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  1. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  2. Storing CO2 underground shows promising results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweigel, Peter; Gale, John

    Long-term underground storage of CO2 is an important element in concepts to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions as the use of fossil fuels continues. The first results of a multinational research project evaluating the injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer in the North Sea are validating this method of CO2 reduction, and are serving to further define the research needed to develop the technology for large-scale applicability. Reducing the emission of substances that have potentially harmful effects on global climate— for example, CO2—has become a central issue of environmental policy at least since the 1997 Kyoto conference on climate change.

  3. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  4. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF INADEQUATE TAMPING. THE SIZE OF THE GRANITE AGGREGATE USED IN THE DAMS CONCRETE IS CLEARLY SHOWN. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  5. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  6. Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

  7. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  8. Do Talk Shows Cultivate Adolescents' Views of the World? A Prolonged-Exposure Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Patrick; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    2001-01-01

    Investigates effects of German daily talk shows (dealing with lesbian or gay male relationships, transsexuality, and body adornment) on adolescents. Shows that cultivation effects occurred at both first- and second-order level, but were restricted to the issues; and no transfer effects pertaining to a general change of attitudes. Concludes…

  9. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  10. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  11. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  12. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  13. Early Adolescents Show Sustained Susceptibility to Cognitive Interference by Emotional Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analyzed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events. PMID:23098096

  14. Very Preterm Adolescents Show Gender-Dependent Alteration of the Structural Brain Correlates of Spelling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona E.; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P.; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and…

  15. What Are Adolescents Showing the World About Their Health Risk Behaviors on MySpace?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Parks, Malcolm; Richardson, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    Context MySpace is a popular social networking Web site where users create individual Web profiles. Little data are available about what types of health risk behaviors adolescents display on MySpace profiles. There are potential risks and intervention opportunities associated with posting such information on a public Web site. Objective To examine publicly available 16- and 17-year-old MySpace Web profiles and determine the prevalence of personal risk behavior descriptions and identifiable information. Design Cross-sectional observational study using content analysis of Web profiles. Setting www.MySpace.com Patients In order to target frequently visited adolescent Web profiles, we sequentially selected 142 publicly available Web profiles of 16 and 17 year olds from the class of 2008 MySpace group. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Prevalence of displayed health risk behaviors pertaining to substance use or sexual behavior, prevalence of personally identifying information, date of last log-in to Web profile. Results Of Web profiles, 47% contained risk behavior information: Twenty-one percent described sexual activity; 25% described alcohol use; 9% described cigarette use; and 6% described drug use. 97.2% Contained personally identifying information: Seventy-four percent included an identifiable picture; 75% included subjects' first names or surnames; and 78% included subjects' hometowns. Eighty-six percent of users had visited their own profiles within 24 hours. Conclusions Most 16- and 17-year-old MySpace profiles include identifiable information, are frequently accessed by owners, and half include personal risk behavior information. Further study is needed to assess the risks associated with displaying personal information and to evaluate the use of social networking sites for health behavior interventions targeting at-risk teens. PMID:18311359

  16. Toward improved spectral measures of /s/: Results from adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Shadle, Christine H.; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mooshammer, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce theoretically-driven acoustic measures of /s/ that reflect aerodynamic and articulatory conditions. The measures were evaluated by assessing whether they revealed expected changes over time and labiality effects, along with possible gender differences suggested by past work. Method Productions of /s/ were extracted from various speaking tasks from typically-speaking adolescents (6 boys; 6 girls). Measures were made of relative spectral energies in low- (550–3000 Hz), mid- (3000–7000 Hz), and high-frequency regions (7000–11025 Hz); the mid-frequency amplitude peak; and temporal changes in these parameters. Spectral moments were also obtained to permit comparison with existing work. Results Spectral balance measures in low–mid and mid–high frequency bands varied over the time course of /s/, capturing the development of sibilance at mid-fricative along with showing some effects of gender and labiality. The mid-frequency spectral peak was significantly higher in non-labial contexts, and in girls. Temporal variation in the mid-frequency peak differentiated ±labial contexts while normalizing over gender. Discussion The measures showed expected patterns, supporting their validity. Comparison of these data with studies of adults suggests some developmental patterns that call for further study. The measures may also serve to differentiate some cases of typical and misarticulated /s/. PMID:23785194

  17. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  18. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  19. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  20. Fast Food Art, Talk Show Therapy: The Impact of Mass Media on Adolescent Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Jordan S.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic media provides rapid delivery and unlimited access to pictures, sounds, and information. The ubiquitous presence of techno-digital culture in the lives of today's adolescents may influence or contaminate the art therapy process. This article presents two case studies that illustrate how cyberspace entered into art therapy sessions and…

  1. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep.

    PubMed

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children's and adolescents' sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10-16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1-4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25-9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  2. [The mentalizing vocational training - first results from a pilot study with adolescents with learning disabilities].

    PubMed

    Curth, Christian; Kotte, Silja; Taubner, Svenja; Unger, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    In this report first results are presented from a pilot study on the Mentalizing Vocational Training that aims to increase the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation programs with adolescents diagnosed with learning disabilities. The prevention program was based on the hypothesis that adolescents' difficulties in motivation and relationships are related to deficits in mentalizing. Thus, we created a prevention program that supports an enduring mentalizing social system following Twemlow's and Fonagy's suggestions for peaceful schools. The program consists of four modules: a psychoeducative training for all professionals within the rehabilitation program, an ongoing supervision for two selected teams, two mentalizing training groups for selected adolescents and a weekly intervision group for the research team analyzing the organizational perspective. During the pilot study, mentalization interest and attachment styles were assessed from all adolescents and professionals. Additionally, adolescents' mentalization capacities were assessed using an objective videobased test as well as general intelligence. Results showed that participants had significantly more attachment anxiety and avoidance as well as less interest to think about themselves and others in a complex way. Furthermore, participants achieved very low scores in the mentalization test (comparable to the autistic spectrum) which were independent from general cognitive deficits. On the organizational level, professionals appeared to be conflicted about the changes in management towards more economic efficiency and overwhelmed by participants with traumatic backgrounds. This led to a regression of the whole organization on the teleological mode. PMID:25478753

  3. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children’s and adolescents’ sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10–16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1–4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25–9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  4. Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reclassification effort. Results Depressed adolescents reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2% of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6% in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB. Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the 12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX, 5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically, only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p = .0402, odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00–13.7). Only five actual attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were no suicide completions. Conclusions Different methods for eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone in adolescent depression. PMID:17135989

  5. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  6. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  7. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  8. Adolescent psychopathy and the big five: results from two samples.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness, whereas the aspect of psychopathy representing impulsivity, instability, and social deviance (Factor 2) is associated with low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism. Data from 13- and 16-year-old boys and their mothers from two samples of the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to test these hypotheses. Results were consistent across age and rating source in supporting the initial hypotheses, providing support for the construct of juvenile psychopathy and the interpretation of psychopathy as a constellation of traits drawn from a general model of personality functioning.

  9. Adolescent traumatic stress experience results in less robust conditioned fear and post-extinction fear cue responses in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2014-05-01

    Early exposure to a traumatic event may produce lasting effects throughout the lifespan. Traumatic stress during adolescence may deliver a distinct developmental insult compared with more-often studied neonatal or juvenile traumatic stress paradigms. The present study describes the lasting effects of adolescent traumatic stress upon adulthood fear conditioning. Adolescent rats were exposed to a traumatic stressor (underwater trauma, UWT), then underwent fear conditioning during adulthood. Fear extinction was tested over five conditioned suppression extinction sessions three weeks later. The efficacies of two potential extinction-enhancing compounds, endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (10mg/kg) and M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator BQCA (10mg/kg), were also assessed. Finally, post-extinction fear responses were examined using a fear cue (light) as a prepulse stimulus. Rats traumatically stressed during adolescence showed blunted conditioned suppression on day 1 of extinction training, and AM404 reversed this effect. Post-extinction startle testing showed that fear conditioning eliminates prepulse inhibition to the light cue. Startle potentiation was observed only in rats without adolescent UWT exposure. AM404 and BQCA both ameliorated this startle potentiation, while BQCA increased startle in the UWT group. These results suggest that exposure to a traumatic stressor during adolescence alters developmental outcomes related to stress response and fear extinction compared to rats without adolescent traumatic stress exposure, blunting the adulthood fear response and reducing residual post-extinction fear expression. Efficacy of pharmacological interventions may also vary as a factor of developmental traumatic stress exposure.

