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  1. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  2. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  3. Show and Tell: Photo-Interviews with Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Ellison, Katherine L.; Sequenzia, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, we used photo-interviews as a method to investigate the hopes and fears of urban adolescent girls who actively participated in their community organization. The photo-interviews were featured in a collaborative, creative arts program involving urban adolescent girls from a community organization and college students enrolled in a…

  4. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  5. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  6. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  7. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development. PMID:26592311

  8. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  9. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  10. Internet and written respiratory questionnaires yield equivalent results for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Raat, H; Mangunkusumo, RT; Mohangoo, AD; Juniper, EF; Van Der Lei, J

    2007-01-01

    This study compared results from Internet and written questionnaires about respiratory symptoms in order to find out if both forms of the survey yielded the same answers. One thousand seventy-one students, ages 13 to 17, were asked to complete either an Internet or a written questionnaire. The demographic characteristics of the participants equalled those of the general Dutch adolescent population. Participants were randomly assigned to fill out an electronic or written questionnaire. In addition to eight items from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, two items on doctor visits (medical attention) regarding asthma or allergic disease during the past 12 months were included. The participation rate was 87%. The Internet version of the questionnaire showed fewer missing answers than the written version, but this was not statistically significant. The respiratory items did not show statistically significant score differences between the Internet and written modes of administration, and there was no visible trend for higher respectively lower scores by either mode of questionnaire administration. From these results, we conclude that respiratory questionnaires may be provided to adolescents electronically rather than on paper, since both approaches yielded equal results. To generalize these findings, we recommend repeated studies in other settings. PMID:17335011

  11. Early adolescents show sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by emotional distractors.

    PubMed

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year-old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analysed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events. PMID:23098096

  12. Early Adolescents Show Sustained Susceptibility to Cognitive Interference by Emotional Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analyzed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events. PMID:23098096

  13. Very Preterm Adolescents Show Gender-Dependent Alteration of the Structural Brain Correlates of Spelling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona E.; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P.; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and…

  14. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement (2002–2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years, that assesses DSM-IV disorders using a fully structured diagnostic interview, a modified version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Rates of 12-month psychotropic medication use are stratified by respondent socio-demographic characteristics and the distribution of 12-month DSM-IV CIDI disorders is estimated among past 12-month use of antidepressants and stimulants. Results During a one year period, 7.0% of adolescents used at least one psychotropic medication; these medications were most commonly antidepressants (3.9%) followed by stimulants (2.8%), anxiolytics (0.8%), antipsychotics (0.5%) and mood stabilizers (0.4%). Nearly three-quarters (74.1%) of adolescents with any past year psychotropic medication use had at least one CIDI mental disorder and many had disorders for which the specific medication class is clinically indicated. Among adolescents using antidepressants, 48.8% had a past 12 month depressive or anxiety disorder and an additional 20.3% had a lifetime depressive or anxiety disorder. Nearly one half (49.1%) of adolescents using stimulants met past 12 month attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) criteria and an additional 13.1% met lifetime criteria for ADHD. Conclusions Most adolescents who are treated with psychotropic medications have one or more psychiatric disorders and many, though far from all, have mental disorders for which the specific medications are clinically indicated. PMID:23582869

  15. What Are Adolescents Showing the World About Their Health Risk Behaviors on MySpace?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Parks, Malcolm; Richardson, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    Context MySpace is a popular social networking Web site where users create individual Web profiles. Little data are available about what types of health risk behaviors adolescents display on MySpace profiles. There are potential risks and intervention opportunities associated with posting such information on a public Web site. Objective To examine publicly available 16- and 17-year-old MySpace Web profiles and determine the prevalence of personal risk behavior descriptions and identifiable information. Design Cross-sectional observational study using content analysis of Web profiles. Setting www.MySpace.com Patients In order to target frequently visited adolescent Web profiles, we sequentially selected 142 publicly available Web profiles of 16 and 17 year olds from the class of 2008 MySpace group. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Prevalence of displayed health risk behaviors pertaining to substance use or sexual behavior, prevalence of personally identifying information, date of last log-in to Web profile. Results Of Web profiles, 47% contained risk behavior information: Twenty-one percent described sexual activity; 25% described alcohol use; 9% described cigarette use; and 6% described drug use. 97.2% Contained personally identifying information: Seventy-four percent included an identifiable picture; 75% included subjects' first names or surnames; and 78% included subjects' hometowns. Eighty-six percent of users had visited their own profiles within 24 hours. Conclusions Most 16- and 17-year-old MySpace profiles include identifiable information, are frequently accessed by owners, and half include personal risk behavior information. Further study is needed to assess the risks associated with displaying personal information and to evaluate the use of social networking sites for health behavior interventions targeting at-risk teens. PMID:18311359

  16. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  17. Toward improved spectral measures of /s/: Results from adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Shadle, Christine H.; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mooshammer, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce theoretically-driven acoustic measures of /s/ that reflect aerodynamic and articulatory conditions. The measures were evaluated by assessing whether they revealed expected changes over time and labiality effects, along with possible gender differences suggested by past work. Method Productions of /s/ were extracted from various speaking tasks from typically-speaking adolescents (6 boys; 6 girls). Measures were made of relative spectral energies in low- (550–3000 Hz), mid- (3000–7000 Hz), and high-frequency regions (7000–11025 Hz); the mid-frequency amplitude peak; and temporal changes in these parameters. Spectral moments were also obtained to permit comparison with existing work. Results Spectral balance measures in low–mid and mid–high frequency bands varied over the time course of /s/, capturing the development of sibilance at mid-fricative along with showing some effects of gender and labiality. The mid-frequency spectral peak was significantly higher in non-labial contexts, and in girls. Temporal variation in the mid-frequency peak differentiated ±labial contexts while normalizing over gender. Discussion The measures showed expected patterns, supporting their validity. Comparison of these data with studies of adults suggests some developmental patterns that call for further study. The measures may also serve to differentiate some cases of typical and misarticulated /s/. PMID:23785194

  18. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  19. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  20. Fast Food Art, Talk Show Therapy: The Impact of Mass Media on Adolescent Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Jordan S.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic media provides rapid delivery and unlimited access to pictures, sounds, and information. The ubiquitous presence of techno-digital culture in the lives of today's adolescents may influence or contaminate the art therapy process. This article presents two case studies that illustrate how cyberspace entered into art therapy sessions and…

  1. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep.

    PubMed

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children's and adolescents' sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10-16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1-4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25-9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  2. [The mentalizing vocational training - first results from a pilot study with adolescents with learning disabilities].

    PubMed

    Curth, Christian; Kotte, Silja; Taubner, Svenja; Unger, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    In this report first results are presented from a pilot study on the Mentalizing Vocational Training that aims to increase the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation programs with adolescents diagnosed with learning disabilities. The prevention program was based on the hypothesis that adolescents' difficulties in motivation and relationships are related to deficits in mentalizing. Thus, we created a prevention program that supports an enduring mentalizing social system following Twemlow's and Fonagy's suggestions for peaceful schools. The program consists of four modules: a psychoeducative training for all professionals within the rehabilitation program, an ongoing supervision for two selected teams, two mentalizing training groups for selected adolescents and a weekly intervision group for the research team analyzing the organizational perspective. During the pilot study, mentalization interest and attachment styles were assessed from all adolescents and professionals. Additionally, adolescents' mentalization capacities were assessed using an objective videobased test as well as general intelligence. Results showed that participants had significantly more attachment anxiety and avoidance as well as less interest to think about themselves and others in a complex way. Furthermore, participants achieved very low scores in the mentalization test (comparable to the autistic spectrum) which were independent from general cognitive deficits. On the organizational level, professionals appeared to be conflicted about the changes in management towards more economic efficiency and overwhelmed by participants with traumatic backgrounds. This led to a regression of the whole organization on the teleological mode. PMID:25478753

  3. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children’s and adolescents’ sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10–16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1–4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25–9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  4. Growth changes in infants born of adolescent mothers: Results of a national cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Hsu, Bu-Qing; Wu, Wei-Ya; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Hwang, Shiow-Li; Lee, Ming-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth are associated with increased risk and challenges for both mothers and birth outcomes. Objective: To investigate the associations of growth change over time with parenting factors and to compare the differences between children born to adolescent and adult mothers in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: The dataset retrieved from Taiwan birth cohort study (TBCS) was collected by interviews using structured questionnaires, birth certificate and Passport of Well-baby Care of each child. Changes in body weight, body height and head circumference from birth to 18 months, as well as other variables were assessed by statistical analysis. Results: There were 4.13% births born to adolescent mothers in 2005. Higher ratios of breastfeeding and working were found among adult mothers (p<0.001). Significantly higher percentage of adolescent mothers caregave their infants up to 18 months (p<0.001). Children born to adolescent mothers were associated with statistically significant lower body weight (p<0.001), body height (p<0.001) and head circumference (p<0.001) in spite of velocity and slop of growth patterns were similar over time. Breastfeeding did not significantly affected growth rate during the first 6 months. Generalized estimated equation models showed that gender and preterm birth were predictive factors for birth outcomes (both p<0.001) and correlated to changes over time. Conclusion: Adolescent childbearing was associated with preterm birth and lower body weight, body height and head circumference from birth to 18 months. The changes in growth and development among children born to adolescent mothers remain to be followed and evaluated with the TBCS. PMID:25709629

  5. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  6. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  7. Long-range orbitofrontal and amygdala axons show divergent patterns of maturation in the frontal cortex across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carolyn M; Loucks, F Alexandra; Peckler, Hannah; Thomas, A Wren; Janak, Patricia H; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The adolescent transition from juvenile to adult is marked by anatomical and functional remodeling of brain networks. Currently, the cellular and synaptic level changes underlying the adolescent transition are only coarsely understood. Here, we use two-photon imaging to make time-lapse observations of long-range axons that innervate the frontal cortex in the living brain. We labeled cells in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and imaged their axonal afferents to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We also imaged the apical dendrites of dmPFC pyramidal neurons. Images were taken daily in separate cohorts of juvenile (P24-P28) and young adult mice (P64-P68), ages where we have previously discovered differences in dmPFC dependent decision-making. Dendritic spines were pruned across this peri-adolescent period, while BLA and OFC afferents followed alternate developmental trajectories. OFC boutons showed no decrease in density, but did show a decrease in daily bouton gain and loss with age. BLA axons showed an increase in both bouton density and daily bouton gain at the later age, suggesting a delayed window of enhanced plasticity. Our findings reveal projection specific maturation of synaptic structures within a single frontal region and suggest that stabilization is a more general characteristic of maturation than pruning. PMID:26896859

  8. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  9. Adolescent traumatic stress experience results in less robust conditioned fear and post-extinction fear cue responses in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2014-05-01

    Early exposure to a traumatic event may produce lasting effects throughout the lifespan. Traumatic stress during adolescence may deliver a distinct developmental insult compared with more-often studied neonatal or juvenile traumatic stress paradigms. The present study describes the lasting effects of adolescent traumatic stress upon adulthood fear conditioning. Adolescent rats were exposed to a traumatic stressor (underwater trauma, UWT), then underwent fear conditioning during adulthood. Fear extinction was tested over five conditioned suppression extinction sessions three weeks later. The efficacies of two potential extinction-enhancing compounds, endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (10mg/kg) and M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator BQCA (10mg/kg), were also assessed. Finally, post-extinction fear responses were examined using a fear cue (light) as a prepulse stimulus. Rats traumatically stressed during adolescence showed blunted conditioned suppression on day 1 of extinction training, and AM404 reversed this effect. Post-extinction startle testing showed that fear conditioning eliminates prepulse inhibition to the light cue. Startle potentiation was observed only in rats without adolescent UWT exposure. AM404 and BQCA both ameliorated this startle potentiation, while BQCA increased startle in the UWT group. These results suggest that exposure to a traumatic stressor during adolescence alters developmental outcomes related to stress response and fear extinction compared to rats without adolescent traumatic stress exposure, blunting the adulthood fear response and reducing residual post-extinction fear expression. Efficacy of pharmacological interventions may also vary as a factor of developmental traumatic stress exposure. PMID:24491436

  10. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. PMID:26733385

  11. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  12. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  14. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    The SHOW (solar hot water) computer program is capable of simulating both one and two tank designs of thermosiphon and pumped solar domestic hot water systems. SHOW differs in a number of ways from other programs, the most notable of which is the emphasis on a thermal/hydraulic model of the stratified storage tank. The predicted performance for a typical two tank pumped system, computed by Program SHOW are compared, with results computed using F-CHART and TRNSYS. The results show fair to good agreement between the various computer programs when comparing the annual percent solar contributions. SHOW is also used to compute the expected performance of a two tank thermosiphon system and to compare its performance to the two tank pumped system.

  15. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  16. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  17. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  18. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD. PMID:27070095

  19. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic…

  20. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  1. Familias Unidas' Crossover Effects on Suicidal Behaviors among Hispanic Adolescents: Results from an Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Huang, Shi; Poma, Sofia; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The long-term impact of Familias Unidas on suicidal behaviors among Hispanic 8th graders (N = 746) was examined along with parent-adolescent communication as a moderator of intervention effectiveness. At baseline, 9.2% (95% CI = 7.3%-11.6%) of adolescents reported suicide ideation and 5.7% (95% CI = 4.1%-7.7%) reported a past year suicide attempt. There were no significant intervention effects on suicidal behaviors; however, parent-adolescent communication was a moderator of suicide attempts in the past year, across the intervention (b = -.01, p = .01). Results suggest that Familias Unidas reduces suicidal behaviors among Hispanic adolescents with low levels of parent-adolescent communication despite no suicide-specific intervention content. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27094111

  2. The Sarah evaluation scale for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: description and results

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Katia S.; Carvalho, Camila G. C.; Nakamoto, Lilian; Nunes, Luiz G. N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Assessments of motor-functional aspects in cerebral palsy are crucial to rehabilitation programs. Objective To introduce the Sarah motor-functional evaluation scale and to report the initial results of its measurement properties. This scale was created based on the experience of the Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals in the care of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Method Preliminary results concerning the measurement properties of the scale were obtained via assessment of 76 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Experts' opinions were used to determine an expected empirical score by age group and to differentiate severity levels. Results The scale exhibited a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.95). Strong correlation was observed with experts’ classification for severity levels (0.81 to 0.97) and with the scales Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (0.80 to 0.98). Regression analysis detected a significant relationship between the scale score and the severity of the child’s motor impairment. The inter-rater reliability was also strong (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.98 to 0.99). The internal responsiveness of the scale score was confirmed by significant differences between longitudinal evaluations (paired Student’s t test with p<0.01; standardized response mean of 0.60). Conclusion The Sarah scale provides a valid measure for assessing the motor skills and functional performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. The preliminary results showed that the Sarah scale has potential for use in routine clinical practice and rehabilitation units. PMID:27437718

  3. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  4. Prevalence and determinants of suicide ideation among Lebanese adolescents: results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale H; Dejong, Jocelyn

    2011-04-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt sad or hopeless), substance use (got drunk, used drugs), victimization (was bullied, was sexually harassed), and lack of parental understanding. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:20434762

  5. Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates

    PubMed Central

    Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (μ ≈ 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (μ ≈ 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

  6. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  7. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  8. Meta-analysis of aspirin use and risk of lung cancer shows notable results.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Friederike; Jochem, Maximilian; Schlattmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a promising agent for chemoprevention of lung cancer. We assessed the association of aspirin use and the development of lung cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity between studies. Databases were searched for relevant studies until September 2014. Studies evaluating the relationship of aspirin use and incidence of lung cancer were considered. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and a pooled estimate was calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I measure, random-effects models, and finite-mixture models. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using a meta-regression. A decreased risk of lung cancer was found including 20 studies [RR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.95] on the basis of a random-effects model. Strong heterogeneity was observed (τ=0.0258, I=74.4%). As a result, two subpopulations of studies were identified on the basis of a mixture model. The first subpopulation (42%) has an average RR of 0.64. The remaining subpopulation (58%) shows an RR of 1.04. Different results were found for case-control (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90) and cohort studies (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06) in a stratified analysis. In a subgroup analysis, use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of non-small-cell lung cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). At first glance, our meta-analysis shows an average protective effect. A second glance indicates that there is strong heterogeneity. This leads to a subpopulation with considerable benefit and another subpopulation with no benefit. For further investigations, it is important to identify populations that benefit from aspirin use. PMID:26067033

  9. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment

  10. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence—when the brain is still developing—has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants’ family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9–12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17–20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose–response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  11. [Consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Thamm, M

    2007-01-01

    Due to its long-lasting effects, the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs is one of the central topics of prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) show that in Germany today 20.5 % of 11-17-year-old boys and 20.3 % of girls the same age smoke. More than one quarter of adolescents who do not smoke themselves are exposed to cigarette smoke several times a week; around one fifth are even exposed to it almost every day. In the case of alcohol, 64.8 % of boys and 63.8 % of girls have drunk it before. Around one third of boys and one quarter of girls indicated that they currently consumed alcohol at least once a week. In the last 12 months before the survey 9.2 % of the boys and 6.2 % of the girls had taken hashish or marijuana. Other drugs such as Ecstasy, amphetamines or speed had been consumed by less than 1 % of the adolescents. The use of psychoactive substances rises markedly as children get older and is thus the most widespread among 16-17-year-olds. Adolescents of low social status smoke more frequently; in the case of alcohol and drug consumption, however, no significant status-specific differences are observed. There is also a raised prevalence of smoking among boys and girls who attend a secondary school and live in the states of the former GDR. The results emphasise the need for an addiction prevention programme which should include intervention to prevent children taking up substance use, as well as withdrawal treatment. PMID:17514444

  12. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Results Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. PMID:26769781

  13. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  14. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  15. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp

  16. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  17. School Start Time and Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Results From the US National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Paksarian, Diana; Rudolph, Kara E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated associations between school start time and adolescent weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, and weekend compensatory sleep and assessed whether associations differ by age, sex, or urbanicity. Methods. We used a subsample of a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 7308 students aged 13 to 18 years attending 245 schools to estimate associations of school start time, reported by school principals, with weeknight bedtime and sleep duration and weekend compensatory sleep, reported during adolescent face-to-face interviews. Results. Start time was positively associated with weeknight bedtime. Associations between start time and weeknight sleep duration were nonlinear and were strongest for start times of 8:00 am and earlier. Associations differed by sex and urbanicity, with the strongest association among boys in major metropolitan counties. Start time was negatively associated with sleep duration among boys in nonurban counties. Start time was not associated with weekend compensatory sleep. Conclusions. Positive overall associations between school start time and adolescent sleep duration at the national level support recent policy recommendations for delaying school start times. However, the impact of start time delays may differ by sex and urbanicity. PMID:25973803

  18. Association between dairy intake and caries among children and adolescents. results from the Danish EYHS follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lempert, Susanne M; Christensen, Lisa B; Froberg, Karsten; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence. A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an intake below the mean (72.8 vs. 65.8% at age 9 and 41.1 vs. 30.7% at age 15). The results from the generalized estimation equation showed that dairy and milk intake, as well as intakes of components of dairy such as dairy calcium, whey and casein, was generally inversely associated with childhood/adolescent caries experience (measured as DMFS). With regard to caries incidence, the same inverse association was found for incidence over a period of 3 years and for incidence over 6 years, but the results were only statistically significant for the 3-year incidence and for the unadjusted models of the 6-year incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries development. However, more studies on larger cohorts are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25825159

  19. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  20. [Eating disorders in children and adolescents. First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Hölling, H; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    Eating disorders are included in the category of mental and behavioural disorders (ICD 10). They are among the most common chronic health problems encountered in children and adolescents. A total of 7,498 children and adolescents (weighted) aged 11 to 17 years answered the SCOFF questionnaire, a screening instrument to identify cases of suspected eating disorder. Parallel to the SCOFF questionnaire, further factors for possible eating disorders, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI), information on abnormal behaviour (using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) smoking, sexual and body self-image assessment, were gathered to substantiate the results. In total, 21.9 % of the children and adolescents in Germany aged 11 to 17 years showed symptoms of eating disorders. With 28.9%, girls are more frequently affected than boys (15.2 %); this difference is highly significant. In the presence of almost identical initial values, the rate of subjects with abnormal SCOFF scores increases, starting from age 11 years, in girls as they age, while it drops in boys. Children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status (SES) are, with 27.6 %, almost twice as often affected than those with high SES (15.6 %). Migrants have an approx. 50 % higher rate compared to non-migrants. A 2.5-fold increase in the percentage of individuals with normal weight who perceive themselves as too fat is found among those with abnormal SCOFF scores. Individuals with abnormal SCOFF scores smoke more and report more frequently about sexual harassment. Because of the severity, the tendency to chronification and the protracted therapy of the clinically apparent disorders, effective concepts for prevention should be developed. PMID:17514465

  1. Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender: Results from Adolescent and Emerging Adult Samples

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2011-01-01

    Although parents are assumed to be children’s primary models of socialization when it comes to gender, little is known about direct communication of gendered values in the family. Accordingly, this study assessed the amount and content of recalled parental gender socialization messages using data from 291 U.S. college undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university and 259 U.S. adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the Midwest. The study examined the amount and content of parental communications of five gendered discourses and then tested for connections to current gender beliefs. Findings indicate that gender socialization may be quite similar for sons and daughters, with some evidence of gender typing in patterns of communication. No significant age differences emerged in the patterns of socialization, although high school students reported receiving greater amounts of communication than college students on two of the five discourses. In general, receiving messages promoting traditional gender roles was associated with more traditional gender beliefs (and vice versa), although interpretation of some messages appeared to vary by gender. PMID:21712963

