associated with elevated anxious attachment. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with Cluster A symptoms and inversely associated with Cluster B and C symptoms. Interpersonal aggression was higher in Cluster B symptoms and lower in Cluster C symptoms, thus differentiating between these symptom clusters.

  18. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.

  19. Parenting adolescents with ADHD: evaluation of a psychoeducation group.

    PubMed

    McCleary, L; Ridley, T

    1999-09-01

    ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders are the most common reasons for referrals of adolescents to children's mental health services. Psychosocial treatments for parents and adolescents, though routinely recommended, have not been well evaluated. This paper reports an evaluation of a clinic based, parent skills training and education group for parents of adolescents with ADHD. The parent education group is a manual based program which provides information about ADHD and training in problem solving and parenting skills. Using a pre-post design, we collected evaluation data from 163 parents of 103 adolescents before and after participation in the group. The outcome measures were two parent self-report measures, the conflict behaviour questionnaire, the issues checklist and an investigator-designed evaluation questionnaire. There was a statistically significant decrease in frequency and intensity of self-reported parent-adolescent conflict and in parent-reported problem behaviour. Parent reports of problem behaviour were not related to kin relationship or child age. There was a trend for parents of daughters to report more problem behaviours and more conflict in the parent-adolescent relationship. Participants reported positive effects on their parenting skills and confidence. They tended to evaluate the program as very helpful.

  20. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  1. A phoenix of clinical toxinology: white-tailed spider (Lampona spp.) bites. A case report and review of medical significance.

    PubMed

    White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    The Australian white-tailed spiders ("WTS"; Lamponidae: notably Lampona cylindrata &Lampona murina) have a continuing reputation on Internet sites as a cause of skin ulceration, labelled "necrotic arachnidism", despite an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications debunking this reputation, with >135 confirmed cases now reported without any evidence of necrosis. We present here a case of confirmed WTS bite in a 42-year old male, followed for over a month, with photos of bite site signs and no development of skin ulceration/necrosis. The patient was initially alarmed by information on the Internet suggesting local necrosis would result from the bite. We discuss the evolution of knowledge about bites by the WTS, and the persistence of misconceptions about their factually mild medical significance.

  2. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.

  3. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations.

  4. Rearing Environmental Influences on Religiousness: An Investigation of Adolescent Adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Religiousness is widely considered to be a culturally transmitted trait. However, twin studies suggest that religiousness is genetically influenced in adulthood, although largely environmentally influenced in childhood/adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a self-report measure of religiousness in a sample consisting of 284 adoptive families (two adopted adolescent siblings and their rearing parents); 208 biological families (two full biological adolescent siblings and their parents); and 124 mixed families (one adopted and one biological adolescent sibling and their parents). A sibling-family model was fit to the data to estimate genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on religiousness, as well as cultural transmission and assortative mating effects. Religiousness showed little evidence of heritability and large environmental effects, which did not vary significantly by gender. This finding is consistent with the results of twin studies of religiousness in adolescent and preadolescent samples. PMID:20161346

  5. A longitudinal examination of early adolescence ethnic identity trajectories.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Early adolescence is marked by transitions for adolescents, and is also a time for identity exploration. Ethnic identity is an essential component of youths' sense of self. In this study we examined the trajectories of ethnic identity for adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds during a 4-year period. Six latent class trajectories were identified in the study: the majority of adolescents (41.8%) displayed growth in ethnic identity over 4 years, followed by 30.1% whose high levels of ethnic identity remained stable, then by those who experienced moderate decreases in ethnic identity (10.8%). Another class of adolescents (7.3%) showed significant declines in ethnic identity level, followed by 5.5% of adolescents with significant increases, and finally by 4.5% of adolescents with low stable levels of ethnic identity during this developmental period. The classes differed by ethnicity, and adolescents with increasing high levels of ethnic identity reported better parent-child relationships. Findings and implications are discussed.

  6. Care of adolescent parents and their children.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Jorge L; Jones, Veronnie F

    2012-12-01

    Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.

  7. Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Greenberg, Byron

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-perceived depression and isolation reported by unaccompanied Southeast Asian refugee adolescents (n=301), population traditionally inadequately served by mental health professionals. Findings revealed significant differences regarding sex, English language skills, work involvement, and self-disclosure. Results have implications for…

  8. Adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Williams-Evans, Shiphrah A; Myers, Joy Sher'ron

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the rising occurrences of adolescent violence in the American school systems and how various theories can be used to assist in understanding this phenomenon. The authors have become increasingly interested in this topic, after direct involvement in the summer of 2001. There were a number of students who were attending summer school as a result of consistent out-of-school suspensions for violent acts. The procedure to process through the system with these students was to suspend them, resulting in the student subsequently failing their present grade. The school was located in a community known for its high rate of violence and criminal activity. Various types of adolescent violence exist in our schools. Studies have reported that violent adolescents may come from familial environments that are full of social and interpersonal conflicts (Gray & Foshee, 1999). This paper discusses the development of a research plan to investigate the number and type of adolescent violent occurrences in a southern middle school setting.