  10. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  11. Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Frith, Uta; Rellecke, Julian; Al-Noor, Zainab; Gilbert, Sam J

    2014-04-01

    Some autistic children pass classic Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that others fail, but the significance of this finding is at present unclear. We identified two such groups of primary school age (labelled ToM+ and ToM-) and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (TD). Five years later we tested these participants again on a ToM test battery appropriate for adolescents and conducted an fMRI study with a story based ToM task. We also assessed autistic core symptoms at these two time points. At both times the ToM- group showed more severe social communication impairments than the ToM+ group, and while showing an improvement in mentalizing performance, they continued to show a significant impairment compared to the NT group. Two independent ROI analyses of the BOLD signal showed activation of the mentalizing network including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices. Strikingly, both ToM+ and ToM- groups showed very similar patterns of heightened activation in comparison with the NT group. No differences in other brain regions were apparent. Thus, autistic adolescents who do not have a history of mentalizing problems according to our ToM battery showed the same atypical neurophysiological response during mentalizing as children who did have such a history. This finding indicates that heterogeneity at the behavioural level may nevertheless map onto a similar phenotype at the neuro-cognitive level.

  12. The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do the ovarian follicles of children and adolescents differ in their morphology and in vitro growth potential from those of adults? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of morphologically abnormal non-growing follicles, and follicles showed reduced capacity for in vitro growth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The pre-pubertal ovary is known to contain follicles at the early growing stages. How this changes over childhood and through puberty is unknown, and there are no previous data on the in vitro growth potential of follicles from pre-pubertal and pubertal girls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies from five pre-pubertal and seven pubertal girls and 19 adult women were analysed histologically, cultured in vitro for 6 days, with growing follicles then isolated and cultured for a further 6 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were obtained from girls undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation, and compared with biopsies from adult women. Follicle stage and morphology were classified. After 6 days in culture, follicle growth initiation was assessed. The growth of isolated secondary follicles was assessed over a further 6 days, including analysis of oocyte growth. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of abnormal non-growing follicles (19.4 versus 4.85% in pubertal ovaries; 4004 follicles analysed; P = 0.02) characterized by indistinct germinal vesicle membrane and absent nucleolus. Follicles with this abnormal morphology were not seen in the adult ovary. During 6 days culture, follicle growth initiation was observed at all ages; in pre-pubertal samples there was very little development to secondary stages, while pubertal samples showed similar growth activation to that seen in adult tissue (pubertal group: P = 0.02 versus pre-pubertal, ns versus adult). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for a further 6 days. Those

  13. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses.

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  15. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

  16. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  17. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  18. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  19. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  20. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic…

  1. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD.

  2. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD. PMID:27070095

  3. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole. PMID:21360063

  4. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  5. The Sarah evaluation scale for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: description and results

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Katia S.; Carvalho, Camila G. C.; Nakamoto, Lilian; Nunes, Luiz G. N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Assessments of motor-functional aspects in cerebral palsy are crucial to rehabilitation programs. Objective To introduce the Sarah motor-functional evaluation scale and to report the initial results of its measurement properties. This scale was created based on the experience of the Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals in the care of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Method Preliminary results concerning the measurement properties of the scale were obtained via assessment of 76 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Experts' opinions were used to determine an expected empirical score by age group and to differentiate severity levels. Results The scale exhibited a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.95). Strong correlation was observed with experts’ classification for severity levels (0.81 to 0.97) and with the scales Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (0.80 to 0.98). Regression analysis detected a significant relationship between the scale score and the severity of the child’s motor impairment. The inter-rater reliability was also strong (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.98 to 0.99). The internal responsiveness of the scale score was confirmed by significant differences between longitudinal evaluations (paired Student’s t test with p<0.01; standardized response mean of 0.60). Conclusion The Sarah scale provides a valid measure for assessing the motor skills and functional performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. The preliminary results showed that the Sarah scale has potential for use in routine clinical practice and rehabilitation units. PMID:27437718

  6. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  7. Hematocolpos as a Result of Delayed Treatment of Acute Straddle Injury in an Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hae Jin; Lim, Hyun Wook; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Jeong In; Kim, Min Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Accidental genital trauma is most commonly caused by straddle-type injuries and is usually treatable by nonoperative management, and most of the injuries have a good prognosis. When the bleeding occurred due to straddle injury in adolescent girl, experienced gynecological examination and treatment were very important. We experienced a case of straddle injury to the posterior fourchette that caused acute hematocolpos due to delayed adequate treatment with hypotension and acute abdomen in an adolescent girl. This case shows the importance of careful and accurate physical and gynecological examination and adequate and prompt treatment of genital trauma in adolescent girls.

  8. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  9. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment

  11. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence—when the brain is still developing—has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants’ family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9–12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17–20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose–response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  12. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Results Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. PMID:26769781

  13. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  14. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  15. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  16. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations.

  17. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  18. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  19. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  20. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  1. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948

  2. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Personality Trait Stability and Change Across Adolescence: Results From a Japanese Twin Sample.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tetsuya; Endo, Toshihiko

    2015-10-01

    We examined developmental trends and sources of stability and change in adolescent personality by using twin data collected from 1981 to 2010 (273 monozygotic (MZ) and 48 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs) from a secondary school affiliated with the University of Tokyo. Phenotypic analyses showed high rank-order stability and substantial mean-level increases in neuroticism and declines in extraversion over the adolescent years. Longitudinal bivariate genetic analyses revealed that the best-fitting model for adolescent personality includes additive genetic and non-shared environmental influences. Heritability estimates ranged approximately from 0.30 to 0.60. Additionally, three-year stability in adolescent personality was influenced mainly by genetic factors, and there were both genetic and environmental innovations in mid-adolescence. Our findings suggest that both genetic and environmental effects have significant roles in the etiology of personality development across adolescence.

  3. Prone to excitement: adolescent females with Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) show altered cortical pattern to emotional and NSS-related material.

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Bubalo, Nikola; Fladung, Anne K; Ludolph, Andrea G; Lulé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    Emotion-regulation difficulties have been identified as one of the core components in Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a behaviour often beginning in adolescence. This pilot study evaluated differences in emotion processing between 18 female adolescents with and without NSSI by using verbal responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Responses to pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and slides with reference to NSSI were recorded both by verbal rating of valence and arousal and by fMRI. The NSSI group rated pictures with self-injurious reference as significantly more arousing than controls. For emotional pictures, the NSSI group showed a significantly stronger brain response in the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Depression explained differences between groups in the limbic area. Furthermore, the NSSI group also showed increased activity in the middle orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal cortex when viewing NSSI picture material. Participants with NSSI showed decreased activity in correlation to arousal in the occipital cortex and to valence in inferior frontal cortex when watching emotional pictures. The fMRI data support the notion that individuals with NSSI show an altered neural pattern for emotional and NSSI pictures. Behavioural data highlight proneness to excitement regarding NSSI topics. This fMRI study provides evidence for emotion-regulation deficits in the developing brain of adolescents with NSSI.

  4. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  5. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  6. Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents spend increasingly more time on electronic devices, and sleep deficiency rising in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate daytime screen use and use of electronic devices before bedtime in relation to sleep. Design A large cross-sectional population-based survey study from 2012, the youth@hordaland study, in Hordaland County in Norway. Setting Cross-sectional general community-based study. Participants 9846 adolescents from three age cohorts aged 16–19. The main independent variables were type and frequency of electronic devices at bedtime and hours of screen-time during leisure time. Outcomes Sleep variables calculated based on self-report including bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Results Adolescents spent a large amount of time during the day and at bedtime using electronic devices. Daytime and bedtime use of electronic devices were both related to sleep measures, with an increased risk of short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and increased sleep deficiency. A dose–response relationship emerged between sleep duration and use of electronic devices, exemplified by the association between PC use and risk of less than 5 h of sleep (OR=2.70, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.39), and comparable lower odds for 7–8 h of sleep (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.96). Conclusions Use of electronic devices is frequent in adolescence, during the day as well as at bedtime. The results demonstrate a negative relation between use of technology and sleep, suggesting that recommendations on healthy media use could include restrictions on electronic devices. PMID:25643702

  7. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach to providing care to adolescents with spinal cord trauma resulting from all-terrain vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Leslie N; Weatherford, Blakely; Locke, Lindsey N; Chung, Hoi Sing; Tidwell, Chrisla; Paton, Elizabeth; Lee, Shirleatha

    2015-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle accidents that affect the spine can lead to complex injuries in adolescents. This requires that many subspecialties work together on a multidisciplinary team to improve patient outcomes. Our case presentation will examine the multidisciplinary approach to care required for an 11-year-old adolescent involved in an all-terrain vehicle accident that resulted in traumatic spinal cord injury.