  2. Human Serum from Urban and Rural Adolescents and Their Mothers Shows Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Not Found in Commercial Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wen Xin; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls are no longer sold as commercial mixtures, they are still being produced through modern manufacturing processes. We have previously shown that non-Aroclor PCB 11 is prevalent in indoor and outdoor air and sediment and detected in human serum. Here we report the prevalence of non-Aroclor PCB congeners (≤0.20 wt % in Aroclor) in human serum collected from urban and rural adolescents and their mothers. We hypothesized that additional non-Aroclor congeners are present in serum. Sera were extracted and detected for 209 PCBs using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of 70 non-Aroclor PCB congeners was determined by measurement of original Aroclors. PCB 11, 14, 35, and 209 are the major dominating and most frequently detected congeners. PCB 14 and 35 have not been previously reported for environmental matrices. Adolescents have significantly lower total non-Aroclor PCB concentrations than mothers in East Chicago (p < 0.001) and Columbus Junction (p = 0.008). There are significant differences in non-Aroclor PCBs between East Chicago community and Columbus Junction community (p < 0.001). Non-Aroclor PCBs represent an average of 10% (and up to 50%) of total PCBs measured in serum. An average of 50% (and up to 100%) of these concentrations may be attributed to aryl azo and phthalocyanine paint pigments. PMID:26053216

  3. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  4. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  5. Changing Adolescent Propensities to Use Drugs: Results from Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation with over 4,000 seventh and eighth graders in California and Oregon showed that Project ALERT, a curriculum to curb drug use by teaching resistance to pressures, successfully dampened cognitive risk factors for cigarette and marijuana use but had limited impact on beliefs about alcohol. (SK)

  6. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948

  7. A Parent-Adolescent Intervention to Increase Sexual Risk Communication: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6-…

  8. How well do adolescents recall use of mobile telephones? Results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade mobile telephone use has become more widespread among children. Concerns expressed about possible health risks have led to epidemiological studies investigating adverse health outcomes associated with mobile telephone use. Most epidemiological studies have relied on self reported questionnaire responses to determine individual exposure. We sought to validate the accuracy of self reported adolescent mobile telephone use. Methods Participants were recruited from year 7 secondary school students in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescent recall of mobile telephone use was assessed using a self administered questionnaire which asked about number and average duration of calls per week. Validation of self reports was undertaken using Software Modified Phones (SMPs) which logged exposure details such as number and duration of calls. Results A total of 59 adolescents participated (39% boys, 61% girls). Overall a modest but significant rank correlation was found between self and validated number of voice calls (ρ = 0.3, P = 0.04) with a sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 66%. Agreement between SMP measured and self reported duration of calls was poorer (ρ = 0.1, P = 0.37). Participants whose parents belonged to the 4th socioeconomic stratum recalled mobile phone use better than others (ρ = 0.6, P = 0.01). Conclusion Adolescent recall of mobile telephone use was only modestly accurate. Caution is warranted in interpreting results of epidemiological studies investigating health effects of mobile phone use in this age group. PMID:19523193

  9. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  10. The longitudinal relation between peer violent victimization and delinquency: results from a national representative sample of u.s. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Corrie L; Hanson, Rochelle F; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-05-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  11. [Oral health behaviour of children and adolescents in Germany. First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Schenk, L; Knopf, H

    2007-01-01

    Despite successful prevention and the possibility to directly control oral health by individual behaviour, children are still affected by caries. Aim of this article is to determine the prevalence and the social factors influencing selected aspects of oral health behaviour based on data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Over a period of three years, 17,641 children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years - a representative sample for Germany - were examined in the nationwide KiGGS study. Based on a written survey and a medical interview, data on oral health behaviour were also collected. 29 % of the surveyed children and adolescents brushed their teeth only once daily or less frequently. This type of teeth brushing behaviour shows a social status gradient (low: 39 %, middle: 28 %, high: 22 %) and is more frequently found in children with a migration background (45 %) than in those without a migration background (26 %). Differences were also found between girls and boys (girls: 25 %; boys: 33 %). In only 8 % of cases, parents stated that their children have a dental check-up less than once a year. However, this information substantially differs from the actual visits to dentists. Here again, differences regarding social status (low: 12 %; high: 6 %) and migration status (migrants: 16 %; non-migrants: 6 %) were found. According to the parents, 43 % of the 0-to-2-year-olds and 7 % of the 3-to-6-year-olds use pharmaceutical preparations for caries prevention. Relevant differences were found between migrants (5 %) and non-migrants (8 %). These results show that there is primarily a need for social status-specific and culture-specific prevention. To identify starting points for effectively offering preventative measures, a systematic study into the factors causing these behavioural differences is needed. PMID:17514449

  12. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:24423135

  13. Do adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show risk seeking? Disentangling probabilistic decision making by equalizing the favorability of alternatives.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yehuda; Oz, Adi; Neventsal, Oded; Rabi, Orit; Kitrossky, Leah; Maeir, Adina

    2016-04-01

    The clinical literature provides evidence for increased risk taking by individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most of the experimental tasks used to measure risk taking, confounded risky and disadvantageous alternatives, and therefore did not disentangle increased risk seeking from suboptimal decision making. The aim of the study was to examine whether adolescents with ADHD show risk seeking by equalizing the expected value of both certain and risky alternatives. In 3 different samples, adolescents with and without ADHD performed gambling tasks, in which they had to choose between certain and risky alternatives. Notably, the expected values of both alternatives were equal. Various personal and contextual intervening factors were controlled for. The rate of risky choices was compared across groups. In addition, participants reported on risk taking in real-life. We found that adolescents with ADHD did not choose the risky alternative more often than controls, but reported higher engagement in real-life risky behavior. These findings suggest that risky behavior shown by people with ADHD in daily life and on some experimental tasks may not be accounted for by increased risk seeking, but rather may reflect suboptimal decision making. PMID:26766388

  14. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  15. Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents spend increasingly more time on electronic devices, and sleep deficiency rising in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate daytime screen use and use of electronic devices before bedtime in relation to sleep. Design A large cross-sectional population-based survey study from 2012, the youth@hordaland study, in Hordaland County in Norway. Setting Cross-sectional general community-based study. Participants 9846 adolescents from three age cohorts aged 16–19. The main independent variables were type and frequency of electronic devices at bedtime and hours of screen-time during leisure time. Outcomes Sleep variables calculated based on self-report including bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Results Adolescents spent a large amount of time during the day and at bedtime using electronic devices. Daytime and bedtime use of electronic devices were both related to sleep measures, with an increased risk of short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and increased sleep deficiency. A dose–response relationship emerged between sleep duration and use of electronic devices, exemplified by the association between PC use and risk of less than 5 h of sleep (OR=2.70, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.39), and comparable lower odds for 7–8 h of sleep (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.96). Conclusions Use of electronic devices is frequent in adolescence, during the day as well as at bedtime. The results demonstrate a negative relation between use of technology and sleep, suggesting that recommendations on healthy media use could include restrictions on electronic devices. PMID:25643702

  16. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype. PMID:26914469

  17. A parent-adolescent intervention to increase sexual risk communication: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L; Zhou, Yan

    2008-10-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent-adolescent communication related to general and sex-specific communication. PMID:18956979

  18. Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in Norwegian adolescents: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Løberg, Else-Marie; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in adolescents is important for estimations of need for mental health care and assessment of psychosis risk. In this report we assess the prevalence of AVH in a population-based sample of 16–19 years old Norwegian adolescents (n = 9,646, 46.4% male) using two items assessing AVH (from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale). The prevalence of hearing a voice speaking thoughts aloud was 10.6%. The prevalence of being troubled by voices was 5.3%, showing that negative emotionality about AVH is less frequent than the experience of hearing voices. Female respondents had slightly increased risk for being troubled by voices than males (odds ratio = 1.3), while age did not modulate prevalence. This AVH prevalence is in line with earlier reports in smaller samples of adolescents and indicates that AVH are not uncommon in this period of life. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the value of AVH in predicting psychiatric disorder. PMID:25968251

  19. [Nutrition, physical activity and substance use in children and adolescents : Representative results of the federal state module Thuringia in KiGGS wave 1].

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Anding, Christine; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The term health behaviour combines both health-promoting and health-risk components. In this study, the health behaviour of children and adolescents in Thuringia is analysed. The database was a representative subsample of the federal state module Thuringia, which was conducted by the Robert Koch Institute as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) wave 1 (2010-2012; n = 4,096; 3-17 years). Health behaviour was described based on nine indicators: fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, breakfast at home, physical activity, sport, swimming ability, alcohol consumption, smoking and water pipe consumption (shisha smoking). Prevalence and mean values with 95 % confidence intervals were reported, and based on logistic or linear regression, the significance of the group differences was examined. The results show that 43.4 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia ate fruits and vegetables daily, 44.5 % consumed soft drinks less than once a week, and 67.9 % had breakfast at home every weekday. In addition, 31.0 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia were physically active at least 60 min a day, 69.8 % did sports for at least 2 h a week, and 81.5 % can swim. Additionally, 15.9 % of adolescents in Thuringia had hazardous alcohol consumption, 14.4 % currently smoked, and 20.0 % smoked a water pipe. Differences existed with regard to gender, age, socio-economic status (SES) of the family and residence (urban/rural). In summary, many of the children and adolescents in Thuringia demonstrate relatively positive health behaviour. However, the results also indicate groups at higher risk of unhealthy behaviour, such as children and adolescents from families with low SES. PMID:27351434

  20. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  1. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  2. Differential severity of anxiogenic effects resulting from a brief swim or underwater trauma in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2012-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown a link between early-life adversity and severity of adulthood responses to a traumatic stress event (post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD). Despite a need for basic research, few rodent models are available to test the lasting impacts of early-life traumatic stressors. Underwater trauma (UWT) has been used previously to model traumatic stress; however, effects of this procedure have only been characterized in adulthood. Susceptibility of younger animals to physiological or psychological damage from a forced submersion procedure is unknown. A procedure involving swimming may be a stressful stimulus outside of the underwater component of the experience, as well. The acute effects of a 1-minute sham exposure (empty water tank), swim-only, and UWT (40s swim followed by 20s underwater) were compared in adolescent rats at postnatal day 37. No effects on blood oxygenation or lung tissue were observed. Stepwise decreases in open arm behavior were observed on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in swim-only rats, while UWT rats showed an immediate, lasting decrease in open arm behavior. UWT rats showed a significant decrease in basal corticosterone one week after trauma. These results show that while water immersion is a stressor, UWT causes a distinct syndrome of traumatic stress response in adolescent rats. PMID:22584043

  3. The Heritability of Insomnia Progression during Childhood/Adolescence: Results from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Nicola L.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Silberg, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Design: Longitudinal twin study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients or Participants: There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) and 672 complete dizygotic twin pairs (48%) initially enrolled and were followed up at three additional time points (waves). Mode ages at each wave were 8, 10, 14, and 15 y (ages ranged from 8–18 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Clinical ratings of insomnia symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) by trained clinicians, and rated according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition—Revised criteria for presence of “clinically significant insomnia,” over four sequential waves. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent but significantly decreased across the four waves (ranging from 16.6% to 31.2%). “Clinically significant insomnia” was moderately heritable at all waves (h2 range = 14% to 38%), and the remaining source of variance was the nonshared environment. Multivariate models indicated that genetic influences at wave 1 contributed to insomnia at all subsequent waves, and that new genetic influences came into play at wave 2, which further contributed to stability of symptoms. Nonshared environmental influences were time-specific. Conclusion: Insomnia is prevalent in childhood and adolescence, and is moderately heritable. The progression of insomnia across this developmental time period is influenced by stable as well as new genetic factors that come into play at wave 2 (modal age 10 y). Molecular genetic studies should now identify genes related to insomnia progression during childhood and

  4. The bonebridge as a transcutaneous bone conduction hearing system: preliminary surgical and audiological results in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hassepass, Frederike; Bulla, Stefan; Aschendorff, Antje; Maier, Wolfgang; Traser, Louisa; Steinmetz, Christian; Wesarg, Thomas; Arndt, Susan

    2015-09-01

    The Bonebridge (®) (BB, Med-El) is a newly designed transcutaneous active bone conductive implant with functional outcome similar to percutaneous bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS). It is currently approved only for patients ≥18 years. Since the BB allows the skin to remain intact and therefore should be able to overcome some of the issues related to percutaneous BAHS including skin reactions, wound infection and implant extrusion, it would be especially attractive for use in children. We present a preliminary series of the first three cases of BB implantation in children/adolescents (10-16 years). Two subjects were affected by conductive hearing loss (CHL) and one subject by single-sided deafness (SSD). The surgical procedure with transmastoid approach was completed in all cases without complications. Both subjects with CHL showed an increase in speech perception thresholds in quiet from preoperative unaided to 6 months postoperatively with BB of 37 dB, respectively, of 12 dB. The adolescent with SSD attained -3.1 dB unaided vs. -5.6 dB with the BB in the "speech and noise from the front" presentation and +0.5 unaided vs. -5.0 dB with the BB in the "speech from the unilateral deaf side/noise from the normal hearing side" presentation using the adaptive Oldenburg Sentence Test. The results show a straightforward surgical procedure and satisfactory functional gain after BB implantation also in children/adolescents. BB implantation in patients ≤18 years is currently an "off-label use" so that detailed information about alternative treatment options, operation risks and the lack of approval for use in children is essential. PMID:24970289

  5. Prevalence, correlates and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). Objectives To estimate lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and associations of retrospectively-reported temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Design Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Setting Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires with parents. Participants 6,483 adolescents (ages 13–18 years) and parents. Main outcome measures Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among NCS-A respondents is 12.1%, 4.0% and 4.1%. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders also predict plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%) treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Conclusions Suicidal behaviors are commonly occurring among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have pre-existing mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are

  6. Service Utilization for Lifetime Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results of the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy E.; Swendsen, Joel; Avenevoli, Shelli; Case, Brady; Georgiades, Katholiki; Heaton, Leanne; Swanson, Sonja; Olfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mental health policy for youth has been constrained by a paucity of nationally representative data concerning patterns and correlates of mental health service utilization in this segment of the population. The objectives of this investigation are to examine the rates and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime mental health service use by severity, type, and number of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Method Face-to-face survey of mental disorders from 2002-2004 using a modified version of the fully-structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview in a nationally representative sample of 6,483 adolescents aged 13-18 years for whom information on service use was available from both an adolescent and a parent report. Both total and sector-specific mental health service use was also assessed. Results Approximately one-third of adolescents with mental disorders received services for their illness (36.2%). Although disorder severity was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of receiving treatment, half of adolescents with severely impairing mental disorders had never received mental health treatment for their symptoms. Service rates were highest among those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (59.8%) and behavior disorders (45.4%), but less than one in five affected adolescents received services for anxiety, eating, or substance use disorders. Comorbidity and severe impairment were strongly associated with service utilization, particularly among youth with behavior disorders. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adolescents were less likely than their white counterparts to receive services for mood and anxiety disorders, even when such disorders were associated with severe impairment. Conclusions Despite advances in public awareness of mental disorders in youth, a substantial proportion of young people with severe mental disorders have never received

  7. Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence shows frequent loss of INK4A and gain of KIT.

    PubMed

    Daniotti, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Frigerio, Simona; Casieri, Paola; Miselli, Francesca; Zucca, Elisa; Collini, Paola; Della Torre, Gabriella; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Bono, Aldo; Santinami, Mario; Parmiani, Giorgio; Rivoltini, Licia; Pilotti, Silvana; Rodolfo, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Childhood cutaneous melanoma is a rare disease with increasing incidence. It is not clear whether it differs from adult melanoma in etiology and clinical evolution. To genetically characterize childhood melanoma, 21 pediatric patients were studied by germ-line analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, and MC1R genes. In addition, alterations in CDKN2A, c-Kit, BRAF, and NRAS genes were evaluated at the somatic level by direct gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and immunohistochemistry. As a control group of susceptible patients, we studied patients from 23 melanoma-prone families. At the germ-line level, CDKN2A and MC1R gene variants were detected in 2/21 and 12/21 pediatric patients and in 9/23 and 19/22 in familial patients. At the somatic level, most lesions (9/14) from pediatric patients showed CDKN2A locus homozygous deletions and a null p16 immunophenotype, whereas most lesions (5/8) from familial patients were disomic and immunoreactive. A c-Kit low-polysomy profile seems to parallel CDKN2A homozygous deletions in pediatric melanoma whereas the single activating mutation observed segregates with familial patients. Loss of KIT protein expression was frequent (7/14) in pediatric melanomas, where metastatic cases were prevalent. BRAF(V600E) mutation occurred at a similar rate (approximately 50%) in lesions from pediatric and familial patients, whereas no NRAS mutations were detected. PMID:19158841

  8. Common prefrontal cortical gene expression profiles between adolescent SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl rats which showed inattention behavior.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Bang, Minji; Lee, Jinhee; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Noh, Minsoo; Shin, Chan Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-09-15

    Factor analyses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms divide the behavioral symptoms of ADHD into two separate domains, one reflecting inattention and the other, a combination of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Identifying domain-specific genetic risk variants may aid in the discovery of specific biological risk factors for ADHD. In contrast with data available on genes involved in hyperactivity and impulsivity, there is limited information on the genetic influences of inattention. Transcriptional profiling analysis in animal models of disorders may provide an important tool to identify genetic involvement in behavioral phenotypes. To explore some of the potential genetic underpinnings of ADHD inattention, we examined common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex of SHR/NCrl, the most validated animal model of ADHD and WKY/NCrl, animal model of ADHD-inattentive type. In contrast with Wistar rats, strain representing the "normal" heterogeneous population, SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl showed inattention behavior in the Y-maze task. The common DEGs in the PFC of SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl vs. Wistar rats are those involved in transcription (e.g. Creg1, Thrsp, Zeb2), synaptic transmission (e.g. Atp2b2, Syt12, Chrna5), neurological system process (e.g. Atg7, Cacnb4, Grin3a), and immune response (e.g. Atg7, Ip6k2, Mx2). qRT-PCR analyses validated expression patterns of genes representing the major functional gene families among the DEGs (Grin3a, Thrsp, Vof-16 and Zeb2). Although further studies are warranted, the present findings indicate novel genes associated with known functional pathways of relevance to ADHD which are assumed to play important roles in the etiology of ADHD-inattentive subtype. PMID:26048425

  9. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  10. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m−2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (−14.4% vs −26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (−14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs −4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least

  11. Cultural accommodation of group substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents: Results of an RCT.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. PMID:25602465

  12. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:17514448

  13. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  14. School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  16. Treatment for Adolescents Following a Suicide Attempt: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…

  17. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  18. Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

  19. How Much Control Do Children and Adolescents Have over Genomic Testing, Parental Access to Their Results, and Parental Communication of Those Results to Others?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may often have opinions about whether they want genetic and genomic testing in both the clinic and research and about who should have access to the results. This legal analysis demonstrates that the law provides very little protection to minors' wishes. PMID:26479563

  20. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  1. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

  2. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  3. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender) were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females) reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females) reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001). Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use), and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence". PMID:19939261

  4. Adolescent perspectives on the return of individual results in genomic addiction research.

    PubMed

    Coors, Marilyn E; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Hopfer, Christian J; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K

    2015-06-01

    This study surveyed all adolescents who were enrolled in behavioral genomic research and provided DNA to a biobank, including 320 patients undergoing treatment for substance and conduct problems (SCPs) and 109 non-SCP controls. Participants selected from three options on the return of individual genomic results (RIR) and rated eight methods of re-contact. Most individuals with SCPs (77.8%) and non-SCP controls (72.5%) wanted RIR involving health or behavioral implications. The majority of individuals with SCPs (67.2%) and non-SCP controls (69.7%) indicated that phone re-contact was 'best', with e-mail (22.5% SCPs, 33.9% non-SCPs) and social networking websites (21.3% SCPs, 20.2% non-SCPs) being viable options. These results suggest a layered approach for RIR: phone calls, followed by e-mails and a secure message to a social networking account. Data from this special and vulnerable population, which includes youth involved in the criminal justice system and substantial minority participation, bring an essential and missing perspective to the discussion of RIR. PMID:25748091

  5. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  6. The Efficacy of Two Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatments and the Impact of Comorbid Depression: Results of a Small Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Muir, Joan; McCabe, Brian E.; Abalo, Clara; Cummings, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this randomized trial was to investigate the efficacy of two behavioral treatments focusing on different change mechanisms in ameliorating a borderline personality disorder constellation of behaviors and substance use in adolescents referred by juvenile diversion programs. Methods Forty adolescents 14 to 17 years of age and meeting DSM IV criteria for borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders were randomized to Integrative Borderline Personality Disorder-Oriented Adolescent Family Therapy (I-BAFT) or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). This design allowed a comparison of two manualized interventions, one family-based and one individually-oriented. Profiles of clinical change were used to detect impact and to estimate treatment effect sizes. Results Primary analyses showed that both interventions had a clinically significant impact on borderline personality disorder behaviors 12 months after baseline but with no differential treatment effects. The impact on substance use was more complex. Subgroup analyses revealed that adolescents with depression had significantly more severe profiles of borderline personality disorder and substance use. These youth were the only group to show reductions in substance use, but only if they received the I-BAFT intervention. Study data also documented the high dosage of intensive residential treatment needed by this population. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Results highlight the intensive treatment needs of juvenile justice involved youth with co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorder including depression, the hybrid outpatient and residential treatment often required by this population, and the promise of a family oriented approach particularly for youth with severe symptoms and co-occurring depression. PMID:25799306