  9. Turkish adolescents' loneliness.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Aynur Bütün; Simşek, Sükran; Aral, Neriman; Baran, Gülen

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize loneliness among adolescents with respect to socioeconomic level, sex, and mothers' and fathers' education. General information about the 400 adolescents and their families were obtained. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that mothers' educational level explained a slight but statistically significant amount of variance in adolescents' loneliness scores while sex, socioeconomic level and fathers' educational level did not.

  10. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  11. Peer influences and drug use among urban adolescents: family structure and parent-adolescent relationship as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Farrell, A D; White, K S

    1998-04-01

    The moderating influences of family structure and parent-adolescent distress on the relationship between peer variables and drug use were examined in a predominantly African American sample of 630 10th graders at 9 urban high schools. Both peer pressure and peer drug use were significantly related to the reported frequency of drug use. The relationship between peer pressure and drug use was stronger among girls than boys, and also among adolescents in families without fathers or stepfathers. The association between peer pressure and drug use also increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress among adolescents who were not living with fathers or stepfathers. Neither gender nor family structure moderated the relationship between peer drug models and drug use. However, the association between peer drug models and drug use increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress.

  12. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  13. Elevated CRP in adolescents: Roles of stress and coping

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychological stress can upregulate inflammatory processes and increase disease risk. In the context of stress, differences in how individuals cope might have implications for health. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations among stress, coping, and inflammation in a sample of African-American and white adolescents. Methods Adolescents (n = 245) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and coping, provided daily diary reports of interpersonal conflict over seven days, and provided fasting blood samples for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP). Results In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and socioeconomic status, there were no significant associations between stress and CRP, but significant interactions between stress and coping emerged. For adolescents reporting more unpleasant stressful life events in the past 12 months, positive engagement coping was inversely associated with CRP (β = −.19, p < .05), whereas coping was not significantly associated with CRP for adolescents reporting fewer stressful life events. Positive engagement coping was significantly and inversely associated with CRP in the context of interpersonal stress, whether measured as stressful life events reflecting interpersonal conflict (e.g., arguments with parents or siblings, conflict between adults in the home, friendship ended) or frequency of arguments with others reported in daily diaries. Disengagement coping was unrelated to CRP. Conclusion Findings suggest that positive engagement coping is associated with lower levels of inflammation, but only when adolescents are challenged by significant stress. PMID:23576771

  14. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  15. Key Data on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John

    In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom…

  16. Subjective and objective assessment of sleep in adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-06-01

    There is increased recognition that sleep problems may develop in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, few studies have utilized both subjective and objective measures to comprehensively assess sleep problems in the pediatric population following the acute post-TBI period. The aims of this study were to compare sleep in adolescents with mTBI to healthy adolescents using subjective and objective measures, and to identify the clinical correlates associated with sleep problems. One hundred adolescents (50 adolescents with mTBI recruited from three to twelve months post-injury and 50 healthy adolescents) completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, depression, and pain symptoms, and underwent 10 day actigraphic assessment of sleep patterns. Adolescents with mTBI reported poorer sleep quality and demonstrated significantly shorter actigraphic-measured sleep duration, poorer sleep efficiency, and more wake time after onset of sleep, compared with healthy adolescents (all, p<0.05). For both groups of adolescents, poorer self-reported sleep quality was predicted by greater depressive symptoms. Poorer actigraphic sleep efficiency was predicted by membership in the mTBI group after controlling for age, sex, depressive symptoms, and presence of pain. Our findings suggest that adolescents may experience subjective and objective sleep disturbances up to one year following mTBI. These findings require further replication in larger samples. Additionally, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms for poor sleep in youth with mTBI.

  17. Adolescent homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  18. Early adolescents' perceptions of their mother's anxious parenting as a predictor of anxiety symptoms 12 months later.

    PubMed

    Rapee, Ronald M

    2009-11-01

    Parental overprotection and modeling of fearful behaviors have been proposed to play a central role in the development of anxiety. Yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of these relationships and virtually none focusing on the adolescent period. The current study measured adolescent perceptions of maternal anxious parenting (a combination of overprotection and expression of anxiety), mothers' levels of anxiousness, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms in 421 girls in grade 7 and their mothers. Measures were repeated 12 months later. When the adolescent's self report of anxiety was used as the outcome, the adolescent's perception of maternal anxious parenting significantly predicted adolescent anxiety 12 months later. When the mother's report of adolescent anxiety was used as the outcome adolescent anxiety significantly predicted adolescent perceptions of maternal anxious parenting 12 months later. Maternal anxiousness predicted the adolescent's perception of anxious parenting, but meditational relationships were not significant in either model. The data are partly consistent with reciprocal influence models of parent/child relationships but point to the importance of informant perspectives in determining relationships between these complex variables.

  19. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  20. Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenges of Adolescent Literacy. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.; Spratley, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents may struggle with text for a number of reasons, including problems with a) vocabulary knowledge, b) general knowledge of topics and text structures, c) knowing of what to do when comprehension breaks down, or d) proficiency in monitoring their own reading comprehension. Most recent literacy initiatives target younger readers and…