  9. Do adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show risk seeking? Disentangling probabilistic decision making by equalizing the favorability of alternatives.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yehuda; Oz, Adi; Neventsal, Oded; Rabi, Orit; Kitrossky, Leah; Maeir, Adina

    2016-04-01

    The clinical literature provides evidence for increased risk taking by individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most of the experimental tasks used to measure risk taking, confounded risky and disadvantageous alternatives, and therefore did not disentangle increased risk seeking from suboptimal decision making. The aim of the study was to examine whether adolescents with ADHD show risk seeking by equalizing the expected value of both certain and risky alternatives. In 3 different samples, adolescents with and without ADHD performed gambling tasks, in which they had to choose between certain and risky alternatives. Notably, the expected values of both alternatives were equal. Various personal and contextual intervening factors were controlled for. The rate of risky choices was compared across groups. In addition, participants reported on risk taking in real-life. We found that adolescents with ADHD did not choose the risky alternative more often than controls, but reported higher engagement in real-life risky behavior. These findings suggest that risky behavior shown by people with ADHD in daily life and on some experimental tasks may not be accounted for by increased risk seeking, but rather may reflect suboptimal decision making.

  10. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype. PMID:26914469

  11. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype.

  12. A PARENT–ADOLESCENT INTERVENTION TO INCREASE SEXUAL RISK COMMUNICATION: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent–adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HTV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6– and 12–month follow–ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent–adolescent communication related to general and sex–specific communication. PMID:18956979

  13. Psychological distress as a mediator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sleep quality in adolescence: results from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Meghan L; Weiss, Jonathan A; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents an important public health concern, as it is often associated with a host of negative outcomes across development. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine the link between negative health-related behaviors and history of childhood maltreatment. The current study considers the relationship between history of childhood maltreatment and sleep disturbances in adolescence. Further, the role of psychological distress is considered as an explanatory link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sleep disturbances. The current study is a secondary analysis using a subsample (N=73) of child welfare-involved youth who participated in the initial and 2-year time-point of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study on the variables of interest. Youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances, in addition to the other measures administered as part of the larger MAP study protocol. More severe childhood maltreatment was related to increased sleep disturbances during adolescence, and psychological distress was a significant mediator of the childhood maltreatment-adolescent sleep disturbance association. The results demonstrate that a history of childhood maltreatment represents a risk factor for sleep disturbances in adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of inquiring about health-related behaviors in child welfare youth and the need to promote psychological well-being within this population.

  14. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  15. [Nutrition, physical activity and substance use in children and adolescents : Representative results of the federal state module Thuringia in KiGGS wave 1].

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Anding, Christine; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The term health behaviour combines both health-promoting and health-risk components. In this study, the health behaviour of children and adolescents in Thuringia is analysed. The database was a representative subsample of the federal state module Thuringia, which was conducted by the Robert Koch Institute as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) wave 1 (2010-2012; n = 4,096; 3-17 years). Health behaviour was described based on nine indicators: fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, breakfast at home, physical activity, sport, swimming ability, alcohol consumption, smoking and water pipe consumption (shisha smoking). Prevalence and mean values with 95 % confidence intervals were reported, and based on logistic or linear regression, the significance of the group differences was examined. The results show that 43.4 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia ate fruits and vegetables daily, 44.5 % consumed soft drinks less than once a week, and 67.9 % had breakfast at home every weekday. In addition, 31.0 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia were physically active at least 60 min a day, 69.8 % did sports for at least 2 h a week, and 81.5 % can swim. Additionally, 15.9 % of adolescents in Thuringia had hazardous alcohol consumption, 14.4 % currently smoked, and 20.0 % smoked a water pipe. Differences existed with regard to gender, age, socio-economic status (SES) of the family and residence (urban/rural). In summary, many of the children and adolescents in Thuringia demonstrate relatively positive health behaviour. However, the results also indicate groups at higher risk of unhealthy behaviour, such as children and adolescents from families with low SES. PMID:27351434

  16. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A. Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used. PMID:27656121

  17. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    PubMed

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  18. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A. Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  19. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    PubMed

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used. PMID:27656121

  20. The Heritability of Insomnia Progression during Childhood/Adolescence: Results from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Nicola L.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Silberg, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Design: Longitudinal twin study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients or Participants: There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) and 672 complete dizygotic twin pairs (48%) initially enrolled and were followed up at three additional time points (waves). Mode ages at each wave were 8, 10, 14, and 15 y (ages ranged from 8–18 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Clinical ratings of insomnia symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) by trained clinicians, and rated according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition—Revised criteria for presence of “clinically significant insomnia,” over four sequential waves. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent but significantly decreased across the four waves (ranging from 16.6% to 31.2%). “Clinically significant insomnia” was moderately heritable at all waves (h2 range = 14% to 38%), and the remaining source of variance was the nonshared environment. Multivariate models indicated that genetic influences at wave 1 contributed to insomnia at all subsequent waves, and that new genetic influences came into play at wave 2, which further contributed to stability of symptoms. Nonshared environmental influences were time-specific. Conclusion: Insomnia is prevalent in childhood and adolescence, and is moderately heritable. The progression of insomnia across this developmental time period is influenced by stable as well as new genetic factors that come into play at wave 2 (modal age 10 y). Molecular genetic studies should now identify genes related to insomnia progression during childhood and

  1. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  2. [The current situation of adolescents with cancer in pediatric hematology-oncology units in Spain. Results of a national survey].

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, A; Andión, M; Garrido-Colino, C; Gutierrez-Carrasco, I; Echebarria-Barona, A; Almazán, F; López-Ibor, B; Ortega-Acosta, M J

    2013-04-01

    Little attention was paid to adolescents with Cancer in Spain up to 2010. In 2011 an "Adolescents with Cancer Committee" was established by the Spanish Society of Pediatric Hemato-Oncology (SEHOP) to care for the needs of these patients. The aim of this national survey was to outline the present situation of adolescents with cancer in Spanish Pediatric Hemato-Oncology units. A web based survey assessed institutional management of adolescents with cancer. The survey was personally sent to one member of the staff of each Pediatric Hemato-Oncology unit in Spain. It included questions about epidemiology, management, psycho-social coverage, specific facilities, and follow up of these patients. A total of 40 institutions out of 41 responded to the survey (overall response rate 98%). Fifty-six percent of the institutions had patients over 14, but only 36% of the institutions treated patients up to 18 years old. Only 25.6% of the units have more than 40 new pediatric cases every year. The percentage of patients between 14 and 18 years of age is below 10% in most of the units (77%). In 30.8% and 48.7% of the institutions, pediatric hemato-oncologists treat adolescents with hematological and solid tumors, respectively. The rest of the patients are seen by adult oncologists. There is only one institution that has a physician specifically dedicated to adolescent patients, and only two units have a "teenager's room". Only 2 units have a psychologist specifically trained to treat adolescents with cancer. The survey shows that most adolescents with cancer in Spain between 14 and 18 years of age are treated by adult oncologists. Most pediatric institutions still do not have specific facilities and psychosocial support for adolescents. The SEHOP is working hard in order to improve the quality of cancer care, and the quality of survival of this population.