  7. Late Results after Repair of Partial Atrioventricular Septal Defect in Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, László; Szántó, György; Kassai, Imre; Lengyel, Mária

    1992-01-01

    . The rate of freedom from reoperation was 77.7% ± 25.9%. We conclude that, in adolescents and adults, correction of a partial atrioventricular septal defect entails little risk and is likely to improve the patient's functional status. Repair of the left atrioventricular valve yields good results, even at long-term follow-up. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:265-9) PMID:15227452

  8. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  9. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. PMID:26825591

  10. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Risk Determinants Among Sexually Active Adolescent Males: Results From a School-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosario, Margaret; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in risk determinants and risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between gay-identified, bisexual-identified, and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with women (YMSW) using a school-based sample of US sexually active adolescent males. Methods. We analyzed a pooled data set of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2005 and 2007 that included information on sexual orientation identity, sexual behaviors, and multiple STI risk factors. Results. Bisexual-identified adolescents were more likely to report multiple STI risk behaviors (number of sex partners, concurrent sex partners, and age of sexual debut) compared with heterosexual YMSW as well as heterosexual YMSM and gay-identified respondents. Gay, bisexual, and heterosexual YMSM were significantly more likely to report forced sex compared with heterosexual YMSW. Conclusions. Our results provide evidence that sexual health disparities emerge early in the life course and vary by both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. In particular, they show that bisexual-identified adolescent males exhibit a unique risk profile that warrants targeted sexual health interventions. PMID:24825214

  11. Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  12. Parental resolution and the adolescent's health and adjustment: The case of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alon; Wiseman, Hadas

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the association between parents' resolution of their adolescent child's diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and the health and mental adjustment of the adolescents themselves. Parents of 75 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were interviewed using the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires regarding the child's physical health, self-management of the disease, and behavioral and emotional problems. Physicians reported adolescents' HbA1c levels. Results showed that adolescents whose fathers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited better diabetes self-management and adolescents whose mothers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlight the different role of mothers and fathers in the treatment of adolescents with diabetes and provide a basis for clinical intervention that focuses not only on adolescent health, but also on parental state of mind regarding the resolution with the disease. PMID:26684497

  13. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  14. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  15. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  16. Brief Strategic Family Therapy Versus Treatment as Usual: Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial for Substance Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Michael S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, Kathleen A.; Hodgkins, Candy; Carrion, Ibis; Vandermark, Nancy; Schindler, Eric; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. Method A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to TAU with a multiethnic sample of adolescents (213 Hispanic, 148 White, and 110 Black) referred for drug abuse treatment at 8 community treatment agencies nationwide. Randomization encompassed both adolescents’ families (n = 480) and the agency therapists (n = 49) who provided either TAU or BSFT services. The primary outcome was adolescent drug use, assessed monthly via adolescent self-report and urinalysis for up to 1 year post randomization. Secondary outcomes included treatment engagement (≥2 sessions), retention (≥8 sessions), and participants’ reports of family functioning 4, 8, and 12 months following randomization. Results No overall differences between conditions were observed in the trajectories of self-reports of adolescent drug use. However, the median number of days of self-reported drug use was significantly higher, χ2(1) = 5.40, p < .02, in TAU (Mdn = 3.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 11) than BSFT (Mdn = 2, IQR = 9) at the final observation point. BSFT was significantly more effective than TAU in engaging, χ2(1) = 11.33, p < .001, and retaining, χ2(1) = 5.66, p < .02, family members in treatment and in improving parent reports of family functioning, χ2(2) = 9.10, p < .011. Conclusions We discuss challenges in treatment implementation in community settings and provide recommendations for further research. PMID:21967492

  17. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents’ engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Methods Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15–17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. Results German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001) but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10–30% and team sports 30–50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001). Conclusion Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels. PMID:26291984

  18. Disclosing Unwanted Sexual Experiences: Results from a National Sample of Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study are to identify factors that influence the disclosures made by female survivors of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in childhood and adolescence. The predictors of both the timing of disclosure (short delay, long delay, non-disclosure) and the recipient of the disclosure (disclosing ever to an adult, disclosing…

  19. Visual Arts for Emotionally Handicapped Early Adolescents Theory and Resultant Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Roscoe, Jr.

    The paper discusses the theory and implementation guidelines of a visual arts curriculum for emotionally handicapped adolescents. The author stresses the importance of expressive arts and of identification with the art experience, and suggests that a curriculum should start with themes, experiences, and ideas worth communicating. Expressive…

  20. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:27299764

  1. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  2. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  3. Teen Pregnancy: Not Simply a Result of Adolescent Ignorance. and Poor and at Risk for Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomer, Susan; Roesel, Rosalyn

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles on teen pregnancy. Newcomer describes why pregnancy prevention programs do not always work and tells what must be done to make them more effective. She also discusses curriculum content. Roesel describes a program to serve adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy. (CH)

  4. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly-changing phenomenon, requiring frequent assessments and reassessments. Since the mid-1960s it has remained a major concern for the nation. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How…

  5. Adolescent Struggling Readers in Urban Schools: Results of a Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.; Hock, Michael F.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Deshler, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, our goal was to identify unique clusters of Adolescent Struggling Readers (ASRs) and examine the reading skill profiles each cluster presented. We assessed 319 students attending urban schools on three standardized measures of reading comprehension and eight standardized measures of component skills, including vocabulary, listening…

  6. The biosocial correlates of neuropsychological deficits: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Higgins, George E

    2010-12-01

    A body of empirical research has revealed that neuropsychological functioning is one of the most consistent predictors of antisocial behavior. It is somewhat surprising however that criminological research has been slow to examine the different factors that are implicated in the development of neuropsychological deficits. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects that a number of social and biological variables have on neuropsychological functioning. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicates that postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke, duration of breastfeeding, maternal involvement, and household income predicts variation in adolescent and adulthood levels of neuropsychological functioning. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed. PMID:19741153

  7. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0–8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.26 (1.05–1.51), 1.06 (1.00–1.11) and 1.27 (1.14–1.42), respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of obesity (with 7.0–8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.24 (0.97–1.57), 0.94 (0.87–1.01) and 1.42 (1.24–1.63), respectively. Continuous splines regressions support non-linear U shape associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0–8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p < 0.01; obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p < 0.01). U-shape associations were found between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0–8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity. PMID:26568253

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents in Guyana: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicidal behaviour is a neglected public health issue especially in middle- and low-income countries. Informed policy decision-making on suicidal behaviour will need reliable information on the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation which is a determinant of suicidal behaviour. Methods We estimated the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2004 in Guyana. Results Of the 1197 respondents, 18.4% (14.9% males and 21.6% females)reported having seriously considered committing suicide in the last12 months. Males were less likely to seriously consider committingsuicide than females (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.30, 0.67]). Subjects whoreported having been bullied were more than twice as likely tocontemplate committing suicide as those who had not been bullied (OR = 2.46 [1.71, 3.54]). History of depression was positivelyassociated with suicidal ideation (OR = 2.67; 95% [1.87, 3.81] whilehaving close friends and understanding parents were negativelyassociated with suicide ideation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI [0.28, 0.94] and OR = 0.51; 95% CI [0.35, 0.76] respectively). Conclusion Suicidal ideation is a significant public health issue among in-school adolescents in Guyana that requires attention. The design, implementation and evaluation of suicidal behaviour interventions should incorporate our knowledge of these associated factors. PMID:17716374

  9. Parental acceptance and illegal drug use among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Yolanda C; Crisp, Catherine; Rew, Donna Lynn

    2010-07-01

    Although gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents face many of the same developmental challenges as do heterosexual adolescents, they must also deal with the stress of being part of a stigmatized group. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which family support and involvement with the queer community may buffer the effects of life stress on substance use among GLB youths. Drawing on a large national online survey, the authors examined drug use in 1906 GLB youths 12 to 17 years of age. Overall, 20 percent of the youths reported using illegal substances in the past 30 days. Results from multivariate analyses revealed that stress, as measured by suicidal ideation, significantly increased the risk of drug use. A positive reaction from the mother to the youth's coming out served as a significant protective factor, whereas involvement in a queer youth group had no effect. The authors found evidence that, for GLB adolescents, parental acceptance of sexual identity is an important aspect of a strong family relationship and, thus, has important ramifications for their healthy development. Implications of the findings for social work practice are discussed. PMID:20632661

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  11. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  12. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  13. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  14. Does Welfare Affect Family Processes and Adolescent Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated parenting behavior, parent/adolescent relationship, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Results showed minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behavior, although mothers receiving welfare reported fewer effective parent-management…

  15. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  16. A Novel Behavioral Intervention in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Improves Glycemic Control: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maranda, Louise; Lau, May; Stewart, Sunita M; Gupta, Olga T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop and pilot an innovative behavioral intervention in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incorporating structured care of a pet to improve glycemic control. Methods Twenty-eight adolescents with A1C > 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (care of a Betta splendens pet fish) or the control group (usual care). Adolescents in the intervention group were given instructions to associate daily and weekly fish care duties with diabetes self-management tasks including blood glucose testing and parent-adolescent communication. Results After 3 months the participants in the intervention group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels (−0.5%) compared to their peers in the control group who had an increase in A1C levels (0.8%)(p = 0.04). The younger adolescents (ages 10–13) demonstrated a greater response to the intervention which was statistically significant (−1.5% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.04) compared with the older adolescents (ages 14–17). Conclusions Structured care of a pet fish can improve glycemic control in adolescents with T1DM, likely by providing cues to perform diabetes self-management behaviors. PMID:25614529

  17. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  18. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  19. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  20. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    PubMed

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications. PMID:26759131

  1. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities. PMID:24950833

  2. Reducing Smoking in Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness Results From the Cluster Randomized ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Hawkins, James; Hughes, Rachael A.; Moore, Laurence A. R.; Holliday, Jo C.; Audrey, Suzanne; Starkey, Fenella; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: School-based smoking prevention programmes can be effective, but evidence on cost-effectiveness is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a school-based “peer-led” intervention. Methods: We evaluated the ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial) programme in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The ASSIST programme trained students to act as peer supporters during informal interactions to encourage their peers not to smoke. Fifty-nine secondary schools in England and Wales were randomized to receive the ASSIST programme or usual smoking education. Ten thousand seven hundred and thirty students aged 12–13 years attended participating schools. Previous work has demonstrated that the ASSIST programme achieved a 2.1% (95% CI = 0%–4.2%) reduction in smoking prevalence. We evaluated the public sector cost, prevalence of weekly smoking, and cost per additional student not smoking at 24 months. Results: The ASSIST programme cost of £32 (95% CI = £29.70–£33.80) per student. The incremental cost per student not smoking at 2 years was £1,500 (95% CI = £669–£9,947). Students in intervention schools were less likely to believe that they would be a smoker at age 16 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.66–0.96). Conclusions: A peer-led intervention reduced smoking among adolescents at a modest cost. The intervention is cost-effective under realistic assumptions regarding the extent to which reductions in adolescent smoking lead to lower smoking prevalence and/or earlier smoking cessation in adulthood. The annual cost of extending the intervention to Year 8 students in all U.K. schools would be in the region of £38 million and could result in 20,400 fewer adolescent smokers. PMID:22180581

  3. Autonomous thyroid nodules in adolescents: clinical characteristics and results of TRH testing

    SciTech Connect

    Osburne, R.C.; Goren, E.N.; Bybee, D.E.; Johnsonbaugh, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    Seven adolescents with autonomous thyroid nodules were evaluated over a three-year period. They had hyperfunctioning nodules on radionuclide scan which failed to suppress with exogenous administration of thyroid hormone. They were clinically euthyroid and had normal T4, free T4, and basal TSH values. However, as a group they had elevated total serum T3 concentrations, blunted TSH response to TRH, and accelerated closure of cranial sutures, all of which suggested subtle hyperthyroidism. These patients have been followed for one to five years. Four have undergone partial thyroidectomy because of persistent elevation in the serum T3 concentration or enlargement of the nodule. The clinical presentation and laboratory findings in this group are similar to those found in adults with autonomous nodules.

  4. [Medical and inpatient care in childhood and adolescence : Representative results of the federal state module Thuringia in KiGGS wave 1].

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Anding, Christine; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    At a young age, health care is mainly provided by doctors in private practice. In this study, the health care of children and adolescents in Thuringia is analysed. Data base is the federal state module Thuringia (2010-2012, n = 4884; 0-17 years), which was conducted by the Robert Koch Institute as part of KiGGS wave 1 (2009-2012). The health care of children and adolescents is described based on 7 indicators: total medical visits, paediatrician visits, general practitioner visits, hospitalisation, health screening examinations and vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevalence and mean values with 95 % confidence intervals were reported, and with logistic and linear regressions, the significance of the group differences was examined. Results show that 93.9 % of children and adolescents aged 0-17 years in Thuringia went in the last 12 months to doctors in private practice; the average number of doctor visits was 6.6 contacts. 75.1 % of 0‑ to 17-year-olds were treated by a paediatrician, and 29.9 % visited a general practitioner. In addition, 13.1 % of 0‑ to 17-year-olds in Thuringia have spent at least one night in hospital in the last 12 months; the average number of hospital nights was 7.2. With 90.5 %, the majority of the children aged 7-13 years completed the health screening program for children (U3-U9, without U7a). 67.5 % of the 14- to 17-year-old girls were vaccinated against HPV with at least one dose (lifetime prevalence), and 56.3 % have received a full vaccination with 3 doses. In addition, 62.0 % of 14- to 17-year-old girls went at least once to a gynaecologist. There are significant differences by gender, age, socio-economic status and place of residence (urban/rural). In summation, the results indicate a high utilisation rate by children and adolescents in Thuringia. Additionally, the findings point out prevention potentials such as the vaccination against HPV. PMID:27349948

  5. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  6. Adolescent Sleep Patterns and Night-Time Technology Use: Results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Big Sleep Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Amanda L.; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Williams, Shaun; Bin, Yu Sun; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios) in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. Methods Adolescents aged 11–17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female) completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. Results Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR  = 3.75: 99% CI  = 2.17–6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22–4.30) and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14–6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70–6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30–4.14), and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25–3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33–4.02) and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21–3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33–4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18–3.55). Only ‘almost every night’ computer use (: 2.43: 1.45–4.08) was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only ‘almost every night’ cellphone use (2.23: 1.26–3.94) was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends). Conclusions Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes. PMID:25390034

  7. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  8. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. Methods We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. Results In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Conclusion Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. Impact The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk. PMID:21327460

  9. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  10. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V.; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L.; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. Methods and Findings A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. Conclusions VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population. PMID:26938639

  11. The mediating effect of childhood abuse in sexual orientation disparities in tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence: results from the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.; Jackson, Benita; Spiegelman, Donna; Pazaris, Mathew J.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the mediating effect of childhood abuse on sexual orientation disparities in tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence. Methods We carried out analyses with data from over 62,000 women in the ongoing Nurses’ Health Study II cohort who provided information on sexual orientation, childhood abuse occurring by age 11, and tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence. We used multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders, to estimate the mediating effect of childhood abuse on the association between sexual orientation and tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence. Results Lesbian and bisexual orientation and childhood abuse were positively associated with greater risk of tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence. For lesbians, the estimated proportion of excess tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence relative to use among heterosexual women that was mediated by abuse in childhood ranged from 7 to 18%; for bisexual women, the estimated proportion of excess use mediated by abuse ranged from 6 to 13%. Conclusions Elevated childhood abuse in lesbian and bisexual women partially mediated excess tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence relative to heterosexual women. Interventions to prevent child abuse may reduce sexual orientation disparities in some of the leading causes of cancer in women. PMID:20640883

  12. Counsellors' Perceptions of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions Israeli secondary-school counselors have of adolescence. Results reveal that, in general, counselors have a favorable view of adolescents and do not perceive adolescence as a "difficult stage." Counselors also believe that they are perceived positively by their adolescent students. Identifies five types of adolescents…

  13. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  14. Patch test results in children and adolescents. Study from the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Dermatology Clinic, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing is an efficient method to identify the allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the results of patch tests in children and adolescents comparing these two age groups' results. METHODS Cross-sectional study to assess patch test results of 125 children and adolescents aged 1-19 years, with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, in a dermatology clinic in Brazil. Two Brazilian standardized series were used. RESULTS Seventy four (59.2%) patients had "at least one positive reaction" to the patch test. Among these positive tests, 77.0% were deemed relevant. The most frequent allergens were nickel (36.8%), thimerosal (18.4%), tosylamide formaldehyde resin (6.8%), neomycin (6.4%), cobalt (4.0%) and fragrance mix I (4.0%). The most frequent positive tests came from adolescents (p=0.0014) and females (p=0.0002). There was no relevant statistical difference concerning contact sensitizations among patients with or without atopic history. However, there were significant differences regarding sensitization to nickel (p=0.029) and thimerosal (p=0.042) between the two age groups under study, while adolescents were the most affected. CONCLUSION Nickel and fragrances were the only positive (and relevant) allergens in children. Nickel and tosylamide formaldehyde resin were the most frequent and relevant allergens among adolescents. PMID:26560213

  15. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  16. Impact of tobacco advertisements on tobacco use among urban adolescents in India: results from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Reddy, K Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the longitudinal relationship between exposure and receptivity to tobacco advertisements and progression towards tobacco use among adolescents in India. Design and setting A 2-year longitudinal group-randomised trial, Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives (MYTRI), was undertaken from 2004 to 2006 in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai. Among the control schools (n=16), mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the objectives. Subjects Students who were non-susceptible, never users of tobacco (n=2782) at baseline (2004) in the control schools of Project MYTRI, who progressed academically and were followed up at endline (2006). Main outcome measures Progression towards tobacco use (on tobacco uptake continuum). Results Bivariate results suggest that exposure to tobacco advertisements at baseline was associated in a dose-dependent manner with progression at endline. Students exposed at more than four places were 1.5 times (95% CI 1.12 to 1.94; p<0.05) more likely to progress towards tobacco use at endline versus those not exposed. Among boys, those exposed at more than four places were 1.7 times more likely to progress (95% CI 1.14 to 2.62; p<0.05). These significant results disappeared in multivariate analysis, when other psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use were controlled. In both bivariate and multivariate analyses, the risk of progression at endline was more than two times higher (95% CI 1.28 to 4.32; p<0.05) among boys who were highly receptive versus non-receptive boys. The same relationship did not hold among girls. Conclusion High receptivity to tobacco advertising predicts future progression to tobacco use among boys in India. Suggestive evidence exists of a causal relationship between tobacco marketing and adolescent tobacco use. PMID:21803927

  17. Use of frameless intrauterine devices and systems in young nulliparous and adolescent women: results of a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Jandi, Sohela; Pett, Ansgar; Nolte, Kilian; Hasskamp, Thomas; Vrijens, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to provide additional data on the experience with frameless copper and levonorgestrel (LNG) intrauterine devices (IUDs) in nulliparous and adolescent women. Methods Nulliparous and adolescent women, 25 years of age or younger, using the frameless copper IUD or the frameless LNG-releasing intrauterine system (IUS), were selected from previous studies and a current multicenter post-marketing study with the frameless copper IUD. The small copper-releasing GyneFix® 200 IUD consists of four copper cylinders, each 5 mm long and only 2.2 mm wide. The frameless FibroPlant® LNG-IUS consists of a fibrous delivery system releasing the hormone levonorgestrel (LNG-IUS). The main features of these intrauterine contraceptives are that they are frameless, flexible, and anchored to the fundus of the uterus. Results One hundred and fifty-four nulliparous and adolescent women participated in the combined study. One pregnancy occurred with the GyneFix 200 IUD after unnoticed early expulsion of the device (cumulative pregnancy rate 1.1 at one year). Two further expulsions were reported, one with the GyneFix 200 IUD and the other with the FibroPlant LNG-IUS. The cumulative expulsion rate at one year was 1.1 with the copper IUD and 2.2 with the LNG-IUS. The total discontinuation rate at one year was low (3.3 and 4.3 with the copper IUD and LNG-IUS, respectively) and resulted in a high rate of continuation of use at one year (96.7 with the copper IUD and 95.7 with the LNG-IUS, respectively). Continuation rates for both frameless copper IUD and frameless LNG-IUS remained high at 3 years (>90%). There were no cases of perforations or pelvic inflammatory disease reported during or following insertion. Conclusion This report confirms earlier studies with frameless devices and suggests that the high user continuation rate is attributable to the optimal relationship between the IUD and the uterine cavity. IUD studies have shown that an IUD that does

  18. Preventing Multiple Risky Behaviors among Adolescents: Seven Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Andrews, Kristine M.; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Taking risks is fairly common in adolescence. Risky behaviors can be associated with serious, long-term, and--in some cases--life-threatening consequences. This is especially the case when adolescents engage in more than one harmful behavior. The tendency for risky behaviors to co-occur has been well-studied. Yet prevention efforts traditionally…

  19. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  20. Parental Acceptance and Illegal Drug Use among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Crisp, Catherine; Rew, Donna Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Although gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents face many of the same developmental challenges as do heterosexual adolescents, they must also deal with the stress of being part of a stigmatized group. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which family support and involvement with the queer community may buffer the effects of…

  1. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  2. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  3. Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results of the 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)

    SciTech Connect

    Boelling, Tobias; Geisenheiser, Alina; Pape, Hildegard; Martini, Carmen; Ruebe, Christian; Fischedick, Karin; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Gerss, Joachim; Koch, Raphael; Willich, Normann

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK) has been established to prospectively characterize dose-volume effects of radiation in terms of side effects. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the function of the thyroid gland after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck region in children and adolescents. Methods and Materials: Detailed information regarding radiation doses to at-risk organs has been collected across Germany since 2001. Thyroid function was evaluated by blood value examinations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Information regarding thyroid hormone substitution was requested from the treating physicians. Results: Until May 2009, 1,086 patients from 62 centers were recruited, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiotherapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio of 3.072 (p = 0.002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had hazard ratios of 3.768 (p = 0.009) and 5.674 (p < 0.001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of thyroid hormone substitution therapy did not differ between defined subgroups. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid function impairment, including damage to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis, can frequently be observed after radiotherapy in children. A structured follow-up examination is advised.