  3. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  4. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  5. Measuring subjective health in children and adolescents: results of the European KIDSCREEN/DISABKIDS Project

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Silke; Gosch, Angela; Erhart, Michael; Petersen, Corinna; Bullinger, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Currently there is a lack of information regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of healthy as well as chronically ill children on a European level. In 2 European projects questionnaires for the assessment of the HRQoL in children and adolescents have been developed: The KIDSCREEN project aims at a co-operative European development of a standardised screening instrument for children's HRQoL for the implementation in representative national and European health surveys. In the DISABKIDS project a chronic-generic questionnaire as well as modules for specific conditions (e.g. asthma) were developed for children with chronic conditions. Methods: Both projects shared similar steps: 1. Development phase, in which the items were generated and tested, 2. Survey and Field phase, in which the modified questionnaires were tested with healthy and chronically ill children and adolescents in national representative surveys, and 3. Implementation phase in national health surveys or clinical studies. Results: In the sister projects, the KIDSCREEN instrument was tested in 22,830 children and the DISABKIDS instrument in 1605 chronically ill children. The current paper describes the development and pilot-testing as well as psychometric results of the field tests of both studies. Conclusion: The KIDSCREEN/DISABKIDS instruments make it possible to assess generic, chronic-generic and disease-specific aspects of quality of life in children and present an innovative approach to intercultural HRQoL assessment in health research. PMID:19742297

  6. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption among 11- to 17-year-old adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Kuntz, B

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, tobacco and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Germany was analyzed. In addition to the current situation, we report temporal developments and trends. Data were obtained from the first follow-up of the KiGGS study (KiGGS Wave 1) conducted from 2009 to 2012. All girls and boys aged 11-17 years (n = 5,258) were included. The results show that currently 12.0% of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany smoke, 5.4% of them on a daily basis. At-risk drinking (AUDIT-C total score) was prevalent among 15.8% of adolescents, heavy episodic drinking (six or more alcoholic standard drinks on a single occasion at least once a month) among 11.5%. No significant gender differences were found for most indicators. However, among adolescents aged 14-17 years, boys revealed a greater inclination toward heavy episodic drinking than girls did (23.1 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.01). Regarding smoking, distinct socioeconomic differences were observed. For example, adolescents from families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke significantly more often on a regular or daily basis compared with their peers from high-SES families (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.16-3.27 and OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.05-6.69, respectively). The relationship between SES and alcohol consumption is rather weak. Significant differences emerged only regarding lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption, and indicate lower consumption rates among low-SES compared with high-SES adolescents (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.68). Consideration of the KiGGS baseline study data (2003-2006) shows that smoking prevalence has dropped almost by half from 20.4 to 12.0%. The percentage of adolescents who have ever drunk alcohol has decreased from 62.8 to 54.4%. These results are consistent with the findings of other studies on adolescent tobacco and alcohol consumption and should be considered in the context of preventive efforts that have been strengthened in recent years, especially regarding

  7. Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Treatment Development and Results from an Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Kotler, Julie S.; McClellan, Jon M.; McCauley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In adolescents and adults, bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and impairment in psychosocial and occupational functioning. IPSRT is an empirically-supported adjunctive psychotherapy for adults with bipolar disorder which has been shown to help delay relapse, speed recovery from a bipolar depressive episode, and increase occupational and psychosocial functioning in adults with BD. The current study is designed to describe the adolescent-specific developmental adaptations made to IPSRT (i.e., IPSRT-A) and to report the results from an open trial of IPSRT-A with 12 adolescents with a bipolar spectrum disorder. Method Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy was adapted to be developmentally-relevant to adolescents with bipolar disorder. Twelve adolescents (mean age 16.5 ± 1.3 years) diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder participated in 16–18 sessions of adjunctive IPSRT-A over 20 weeks. Manic, depressive, and general symptoms and global functioning were measured at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at post-treatment. Adolescent satisfaction with treatment was also measured. Results Feasibility and acceptability of IPSRT-A were high; 11/12 participants completed treatment, 97% of sessions were attended, and adolescent-rated satisfaction scores were high. IPSRT-A participants experienced significant decreases in manic, depressive and general psychiatric symptoms over the 20 weeks of treatment. Participants’ global functioning increased significantly as well. Effect sizes ranged from medium-large to large. Conclusions IPSRT-A appears to be a promising adjunctive treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder. A current randomized controlled trial is underway to examine effects of adjunctive IPSRT-A on psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning. PMID:20186968

  8. The Results of Adductor Magnus Tenodesis in Adolescents with Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the peak torque of the quadriceps muscle and flexor was observed for 60°/sec and 180°/sec angular velocities (P = 0.01). Our results confirm the efficacy of MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. PMID:25785271

  9. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:17514448

  10. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.

  11. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures. PMID:22836889

  12. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures.

  13. Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Psychosis: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; O’Brien, Mary P.; Schlosser, Danielle A.; Addington, Jean; Candan, Kristin A.; Marshall, Catherine; Domingues, Isabel; Walsh, Barbara C.; Zinberg, Jamie L.; De Silva, Sandra D.; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies have begun to clarify the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis. This 8-site randomized trial examined whether a 6-month program of family psychoeducation was effective in reducing the severity of attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms and enhancing functioning among individuals at high risk. Method Adolescents and young adults (mean 17.4±4.1 years) with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, brief and intermittent psychosis, or genetic risk with functional deterioration were randomly assigned to 18 sessions of family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk (FFT-CHR) in 6 months or 3 sessions of family psychoeducation (enhanced care, or EC). FFT-CHR included psychoeducation about early signs of psychosis, stress management, communication training, and problem-solving skills training, whereas EC focused on symptom prevention. Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline and 6 months on positive and negative symptoms and social-role functioning. Results Of 129 participants, 102 (79.1%) were followed at 6 months. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater improvements in attenuated positive symptoms over 6 months than participants in EC (F[1,97]=5.49, P=.02). Negative symptoms improved independently of psychosocial treatments. Changes in psychosocial functioning depended on age: participants over 19 years showed more role improvement in FFT-CHR, whereas participants between 16 and 19 years showed more role improvement in EC. The results were independent of concurrent pharmacotherapy. Conclusion Interventions that focus on improving family relationships may have prophylactic efficacy in individuals at high risk for psychosis. Future studies should examine the specificity of effects of family intervention compared to individual therapy of the same duration and frequency. PMID:25062592

  14. Cardiorespiratory regulation in migraine. Results in children and adolescents and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ebinger, F; Kruse, M; Just, U; Rating, D

    2006-03-01

    To investigate autonomic regulation in juvenile migraine we studied 70 children and adolescents with migraine during the headache-free period and 81 healthy controls by cardiorespiratory function tests. Heart rate variability was analysed with time and frequency domain indices during spontaneous breathing at rest and during metronomic breathing. Changes of heart rate and blood pressure were studied during tilt-table test, active standing, Valsalva manoeuvre and sustained handgrip. We found significant differences in metronomic breathing, tilt-table test and Valsalva manoeuvre. We interpret our findings and results reported in the literature as pointing to a restricted ability of the system to rest, which supports therapies intending to further this ability. In autonomic tests, hyperreactivity in juvenile migraineurs changes to hyporeactivity and passive coping in adults. This might be explained by disturbances of raphe nuclei and the periaqueductal grey. It corresponds to psychological findings in juvenile migraineurs reporting hypersensitivity and repressed aggression and claiming learned helplessness. PMID:16472336

  15. Treatment for Adolescents Following a Suicide Attempt: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  17. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  18. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  19. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in Australian adolescents: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, James; Martin, Graham; Bor, William; Sawyer, Michael; Clark, Jennifer; McGrath, John

    2009-02-01

    There is an emerging interest in children and adolescents who have hallucinations and other psychotic-like experiences to enable identification of those potentially at risk for schizophrenia in adulthood. This study examines the prevalence, demographic and clinical correlates of hallucinations in the adolescent subgroup of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1261 adolescents aged 13-17 years. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires with two questions relating to hallucinations and questions pertaining to depressive symptoms and cannabis use. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Hallucinations were reported by 8.4% of adolescents. Those living in blended or sole parent families were more likely to report hallucinations than those living with both biological parents (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.93, 5.54; OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.63, 4.13 respectively). Hallucinations were more prevalent in adolescents who scored in the highest decile of the CBCL or had elevated depression symptoms (OR 3.30; 95% CI 2.10, 5.20; OR 5.02; 95% CI 3.38, 7.45 respectively). Hallucinations were associated with depressive disorder (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.16, 6.28) and were more prevalent in those adolescents who had smoked cannabis more than twice in the month prior to the survey (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.76, 6.08). Hallucinations occur relatively frequently in adolescents and are associated with a range of demographic and clinical correlates. Further research may assist in understanding the variable trajectory of children and adolescents who hallucinate.

  20. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  1. Adverse Social Experiences in Adolescent Rats Result in Enduring Effects on Social Competence, Pain Sensitivity and Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Peggy; Bindila, Laura; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. From postnatal day (pd) 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control) or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR), previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels and CP55, 940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the eCB anandamide (AEA) and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1R signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence. PMID:27812328

  2. The Influence of Three Mass Media Campaigns on Variables Related to Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Results of a Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Karl E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates 3 1985-87 mass media campaigns designed to prevent smoking by adolescents, using data gathered by telephone contact with over 2,000 households. The campaigns had but a modest or indeterminate result. Radio proved as effective as television. (DM)

  3. Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: the results of a controlled comparison of two family interventions.

    PubMed

    Eisler, I; Dare, C; Hodes, M; Russell, G; Dodge, E; Le Grange, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomised treatment trial of two forms of outpatient family intervention for anorexia nervosa. Forty adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa were randomly assigned to "conjoint family therapy" (CFT) or to "separated family therapy" (SFT) using a stratified design controlling for levels of critical comments using the Expressed Emotion index. The design required therapists to undertake both forms of treatment and the distinctiveness of the two therapies was ensured by separate supervisors conducting live supervision of the treatments. Measures were undertaken on admission to the study, at 3 months, at 6 months and at the end of treatment. Considerable improvement in nutritional and psychological state occurred across both treatment groups. On global measure of outcome, the two forms of therapy were associated with equivalent end of treatment results. However, for those patients with high levels of maternal criticism towards the patient, the SFT was shown to be superior to the CFT. When individual status measures were explored, there were further differences between the treatments. Symptomatic change was more marked in the SFT whereas there was considerably more psychological change in the CFT group. There were significant changes in family measures of Expressed Emotion. Critical comments between parents and patient were significantly reduced and that between parents was also diminished. Warmth between parents increased.

  4. Adolescent Perspectives on the Return of Individual Results in Genomic Addiction Research

    PubMed Central

    Coors, M.E.; Raymond, K.M.; McWilliams, S.K.; Hopfer, C.J.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    This study surveyed all adolescents who were enrolled in behavioral genomic research and provided DNA to a biobank, including 320 patients undergoing treatment for substance and conduct problems (SCPs) and 109 non-SCP controls. Participants selected from three options on the return of individual genomic results (RIR) and rated eight methods of re-contact. Most individuals with SCPs (77.8%) and non-SCP controls (72.5%) wanted RIR involving health or behavioral implications. The majority of individuals with SCPs (67.2%) and non-SCP controls (69.7%) indicated that phone re-contact was ‘best’, with e-mail (22.5% SCPs, 33.9% non-SCPs) and social networking websites (21.3% SCPs, 20.2% non-SCPs) being viable options. These results suggest a layered approach for RIR: phone calls, followed by e-mails and a secure message to a social networking account. Data from this special and vulnerable population, which includes youth involved in the criminal justice system and substantial minority participation, bring an essential and missing perspective to the discussion of RIR. PMID:25748091

  5. Adolescent perspectives on the return of individual results in genomic addiction research.

    PubMed

    Coors, Marilyn E; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Hopfer, Christian J; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K

    2015-06-01

    This study surveyed all adolescents who were enrolled in behavioral genomic research and provided DNA to a biobank, including 320 patients undergoing treatment for substance and conduct problems (SCPs) and 109 non-SCP controls. Participants selected from three options on the return of individual genomic results (RIR) and rated eight methods of re-contact. Most individuals with SCPs (77.8%) and non-SCP controls (72.5%) wanted RIR involving health or behavioral implications. The majority of individuals with SCPs (67.2%) and non-SCP controls (69.7%) indicated that phone re-contact was 'best', with e-mail (22.5% SCPs, 33.9% non-SCPs) and social networking websites (21.3% SCPs, 20.2% non-SCPs) being viable options. These results suggest a layered approach for RIR: phone calls, followed by e-mails and a secure message to a social networking account. Data from this special and vulnerable population, which includes youth involved in the criminal justice system and substantial minority participation, bring an essential and missing perspective to the discussion of RIR. PMID:25748091

  6. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender) were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females) reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females) reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001). Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use), and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence". PMID:19939261

  7. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  8. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  9. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.

  10. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  11. The Efficacy of Two Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatments and the Impact of Comorbid Depression: Results of a Small Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Muir, Joan; McCabe, Brian E.; Abalo, Clara; Cummings, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this randomized trial was to investigate the efficacy of two behavioral treatments focusing on different change mechanisms in ameliorating a borderline personality disorder constellation of behaviors and substance use in adolescents referred by juvenile diversion programs. Methods Forty adolescents 14 to 17 years of age and meeting DSM IV criteria for borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders were randomized to Integrative Borderline Personality Disorder-Oriented Adolescent Family Therapy (I-BAFT) or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). This design allowed a comparison of two manualized interventions, one family-based and one individually-oriented. Profiles of clinical change were used to detect impact and to estimate treatment effect sizes. Results Primary analyses showed that both interventions had a clinically significant impact on borderline personality disorder behaviors 12 months after baseline but with no differential treatment effects. The impact on substance use was more complex. Subgroup analyses revealed that adolescents with depression had significantly more severe profiles of borderline personality disorder and substance use. These youth were the only group to show reductions in substance use, but only if they received the I-BAFT intervention. Study data also documented the high dosage of intensive residential treatment needed by this population. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Results highlight the intensive treatment needs of juvenile justice involved youth with co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorder including depression, the hybrid outpatient and residential treatment often required by this population, and the promise of a family oriented approach particularly for youth with severe symptoms and co-occurring depression. PMID:25799306

  12. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. PMID:26825591

  13. A collaborative accountable care model in three practices showed promising early results on costs and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency.

  14. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  15. Adolescent suicidal and self-destructive behavior. Results of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Deykin, E Y; Hsieh, C C; Joshi, N; McNamarra, J J

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates an intervention program designed to reduce suicidal, self-destructive behavior among high-risk adolescents aged 13- to 17 years. The intervention combined a program of community education and direct service to youth who had required emergency care for self-inflicted injuries. The intervention program was effective in increasing subjects' compliance with medical regimen. To a lesser degree, the intervention also facilitated early help seeking among adolescents with suicidal thoughts and appeared to diminish slightly the overall occurrence of emergency room admissions for suicidal behaviors. However, the intervention program had no demonstrable effect on the occurrence of repeat suicidal episodes.

  16. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, P<0.001). Similar results were found for all other anthropometric changes and comparisons over one year between surgery types (P<0.001). In general, gastric bypass patients reported more improvement versus adjustable gastric band patients in comorbidities one year after surgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  17. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  18. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  19. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  20. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  1. Brief Strategic Family Therapy Versus Treatment as Usual: Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial for Substance Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Michael S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, Kathleen A.; Hodgkins, Candy; Carrion, Ibis; Vandermark, Nancy; Schindler, Eric; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. Method A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to TAU with a multiethnic sample of adolescents (213 Hispanic, 148 White, and 110 Black) referred for drug abuse treatment at 8 community treatment agencies nationwide. Randomization encompassed both adolescents’ families (n = 480) and the agency therapists (n = 49) who provided either TAU or BSFT services. The primary outcome was adolescent drug use, assessed monthly via adolescent self-report and urinalysis for up to 1 year post randomization. Secondary outcomes included treatment engagement (≥2 sessions), retention (≥8 sessions), and participants’ reports of family functioning 4, 8, and 12 months following randomization. Results No overall differences between conditions were observed in the trajectories of self-reports of adolescent drug use. However, the median number of days of self-reported drug use was significantly higher, χ2(1) = 5.40, p < .02, in TAU (Mdn = 3.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 11) than BSFT (Mdn = 2, IQR = 9) at the final observation point. BSFT was significantly more effective than TAU in engaging, χ2(1) = 11.33, p < .001, and retaining, χ2(1) = 5.66, p < .02, family members in treatment and in improving parent reports of family functioning, χ2(2) = 9.10, p < .011. Conclusions We discuss challenges in treatment implementation in community settings and provide recommendations for further research. PMID:21967492

  2. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly-changing phenomenon, requiring frequent assessments and reassessments. Since the mid-1960s it has remained a major concern for the nation. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How…

  3. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  4. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts.

  5. Adolescent Struggling Readers in Urban Schools: Results of a Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.; Hock, Michael F.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Deshler, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, our goal was to identify unique clusters of Adolescent Struggling Readers (ASRs) and examine the reading skill profiles each cluster presented. We assessed 319 students attending urban schools on three standardized measures of reading comprehension and eight standardized measures of component skills, including vocabulary, listening…

  6. Neighbourhood parks and reduction in stress among adolescents: Results from Buffalo, New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of green space or parks in adolescents’ built environment may protect against daily psychological stress. Physical activity may also buffer the effects of stress. This study determined the association between objective measures of neighborhood park area and the usual stress of adolesc...