  4. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  5. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266

  6. Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…

  7. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  8. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123…

  9. Flow-mediated dilatation, using time course data, shows maturation of the brachial artery from young children to mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anna; Pamula, Yvonne; Martin, James; Gent, Roger; Lushington, Kurt; Baumert, Mathias; Willoughby, Scott; Richardson, Malcolm; Couper, Jennifer; Kennedy, Declan

    2015-03-01

    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a tool widely used to measure arterial responsiveness to sheer stress. However, there is scant literature to show how the peripheral arterial response changes as the vascular system matures. One reason for this is that the feasibility of measuring FMD in younger children has not been established. The aim of the present study was to assess brachial artery function at rest and during the FMD response after 4 min ischaemia of the forearm in children aged 6-15 years. Time to reach maximum FMD (FMDmax ) was found to be correlated with age (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), resting brachial artery diameter (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), height (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI; r = 0.45, P < 0.05), body surface area (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and resting blood flow (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). However, there was no correlation between the traditional FMD response at 60 s or FMD maximal dilation and age, resting brachial artery diameter, height, weight, BMI, body surface area and resting blood flow. In conclusion, the time taken to reach the maximal dilation response is related to age, brachial artery luminal diameter and body habitus, but not the traditional measure of FMD response at 60 s or the maximal dilatation percentage. PMID:25491271

  10. Effect of savings-led economic empowerment on HIV preventive practices among orphaned adolescents in rural Uganda: results from the Suubi-Maka randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Improving economic resources of impoverished youth may alter intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors by motivating positive future planning to avoid HIV risk and by altering economic contexts contributing to HIV risk. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of economic-strengthening on economic and sexual behaviors of orphaned youth, despite high poverty and high HIV infection in this population. Hierarchal longitudinal regressions were used to examine the effect of a savings-led economic empowerment intervention, the Suubi-Maka Project, on changes in orphaned adolescents' cash savings and attitudes toward savings and HIV-preventive practices over time. We randomized 346 Ugandan adolescents, aged 10-17 years, to either the control group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring (n = 167) or the intervention group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring, financial education, and matched savings accounts (n = 179). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results indicated that intervention adolescents significantly increased their cash savings over time (b = $US12.32, ±1.12, p < .001) compared to adolescents in the control group. At 24 months post-baseline, 92% of intervention adolescents had accumulated savings compared to 43% in the control group (p < .001). The largest changes in savings goals were the proportion of intervention adolescents valuing saving for money to buy a home (ΔT1-T0 = +14.9, p < .001), pursue vocational training (ΔT1-T0 = +8.8, p < .01), and start a business (T1-T0 = +6.7, p < .01). Intervention adolescents also had a significant relative increase over time in HIV-preventive attitudinal scores (b = +0.19, ±0.09, p < .05), most commonly toward perceived risk of HIV (95.8%, n = 159), sexual abstinence or postponement (91.6%, n = 152), and consistent condom use (93.4%, n = 144). In addition, intervention adolescents had 2.017 significantly greater

  11. The SHAZ! Project: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial of a Structural Intervention to Prevent HIV among Adolescent Women in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Lambdin, Barrot; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Nhamo, Definate; Padian, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent females in Zimbabwe are at high risk for HIV acquisition. Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ!) was a randomized controlled trial of a combined intervention package including life-skills and health education, vocational training, micro-grants and social supports compared to life-skills and health education alone. SHAZ! was originally envisioned as a larger effectiveness trial, however, the intervention was scaled back due to contextual and economic conditions in the country at the time. SHAZ! enrolled 315 participants randomly assigned to study arm within blocks of 50 participants (158 intervention and 157 control). The intervention arm participants showed statistically significant differences from the control arm participants for several outcomes during the two years of follow up including; reduced food insecurity [IOR = 0.83 vs. COR = 0.68, p-0.02], and having their own income [IOR = 2.05 vs. COR = 1.67, p = 0.02]. Additionally, within the Intervention arm there was a lower risk of transactional sex [IOR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83)], and a higher likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62)] over time compared to baseline. There was also evidence of fewer unintended pregnancies among intervention participants [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.37, 1.01)], although this relationship achieved only marginal statistical significance. Several important challenges in this study included the coordination with vocational training programs, the political and economic instability of the area at the time of the study, and the difficulty in creating a true standard of care control arm. Overall the results of the SHAZ! study suggest important potential for HIV prevention intervention packages that include vocational training and micro-grants, and lessons for further economic livelihoods interventions with adolescent females. Further work is needed to refine the intervention model, and

  12. Association Between Sleep Problems and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence: Results From a Large Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Lundervold, Astri J; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems and symptoms of ADHD are common in adolescence, but detailed epidemiological assessment of their association is lacking. Using data from a recent population-based study, 9,846 adolescents aged 16 to 19 provided detailed information on sleep and symptoms of ADHD. Results confirmed a large overlap between self-reported symptoms of ADHD and all sleep variables studied. Symptoms of ADHD were linked to shorter sleep duration, longer sleep latency, and nocturnal wake time, as well as larger sleep deficiency. ADHD symptoms also increased the odds of insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. The associations were only partially explained by confounders (mainly depression). The findings suggest that sleep problems should be included as a treatment target in efforts to reduce symptoms of ADHD in adolescence. PMID:26503122

  13. Altered developmental trajectories for impulsivity and sensation seeking among adolescent substance users.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n=117) and did not (n=269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  14. Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11–17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004–2005 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  15. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  16. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  17. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This publication presents an overview of the 2000 survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular emphasis on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also shows trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which this study has shown to be particularly important…

  18. Ziprasidone in Adolescents with Schizophrenia: Results from a Placebo-Controlled Efficacy and Long-Term Open-Extension Study

    PubMed Central

    Çavuş, Idil; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Vanderburg, Douglas G.; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Gundapaneni, Balarama K.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ziprasidone in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods Subjects ages 13–17 years with schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. [DSM-IV]) were enrolled in a 6 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial (RCT) followed by a 26 week open-label extension study (OLE). Subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to flexible-dose oral ziprasidone (40–160 mg/day, based on weight) or placebo. Primary end-point was change from baseline in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale–Anchored (BPRS-A) total score. Safety assessments included adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measures, electrocardiograms, weight and body mass index, and movement disorder ratings. Results Planned interim analysis for the primary end-point in the RCT resulted in early termination of both studies because of futility. In the RCT, 283 subjects received ziprasidone (n=193) or placebo (n=90). In the intent-to-treat analysis population, the least squares mean (SE) BPRS–A score decrease from baseline at week 6 was not significantly different (p=0.15; −14.16 [0.78] for ziprasidone and −12.35 [1.05] for placebo). Per-protocol analysis was significant (p=0.02). In the OLE, 221 subjects entered the OLE and received ziprasidone for a median of 99 days. The mean (SD) change in BPRS-A score from end of RCT to end of OLE (last observation carried forward) was −6.9 (8.9). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (≥10%) for all causalities during the RCT were somnolence and extrapyramidal disorders, and during OLE was somnolence only. No subjects had Fridericia's corrected QT (QTcF) ≥500 ms in the RCT or OLE phases. One completed suicide occurred during the OLE phase. For RCT and OLE, no clinically significant changes were reported in metabolic indices and laboratory measures

  19. Adolescent HIV Risk Reduction in the Bahamas: Results from Two Randomized Controlled Intervention Trials Spanning Elementary School Through High School.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Li, Xiaoming; Rolle, Glenda; Brathwaite, Nanika; Marshall, Sharon; Gomez, Perez

    2016-06-01

    To address global questions regarding the timing of HIV-prevention efforts targeting youth and the possible additional benefits of parental participation, researchers from the USA and The Bahamas conducted two sequential longitudinal, randomized trials of an evidence-based intervention spanning the adolescent years. The first trial involved 1360 grade-6 students and their parents with three years of follow-up and the second 2564 grade-10 students and their parents with two years of follow-up. Through grade-12, involvement in the combined child and parent-child HIV-risk reduction interventions resulted in increased consistent condom-use, abstinence/protected sex, condom-use skills and parent-child communication about sex. Receipt of the grade-6 HIV-prevention intervention conferred lasting benefits regarding condom-use skills and self-efficacy. Youth who had not received the grade-six intervention experienced significantly greater improvement over baseline as a result of the grade-10 intervention. The HIV-risk reduction intervention delivered in either or both grade-6 and grade-10 conferred sustained benefits; receipt of both interventions appears to confer additional benefits. PMID:26499123

  20. Tuberculosis Infection in Urban Adolescents: Results of a School-Based Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, M. Anita; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a tuberculosis skin testing program introduced for seventh and tenth grade students in Boston (Massachusetts) public schools. Positivity rate was significantly higher in tenth grade students. Among those testing positive, the majority were born outside the United States. Results suggest that testing may identify a significant number of…

  1. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  2. School-Based Approaches to Affect Adolescents' Diets: Results from the TEENS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Varnell, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) study, a 2-year intervention study conducted in 16 middle schools with a goal of increasing students' intakes of fruits, vegetables, and lower fat foods. Despite positive interim results for students randomized to intervention schools, the positive…

  3. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  4. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  5. Everyday Memory and Working Memory in Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…

  6. Effects of Economic Hardship on Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Family Mediation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Camilla S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of 387 Midwestern families. Results showed that economic hardship negatively affected adolescent self-esteem and that this effect was primarily mediated through the parent-adolescent relationship. Supports other findings that…

  7. A Drug and Alcohol Aftercare Service: Linking Adolescents, Families and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Toca, Olivia A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes first-year service process and implementation evaluation of aftercare service for adolescents who had completed drug and alcohol treatment programs. Results showed that aftercare service, developed cooperatively by schools and community agencies to support and link adolescents, parents, and schools during adolescents' recovery, helped…

  8. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  9. Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based self-reported data on off-label medicine use independent from health care provisions are lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate off-label medicine use in children and adolescents in Germany in a non-clinical setting and to identify prevalence, determinants and spectrum of off-label medicine use. Methods Data were obtained from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (2003–2006). 17,450 randomly selected children aged 0–17 years took part in the drug interviews. Of those, 8,899 took at least one medicine during the 7 days preceding the interview. Off-label medicine use was defined as the discrepancy between actual use and the intended use described in the summary of product characteristics. Off-label medicine use was stratified into off-label indication, off-label age, off-label over-dosing, and off-label under-dosing. Results The prevalence rate of off-label medicine use among those who used medicines amount of is 40.2%. The prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys (41.4%), in children aged 3 to 6 years (48.7%), without migration background (40.9%), with high social status (42.5%), living in small (42.0%) and medium sized cities (41.6%), and with a poor parents rated health status (41.7%). 12,667 preparations (attributable in respect to off-label use) were taken by 8,899 children. 30% of the medicines have been used off-label. Off-label medicine use was highest in preparations of the ATC-class “C00 Cardiovascular System”. In all origins of medicine, all age groups and all ATC-classes under-dosing was the most frequent reason for off-label medicine use. Conclusions There is a considerable level of self-reported off-label medicines use in the general paediatric population. Further investigations are needed to examine in how far off-label medicine use is based on lack of knowledge or on empiricism in paediatric

  10. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments. PMID:26126688

  11. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  12. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  13. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  14. Adolescents' Fright Reactions to Television and Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne; Reilly, Sandra

    1982-01-01

    Results demonstrate that adolescents experience enduring fright reactions from scary television shows and films, yet their mothers are often unaware of their responses. Concludes that family communication about how and when a child is frightened is poor. (PD)

  15. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  16. Effectiveness of wraparound vs. case management for children and adolescents: Results of a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Eric J.; Pullmann, Michael D.; Sather, April; Brinson, Ramona Denby; Ramey, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared service experiences and outcomes for youths with serious emotional disorder (SED) randomly assigned to care coordination via a defined wraparound process (n = 47) versus more traditional intensive case management (ICM; n = 46) The wraparound group received more mean hours of care management and services; however, there ultimately were no group differences in restrictiveness of residential placement, emotional and behavioral symptoms, or functioning. Wraparound implementation fidelity was found to be poor. Organizational culture and climate, and worker morale, were poorer for the wraparound providers than the ICM group. Results suggest that, for less-impaired youths with SED, less intensive options such as ICM may be equally effective to poor-quality wraparound delivered in the absence of wraparound implementation supports and favorable system conditions. PMID:24973891

  17. Effectiveness of wraparound versus case management for children and adolescents: results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Eric J; Pullmann, Michael D; Sather, April; Denby Brinson, Ramona; Ramey, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we compared service experiences and outcomes for youths with serious emotional disorder (SED) randomly assigned to care coordination via a defined wraparound process (n = 47) versus more traditional intensive case management (ICM; n = 46) The wraparound group received more mean hours of care management and services; however, there ultimately were no group differences in restrictiveness of residential placement, emotional and behavioral symptoms, or functioning. Wraparound implementation fidelity was found to be poor. Organizational culture and climate, and worker morale, were poorer for the wraparound providers than the ICM group. Results suggest that, for less-impaired youths with SED, less intensive options such as ICM may be equally effective to poor-quality wraparound delivered in the absence of wraparound implementation supports and favorable system conditions. PMID:24973891

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of video game dependency in adolescence: results of a German nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Florian; Kleimann, Matthias; Mössle, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this article, results of a German nationwide survey (KFN schools survey 2007/2008) are presented. The controlled sample of 44,610 male and female ninth-graders was carried out in 2007 and 2008 by the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN). According to a newly developed screening instrument (KFN-CSAS-II), which was presented to every third juvenile participant (N = 15,168), 3% of the male and 0.3% of the female students are diagnosed as dependent on video games. The data indicate a clear dividing line between extensive gaming and video game dependency (VGD) as a clinically relevant phenomenon. VGD is accompanied by increased levels of psychological and social stress in the form of lower school achievement, increased truancy, reduced sleep time, limited leisure activities, and increased thoughts of committing suicide. In addition, it becomes evident that personal risk factors are crucial for VGD. The findings indicate the necessity of additional research as well as the respective measures in the field of health care policies. PMID:20557246

  19. Design of a Website on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Adolescents: Results From Formative Research

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The Internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Objective To collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly website promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Qualitative research, encompassing both focus group and interview techniques, were used to design the website. Participants were 12-17 year olds in Houston, Texas, and West Lafayette, Indiana. Results A total of 133 participants took part in 26 focus groups while 15 participated in one-on-one interviews to provide guidance for the development of teen-friendly content and structure for an online behavior change program promoting healthy eating and physical activity to 12-17 year olds. The youth made suggestions to overcome common barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Their feedback was used to develop “Teen Choice: Food & Fitness,” a 12-week online behavior change program, populated by 4 cartoon character role models. Conclusions It is critical that members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant, appealing, and address their needs and interests. PMID:22538427

  20. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS. PMID:25877214

  1. Subjective well-being in Finnish adolescents experiencing family violence.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija

    2012-05-01

    This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937

  2. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  3. Polymorphism of ABCB1/MDR1 C3435T in Children and Adolescents with Partial Epilepsy is due to Different Criteria for Drug Resistance – Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Emich-Widera, Ewa; Likus, Wirginia; Kazek, Beata; Sieroń, Aleksander L.; Urbanek, Ksymena

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of “drug resistance” in epilepsy can be defined and interpreted in various ways. This may be due to discrepant definitions of drug resistance to pharmacotherapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene and drug resistance in epilepsy with the consideration of 4 different criteria for qualification to groups sensitive and resistant to applied pharmacotherapy. Material/Methods Evaluation of C3435T polymorphism of MDR1/ABCB1 gene was conducted on a group of 82 white children and young adolescents up to 18 years old. While qualifying the patients to the group of sensitive or drug resistant, the following 4 definitions of drug resistance were applied: the ILAE’s, Appleton’s, Siddiqui’s, and Berg’s. Results A detailed analysis of genotypes of the MDR1 gene did not show any significant discrepancies between the groups of patients resistant and sensitive to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in 4 consecutive comparisons taking into consideration various criteria of sensitivity and resistance to pharmacotherapy. Conclusions The obtained results clearly confirm the lack of a connection between the occurrence of drug-resistant epilepsy and C435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene irrespective of the definition of drug resistance applied to the patient. PMID:25223475

  4. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  5. The impact of acne vulgaris on quality of life and psychic health in young adolescents in Greece. Results of a population survey*

    PubMed Central

    Tasoula, Eleni; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Chalikias, John; Lazarou, Dimitris; Danopoulou, Ifigenia; Katsambas, Andreas; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris can severely affect social and psychological functioning. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acne vulgaris and its severity on Quality of Life of young adolescents in Greece. METHODS We conducted a questionnaire based survey among 1560 adolescent between the ages of 11 and 19 years old and 1531 of these were completed. Adolescents with acne filled all the questions including the Children Dermatology Life Quality Index. Adolescents without acne filled the questions about age, family history of acne, stress and smoking. Data were analyzed with Pearson Chi Square test. RESULTS Acne prevalence was 51.2% affecting both sexes equally. Self reported mild acne was present in 71.2% and moderate-severe acne in 28.8% of the study population. The mean age of the study population was 15.77y. The median score of Children Dermatology Life Quality Index was 4.02. The impact of acne on quality of life is associated with the severity of the acne (p<0.0001). Patients with moderate/severe acne experience greater psychosocial and emotional impairment (p<0.0001). Body image is modified proportionally to the severity of acne (p<0.0001). Symptoms and treatment of acne are factors that also influence their quality of life. Girls and boys are equally affected. Stress and heredity are correlated with acne and its severity (p<0.0001). We didn't find any correlation between smoking and acne. CONCLUSION Acne affects Quality of Life of young adolescents in Greece. The impact is proportional to the severity of acne. More severe acne is associated with greater effect on quality of life with implications for self esteem, body image and relationships with others. PMID:23197205

  6. A national database on children and adolescent with diabetes (e-DiCARE): results from April 2006 to June 2007.

    PubMed

    Fuziah, M Z; Hong, Janet Y H; Zanariah, H; Harun, F; Chan, S P; Rokiah, P; Wu, L L; Rahmah, R; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Chen, W S; Adam, B

    2008-09-01

    In Malaysia, Diabetes in Children and Adolescents Registry (DiCARE) was launched nationwide in August 2006 to determine and monitor the number, the time trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, their socio-demographic profiles, outcome of intervention and facilitate research using this registry. This is an on going real time register of diabetic patients < or = 20 years old via the e-DiCARE, an online registration system. To date were 240 patients notified from various states in Malaysia. The mean age was 12.51 years (1.08-19.75) and 46.4% were boys. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.31 +/- 4.13 years old with an estimated duration of diabetes of 4.32 +/- 3.55 years. A total of 166/240 (69.2%) have T1DM, 42/240 (17.5%) have T2DM and 18/240 (7.5%) have other types of DM. Basis of diagnosis was known in 162 patients with T1DM and 41 patients with T2DM. In T1DM patients, 6.0% of the girls and 19.1% boys were overweight or obese. As for T2DM, 64.3% had their BMI reported: 66.7% girls and 91.6% boys were overweight or obese. Most patients (80.4%) practiced home blood glucose monitoring. Patients were seen by dietitian (66.7%), diabetes educator (50.0%), and optometrist or ophthalmologist (45.0%). Only 10.8% attended diabetic camps. In the annual census of 117 patients, the mean HbAlc level was 10.0% + 2.2 (range 5.2 to 17.0%). The early results of DiCARE served as a starting point to improve the standard of care of DM among the young in the country. PMID:19230245

  7. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142

  8. Long-term secondary prophylaxis in children, adolescents and young adults with von Willebrand disease. Results of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Halimeh, Susan; Krümpel, Anne; Rott, Hannelore; Bogdanova, Nadja; Budde, Ulrich; Manner, Daniela; Faeser, Britta; Mesters, Rolf; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2011-04-01

    In patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) replacement therapy with factor VIII/von Willebrand (VWF) concentrates is increasingly applied as prophylactic regimen. Since 2000, 82 consecutively enrolled patients with clinically relevant bleeding episodes (spontaneous, peri- or postoperative) were diagnosed with VWD [type 1: 42/82; type 2: 24/82; type 3: 13/82; acquired: 3/82]. In all patients, decision for initiating prophylaxis was based on a bleeding score > 2 prior to diagnosis, concomitant with recurrent bleeds associated with anaemia in patients with on-demand VWD therapy. We report results on secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy applied in 32 patients [children n=13; adolescents n=7; adults n=12] with VWD [type 1: 4; type 2: 15; type 3: 13], 15 of which were females, and nine of these at the reproductive period. Eight patients were treated with Humate P® or Wilate® (n=24). Median [min-max] dose [vWF:RCo] was 40 [20-47] IU/kg, 23 patients were given substitution therapy twice weekly, seven patients three times a week, and two children four times per week. Within a 12-month-period haemoglobin concentrations returned to normal values. Median duration of prophylaxis was three years. Recurrent bleeding episodes stopped in 31 of 32 patients, whereas inhibitors developed in one. Following a 12-month observation period the monthly bleeding frequency and the bleeding score was significantly reduced [3 vs. 0.07; 3 vs. 0: p< 0.001], compared to the pre-prophylaxis/pre-diagnostic values. The use of secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy is an effective tolerated treatment modality, highly beneficial for patients with VWD, who present with recurrent bleeding events during on-demand therapy. PMID:21301780

  9. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  10. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  11. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  12. Brief Strategic Family Therapy versus Treatment as Usual: Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial for Substance Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Michael S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, Kathleen A.; Hodgkins, Candy; Carrion, Ibis; Vandermark, Nancy; Schindler, Eric; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to…

  13. Whole grain consumption and body weight measures in children and adolescents: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of whole grain (WG) consumption and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents using a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 in children and 6-12 y (n=3,868) ...