  7. Disclosing Unwanted Sexual Experiences: Results from a National Sample of Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study are to identify factors that influence the disclosures made by female survivors of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in childhood and adolescence. The predictors of both the timing of disclosure (short delay, long delay, non-disclosure) and the recipient of the disclosure (disclosing ever to an adult, disclosing…

  8. Latino Adolescents' Civic Development in the United States: Research Results from the IEA Civic Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Barber, Carolyn H.; Wilkenfeld, Britt

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have reported gaps between Latino and non-Latino adolescents in academic and political outcomes. The current study presents possible explanations for such gaps, both at the individual and school level. Hierarchical linear modeling is employed to examine data from 2,811 American ninth graders (approximately 14 years of age) who had…

  9. Anticipatory Competence and Ability to Probabilistic Forecasting in Adolescents: Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmetzyanova, Anna I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this problem is related to the urgent need to explain peculiarities of anticipation and probabilistic forecasting in adolescence. It has revealed a contradiction: on the one hand, the problem of anticipation in ontogenesis is well developed, and, on the other hand, there remain understudied mechanisms of anticipation in…

  10. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  11. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  12. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  13. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  14. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents’ engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Methods Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15–17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. Results German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001) but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10–30% and team sports 30–50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001). Conclusion Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels. PMID:26291984

  15. [Body measurements of children and adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, H; Kahl, H; Bergmann, K E

    2007-01-01

    In the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a number of anthropometric parameters were assessed in a standardised way in 17,641 boys and girls. To this end, body weight and height, head circumference and upper arm length, as well as two skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular) were measured for the entire age range (0-12 years); starting from 6 years of age, elbow breadth and from 11 years of age waist and hip circumference were measured in addition. For all parameters, means with confidence intervals are reported per age (in years) and gender. Median graphs depict the changes with increasing age according to gender for each body measurement. The complex age-related anthropometric developments along with significant gender specificity show the full range of the dynamic physical development in boys and girls. Based on skinfold measurement data, the body fat percentage was estimated. Thickness and location of the skinfolds, as well as the calculated waist-to-hip ratio is used as an indicator for gender-specific fat distribution. Using the frame index, it is attempted to estimate skeletal robustness. For the anthropometric parameters studied, hardly any regional differences were found. However, head circumference, frame index and all parameters strongly associated with body fat show a significant social status gradient. Children and adolescents with migration background have on average a lower height, larger waist circumference and higher percentage of body fat. PMID:17514450

  16. Philippines: decentralized approach shows results.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    In the Philippines several steps have been taken to meet the challenge of increasing population growth. Commencing with the Republic Act 6365, known as the Population Act (1971) program directives focus on achieving and maintaining population levels most conducive to the national welfare. In 1978 a Special Committee was constituted by the President to review the population program. Pursuant to the Committee's findings certain changes were adopted. The thrust is now towards longterm planning to ensure a more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. Increasing attention is paid to regional development and spatial distribution in the country. The 1978-82 Development Plan states more clearly the interaction between population and development. The National Economic and Development Authority, the central policy and planning agency of the government, takes charge of formulation and coordinating the broader aspects of population policy and integrating population with socioeconomic plans and policies. At present the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) is implementing a project known as the Population/Development Planning and Research (PDPR) project with financial support from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This project promotes and facilitates the integration of the population dimension in the planning process. It does this by maintaining linkages and instituting collaborative mechanisms with the different NEDA regional offices and sectoral ministries. It also trains government planners in ways of integrating population concerns into the development plan. PDPR promotes the use of population and development research for planning purposes and policy formation. The Philippine Development Plan, 1978-82, recognized that an improvement in the level of 1 sector reinforces the performance of the other sectors. Since the establishment of the National Population Program 12 years ago, population and family planning have been successfully integrated with various development sectors, notably, labor, health, and education. Through the policies of integration, multiagency participation, and partnership of the public and private sectors, the Commission on Population uses existing development programs of government and private organizations as vehicles for family planning information and services and shares the responsibility of implementing all facets of the population program with various participating agencies in the government and private sector.

  17. Disclosure of HSV-2 Serological Test Results in the Context of an Adolescent HIV Prevention Trial in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hallfors, Denise Dion; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Millimo, Benson; Atieno, Carolyne; Okumu, David; Luseno, Winnie; Hartman, Shane; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Hobbs, Marcia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HSV-2 biomarkers are often used in adolescent sub-Saharan HIV prevention studies, but evaluations of test performance and disclosure outcomes are rare in the published literature. Therefore, we investigated the proportion of ELISA-positive and indeterminant samples confirmed by Western blot (WB); the psychosocial response to disclosure; and whether reports of sexual behavior and HSV-2 symptoms are consistent with WB confirmatory results among adolescent orphans in Kenya. Methods In 2011, 837 Kenyan orphan youth in grades 7 and 8 enrolled in an HIV prevention clinical trial with HSV-2 biomarker outcomes. We used a modified algorithm for the Kalon HSV-2 ELISA to improve specificity; positive and indeterminate results were WB-tested. We developed culturally sensitive protocols for disclosing positive results and documented psychosocial responses, reports of sexual contact, and HSV-2 symptoms. Results 28 adolescents (3.3%) were identified as HSV-2 seropositive; 6 as indeterminate. Of these, 22 positive and all indeterminants were WB-tested; 20 and 5, respectively, were confirmed positive. Most youth reported moderate brief stress after disclosure; 22% reported longer and more severe distress. Boys were more likely to be in the latter category. Self-reported virginity was highly inconsistent with WB confirmed positives. Conclusions The higher than manufacturer cut-off for Kalon ELISA modestly reduced the rate of false positive test results but also increased false negatives. Investigators should consider the risk-benefit ratio in deciding whether or not to disclose HSV-2 results to adolescent participants under specific field conditions. PMID:26139208

  18. The Influence of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Acculturation on North American Chinese Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, D. Russell; Ngai, So Wa; Larson, Jeffry H.; Hafen, McArthur, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N=41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and…

  19. Long-term results of Galeazzi-equivalent injuries in adolescents--open reduction and internal fixation of the ulna.

    PubMed

    Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae; Jeon, Je Hyung

    2016-03-01

    We diagnosed 10 Galeazzi-equivalent injuries. We report the radiological and clinical results at the end of growth in adolescents, including the results of ulnar lengthening. This study included 10 Galeazzi-equivalent injuries (seven patients requiring open reduction and three requiring closed reduction for ulnar lesions) seen since 2004. The periosteum was entrapped around the fractured physis in five patients and the extensor carpi ulnaris to the periosteum was interposed in two patients. Among the seven patients, ulnar lengthening was performed in only three patients. Ulnar variances at the time of the lengthening were -6, -6, and -5 mm. Gradual lengthening was performed. Radiologic abnormalities, including the ulnar variances, were investigated at the end of growth. In addition, pain scores, the range of wrist motion, and grip strength were evaluated and compared with nonlengthened ulnas. The mean age of the patients at the final follow-up was 19.7 years, and the mean total follow-up period was 6 years. The final ulnar variances were -5, -5, -3, and 0 mm in four patients with nonlengthened ulnas among the seven patients. Three patients with lengthened ulnas showed final neutral variances. In four nonlengthened ulnas, three ulnas bowed to the radial side and two ulnar heads had an inclined and deformed shape. Joint mismatch of the distal radioulnar joint surface was found in one patient with lengthened and one with nonlengthened ulnas. Three patients with nonlengthened ulnas showed decreased range of wrist motions. Comparison of contralateral grip strength indicated a significant difference between patients with or without lengthened ulnas. Long-term follow-up after Galeazzi-equivalent injuries may be essential to check for premature epiphyseal closure, length discrepancies, or joint incongruency. A procedure for a shortened ulna could be needed; however, the appropriate time and degree of lengthening remain to be investigated.