  14. Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  15. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Alexandra R; Martin, Jennifer L; Sharples, Sarah; Crowe, John A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents’ needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. PMID:24669187

  16. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  17. Mid-term results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Cozacov, Yaniv; Roy, Mayank; Moon, Savannah; Marin, Pablo; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity in children and adolescents has been increasing in recent years at an unprecedented rate. Morbidly obese children will almost certainly develop severe comorbidities as they progress to adulthood, and bariatric surgery may provide the only alternative for achieving a healthy weight. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes and safety of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) as new treatment modalities for morbidly obese adolescents. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of all adolescent patients who underwent LSG and RYGB under IRB protocol at the Bariatric and Metabolic Institute in Cleveland Clinic Florida between 2002 and 2011. Patients were also contacted by phone, adhering to HIPAA regulations, and were asked to answer a survey. Eighteen adolescents had a bariatric procedure performed at this institution. The mean age was 17.5 years, the average weight was 293.1 lbs, and the average BMI was 47.2 kg/m2. The mean follow-up period consisted of 55.2 months. The postoperative weight at 55 months follow-up was 188.4 lbs and average BMI was 30.1 kg/m2. Fifteen of the patients were available for follow-up. Thirteen out of 16 (81%) comorbidities in patients available for follow-up were in remission following rapid weight loss. The long-term follow-up and perioperative morbidity shown in this study suggest that LSG and LRYGB appear to be safe and effective operations in morbidly obese adolescents. PMID:24390732

  18. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania: Results from the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The majority of people who suffer morbidity due to smoking may have initiated smoking during adolescent period. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors for cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania. Findings Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 were used to conduct this study. Data were analyzed using SUDAAN software 9.03. Comparisons for categorical variables were done using the Pearson's Chi-square test. The cut of point for statistical significance was set at 5% level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with the outcome. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 1822 respondents, 35.8% males and 27.1% females reported being current cigarette smokers (p < 0.001). Having friends who smoke cigarettes was associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI [2.33, 6.90] for some friends using tobacco; and AOR = 17.18; 95% CI [10.46, 28.21] for most or all friends using tobacco). Male gender and having one or both parents who smoke cigarettes were associated with smoking (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI [1.03, 1.66]) and AOR = 1.76; 95% CI [1.37, 2.27]) respectively). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Lithuanian adolescents. Male adolescents and adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control in Lithuania. PMID:20459649

  19. [Prospective study of psychiatric and pedagogic evaluation of the adolescent service of the Student Health Foundation of France. Methodology and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Halfon, O; Laget, J; Ekbatani, A; Barbaux, J J

    1992-01-01

    The present prospective study, with a five-year follow-up, presents an extensive psychiatric and educational assessment of an adolescent population (N = 30) in the age range 14-20, suffering from several psychiatric disorders, though apt to follow a normal academic program. The residential settings where the study took place provide both psychiatric and schooling facilities. In this environment, what is the effectiveness of long-term hospitalization? Are there any criteria for predicting results? After discharge, could social adjustments difficulties be prevented? Assessment instruments are described and the results of one preliminary study are presented. The actual data seems to confirm the impact of the special treatment facilities combining schooling and psychiatric settings on the long term outcome of adolescents. PMID:1342658

  20. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  1. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    PubMed

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations. PMID:9104652

  2. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  3. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  4. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Arthur V.; Marek, Patrick M.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention. Methods High school smokers (n = 2,151) were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention) or control (no intervention) condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided. Results No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61), nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year. Conclusions There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post

  5. Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2011-11-01

    Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097

  6. A causal model of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Brage, D; Meredith, W

    1994-07-01

    We examined how family strengths, parent-adolescent communication, self-esteem, loneliness, age, and gender interrelate, and how this interaction influences depression in adolescents. The data were collected on a written questionnaire completed by 156 adolescents who were attending public schools in four communities in the midwestern United States. We developed a causal model to explicate the relationships among the variables hypothesized to affect adolescent depression and analyzed the data using path analysis via the LISREL VII program. Results showed a good fit of the model to the data. Loneliness and self-esteem had a direct effect on adolescent depression. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on depression through loneliness. Age directly and indirectly influenced depression through loneliness. Gender was significantly related to depression through self-esteem. Family strengths indirectly affected depression through self-esteem. PMID:7932297

  7. [Injuries among children and adolescents (1-17 years) and implementation of safety measures. Results of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Kahl, H; Dortschy, R; Ellsässer, G

    2007-01-01

    Parent interviews with regard to their children's accidents and to accident protective measures in the Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) aimed at extending our knowledge of age- and gender-specific injuries and to identify risk groups and risk factors for injury prevention. The parents of 16,706 children (aged 1-17 years) were asked about their children's injuries within the last 12 months which were medically treated, and about accident mechanisms, consequences of injuries, and ambulatory and hospital treatment. In addition, parents and children aged 11 to 17 years (n = 6813) were asked to give information on protective measures. According to the parents 15.9 % of the children had at least one injury within the last 12 months, 15.2 % because of an accident and 0.8 % because of assault. In the age group 1-17 boys have been injured significantly more often than girls (17.9 % vs. 14,0 %). Overall, 13.3 % of 2,410 injured children and adolescents were hospitalized. Two thirds of the accidents among toddlers were domestic accidents (60 %) whereas leisure and sport accidents were most prevalent in children and adolescents aged 5-14 years and 15-17 years (32.1 % and 38.9 %). The proportion of accidents in child care facilities and educational institutions tripled from infancy to school age (age 5-14 years) (10.9-28.7 %), as did traffic accidents (5.6-16.7 %). The three most frequent injury mechanisms in the age range 1-17 years were falls on level ground (35.2 %), falls from heights (25.2 %) and collisions with objects or persons (20.6 %). Falls from heights showed the highest risk in toddlers (35.8 %). Contusions, sprains and strains increased to a highest level of 50.9 % in adolescents; likewise, bone fractures increased from 10.7 % in toddlers to 21.8 % in adolescents aged 15-17 years. An influence of socioeconomic status on injuries overall and on consequences of injuries was not seen. For traffic accidents in children aged

  8. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  9. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  10. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  11. Patterns of parenting during adolescence: perceptions of adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Paulson, S E; Sputa, C L

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to explore differences in maternal and paternal parenting style and parental involvement, (2) to examine the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement, and (3) to explore the changes in parenting style and parental involvement between the adolescents' ninth and twelfth grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders recruited from several school districts in the Southeast and Midwest. Thirty-one subjects participated in a small longitudinal study three years later when they were in the twelfth grade. Measures of maternal and parental demandingness, responsiveness, values toward achievement, involvement in schoolwork, and involvement in school functions, designed for this program of research, were obtained from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that both adolescents and parents perceived mothers to be more involved in parenting than were fathers during both ninth and twelfth grades. Mothers and fathers were not found to be different regarding their values toward achievement. Additionally, both mothers and fathers perceived themselves to be higher on all aspects of parenting than their adolescents perceived them to be during both ninth and twelfth grades. In the longitudinal study, both adolescents and parents perceived levels of parenting to drop between ninth and twelfth grades, except values toward achievement which did not change. Implications for interpretation of existing research and for considerations of future research are discussed. PMID:8726896

  12. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  13. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  14. Engagement in HIV Care Among Kenyan Adults and Adolescents: Results From a National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Rose; Masyuko, Sarah; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A.; Gichangi, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Batuka, James; Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Maina, William K.; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing access to care and treatment for HIV-infected persons is a goal in Kenya’s response to the HIV epidemic. Using data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012), we describe coverage of services received among adults and adolescents who were enrolled in HIV care. Methods KAIS 2012 was a population-based survey that collected information from persons aged 15–64 years that included self-reported HIV status, and for persons reporting HIV infection, use of HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood specimens were collected and tested for HIV. HIV-positive specimens were tested for CD4 counts and viral load. Results Among 363 persons who reported HIV infection, 93.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.2 to 99.6] had ever received HIV care. Among those receiving HIV care, 96.3% (95% CI: 94.1 to 98.4) were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and 74.6% (95% CI: 69.0 to 80.2) were receiving ART. A lower proportion of persons in care and not on ART reported using cotrimoxazole (89.5%, 95% CI: 82.5 to 96.5 compared with 98.6%, 95% CI: 97.1 to 100) and had a CD4 count measurement done (72.9%, 95% CI: 64.0 to 81.9 compared with 90.0%, 95% CI: 82.8 to 97.3) than persons in care and on ART, respectively. Among persons in care and not on ART, 23.2% (95% CI: 6.8 to 39.7) had CD4 counts ≤350 cells per microliter. Viral suppression was observed in 75.3% (95% CI: 68.7 to 81.9) of persons on ART. Conclusions Linkage and retention in care are high among persons with known HIV infection. However, improvements in care for the pre-ART population are needed. Viral suppression rates were comparable to developed settings. PMID:24732825

  15. The relationship between adolescent academic capability beliefs, parenting and school grades.

    PubMed

    Juang, Linda P; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between parenting, adolescent academic capability beliefs and school grades. First, we examined how aspects of parenting and adolescent's cognitive ability predicted adolescent academic capability beliefs and school grades at 6th grade, which, in turn, predicted adolescent school outcomes at 9th grade. Second, we examined how configurations of adolescents (based on cognitive ability, parental involvement, and capability beliefs) at 6th grade, related to their school grades at 9th grade. The sample included 641 German adolescents. The first set of analyses suggest that parents who demonstrated more warmth, engaged in more discussions concerning academic and intellectual matters with their adolescents, had higher school aspirations for their adolescents, and reported more interest/involvement in their adolescent's schooling, had adolescents with higher capability beliefs at 6th grade, and this, in turn, related to better school grades for adolescents at 9th grade. In the second set of analyses, results show that adolescents who were characterized by the configuration of having above average ability, parental school involvement and capability beliefs, received the best school grades. In contrast, adolescents who were characterized by below average ability, parental school involvement and capability beliefs, demonstrated the worst school performance. PMID:12009746

  16. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  17. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  18. Coping Strategies among Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olah, Attila

    1995-01-01

    Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…

  19. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  20. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  1. Keeping Secrets from Parents: Longitudinal Associations of Secrecy in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Vermulst, Ad A.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-wave survey study among 1173 10-14-year-olds tested the longitudinal contribution of secrecy from parents to psychosocial and behavioral problems in adolescence. Additionally, it investigated a hypothesized contribution of secrecy from parents to adolescent development by examining its relation with self-control. Results showed that keeping…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…

  3. Sharing the Past and Future among Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Toshiaki; Higata, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how sharing past and future life events among late adolescents and their parents influenced the quality of their own time perspectives. Triads (N =104) of female students and their parents described three important life events from their past and future. The results showed that adolescents who shared past and future life events…

  4. The Impact of Support for Black Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nancy Donohue; Lee, Diane

    1983-01-01

    Examined the association between social support and adolescents' responses to motherhood. Interviews with three groups of Black adolescent mothers (high school, Infant-Parent Program, and dropouts) assessed stress, self-esteem, and kinds of support available. Results showed support from individuals was related to decreased stress and increased…

  5. Preparing Inner-City Adolescents to Transition into High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article investigated how academic preparation, career development skills, parental assistance, and social/environmental barriers predicted inner-city adolescents' psychological preparation to transition into high school. Results showed that academic preparation, parents' instrumental assistance, adolescents' career development…

  6. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  7. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  8. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  9. The Role of Adolescent Attachment in Moderating and Mediating the Links between Parent and Adolescent Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Warner, Stephanie; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that…

  10. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship. PMID:11247523

  11. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  12. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  13. Weight-related behaviors among non-overweight adolescents: results from the Korean national survey from 2005 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight misperception, unhealthy diet practices, and factors associated with these weight-related behaviors among Korean adolescents. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of non-overweight students (52,515 in 2005, 64,084 in 2006, and 67,113 in 2007) in middle and high schools who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The prevalence of weight-related behaviors and factors associated with these behaviors were assessed using a complex sampling design. Of non-overweight students, 14.9% of boys and 22.2% of girls reported their weight as overweight/obese. Dieting within the last year was reported by 19.8% of boys and 41.8% of girls. Of those who attempted dieting, 17.1% of boys and 24.6% of girls indicated practicing at least one unhealthy diet behavior within the last month. Overweight misperceptions were independently associated with diet attempts and unhealthy diets after adjustment for weight status, and demographic, social, and psychological factors. Additionally, these weight-related behaviors were also associated with psychosocial factors such as low school achievement, sadness, suicidal ideation, increased stress perception, and cigarette or alcohol use. In conclusion, the high prevalence of inappropriate weight-related behaviors suggests a need for comprehensive approaches to improve weight-related behaviors in non-overweight Korean adolescents. PMID:22507607

  14. Further Psychodrama with Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Patricia; Sandberg, Salek

    1985-01-01

    Adjusted delinquent adolescents (N=7) participated in a 12-session psychodramatic group therapy program which integrated behavioral-cognitive techniques. Participants and control subjects (N=10) completed pre- and post-tests measuring acting-out behavior and ego strength. Results showed that significant improvement occurred in the experimental…

  15. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone else) during the procedure Playing hand-held video games Using guided imagery Trying other distractions, such as ... effects the test may cause. Older adolescents may benefit from videos that show adolescents of the same ...

  16. "First Things First" Shows Promising Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

  17. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only. PMID:25374034

  18. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    PubMed

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance. PMID:10831143

  19. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development. PMID:9712373

  20. The effects of social anxiety on alcohol and cigarette use across adolescence: Results from a longitudinal twin study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jeanne E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Verhulst, Brad; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting reports exist on the direction of the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol/cigarette use (AU/CU) and alcohol/nicotine dependence (AD/ND), with both positive and negative associations reported. A prospective, longitudinal sample of Finnish twins (n = 1,906) was used to test potential explanations for these discrepancies. Specifically, this study used peer, parent, and teacher ratings of SA, and a clinical interview screening item for social anxiety disorder (SAD-Sc) to examine associations between SA and AU/CU and AD/ND from early adolescence into young adulthood. Peer-rated SA was negatively associated with AU, CU, and AD from age 14 through age 22, implying a protective effect (β = -0.01 to -.03). Teacher- and parent-rated SA associations were in the same directions but weaker or nonsignificant, indicating that aspects of SA that are recognizable by peers may be most relevant to AU/CU. Self-reported SAD-Sc was also negatively associated with AU, but positively associated with AD symptoms in young adulthood (β = 0.38). Our findings partially support the existence of different associations between SA and AU versus AD, but only in the context of SAD-Sc rather than trait SA. Neither trait SA nor SAD-Sc significantly predicted ND symptoms, although SAD-Sc was associated with both cigarette abstinence and daily smoking. These findings suggest that adolescent SA is modestly associated with lower AU/CU, although there may be some individuals with more severe SA who develop alcohol problems later in life. There was little evidence of a common underlying liability contributing to both SA and alcohol/cigarette use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322804

  1. [Experience of application of social hygienic monitoring in hygiene of children and adolescents and the lessons resulting from it].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of the law of the Russian Federation "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population" called for the creation of a tool "measurement" of the specified condition. This tool was the socio-hygienic monitoring (SHM)--a complex system of long-term monitoring changes in the state of health of the population and the surrounding environment. Goal, objectives and the technology of SHM have been formulated in the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation No426 of 1 June 2000 and 3385 from 26.04.2005. Methodology of SHM provides for the forecasting and management of health of the population on the basis of the establishment of cause-and-effect relations in the system of "environment-health" and making managerial decisions, proceeding from the priority of primary prevention and the establishment of priority in the conduct of recreational activities at designated areas. Currently, the country has established a system of SHM designed to operate at the federal (Russian Federation), regional (republic, kray, oblast, okrug, the mega-cities), local (city, region) level with a vertical management structure. Some experience of SHM was gained and in the hygiene of children and adolescents. On the basis of this experience purpose is to identify opportunities of SHM to solve the priority (as required by the methodology) and other own problems of hygiene of children and adolescents, to give the characteristic used in SHM criteria for the evaluation of the health of students and the status of the school environment and offer a more informative, in our opinion, the criteria. PMID:23082671

  2. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  3. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  4. Nutrition Habits and Knowledge in Competitive Adolescent Female Gymnasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Diet quality and nutrition knowledge were evaluated in 97 female adolescent competitive gymnasts. Results showed their nutritional knowledge to be poor, with both their caloric intake and their vitamin and mineral intake below recommended levels. (Author/MT)

  5. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  6. Dietary predictors of the insulin-like growth factor system in adolescent females: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)123

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Joseph C; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rosen, Cliff J; Velie, Ellen M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is associated with the adult diet and chronic disease. Childhood diet may influence chronic disease through its effect on the IGF system; however, there is limited information describing the dietary predictors of the IGF system in adolescents. Objective: We examined associations between dietary food intake [fat, protein (animal and vegetable), carbohydrate, lactose, dietary fiber, calcium, zinc, and sodium] and serum IGF-I, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratio in adolescent females. Design: One hundred fifty-nine adolescent females in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (age range: 14–18 y; 0.2–6.3 y postmenarche) were included. The dietary intake was assessed via three 24-h dietary recalls. IGF-related biomarkers were determined by using radioimmunoassays. Associations between dietary intakes and biomarkers were assessed with Pearson's correlations and multivariable linear regression. Dietary intakes and biomarkers were logarithmically transformed; thus, β coefficients represented percentages. Results: In analyses adjusted for energy, age, and time since menarche, significant correlations (P < 0.05) were as follows: IGF-I with total protein, lactose, calcium, and sodium; IGFBP-3 with total fat (inverse), lactose, fiber, and calcium; IGF-I/IGFBP-3 with lactose and calcium; and IGFBP-1 with vegetable protein. In multivariable analyses, significant predictors of IGF-I were energy (β = 0.14, P < 0.05) and calcium (β = 0.14, P < 0.01), the significant predictor of IGFBP-3 was calcium (β = 0.07, P < 0.05), and significant predictors of IGFBP-1 were vegetable protein (β = 0.49, P < 0.05) and body mass index–for-age percentile (β = −0.01, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that dietary intake affects IGF-related biomarkers—particularly elevated calcium with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and elevated vegetable protein with

  7. Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships.