  20. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0–8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.26 (1.05–1.51), 1.06 (1.00–1.11) and 1.27 (1.14–1.42), respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of obesity (with 7.0–8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.24 (0.97–1.57), 0.94 (0.87–1.01) and 1.42 (1.24–1.63), respectively. Continuous splines regressions support non-linear U shape associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0–8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p < 0.01; obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p < 0.01). U-shape associations were found between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0–8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity. PMID:26568253

  1. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-11-16

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0-8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0-6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.26 (1.05-1.51), 1.06 (1.00-1.11) and 1.27 (1.14-1.42), respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of obesity (with 7.0-8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0-6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.24 (0.97-1.57), 0.94 (0.87-1.01) and 1.42 (1.24-1.63), respectively. Continuous splines regressions support non-linear U shape associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0-8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p < 0.01; obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p < 0.01). U-shape associations were found between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0-8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity.

  2. What do temporal profiles tell us about adolescent alcohol use? Results from a large sample in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Magee, Jennifer; Worrell, Frank C

    2014-12-01

    The psychological construct broadly known as time perspective is potentially useful in understanding a range of adolescent behaviours, including alcohol use. However, the utility of the construct has been hindered by measurement and conceptual problems. To date the vast majority of studies have assessed the relationship between time perspective and other measures in a variable-focussed (correlational) rather than a person-centred way. The present series of studies used a person-centred approach to assess the relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1620) of adolescents from High Schools in Northern Ireland. Although a 'Balanced' time perspective has been suggested as optimal, the present study suggests that having a 'Future' temporal profile is associated with less problematic use of alcohol, while having a 'Past Negative' or 'Hedonist' profile is associated with more problematic consumption. Results are discussed in the context of the time perspective and alcohol use literatures.

  3. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  4. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P < 0.0001), there were no differences in outcomes for any anthropometric variables between groups and behavioural changes did not follow a clear positive pattern. In conclusion, the Ma'alahi Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight.

  5. Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours.

  6. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  7. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were

  8. The Meaning of Grandparents as Viewed by Adolescent Grandchildren: An Empirical Study in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ranst, Nancy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study investigates reasons adolescents value their grandparents. Results show adolescents generally find their grandparents important and feel close to them because they provide affection, reassurance of worth, and reliable alliance. Early adolescents assigned more importance and meaning to their grandparents than middle and late adolescents.…

  9. Adolescent attitudes to authority.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Coleman, E Z

    1984-06-01

    This study is concerned with adolescent attitudes to authority. In particular the investigation focuses on notions of the ideal authority figure, attitudes to the sorts of conflicts experienced at home and in school, and on the types of resolutions to conflicts preferred by young people. Subjects were 43 adolescents from working class areas in outer London boroughs, all of whom were given a semistructured interview. Results indicated important differences in the amount of control required at home and in the school, and showed adolescents of 14 and 15 to have relatively little need for autonomy but a very considerable need for support from parents and teachers.

  10. Imagine HEALTH: results from a randomized pilot lifestyle intervention for obese Latino adolescents using Interactive Guided ImagerySM

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for innovative and developmentally appropriate lifestyle interventions to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to prevent the early onset of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in obese Latino adolescents. Guided imagery offers promise to reduce stress and promote lifestyle behavior change to reduce disease risk in obese adolescents. Our objectives were: 1) To pilot test a new 12-wk lifestyle intervention using a randomized trial design in obese Latino adolescents, in order to determine the effects of the mind-body modality of Interactive Guided ImagerySM (IGI), over and above those of a didactic lifestyle education, on insulin resistance, eating and physical activity behaviors, stress and stress biomarkers; and 2) To explore the role of intervention-related changes in stress and stress biomarkers on changes in metabolic outcomes, particularly insulin resistance. Methods Obese (BMI > 95th percentile), Latino adolescents (n = 35, age 14-17) were randomized to receive either 12 weekly sessions of a lifestyle education plus guided imagery program (GI), or lifestyle education plus a digital storytelling computer program (DS). Between-group differences in behavioral, biological, and psychological outcomes were assessed using unpaired T-tests and ANCOVA in the 29 subjects who completed the intervention. Results The GI group demonstrated significant reductions in leisure sedentary behavior (p < .05) and increases in moderate physical activity (p < .05) compared to DS group, and a trend toward reduced caloric intake in GI vs DS (p = .09). Salivary cortisol was acutely reduced by stress-reduction guided imagery (p < .01). There were no group differences in adiposity, insulin resistance, perceived stress, or stress biomarkers across the 12-week intervention, though decrease in serum cortisol over the course of the intervention was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (p = .03) independent

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  12. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  13. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  14. The Correlation of Different Cotinine Levels With Questionnaire Results: A Comparative Study for Different Measurement Methods of the Adolescent Smoking Rate in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Bae; Nam, Eun Woo; Lee, Seon Kui; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ranabhat, Chhabi

    2015-07-01

    This study compares the results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Self-Reported; KNHANEs [SR]) survey with urine-cotinine concentration (UCC) and the official index issued by the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). We established standard cutoffs of 20 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL to compare the results of UCC testing with those of self-reporting methods. The KYRBS demonstrated an overall current smoking rate of 12.25%, while the KNHANEs measured an overall rate of 9.63%. The UCC20 reported the highest current smoking rate at 25.6% overall. Methods that detected a lower prevalence of current smoking, in declining order, were the UCC30, UCC50, UCC100, online survey, and the KNHANEs (SR). The results of this study show that online surveys on smoking administered to adolescents have fewer false responses compared with the KNHANEs (SR). However, compared with UCC testing, online surveys still significantly underreport adolescent smoking rates.

  15. A Novel Behavioral Intervention in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Improves Glycemic Control: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maranda, Louise; Lau, May; Stewart, Sunita M; Gupta, Olga T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop and pilot an innovative behavioral intervention in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incorporating structured care of a pet to improve glycemic control. Methods Twenty-eight adolescents with A1C > 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (care of a Betta splendens pet fish) or the control group (usual care). Adolescents in the intervention group were given instructions to associate daily and weekly fish care duties with diabetes self-management tasks including blood glucose testing and parent-adolescent communication. Results After 3 months the participants in the intervention group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels (−0.5%) compared to their peers in the control group who had an increase in A1C levels (0.8%)(p = 0.04). The younger adolescents (ages 10–13) demonstrated a greater response to the intervention which was statistically significant (−1.5% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.04) compared with the older adolescents (ages 14–17). Conclusions Structured care of a pet fish can improve glycemic control in adolescents with T1DM, likely by providing cues to perform diabetes self-management behaviors. PMID:25614529

  16. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  17. Dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents: results of the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adolescents, describe their distributions in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District, and analyze the correlations with the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M). The study analyzed a sample of 60,954 ninth-graders from public and private schools who participated in the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. Cluster analysis was used to characterize dietary patterns. Three patterns were identified: healthy (27.7%), unhealthy (34.6%), and mixed (37.7%). Adolescents in the country's Southeast, South, and Central West regions showed a higher proportion of the healthy eating pattern. HDI-M showed a positive correlation with the healthy pattern and a negative correlation with the mixed pattern. The identification of different dietary patterns within and between regions and according to HDI-M highlights the need for better knowledge of each local context in terms of both the magnitude of events and the examination of determinants within these different realities.

  18. Autonomous thyroid nodules in adolescents: clinical characteristics and results of TRH testing

    SciTech Connect

    Osburne, R.C.; Goren, E.N.; Bybee, D.E.; Johnsonbaugh, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    Seven adolescents with autonomous thyroid nodules were evaluated over a three-year period. They had hyperfunctioning nodules on radionuclide scan which failed to suppress with exogenous administration of thyroid hormone. They were clinically euthyroid and had normal T4, free T4, and basal TSH values. However, as a group they had elevated total serum T3 concentrations, blunted TSH response to TRH, and accelerated closure of cranial sutures, all of which suggested subtle hyperthyroidism. These patients have been followed for one to five years. Four have undergone partial thyroidectomy because of persistent elevation in the serum T3 concentration or enlargement of the nodule. The clinical presentation and laboratory findings in this group are similar to those found in adults with autonomous nodules.