    PubMed

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Kerr, Magraret; van Zalk, Nejra; Stattin, Håkan

    2013-05-01

    To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M(age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia. PMID:23129524

  8. Development of Mastery during Adolescence: The Role of Family Problem Solving*

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137

  9. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. PMID:22281841

  10. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  11. Risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method for this study. The results showed the rate of suicide attempts to be 11.6%, with delinquent adolescents reporting a higher rate of suicide attempts than student adolescents. Adolescent suicide attempts indicated higher levels of dysfunctional family dynamics and maladaptive personalities. In addition, adolescents who attempted suicide expressed a significantly lower level of life satisfaction and less effective coping strategies compared with those adolescents who had not attempted suicide. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five predictive risk factors appeared to be statistically significant: coping strategy, parental child-rearing pattern, depression, parent-child relationship, and psychosomatic symptoms, in this order at p < 0.05. PMID:17952588

  12. Predicting Discordance Between Self-reports of Sexual Behavior and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections with African American Female Adolescents: Results from a 4-city Study

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors. PMID:22323006

  13. Predictors of participation in parenting workshops for improving adolescent behavioral and mental health: results from the common sense parenting trial.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  14. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops for Improving Adolescent Behavioral and Mental Health: Results from the Common Sense Parenting Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  15. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  16. Self-Esteem in Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yachnik, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of self-esteem ratings of deaf adolescents (N=56) by adolescents and both parents (56 hearing and 56 deaf parents) on the Self Description Questionnaire III showed that adolescents with deaf parents generally rated themselves higher than did adolescents with hearing parents of global, same sex, and opposite sex self-esteem. (CB)

  17. Adolescent attitudes toward victim precipitation of rape.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L M

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burt's (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual's level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereo-typing. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim. PMID:9836415

  18. The coherence of critical event narratives and adolescents' psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Wang, Qi; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the coherence of low- and high-point life-event narratives among adolescents (aged between 12 and 21 years) and their psychological functioning in terms of well-being and prosocial behaviour. The results showed robust age-related increases in narrative coherence. Age and gender significantly moderated the associations between narrative coherence and psychological functioning. Specifically, higher levels of coherence were significantly associated with prosocial behaviour only for older adolescents. Higher levels of narrative coherence were also associated with lower levels of well-being among adolescent boys, but not among adolescent girls. Results are discussed in terms of why coherent life-event narratives may not be linked to benefits for younger adolescents and for boys, and how low- and high-point life events both contribute to identity construction. PMID:22716656

  19. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) that were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions. Mothers also completed questionnaires at the start of the study (T1) and five years later (T6) on adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Path analysis showed that more emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence was associated with higher levels of adolescent disclosure in early adolescence and with relative decreases in maternal control from early to late adolescence. More emotional variability of mother-adolescent dyads serves an important function in adaptively dealing with relational challenges that arise during adolescence. PMID:24331301

  20. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  1. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  2. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  3. Effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: exposure to SO/sub 2/ alone or SO/sub 2/ + sodium chloride droplet aerosol during rest and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.; Frank, R.

    1982-01-01

    Statistically significant changes in pulmonary functional measurements in asthmatic adolescents exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at reset and during exercise were recently reported. To determine whether those results were due to the subjects' adolescence or to their asthma, the identical exposures were repeated in healthy adolescents. The healthy subjects showed small, statistically significant changes after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but these changes were slight compared to those seen in the asthmatic adolescents. It was concluded that asthmatic adolescents are much more sensitive to the effects of inhaled SO/sub 2/ than are healthy adolescents. (JMT)

  4. Arthroscopic Bioabsorbable Screw Fixation of Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans in Adolescents: Clinical Results, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Keun Churl; Kim, Kwang Mee; Jeong, Ki Joon; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in adolescent patients with unstable lesions causing pain. Methods The study included 11 patients (10 males and 1 female) with OCD who underwent arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation between July 2007 and February 2014 and were available for follow-up for more than 12 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 16.3 years (range, 11 to 19 years), and the average follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 91 months). Clinical results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score measured before surgery and at follow-up. Functional evaluation was made using the Tegner activity scale. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second-look arthroscopy were performed at the 12-month follow-up. Results Between the preoperative assessment and follow-up, improvements were seen in the KOOS (range, 44.9 to 88.1), Lysholm knee score (range, 32.6 to 82.8), and IKDC score (range, 40.8 to 85.6). The Tegner activity scale also improved from 2.8 to 6.1. Based on postoperative MRI, there were eight Dipaola grade I cases and three grade II cases. No complications due to fixation failure developed in any case. Second-look arthroscopy at 12 months postoperatively revealed that the lesion was covered with cartilage in all cases. Conclusions For unstable OCD lesions causing pain in adolescents, arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation provided favorable outcomes with reduced pain and restoration of movement. Therefore, it should be considered as an effective treatment for OCD. PMID:26929800

  5. Adolescent Diet and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lea; Barton, Bruce A.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Shepherd, John A.; Pourfarzib, Ray; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Kriska, Andrea; Kwiterovich, Peter O.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Childhood diet is hypothesized to influence development of chronic disease in adulthood. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a dietary intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake during childhood and adolescence on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young adult women. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in 2006–2008, 9 yr after termination of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Setting: The study took place at six DISC clinical centers in the United States. Participants: A total of 230 (76%) DISC female participants who were 25–29 yr old and had not been pregnant or breastfeeding in the previous 3 months participated in the follow-up study. Intervention: There was no intervention between the end of the DISC trial and the follow-up visit. Main Outcome Measure: Metabolic syndrome was the primary study endpoint planned before data collection and was hypothesized to be less common in the intervention group participants. Results: Metabolic syndrome was uncommon, and its prevalence did not differ by treatment group. However, after adjustment for nondietary variables, mean systolic blood pressures of intervention and control group participants were 107.7 and 110.0 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.03), whereas mean fasting plasma glucose levels were 87.0 and 89.1 mg/dl, respectively (P = 0.01). Intervention group participants also had lower concentrations of large very-low-density lipoprotein particles, a marker of hepatic insulin resistance, compared with control group participants. Adjustment for current diet did not materially alter results. Conclusion: Consumption of a diet lower in fat and higher in fiber during childhood and adolescence may benefit glycemic control and blood pressure long term. PMID:21994964

  6. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  7. The Effect of Wilderness Therapy on Adolescents' Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: Results of a Non-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Amichai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents participate in decision-making processes involving risky behaviors. Management of these important decisions may be promoted by enhancing adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive autonomy. Objective: In order to elucidate the value of wilderness therapy to the successful management of decision making processes…

  8. Non-Participation of Children and Adolescents In Out-of-School Time Programs: Child, Family, and Neighborhood Factors. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can offer a secure and nurturing environment for children and adolescents, reducing the worries about what they are doing during these most vulnerable hours. For example, research suggests that participation in out-of-school time programs and activities can lessen the likelihood that children and adolescents will engage…

  9. Marital conflict and adolescent distress: the role of adolescent awareness.

    PubMed

    Harold, G T; Conger, R D

    1997-04-01

    The present longitudinal study (1989-1991) of seventh-grade adolescents (173 boys, 197 girls; M age = 12.7 in 1989) living in the rural Midwest examined the influence of children's awareness of marital conflict and reported level of parental hostility on symptoms of adolescent distress. The theoretical model guiding the research indirectly linked marital conflict to adolescent perceptions of parents' hostility through the mediating effects of parents' and observers' report of hostility toward the adolescent and through adolescent awareness of the frequency of interparental conflict. Controlling for earlier levels of psychological distress, we hypothesized a direct path between adolescent report of parent hostility and adolescent maladjustment. Maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model showed that marital conflict was significantly related to parents' and observers' reports of parent hostility toward the adolescent and to adolescent awareness of conflict frequency. Both parent hostility and adolescent awareness of the frequency of marital conflicts were significantly related to adolescent perceptions of parent hostility. When controlled for earlier distress, adolescent report of parent hostility significantly predicted the later internalizing and externalizing symptoms of these teenagers. The model predicted externalizing problems for boys but not girls. Otherwise, there were no gender differences in the postulated causal processes. PMID:9180005

  10. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  11. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  12. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  13. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations. PMID:20205262

  14. How robust is the evidence of an emerging or increasing female excess in physical morbidity between childhood and adolescence? Results of a systematic literature review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Egan, Matt; Der, Geoff; Adamson, Joy; Hunt, Kate

    2013-01-01

    For asthma and psychological morbidity, it is well established that higher prevalence among males in childhood is replaced by higher prevalence among females by adolescence. This review investigates whether there is evidence for a similar emerging female ‘excess’ in relation to a broad range of physical morbidity measures. Establishing whether this pattern is generalised or health outcome-specific will further understandings of the aetiology of gender differences in health. Databases (Medline; Embase; CINAHL; PsycINFO; ERIC) were searched for English language studies (published 1992–2010) presenting physical morbidity prevalence data for males and females, for at least two age-bands within the age-range 4–17 years. A three-stage screening process (initial sifting; detailed inspection; extraction of full papers), was followed by study quality appraisals. Of 11 245 identified studies, 41 met the inclusion criteria. Most (n = 31) presented self-report survey data (five longitudinal, 26 cross-sectional); 10 presented routinely collected data (GP/hospital statistics). Extracted data, supplemented by additional data obtained from authors of the included studies, were used to calculate odds ratios of a female excess, or female:male incident rate ratios as appropriate. To test whether these changed with age, the values were logged and regressed on age in random effects meta-regressions. These showed strongest evidence of an emerging/increasing female excess for self-reported measures of headache, abdominal pain, tiredness, migraine and self-assessed health. Type 1 diabetes and epilepsy, based on routinely collected data, did not show a significant emerging/increasing female excess. For most physical morbidity measures reviewed, the evidence broadly points towards an emerging/increasing female excess during the transition to adolescence, although results varied by morbidity measure and study design, and suggest that this may occur at a younger age than previously

  15. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  16. The Relationships of Adolescent School-Related Deviant Behaviour and Victimization with Psychological Distress: Testing a General Model of the Mediational Role of Parents and Teachers Across Groups of Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Estevez, Estefania; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant…

  17. [Family dynamics around the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Gérard

    2005-05-31

    Family dynamics around the adolescent Adolescence modifies the family dynamics around the adolescent because adolescence comprises an unavoidable process of psychological separation between the subject and the parents of his childhood. On the adolescent side, the relations with his parents show a newer claim of recognition. On the parents' side, the mourning deals with several topics. The outcome of the crisis depends on the inner family control of anxiety and on the degree of differentiation of its members. Parents, grandparents and siblings have an important role to play in those transformations. PMID:16097251

  18. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  19. Randomized clinical trial of musical distraction with and without headphones for adolescents' immunization pain.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, Ólöf; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2011-03-01

    Distraction has shown to be a helpful pain intervention for children; however, few investigations have studied the effectiveness of this method with adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an easy and practical musical distraction in reducing adolescents' immunization pain. Furthermore, to examine whether musical distraction techniques (with or without headphones) used influenced the pain outcome. Hundred and eighteen 14-year-old adolescents, scheduled for polio immunization, participated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to one of three research groups; musical distraction with headphones (n=38), musical distraction without headphones (n=41) and standard care control (n=39). Results showed adolescents receiving musical distraction were less likely to report pain compared to the control group, controlling for covariates. Comparing musical distraction techniques, eliminating headphone emerged as a significant predictor of no pain. Results suggest that an easy and practical musical distraction intervention, implemented without headphones, can give some pain relief to adolescents during routine vaccination. PMID:20409050

  20. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome and health control in adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    van de Putte, E M; Engelbert, R; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G; Kimpen, J; Uiterwaal, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To explore the locus of health control in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and their parents in comparison with healthy adolescents and their parents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 32 adolescents with CFS were compared with 167 healthy controls and their respective parents. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) questionnaire was applied to all participants. Results: There was significantly less internal health control in adolescents with CFS than in healthy controls. An increase of internal health control of one standard deviation was associated with a 61% reduced risk for CFS (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.61). Internal health control of the parents was also protective (OR fathers: 0.57 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); OR mothers: 0.74 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.09)). The external loci of health control were higher in adolescents with CFS and in their parents. Increased levels of fatigue (56%) were found in the mothers of the adolescents with CFS, in contrast with the fathers who reported a normal percentage of 13. Conclusions: In comparison with healthy adolescents, adolescents with CFS and their parents show less internal health control. They attribute their health more to external factors, such as chance and physicians. This outcome is of relevance for treatment strategies such as cognitive behaviour therapy, for which health behaviour is the main focus. PMID:16049059

  2. Parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Macmillan, Ross; Miech, Richard A; Boardman, Jason D; O Dean, Danielle; Cole, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines associations among parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we identify a set of latent classes describing pathways into adulthood and examine health-related predictors of these pathways. The identified pathways are consistent with prior research using other sources of data. Results also show that both adolescent and parental health behaviors differentiate pathways. Parental and adolescent smoking are associated with lowered probability of the higher education pathway and higher likelihood of the work and the work & family pathways (entry into the workforce soon after high school completion). Adolescent drinking is positively associated with the work pathway and the higher education pathway, but decreases the likelihood of the work & family pathway. Neither parental nor adolescent obesity are associated with any of the pathways to adulthood. When combined, parental/adolescent smoking and adolescent drinking are associated with displacement from the basic institutions of school, work, and family. PMID:27194662

  3. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil. PMID:17688087

  4. Singaporean Adolescents' Perceptions of Online Social Communication: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…

  5. Prosocial and Antisocial Motivation of Adolescents in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Kornadt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Used psychological tests to examine the effects of early childhood experiences on interaction patterns that have resulted from East and West German children growing up in different social contexts. Subjects were 140 East and West German adolescents. Found that West German adolescents showed more prosocial tendencies and had stronger emotion-based…

  6. The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

  7. Social Contexts of Regular Smoking in Adolescence: Towards a Multidimensional Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Van Duker, Heather; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Add Health, this study examined multilevel factors of adolescent smoking after controlling for the baseline smoking behavior and individual characteristics. Results showed that peer, family and school were all important life domains contextually influencing subsequent smoking behavior among adolescents. Time spent with peers,…

  8. Personal and Family Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai Kwok, Sylvia Y. C.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the family ecological model, personal (hopelessness, social problem solving, emotional competence) and family (parent-adolescent communication, family functioning) quality of life measures related to adolescent suicidal ideation were examined in 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that suicidal ideation…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A 5-Year Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Muris, Peter; Van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the adolescent developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms from the general population is conducted. Results using individually focused trajectory-based analyses show that the symptoms differed from one another for various adolescent age and sex cohorts.

  10. Adolescent Sexual Activity and Mildly Deviant Behavior: Sibling and Friendship Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rowe, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescent sexual activity and mildly deviant behavior. Analyzed data of 1,739 adolescents from the Carolina Population Center's Sexuality Project which contained linkable responses of siblings, best friends, and other friends. Results showed overlap between sexuality and mild deviance but also indicated that the…

  11. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  12. Drug Dependence in Adolescents: Changing Trends at a De-Addiction Centre in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is scarcity of Indian data on substance dependence in children and adolescents. Methods: Case records of 85 adolescents with the final diagnosis of substance dependence were analyzed (out of 115 registrations during 1978-2003). Results: Time trends showed an increase in individuals with good social support and higher family…

  13. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-02-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  14. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  15. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  16. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family. PMID:10447044

  17. Coping Strategies Associated With Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescent Inpatients With Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671

  18. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216

  19. Impaired Bottom-Up Effective Connectivity Between Amygdala and Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unmedicated Adolescents with Major Depression: Results from a Dynamic Causal Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, Donald R; Eberly, Lynn E; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Basgoze, Zeynep; Thomas, Kathleen M; Mueller, Bryon A; Houri, Alaa; Lim, Kelvin O; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant contributor to lifetime disability and frequently emerges in adolescence, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms of MDD in adolescents. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis is an innovative tool that can shed light on neural network abnormalities. A DCM analysis was conducted to test several frontolimbic effective connectivity models in 27 adolescents with MDD and 21 healthy adolescents. The best neural model for each person was identified using Bayesian model selection. The findings revealed that the two adolescent groups fit similar optimal neural models. The best across-groups model was then used to infer upon both within-group and between-group tests of intrinsic and modulation parameters of the network connections. First, for model validation, within-group tests revealed robust evidence for bottom-up connectivity, but less evidence for strong top-down connectivity in both groups. Second, we tested for differences between groups on the validated parameters of the best model. This revealed that adolescents with MDD had significantly weaker bottom-up connectivity in one pathway, from amygdala to sgACC (p=0.008), than healthy controls. This study provides the first examination of effective connectivity using DCM within neural circuitry implicated in emotion processing in adolescents with MDD. These findings aid in advancing understanding the neurobiology of early-onset MDD during adolescence and have implications for future research investigating how effective connectivity changes across contexts, with development, over the course of the disease, and after intervention. PMID:26050933

  20. "Bone-οn-Bone" surgical reconstruction of moderate severity, flexible single curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: continuing improvements of the technique and results in three scoliosis centers after almost twenty years of use.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert W; Min, Kan; Zarzycki, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The "bone-on-bone" reconstruction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is reviewed in this article. Extensive use over the past 18 years has identified it's functional benefits outstanding clinical results, and very limited complications. This is an extensive update of it's application, since it's introduction, 18 years ago. PMID:26000031

  1. Exploration of the prevalence and correlates of substance use among sheltered adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored risk factors that predict substance abuse by sheltered adolescents. Through a questionnaire survey of sheltered adolescents, data on substance use and the risk factors were collected. The sample of the adolescents included 44 (33.3%) males and 88 (67.2%) females; their mean age was 15.8 years (SD = 1.62). The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol expectancy, physical abuse, and peer pressure were all statistically significantly associated with substance abuse. Findings on the critical issues are expected to lead to the development of urgently needed prevention programs for the high-risk adolescents in South Korea. PMID:18047242

  2. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents. PMID:26375050

  3. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner. PMID:26580066

  4. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values. PMID:17992960

  5. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  6. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  7. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5882

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Results from the Monitoring the Future's 2005 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students are given in this report. Recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs are emphasized, as well as trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug. This study has shown these beliefs and attitudes to…

  8. Adolescent Intimacy: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compared perceptions of intimacy in friendships among Israeli Jewish (IJ) and Israeli Bedouin (IB) adolescents. Results from 288 IJ and 327 IB junior and senior high school students show that intimacy was perceived to reflect a balance between closeness and individuality in close friendships. Closeness and individuality appear to govern all close…

  9. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  10. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  11. Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Persisting into Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Lillian A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes characteristics of learning disabled teenagers. Describes results of a study of 331 secondary students who completed a self-report inventory showing that childhood learning disability characteristics persist into adolescence, most seriously in the areas of visual perception, fine motor skills, and the ability to write and make spatial…

  12. EEG Power Spectra of Adolescent Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; McPherson, W. Brian; Oglesby, D. Michael; Dykman, Roscoe A.

    1998-01-01

    Electroencephalographic power spectra were studied in two poor-reading adolescent groups (n=38), dysphonetic and phonetic. Significant Group x Hemisphere effects were found in the alpha and beta bands, with the phonetic group showing right greater than left asymmetry. Results suggest more circumscribed and mature processing in the phonetically…

  13. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  14. Burn-injured adolescents report gaining multiple developmental benefits and improved life skills as a result of burn camp attendance.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Pressman, Melissa S; Takach, Oliver P; Bay, R Curtis; Croteau, Renee; Hansen, Linda D; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, burn camp has been reported to be a positive developmental and rehabilitative experience for attendees; there is little empirical data to support this belief. This study sought to explore whether burn camp either directly or indirectly elicits positive development outcomes in pediatric burn survivors or increases their psychosocial well-being and achievement. The Youth Experience Survey 2.0, a 66-item self-report inventory designed to measure developmental experiences in an organized youth activity, was administered to children aged 11 to 18 years attending summer burn camp. One hundred and ten burn-injured youth, 58 male and 52 female, reported that burn camp had positively impacted their lives through improved identity exploration, goal-setting and problem-solving abilities, increased physical activity, communication, emotional regulation, and time management skills (P < .0001). Participants reported more positive experiences than the norm group and higher mean scores on 90% (48) of the 53 positive items. Attendance at burn camp for more than 5 years resulted in greater improvement. Study results support the burn camp experience as a far-reaching and positive developmental activity. Participants credited the camp experience with helping them with identity formation and reflection, improved social interactions, and increased initiative; all positive developmental outcomes for youth. Results suggest that burn camp participation not only helps burn-injured youth to deal with their burns but also assists them in the development of social and basic life skills, which will allow them to navigate the transition from youth to adulthood, more effectively and successfully. PMID:22210080

  15. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  16. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

  18. "Unplugged," a European school-based program for substance use prevention among adolescents: overview of results from the EU-Dap trial.

    PubMed

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by teachers. Its effectiveness was evaluated through a randomized trial involving 7,079 pupils of seven European countries. Unplugged was effective in reducing cigarette smoking, episodes of drunkenness, and the use of cannabis at short term. This association, however, was confined to boys, with age and self-esteem as possible explanations of this difference. Beneficial effects associated with the program persisted at fifteen-month follow-up for drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and cannabis use, and were stronger among adolescents in schools of average low socioeconomic level. These results are of scientific importance and may inform the adoption of effective public health interventions at population level. PMID:24753279

  19. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  20. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  1. Expressed concerns of Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, A; Upton, G; Baluch, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of adolescents in the Republic of Yemen. A short version of the Mooney Problem Check List was administered to 150 13- to 17-year-old males and females. Results indicated that the major concerns and problems reported by Yemeni adolescents were related to their vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Problems related to social life, family, and health and physical issues were less prominent. Results also showed that though there were similarities in the number of concerns expressed by males and females, males reported more difficulties with their vocational and educational future, marriage and sexual matters, and finances and employment, while females reported more problems with recreational activities, personal relationships, and health. PMID:9583671

  2. Medical Injection Use Among Adults and Adolescents Aged 15 to 64 Years in Kenya: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Daniel; Kamau, Rachel; Ssempijja, Victor; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Njeru, Mercy; Mwangi, Jane; Njogu, David; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a nationally representative population-based survey. Among participants aged 15–64 years, data were collected regarding medical injections received in the year preceding the interview; blood samples were collected from participants for HIV testing. Results Of the 13,673 participants who answered questions on medical injections, 35.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.5 to 37.3] reported receiving ≥1 injection in the past 12 months and 51.2% (95% CI: 49.7 to 52.8) preferred receiving an injection over a pill. Among those who received an injection from a health care provider, 95.9% (95% CI: 95.2 to 96.7) observed him/her open a new injection pack, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.4) had seen a used syringe or needle near their home or community in the past 12 months. Men who had received ≥1 injection in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 8.9) and women who had received an injection in the past 12 months, not for family planning purposes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5), were significantly more likely to be HIV infected compared with those who had not received medical injection in the past 12 months. Conclusions Injection preference may contribute to high rates of injections in Kenya. Exposure to unsafe medical waste in the community poses risks for injury and infection. We recommend that community- and facility-based injection safety strategies be integrated in disease prevention programs. PMID:24413041

  3. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. PMID:26210652

  4. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  5. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination

  6. The role of parenting and mother-adolescent attachment in the intergenerational similarity of internalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the intergenerational similarity of internalizing symptoms. The sample was heterogeneous and consisted of referred (42%) and non-referred adolescents (N=238, 31% female) and their mothers. Both adolescents and mothers reported on internalizing symptoms, parenting behaviors and all adolescents reported on mother-child attachment. Results showed that parenting behaviors and mother-adolescent attachment explain at least part of the intergenerational congruence of internalizing symptoms. Moreover, there were meaningful and specific associations between dimensions of parenting and dimensions of attachment. Higher responsiveness was primarily related to lower avoidance and higher autonomy-support was primarily related to lower anxiety. The current study's results suggest that maternal depressive symptoms relate to maladaptive parenting strategies and insecure attachment representations in adolescents. Further, both attachment anxiety and avoidance seem to relate positively to adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Targeting both parenting and attachment may form a fruitful approach to prevent and treat internalizing problems in adolescence. PMID:22193358

  7. Developmental changes in conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years. Adolescents' reported use of positive problem solving increased with mothers, but did not change with fathers. Fathers reported an increase of positive problem solving with adolescents, whereas mothers reported no change. Adolescents' use of conflict engagement was found to temporarily increase with mothers, but showed no change with fathers. Mothers and fathers reported a decrease in conflict engagement with adolescents. Adolescents' use of withdrawal with parents increased, although this increase was temporarily with mothers. Mothers reported no change in withdrawal, whereas fathers' use of withdrawal increased. Generally, we found that both adolescents and their parents changed in their use of conflict resolution from early to middle adolescence. These results show that conflict resolution in parent-adolescent relationships gradually change in favor of a more horizontal relationship. PMID:20177961

  8. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  9. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development. PMID:868627

  10. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  11. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 ) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods ... from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the ...

  12. Predicting alcohol use across adolescence: Relative strength of individual, family, peer, and contextual risk and protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Jones, Damon E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined developmental changes in the relative influence of risk and protective factors (RPFs) across individual, family, peer, school, and community domains on adolescent alcohol use. Using longitudinal data from two independent samples, multivariate cross-lagged models were used to estimate the unique influence of each RPF on subsequent changes in recent alcohol use between early to late adolescence. The results supported the hypothesis that the influence of Individual Risk would increase during this developmental period. However, less consistent evidence was found concerning developmental changes among the other domains. Whereas the influence arising from Family Protection diminished during adolescence, the influence of Family Risk, School Protection, and Community Protection did not vary. The influence of Peer Risk showed a nonlinear pattern across adolescence, peaking during the middle adolescent years. The results of this study support a developmental approach to adolescent alcohol use and emphasize the need for prevention strategies that account for these developmental changes. PMID:22390336

  13. The Prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Young Adolescents in the Province of Muğla in Turkey: Results of a Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Topal, Yaşar; Topal, Hatice; Ceyhan, Mustafa Nuri; Azik, Fatih; Çapanoğlu, Murat; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive inherited blood disorder. It is prevalent in Mediterranean countries such as Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon and also Southeast Asia. Our aim was to investigate the carrier prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in adolescents who live in Muğla Province, Turkey. We analyzed retrospectively the surveys conducted at primary schools between 1997 and 2013. Complete blood count (CBC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to screen for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Patients were diagnosed as having thalassemia trait if the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was ≤ 80.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 27.0 pg and Hb A2 levels were ≥ 3.5%. A total of 164,814 students were analyzed. The median age of the students was 13.5 years (minimum 13.0, maximum 14.0). The total number of students with abnormal HPLC results was 5861 (3.8%). There was a significant decrease in the newborn of new thalassemia patients found with screening programs for hemoglobinopathies in Muğla Province from 1997 to 2013. The number of students with abnormal HPLC results for thalassemia, sickle cell disease and other Hb traits were 3.2, 0.15 and 0.4%, respectively. It is important to recognize that including Hb, MCV, red blood cell (RBC) count and HPLC tests for carrier screening are necessary to find hemoglobinopathies. Our study supported that the number of new patients significantly decreased using these screening programs from 1997 to 2013. PMID:26120034

  14. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  15. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives. PMID:18647579

  16. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  17. The adolescent. Athletics and development.

    PubMed

    Masland, R P

    1983-01-01

    An appreciation of adolescent growth and development is essential to the understanding of problems faced by the adolescent athlete. Early adolescence (ages 10-15 years) can be characterized as the body period. Physical growth is genetically determined and can be influenced by disease, injury, and nutrition. Early maturers are subject to adult expectations which may lead to either failure or excessive acclaim. Middle adolescence (ages 15-18 years) is the sexuality period, with special emphasis on gender identity. Friendships are critical, and athletics can be a focal point for showing love and affection without social fear. Late adolescence (ages 18-22 years) is the separation period. Young people with athletic skills leave home to face greater athletic and academic pressure and competition in college. Adjustment to this final adolescent period is achieved through learning to lose as well as win with grace and dignity. PMID:6833060

  18. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  19. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  20. Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, S.; Jerman, O.; Dal Pont, E.; Alberti, A.; Vianello, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether…

  1. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  2. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  3. Adolescence, stress, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Siddique, C M; D'Arcy, C

    1984-12-01

    The present study analyzes the mental-health consequences of stress in a sample of 1,038 adolescents (526 females and 512 males) from a Canadian prairie city. The study examined the relationship between perceived stress in family, school, and peer-group situations and four measures of psychological well-being, i.e., anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and anergia. The moderator effects of locus of control orientation (mastery) on stress-outcome relationships were also examined, as were the sex differences in health and the perception of stress. All three sources of stress were found to be related to the four measures of mental health, with family stress having the strongest negative health impact. The health-protective role of locus of control was limited for the large part to the stresses emanating from school and peer groups. Substantial sex differences were found in the perception of family- and peer-related stresses as well as in levels of psychological distress. A tentative explanation of these differences was examined with reference to prevailing structural conditions and differences in locus of control orientation, with female adolescents showing greater externality. Implications of the results are drawn for the long-standing debate on the relative impact of stress and its sources on adolescents' psychosocial development and for a current controversy in adolescent theory between proponents of "classical" and proponents of "empirical" conceptions of adolescence. PMID:24306949

  4. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  5. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects. PMID:26627889

  6. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  7. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  8. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  9. A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

  10. Assessing the Mental Health of Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    Mental health problems can develop at any point in life and may be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics or family history of a disorder, chemical imbalances in the brain, or stressors in the environment. Adolescence is a time of great change and transition, when youth are starting to make decisions about career paths, further…

  11. Increasing the Complexity of Young Adolescents' Beliefs about Poverty and Inequality: Results of an 8th Grade Social Studies Curriculum Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia Spears; Chow, Kirby A.; Collins, Geri S.

    2012-01-01

    Poverty and economic hardship remain a reality for many of America's children. Although the causes of poverty are varied, Americans strongly endorse individual responsibility as a primary cause. Because beliefs about poverty originate in childhood and adolescence, intervention efforts targeting young people may be particularly effective in…

  12. The Well-Being of 12- to 16-Year-Old Adolescents and Their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara; Alsinet, Carles; Subarroca, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study adopts satisfaction with life as a whole and satisfaction with specific life domains as indicators to analyse the relationships between the well-being of 12 to 16-year-old adolescents and some related constructs such as self-esteem, perceived control and perceived social support. Well-being indicators from a 2003 Spanish sample using an…

  13. The Effect of HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Israeli Adolescents in Residential Centers: Results at 12-Month Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2001-01-01

    Assessed effect of cognitive-behavioral program to prevent HIV/AIDS among 139 adolescents. Self-report instruments were used to assess participants' knowledge and behavior about HIV/AIDS. Intervention was found to have significant effect on knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes toward prevention, and coping with high-risk situations. Changes were…

  14. Assessing Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Meghan; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Ball, Victoria N.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive health of American adolescents has been, and continues to be, a matter of serious concern. America's teen birth rate--already one of the highest among developed nations--is again on the rise. Also, rates of sexually-transmitted infection (STI) among teens remain disconcertingly high, with one-quarter of the 19 million new cases of…

  15. Nonshared Environmental Mediation of the Association between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors over Time: Results from a Cross-Lagged Monozygotic Twin Differences Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that peers are the most important agent of adolescent socialization and, more specifically, that this socialization process occurs at the child-specific (or nonshared environmental) level (J. R. Harris, 1998; R. Plomin & Asbury, 2005). The authors sought to empirically evaluate this nonshared environmental peer influence…

  16. Assessing Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…

  17. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  18. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident. PMID:25189795

  19. Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

  20. Ideology and Personality: Aspects of Identity Formation in Adolescents with Strong Attitudes Toward Sex-Role Equalitarianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Patricia Ann; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adolescents with strong attitudes for and against the sex role ideology of the Women's Movement were administered a Q-sort to study flexibility-rigidity and independence-dependence. The results showed that beliefs in equalitarian sex role behaviors are significantly related to aspects of identity formation in white middle class adolescent boys and…

  1. Does Family Experience Influence Political Beliefs? Relation between Interparental Conflict Perceptions and Political Efficacy in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serek, Jan; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relation between adolescents' interparental conflict perceptions and their political efficacy regarding local issues. Longitudinal data (age 15 and 17) from 444 adolescents were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that young people experiencing frequent interparental conflict reported an increase in…

  2. Children's and Adolescents' Tolerance for Divergent Beliefs: Exploring the Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Moral Conviction in Our Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Moral conviction predicts interpersonal tolerance in adults, but its role in children and adolescents is not as well understood. This study measured moral conviction for a variety of issues along two separate dimensions--cognitive and affective--in children and adolescents (4th-12th grade). Results showed that, like adults, when children and…

  3. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  4. Hopelessness, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…

  5. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  6. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  7. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  8. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  9. Continuity, Stability, and Change in Daily Emotional Experience across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…

  10. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male) was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. PMID:25767409

  11. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  12. Parental Acculturative Stressors and Adolescent Adjustment Through Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships in Chinese American Families.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships. PMID:26885827

  13. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  14. Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: the moderating effect of celebrity adoration.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Jyh-Shen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of adolescents' attitude toward an act (the degree to which the person had a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the act's behavior in question), perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting Taiwanese adolescents' intention to purchase the merchandise of a celebrity when they had different levels of celebrity adoration. The present results showed that the relative strengths of attitude toward the act and the perception of behavioral control in predicting purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity were stronger for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group. On the other hand, the relative importance of the perceived norm in predicting the attitude toward the act and the purchase intention was stronger for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group. PMID:15960003

  15. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Atwood, Katharine A; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-08-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents' substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13-14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents', but not parents', perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060

  16. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  17. Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Adolescent Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264

  18. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  19. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  20. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  1. Update on Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. PMID:27519138

  2. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  3. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults. PMID:20167542

  4. Preliminary examination of ethnic group differences in adolescent girls' attitudes toward depression treatments.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Chen, Jason I; Karver, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents' ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. PMID:23834256

  5. [Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Ludovic; Bernier, Valérie; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Mainard, Laurence; Orbach, Daniel; Corradini, Nadège

    2016-02-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare high-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor affecting children, adolescents, and young adults. Cytogenetically, more than 90% of SS is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), translocation resulting in two chimeric fusion genes SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2, confirming histological diagnosis. Pediatric SS arises most often in soft tissues of the extremities (66% of cases), and is a localized tumor without spreading to regional lymph nodes (96% of cases) nor to metastatic sites (94% of cases). Although clinical and radiologic presentation, histologic analysis and tumor biology appear similar in pediatric and adolescent SS, outcome seems better in children than in adolescents, respectively 84% vs 60% of 5years overall survival (OS). If complete resection is the gold standard in SS, other therapeutic modalities differ between pediatric and adult populations, considering SS as an intermediate chemosensitive tumor more frequently by pediatric oncologists. Prognostic factors evaluation (tumor size, site of primary and IRS group) is necessary to establish optimal treatment strategies, with multimodal therapeutic approach in children and adolescents. Thus, recent results about the European prospective EpSSG NRSTS 05 study for children and adolescent patients with localized SS showed a 5years OS >90%. Moreover, recent somatic genetic data about SS open the debate on an appropriate strategy based and stratified on tumor genomic. Multinational prospective pediatric, adolescent and young adult study is necessary to improve optimal and appropriate approach in this rare tumor. PMID:26774699

  6. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  7. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  8. Satanism among Adolescents: Empirical and Clinical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Gary M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Presents results from a pilot study along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Discusses interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation. (Author/NB)

  9. Satanism among adolescents: empirical and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Steck, G M; Anderson, S A; Boylin, W M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Results from a pilot study are presented along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation are discussed. PMID:1471568

  10. The Development of Ego Defenses in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levit, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A model for developmental transitions in defense use in adolescence based on an integration of psychoanalytic views of adolescence and J. Loevinger's theory of ego development was tested with 31 male and 35 female adolescents. Results support some hypothesized developmental transitions and not others. Implications of findings are discussed. (SLD)

  11. Mutuality in Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youniss, James

    This document discusses the parent-adolescent relationship as social capital for adulthood. The first chapter reviews results of empirical studies which addressed the question of how the parent-adolescent relationship contributes to the successful transition of adolescents into adult society. The review is grounded in studies of parent-adolescent…

  12. Career Salience of Institutionalized Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Wayne W.; Strauss, Christine F.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated self-esteem and career salience of institutionalized male adolescent offenders (n=185) in context of Super's lifespan career development theory. Results indicated that participation, commitment, and values expectations in home-family roles contributed significantly to self-esteem in adolescent offenders. Adolescent offenders differed…

  13. Loneliness, Coping Strategies and Cognitive Styles of the Gifted Rural Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John C.; Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    1990-01-01

    Investigated loneliness, coping, and cognitive styles of 52 gifted rural adolescents. Found that field independent (FI) adolescents were more lonely in a crowd, whereas field dependent (FD) adolescents were more lonely when not with others. FI adolescents showed more autonomy and self-reliance, while FD adolescents relied more on external sources…

  14. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  15. Significant Individuals in Adolescence: Adolescent and Adult Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Examines attitudes of Israeli adolescents and midlife adults about significant adults in their past. Results indicate that most choose a parent as the most significant relative in their adolescence, and females choose mothers more than males do. Adults attribute more negative characteristics to their parents and are more likely to mention teachers…

  16. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  17. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  18. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. Methods In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Results Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015) and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001) or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders. PMID:24868156

  19. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents.This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na]), U[Na] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na]/Cr), and U[Na] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion.The mean levels of U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1-3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na]/Cr and U[Na]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly increasing trends with

  20. Body image and cognitive restraint are risk factors for obesity in French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Megalakaki, Olga; Mouveaux, Marie; Hubin-Gayte, Mylène; Wypych, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored the links between cognitive restraint and body image in obese adolescents when compared with normal-weight adolescents according to sex. Body image was measured on the Body Esteem Scale and cognitive restraint by means of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18). Although the results did not reveal any significant correlation between overall scores on these two measures, subscale scores showed that the obese adolescents used cognitive restraint more than the normal-weight adolescents did as a strategy for regulating their diet and were less satisfied with their body image. The normal-weight adolescents' use of cognitive restraint was correlated with body-weight dissatisfaction. Despite these differences, the two populations shared several characteristics. All the adolescents were dissatisfied with the way they thought that others saw them. The loss of control was one of their major concerns, although in the obese adolescents, it went hand in hand with major emotional investment. The results suggest that these are the variables responsible for adolescents' eating habits, regardless of their weight. The most discriminating variable when crossed with weight was sex, with girls being less satisfied with their body image, especially when they were obese. PMID:23807773

  1. Social Milieu and Future Orientation: The Case of Kibbutz vs. Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of one social milieu factor (Israeli kibbutz vs. urban lifestyle) on adolescents' future orientation. Analysis of questionnaires from 114 kibbutz and 112 urban adolescents shows that kibbutz adolescents express fewer hopes for the future. (SKC)

  2. Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Theodore W; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M

    2008-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A multi-agent construct was created using adolescent, parent, and teacher reports of self-regulation and peer deviance. Results indicated that self-regulation shows convergent validity and covaries as expected with developmental patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Self-regulation moderated the association of peer deviance with later self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior after controlling for prior levels of antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for models for the development of antisocial behaviors and for intervention science are discussed. PMID:17899361

  3. Neighbourhood effects on educational attainment of adolescents, buffered by personality and educational commitment.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923

  4. The adaptation of non-western and Muslim immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands: An immigrant paradox?

    PubMed

    Van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the possible existence of an immigrant paradox in a sample of immigrant adolescents attending vocational schools in the Netherlands. An immigrant paradox is the finding that first generation immigrants show a more positive pattern of adaptation than nationals despite poorer economic conditions. Second generation immigrants regress to the nationals in terms of adaptation. A sample of 152 first generation immigrant adolescents, 285 second generation immigrant adolescents and 406 national adolescents completed self-reports about socio-economic status, psychological problems, behavioral problems and self-esteem. The results supported the existence of an immigrant paradox in this sample. This indicates that further assimilation among immigrant adolescents does not necessarily lead to increased well being. PMID:20602739

  5. Differential Effects of Support Providers on Adolescents' Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differential effects of parent, teacher, and peer social support on depression and self-esteem of 217 adolescents. Results indicate that female adolescents perceived significantly more support from friends than male adolescents did, whereas male adolescents perceived significantly more support from fathers. Self-esteem was…

  6. Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special issue on adolescence in the Israeli kibbutz contains a series of seven papers that seek to advance thought and research regarding the relationship between a communal way of life and individual developmental processes in adolescence and early adulthood. The articles represent a transitional era as the kibbutz evolves. (SLD)

  7. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  8. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  9. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  12. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  13. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  14. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  15. [Pregnancy and motherhood in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Desaunay, Pierre; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Gérardin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are two periods which involve major psychological and identity changes. Teenage pregnancies are often considered to be a result of a confusion between these periods. The circumstances of teenage pregnancies and early motherhood are diverse and sit within the wider context of the psychopathology of adolescence, the heterogeneity of family configurations and evolutions in society. PMID:27444529

  16. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  17. Musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kamper, Steve J.; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise; Dunn, Kate M.; Williams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations and they are typically higher in teenage girls than boys. Epidemiological research has identified conditions such as back and neck pain as major causes of disability in adolescents, and in up to a quarter of cases there are impacts on school or physical activities. A range of physical, psychological and social factors have been shown to be associated with MSK pain report, but the strength and direction of these relationships are unclear. There are few validated instruments available to quantify the nature and severity of MSK pain in children, but some show promise. Several national surveys have shown that adolescents with MSK pain commonly seek care and use medications for their condition. Some studies have revealed a link between MSK pain in adolescents and chronic pain in adults. Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain conditions are often recurrent in nature, occurring throughout the life-course. Attempts to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:27437719

  18. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  19. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans. PMID:26696849

  20. Parallel Demand-Withdraw Processes in Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Kristina N.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda

    2013-01-01

    Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least 4 sessions of BSFT in a multi-site clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug use days that adolescents reported in Timeline Follow-Back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent/adolescent and therapist/adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents. PMID:23438248

  1. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  2. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  3. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  4. Construct Validity of the Adolescent Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bondurant, Helen; Greenfield, Brian; Tse, Sze Man

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Although the term borderline personality disorder (BPD) is used to describe adolescents in clinical settings, there is confusion as to what it comprises. To further elucidate that diagnosis, this article reviews its construct validity. Method Relevant publications appearing in PsychInfo (1872 to present) were reviewed for the purposes of this article. Results Thirty-six of the approximately sixty-five publications selected for consideration were included in this review. Conclusion The construct validity of adolescent BPD is supported by internal consistency (comparable to that of adults), group differences (ie this diagnosis segregates BPD from non-BPD adolescents), convergent validity (ie multiple measures of this disorder measure the same pathology) and concurrent validity, whereby these youth manifest functional impairment and distress. By contrast, the adolescent BPD criteria manifest less construct validity than the adult diagnosis in that its criteria did not uniformly predict the overall diagnosis, and showed more criterion overlap with other personality disorders and a broader pattern of axis II comorbidity. Further diminishing its construct validity, factor analysis suggested that adolescent BPD was not a single entity, and its low predictive validity was demonstrated by little diagnostic stability through adolescence into adulthood. PMID:19030500

  5. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look. PMID:23866210

  6. Service use among Mexico City adolescents with suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Familiar, Itziar; Nock, Matthew K.; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Background We report the lifetime and 12-month prevalence and associations of mental health treatment among Mexican adolescents with suicide-related outcomes (SROs; including ideation, plans, gestures and attempts). Methods A representative multistage probability household survey of 3005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area was carried out in 2005. Discrete time survival analyses were used to assess the relationships between SROs and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems. Results The prevalence of lifetime service use among respondents with SROs was 35% for those with ideation only, 44% for those with ideation and plan, 49% for those with gesture and 50% for those with attempt; the prevalence of 12-month service use was 10%, 24%, 6% and 21%, respectively. Timing between onset of SRO and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems showed that about 50% of adolescents will have contact with a service provider before developing any SRO. Healthcare professionals were the most likely to be consulted, followed by school-based programs. Limitations This survey was limited to adolescents living in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the analyses used data on retrospectively reported ages of onset that are subject to recall errors. Conclusions Most suicidal adolescents do not receive treatment, and many adolescents develop their suicidality in spite of prior contacts with service providers. Interventions to increase treatment, prevention, and monitoring are sorely needed for this vulnerable population. PMID:19411113

  7. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Cullen, Kathryn R.; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J.; Houri, Alaa K.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Method Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Task (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs (CPT). Results Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the executive attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Conclusions Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  8. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  9. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-08-11

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  10. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10441875

  11. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents. PMID:26456410

  12. The relationship between parenting and the economic orientation and behavior of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed. PMID:24303576

  13. Best friends and alcohol consumption in adolescence: a within-family analysis.

    PubMed

    Poelen, Evelien A P; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A

    2007-05-11

    Although friends and siblings are considered to be important role models in adolescents' peer contexts, these peer influences on adolescent alcohol consumption over time are seldom examined simultaneously in a within-family design. The present study examined the relative impact of alcohol use of the best friend, adolescent sibling and sibling's best friend on the development of alcohol consumption during adolescence. Data reported in this study are part of an ongoing longitudinal questionnaire study among families with two adolescent siblings (N=416). Results from structural equation modeling showed a strong similarity in drinking between best friends and adolescents cross-sectionally. Over time, however, only marginal effects of friends alcohol use on drinking of the youngest sibling, and no effects for the oldest sibling were found. Robust evidence was found for peer-selection processes. In addition, we found a moderate to high relative similarity in drinking within sibling pairs, but no longitudinal effect of sibling's drinking. We also found no support for a possible additional influence of sibling's best friend's drinking on adolescent drinking. Therefore, we tested several potential moderating variables on peer influences, but found no effects of a set of relationship characteristics or individual characteristics on the links between peer and adolescent drinking over time. PMID:17127016

  14. Identity styles and conflict resolution styles: associations in mother-adolescent dyads.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad. Questionnaires about conflict frequency and resolution were completed by 796 adolescents (66% female, mostly Caucasian) and their mothers. Adolescents also completed a measure on identity styles. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific conflict resolution behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the information-oriented identity style was positively associated with positive problem solving and negatively with conflict engagement and withdrawal, the normative style was positively associated with compliance, and, finally, the diffuse-avoidant style was positively associated with withdrawal and conflict engagement and negatively with positive problem solving. Our results demonstrated that the way in which adolescents tackle identity-relevant issues is related to the way in which they deal with conflicts with their mothers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21104306

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  16. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  17. [Factors influencing the uptake of vaccines by adolescents with migration background. A qualitative study of adolescents, mothers, and physicians].

    PubMed

    Walter, D; Atzpodien, K; Pins, C; Wichmann, O; Reiter, S

    2013-10-01

    One of the special challenges in immunization policy is communication and access to adolescents. To identify barriers and enablers for the immunization of this specific target group, we conducted 11 focus group discussions with adolescents with and without migration background, mothers with Turkish and Russian migration background, and physicians in private practice in March 2011. The results showed that for adolescents, the utilization of immunization was guided by informational and organizational processes in families and by the consulting physician. The low awareness of immunization-related issues that was observed among adolescents is especially challenging, because routine visits to the doctor often stop with the transition from pediatric to adult health care. Immigration-related factors may additionally affect the utilization of immunization services. Besides improving access to information and lowering the barriers to immunization for adolescents in general, culturally sensitive interventions may be a promising approach for improving communication between mothers and the immunizing physician and thereby improving vaccination coverage in the adolescent target group. PMID:23978983

  18. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jiajin; Ju, Enxia; Meng, Xianxin; Chen, Xuhai; Zhu, Siyu; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN vs. neutral pictures in N1 (100–150 ms), P2 (130–190 ms), N2 (210–290 ms), and P3 (360–440 ms) components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2, and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210–290 ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. PMID:25972790

  19. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  20. First- and second-born adolescents' decision-making autonomy throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Short, Stephen D; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Drotar, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    First- and second-born adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of adolescents' decision-making autonomy were compared from ages 12 to 19 in a longitudinal sample of 145 predominantly White, middle class families. Utilizing a multivariate, multilevel modeling approach, differences in perceptions of adolescents' autonomy between parents and each adolescent, as well as by social-cognitive domain were examined. The present study found that when comparing parents' perceptions of their children at the same age, second-borns were granted more autonomy regarding conventional issues than first-borns during early adolescence, but by later adolescence first-borns were granted more autonomy regarding prudential issues than second-borns. However, comparisons between adolescents' and siblings' perceptions showed no differences. Potential reasons for, and implications of, differences in perceptions of adolescent autonomy are discussed. PMID:26519875

  1. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. PMID:25909913

  2. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  3. The Incidence of Injuries Among 87,000 Massachusetts Children and Adolescents: Results of the 1980-81 Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Susan S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on injuries among 0-19 year-olds showed that injury rates varied considerably by age, sex, and level of severity. Overall, results demonstrated that both morbidity and mortality must be considered when determining prevention priorities and that prevention efforts must be expanded to target injuries of higher incidence among…

  4. [The comparative study on parent-adolescent communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family].

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Shin, H S

    1990-12-31

    This research is based on the communication system theory which considers the family as a communication system or a communication network and which understand interpersonal relations among family members through a communication. This research is intended to define the difference of Parent-Adolescent Child communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family, and also found the factors affecting parent-adolescent child communication. This aims to clarify wether a delinquent behavior is associated with family members' relations caused by dysfunctional communication between parents and their child, moreover explorate their problem to find the method of nursing intervention for prevention and treatment for delinquency. Subjects are 190 families (570 persons: father, mother, adolescent child) of model high school students and 87 families (261 persons) of delinquent adolescents. The employed tool is Olson et al's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC, 20 items). The followings are the results derived through hypotheses verification. First, Comparison of two groups showed a significant difference in Parent-Adolescent Communication (t = 2.77, p less than 0.1). In the communication of delinquent group showed lower response than the model group. And also communication of the model group was more opened and positive (t = 2.41, p less than .05), and showed fewer problems (t = 2.06, p less than .05), the delinquent group had more problems. 2ndary, the delinquent group showed significantly more disagreement in response to variable of PAC than the model group. As analyzing of factors affects the Parents-Adolescent Communication, the best method to protect juvenile from delinquency are consistent open-hearted, congruent communication with mutual concern and warm mind between parents and child. And even though the all family don't hardly send together their time for their job, parents have to arrange many times to hold communication with children

  5. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  6. Adolescent Perceptions of Their Family System, Parents' Behavior, Self-Esteem, and Family Life Satisfaction in Relation to Their Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2004-01-01

    A path model was utilized to determine the relationship of demographic, family system, adolescent perceptions of parental behavior, and youth characteristics to adolescent substance abuse. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from 214 high school students at two high schools in a southwestern state. Results showed direct positive…

  7. Reviews/Essays: School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents--A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Matthew; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    The authors have integrated the major findings on the sleep-wake cycle and its performance correlates in adolescents. Basic research shows that lack of synchronicity between early school start times and the circadian rhythm of adolescents (and the sleep debt accumulated as a result) involves several cognitive correlates that may harm the academic…

  8. The status of adolescent medicine: building a global adolescent workforce.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lana; Upadhya, Krishna K; Matson, Pamela A; Adger, Hoover; Trent, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Remarkable public health achievements to reduce infant and child mortality as well as improve the health and well-being of children worldwide have successfully resulted in increased survival and a growing population of young people aged 10-24 years. Population trends indicate that the current generation of 1.8 billion young people is the largest in history. However, there is a scarcity of dedicated resources available to effectively meet the health needs of adolescents and young adults worldwide. Growing recognition of the pivotal roles young people play in the cultures, societies, and countries in which they live has spurred an expanding global movement to address the needs of this special population. Building an effective global workforce of highly-skilled adolescent health professionals who understand the unique biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that affect the health of adolescents is a critical step in addressing the health needs of the growing cohort of young people. In this review, we aim to: 1) define a global assessment of the health needs for adolescents around the world; 2) describe examples of current training programs and requirements in adolescent medicine; 3) identify existing gaps and barriers to develop an effective adolescent health workforce; and 4) develop a call for targeted actions to build capacity of the adolescent health workforce, broaden culturally relevant research and evidence-based intervention strategies, and reinforce existing interdisciplinary global networks of youth advocates and adolescent health professionals to maximize the opportunities for training, research, and care delivery. PMID:26167974

  9. The adaptation of Chinese adolescents in two societies: a comparison of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Karnilowicz, Wally

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the adaptation of two groups of migrant Chinese adolescents with their nonmigrant peers. The migrant adolescents included 55 Chinese migrant adolescents who migrated to Australia (Chinese-Australian) and 111 China-born adolescents who migrated to Hong Kong (Chinese-Hong Kong). The nonmigrant adolescents included 157 Anglo-Australian adolescents residing in Australia and 456 Hong Kong-born Chinese adolescents residing in Hong Kong. There were three research questions in this study. First, would there be any differences in the adaptation of Chinese migrant adolescents in different societies of settlement? Second, would migrant adolescents experience more adaptation problems than nonmigrant adolescents? Third, would there be any differences in the adaptation of adolescents in the two societies, Australia and Hong Kong? It was hypothesized that: (1) mainland Chinese migrant adolescents in Hong Kong would experience more adaptation problems than Chinese migrant adolescents in Australia; (2) migrant adolescents would report better adaptation than nonmigrant adolescents; (3) adolescents in Hong Kong would report poorer adaptation than adolescents in Australia. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on various adaptation outcome measures including life satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological symptoms, academic satisfaction, and behaviour problems. The results indicated that Chinese-Australian adolescents reported better psychological adaptation but Chinese-Hong Kong adolescents reported better sociocultural adaptation. Adolescents resident in Australia reported higher psychological adaptation but lower sociocultural adaptation than those in Hong Kong. Migrant adolescents reported better psychological and sociocultural adaptation than their nonmigrant counterparts. The results were discussed in relation to the social and educational systems of the two societies. PMID:22029492

  10. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  11. Parent Involvement, Sibling Companionship, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Longitudinal, Genetically-Informed Design

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.; Keyes, Margaret A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    A large literature shows that parent and sibling relationship factors are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent substance use. Less is known about the etiology of these associations. Using a genetically-informed sibling design, we examined the prospective associations between parent involvement, sibling companionship, and adolescent substance use at two points in mid- and late-adolescence. Adolescents were adopted (n = 568) or the biological offspring of both parents (n = 412). Cross-lagged panel results showed that higher levels of parent involvement in early adolescence were associated with lower levels of substance use later in adolescence. Results did not significantly differ across adoption status, suggesting this association cannot be due to passive gene-environment correlation. Adolescent substance use at Time 1 was not significantly associated with parent involvement at Time 2, suggesting this association does not appear to be solely due to evocative (i.e. “child-driven”) effects either. Together, results support a protective influence of parent involvement on subsequent adolescent substance use that is environmental in nature. The cross-paths between sibling companionship and adolescent substance use were significant and negative in direction (i.e., protective) for sisters, but positive for brothers (in line with a social contagion hypothesis). These effects were consistent across genetically related and unrelated pairs, and thus appear to be environmentally mediated. For mixed gender siblings, results were consistent with environmentally-driven, protective influence hypothesis for genetically unrelated pairs, but in line with a genetically influenced, social contagion hypothesis for genetically related pairs. Implications are discussed. PMID:26030026

  12. Parent involvement, sibling companionship, and adolescent substance use: A longitudinal, genetically informed design.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Rueter, Martha A; Keyes, Margaret A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-08-01

    A large literature shows that parent and sibling relationship factors are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent substance use. Less is known about the etiology of these associations. Using a genetically informed sibling design, we examined the prospective associations between parent involvement, sibling companionship, and adolescent substance use at 2 points in mid- and late-adolescence. Adolescents were adopted (n = 568) or the biological offspring of both parents (n = 412). Cross-lagged panel results showed that higher levels of parent involvement in early adolescence were associated with lower levels of substance use later in adolescence. Results did not significantly differ across adoption status, suggesting this association cannot be due to passive gene-environment correlation. Adolescent substance use at Time 1 was not significantly associated with parent involvement at Time 2, suggesting this association does not appear to be solely due to evocative (i.e., "child-driven") effects either. Together, results support a protective influence of parent involvement on subsequent adolescent substance use that is environmental in nature. The cross-paths between sibling companionship and adolescent substance use were significant and negative in direction (i.e., protective) for sisters, but positive for brothers (in line with a social contagion hypothesis). These effects were consistent across genetically related and unrelated pairs, and thus appear to be environmentally mediated. For mixed gender siblings, results were consistent with environmentally driven, protective influence hypothesis for genetically unrelated pairs, but in line with a genetically influenced, social contagion hypothesis for genetically related pairs. Implications are discussed. PMID:26030026

  13. DBT-Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Trichotillomania: An Adolescent Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Stacy Shaw; Kim, Junny

    2012-01-01

    Results and a case study for a DBT-enhanced habit reversal treatment (HRT) for adult trichotillomania (TTM) (Keuthen & Sprich, 2012) is adapted for use with adolescents. Trichotillomania in adolescence is a very important but understudied problem. Onset often occurs in adolescence, and yet very little treatment research exists. DBT-enhanced habit…

  14. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  15. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  16. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  17. Development and validation of an instrument to assess future orientation and resilience in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Ilaria; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at providing the development and initial validation of the Design My Future (DMF), which may be administered in career counseling and research activities to assess adolescents' future orientation and resilience. Two studies with two independent samples of Italian adolescents were conducted to examine psychometric requisites of DMF. Specifically, in the first study, after developing items and examined the content validity, the factorial structure, reliability and discriminant validity of the DMF were tested. In the second study, the measurement invariance across gender, conducing a sequence of nested CFA models, was evaluated. Results showed good psychometric support for the instrument with Italian adolescents. PMID:27348551

  18. Screening for PTSD among Somali adolescent refugees: psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD Index.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lhewa, Dechen; Charney, Meredith; Cabral, Howard

    2006-08-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties for the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Index among a sample of Somali adolescents. Data were derived from a sample of English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 12 and 19 years (n=76). The UCLA PTSD Index showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha=.85). Convergent validity was assessed through bivariate correlations with the Depression Self Rating Scale (r=.72, p<.001) and the War Trauma Screening Scale (r=59, p<.001). Results suggest that the UCLA PTSD Index may be a reliable and valid screening tool for PTSD symptoms for use with Somali adolescent refugees. PMID:16929510

  19. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Filipin, Douglas; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Meyer, Carolina; Louzada, Fernando Mazilli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days) was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50) greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep. PMID:26559604

  20. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  1. Efficacy of Brief Strategic Family Therapy in Modifying Hispanic Adolescent Behavior Problems and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problem adolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample. PMID:12666468

  2. Adolescent Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Bernie; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the conditions which lead to teenagers' becoming prostitutes, including alienation, abuse, lack of education and employment, and family problems. Discusses the role of the justice system and institutions and the need for improving adolescents' self-image. (JAC)

  3. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  4. Anxiety in adolescent epilepsy. A clinimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Laino, Daniela; Minna, Maria; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrotti, Alberto; Bech, Per

    2016-08-01

    Background Anxiety and depression have been considered to be neglected disorders in epilepsy. Because panic disorder is one of the most important anxiety disorders, it has been problematic to use very comprehensive anxiety questionnaires in epilepsy patients, as panic attacks and epileptic seizures, although two distinct clinical entities from a diagnostic point of view, show a significant overlap of symptoms. Aims We have focused on single items for anxiety and depression as screening candidates in adolescent epilepsy. Methods The individual panic attack item in the Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED) and the single depression item in the Kellner Symptom Questionnaire were tested. Our samples consisted of adolescent patients with epilepsy and a matched control group with healthy participants, as well as two numerical groups acting as controls. Results The single panic attack item identified panic anxiety in 24.1% in the group of patients with epilepsy and 0.0% in the matched control group (p = 0.01). The single depression item identified 52.2% with depression in the epilepsy group and 6.2% in the matched control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion As screening instruments, single items of panic attack and depression are sufficient to screen for these affective states in adolescent epilepsy. The clinical implications are that it is important to be quite specific when screening for depression and panic attacks in adolescent patients with epilepsy. PMID:26906494

  5. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p < 0.0001). Speed and jump performance scores improved significantly more in the intervention versus the control group (p > 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p < 0.01), and self-esteem score increased 2.3% in the intervention group and decreased 0.1% in the control group after the end of the program (p < 0.0001). No significant change was observed in the depressive score. Student participation and compliance with the program was > 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of

  6. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  7. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987

  8. The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

  9. [Interactive patterns detection in family communication with adolescents].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Collado, Adelina; Anguera Argilaga, M Teresa; Berzosa Sanz, Amparo; Ramírez Ramírez, Luis

    2006-11-01

    Interactive patterns detection in family communication with adolescents. Nondistant communication is a relevant indicator for family functionality valuation. The goal of this study is to analyze this communication in order to identify specific kinds of leadership, interaction patterns and the relation between verbal and nonverbal elements in communication. The observational design exposed is an idiographic one, punctual and multidimensional, which uses field format as observation instrument. Participants were seven standardized families made up of both ancestors and an adolescent son or daughter. According to the family models analyzed, results show a predominantly democratic communication style in adults with recurrent support expressions. The sequential analysis incorporates only categories from the emitter point of view, and detects relevant sequences which show symmetric interaction between all three family members. Verbal and nonverbal channels provide complementary information. Depending on adolescents' gender different patterns in behaviour can be identified as well. PMID:17296118

  10. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression. PMID:25201054

  11. Efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate throughout the day in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David R; Banaschewski, Tobias; Lecendreux, Michel; Zuddas, Alessandro; Dittmann, Ralf W; Otero, Isabel Hernández; Civil, Richard; Bloomfield, Ralph; Squires, Liza A

    2014-02-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting, prodrug stimulant therapy for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This randomized placebo-controlled trial of an optimized daily dose of LDX (30, 50 or 70 mg) was conducted in children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with ADHD. To evaluate the efficacy of LDX throughout the day, symptoms and behaviors of ADHD were evaluated using an abbreviated version of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) at 1000, 1400 and 1800 hours following early morning dosing (0700 hours). Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was included as a reference treatment, but the study was not designed to support a statistical comparison between LDX and OROS-MPH. The full analysis set comprised 317 patients (LDX, n = 104; placebo, n = 106; OROS-MPH, n = 107). At baseline, CPRS-R total scores were similar across treatment groups. At endpoint, differences (active treatment - placebo) in least squares (LS) mean change from baseline CPRS-R total scores were statistically significant (P < 0.001) throughout the day for LDX (effect sizes: 1000 hours, 1.42; 1400 hours, 1.41; 1800 hours, 1.30) and OROS-MPH (effect sizes: 1000 hours, 1.04; 1400 hours, 0.98; 1800 hours, 0.92). Differences in LS mean change from baseline to endpoint were statistically significant (P < 0.001) for both active treatments in all four subscales of the CPRS-R (ADHD index, oppositional, hyperactivity and cognitive). In conclusion, improvements relative to placebo in ADHD-related symptoms and behaviors in children and adolescents receiving a single morning dose of LDX or OROS-MPH were maintained throughout the day and were ongoing at the last measurement in the evening (1800 hours). PMID:23708466

  12. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  13. Family processes and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships between perceived family functioning (systemic correlate), parent-adolescent communication (dyadic correlate), and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to global family functioning and parent-adolescent communication. Regression analyses indicated that the dyadic and systemic factors had similar importance in predicting suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21218262

  14. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  15. Evaluation of a Computerized Contraceptive Decision Aid for Adolescent Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chewning, Betty; Mosena, Pat; Wilson, Dale; Erdman, Harold; Potthoff, Sandra; Murphy, Anita; Kuhnen, Kathleen Kennedy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a computer-based contraceptive decision aid used with adolescent female family planning clinic patients (N=949). Results show improved short-term knowledge of and confidence in oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy. Higher OC knowledge after one year and fewer pregnancies were seen in one group. Findings suggest the usefulness of informatics…

  16. Treasured Possessions and Their Meanings in Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamptner, N. Laura

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes treasured possessions and their meanings in adolescence, including their relation to those treasured during early life and their relation to self-identity. Subjects were 14- to 18-year-old high school students (n=249). Results showed that males' most treasured possessions embodied enjoyment and instrumental meanings, whereas females'…

  17. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  18. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  19. Parental Attitudes and Ego Identity Status of Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, S. Gulfem; Aydin, Gul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 403 middle adolescents regarding Marcia's four identity statuses in terms of perceived parental attitudes and gender. The Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS-2) and Parental Education Scale (PAS) were used to collect data. Results showed that children of authoritative parents…

  20. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…