  19. HPV vaccination among adolescent males: results from the National Immunization Survey-Teen.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2013-06-10

    US guidelines provided a permissive recommendation for HPV vaccine for males in 2009, with an updated recommendation for routine vaccination in 2011. Data on vaccine uptake among males, however, remain sparse. We analyzed 2010-2011 data (collected mostly prior to the recommendation for routine vaccination) from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for a nationally representative sample of adolescent males ages 13-17 (n=22,365). We examined HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least one dose based on healthcare provider records) as the primary outcome. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. HPV vaccine initiation increased from 1.4% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2011. Parents who reported receiving a healthcare provider recommendation to get their sons HPV vaccine were much more likely to have vaccinated sons (OR=19.02, 95% CI: 14.36-25.19). Initiation was also higher among sons who were Hispanic (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.24-2.71) or who were eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.31). Only 31.0% of parents with unvaccinated sons indicated their sons were "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to receive HPV vaccine in the next year. The most common main reasons for parents not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (24.5%), not having received a provider recommendation (22.1%), and lack of knowledge (15.9%). HPV vaccination is low among adolescent males in the US, and provider recommendation for vaccination is likely key to improving vaccine uptake. Given the updated recommendation for routine vaccination and the changes in health insurance coverage that are likely to follow, continued efforts are needed to monitor HPV vaccination among males.

  20. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  1. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities. PMID:24950833

  2. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.

  3. A longitudinal study of Hong Kong adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning and well-being.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1998-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' and parents' discrepancies in their perceptions of family functioning and adolescents' psychological well-being were investigated via adolescents' and parents' reports of family functioning (N = 378 families). Results showed that discrepancies in perceptions of family functioning between adolescents and parents were related to adolescents' feelings of hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors predicting Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relationship between discrepancies in perceptions of family functioning and adolescents' psychological well-being are bidirectional. Adolescent-father and adolescent-mother discrepancies had similar effects on adolescents' psychological well-being. The negative impact of discrepancies among family members in perceptions of family functioning on adolescents' psychological well-being was greater for adolescent girls than for adolescent boys. PMID:9845971

  4. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  5. [Medical and inpatient care in childhood and adolescence : Representative results of the federal state module Thuringia in KiGGS wave 1].

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Anding, Christine; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    At a young age, health care is mainly provided by doctors in private practice. In this study, the health care of children and adolescents in Thuringia is analysed. Data base is the federal state module Thuringia (2010-2012, n = 4884; 0-17 years), which was conducted by the Robert Koch Institute as part of KiGGS wave 1 (2009-2012). The health care of children and adolescents is described based on 7 indicators: total medical visits, paediatrician visits, general practitioner visits, hospitalisation, health screening examinations and vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevalence and mean values with 95 % confidence intervals were reported, and with logistic and linear regressions, the significance of the group differences was examined. Results show that 93.9 % of children and adolescents aged 0-17 years in Thuringia went in the last 12 months to doctors in private practice; the average number of doctor visits was 6.6 contacts. 75.1 % of 0‑ to 17-year-olds were treated by a paediatrician, and 29.9 % visited a general practitioner. In addition, 13.1 % of 0‑ to 17-year-olds in Thuringia have spent at least one night in hospital in the last 12 months; the average number of hospital nights was 7.2. With 90.5 %, the majority of the children aged 7-13 years completed the health screening program for children (U3-U9, without U7a). 67.5 % of the 14- to 17-year-old girls were vaccinated against HPV with at least one dose (lifetime prevalence), and 56.3 % have received a full vaccination with 3 doses. In addition, 62.0 % of 14- to 17-year-old girls went at least once to a gynaecologist. There are significant differences by gender, age, socio-economic status and place of residence (urban/rural). In summation, the results indicate a high utilisation rate by children and adolescents in Thuringia. Additionally, the findings point out prevention potentials such as the vaccination against HPV.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF OBESITY: RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS LIVING IN AN URBAN AREA1, 2

    PubMed Central

    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROOK, DAVID. W.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relation of cigarette smoking, psychological symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety), physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) separately by sex. The sample consisted of 815 African Americans and Puerto Ricans (324 males, 491 females). The participants were originally 14 years of age and were followed to 32 years of age and gave information on smoking, depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical activity, and BMI. Structural equation modeling showed that for males cigarette smoking in mid/late adolescence was related to cigarette smoking in emerging adulthood and early adulthood. Finally cigarette smoking in early adulthood was negatively related to BMI in adulthood only for male participants. For female participants, cigarette smoking in adolescence was related to psychological symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety) in emerging adulthood and early adulthood. Psychological symptoms in early adulthood predicted physical activity in adulthood, which in turn, was related to BMI. With one exception, all of the standardized coefficients were statistically significant. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:24693808

  7. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  8. Long-term results of radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Thomas, P.R.; Simpson, J.R.; Fineberg, B.B.

    1988-12-01

    A retrospective review was performed of 11 children and adolescents (less than 19 years of age) with diagnosed pituitary adenomas. The patients were treated with subtotal resection and postoperative irradiation (S + R) or with irradiation alone (RT) at the Radiation Oncology Center, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University Medical Center, from January 1958 through December 1982. Patient conditions at diagnosis were acromegaly in one, Nelson's syndrome in one, prolactinoma in three, chromophobe adenoma in three, and Cushing's disease in three. Median follow-up was 15.6 years (range 6.3-29.5 years). Only two patients have had failure: one at 8.6 years and the other at 20.7 years following treatment. All four patients with visual field (VF) defects at diagnosis underwent S + R, with only one developing recurrent disease. The remaining seven patients, who did not have VF defects, received RT only, and there has been one failure in this group. None have suffered long-term visual complications. All have been able to continue school and/or work. Three of eight females have borne children. Hypopituitarism requiring medication occurred in all who received S + R and in four of seven who received RT only.

  9. Cognitive Impairment Occurs in Children and Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis: Results From a United States Network

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Laura; Serafin, Dana; Charvet, Leigh; Ackerson, Joseph; Benedict, Ralph; Braaten, Ellen; Brown, Tanya; O’Donnell, Ellen; Parrish, Joy; Preston, Thomas; Zaccariello, Michael; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, Ann; Krupp, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    In the largest sample studied to date, we measured cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis (n =187) as well as those with clinically isolated syndrome (n =44). Participants were consecutively enrolled from six United States PediatricMultiple Sclerosis Centers of Excellence. Participants had amean of 14.8 ± 2.6 years of age and an average disease duration of 1.9 ± 2.2 years. A total of 65 (35%) children with multiple sclerosis and 8 (18%) with clinically isolated syndrome met criteria for cognitive impairment. The most frequent areas involved were fine motor coordination (54%), visuomotor integration (50%), and speeded information processing (35%). A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (odds ratio = 3.60, confidence interval = 1.07, 12.36, P = .04) and overall neurologic disability (odds ratio = 1.47, confidence interval = 1.10, 2.10, P = .03) were the only independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may occur early in these patients, and prompt recognition is critical for their care. PMID:23155206

  10. Cognitive impairment occurs in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis: results from a United States network.

    PubMed

    Julian, Laura; Serafin, Dana; Charvet, Leigh; Ackerson, Joseph; Benedict, Ralph; Braaten, Ellen; Brown, Tanya; O'Donnell, Ellen; Parrish, Joy; Preston, Thomas; Zaccariello, Michael; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, Ann; Krupp, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    In the largest sample studied to date, we measured cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis (n = 187) as well as those with clinically isolated syndrome (n = 44). Participants were consecutively enrolled from six United States Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers of Excellence. Participants had a mean of 14.8 ± 2.6 years of age and an average disease duration of 1.9 ± 2.2 years. A total of 65 (35%) children with multiple sclerosis and 8 (18%) with clinically isolated syndrome met criteria for cognitive impairment. The most frequent areas involved were fine motor coordination (54%), visuomotor integration (50%), and speeded information processing (35%). A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (odds ratio = 3.60, confidence interval = 1.07, 12.36, P = .04) and overall neurologic disability (odds ratio = 1.47, confidence interval = 1.10, 2.10, P = .03) were the only independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may occur early in these patients, and prompt recognition is critical for their care.

  11. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    PubMed

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications.

  12. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V.; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L.; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. Methods and Findings A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. Conclusions VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population. PMID:26938639

  13. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315

  14. Bone Strength and Structural Deficits in Children and Adolescents With a Distal Forearm Fracture Resulting From Mild Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N; Amin, Shreyasee; Melton, L Joseph; Kirmani, Salman; McCready, Louise K; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Müller, Ralph; Khosla, Sundeep

    2014-01-01

    Although distal forearm fractures (DFFs) are common during childhood and adolescence, it is unclear whether they reflect underlying skeletal deficits or are simply a consequence of the usual physical activities, and associated trauma, during growth. Therefore, we examined whether a recent DFF, resulting from mild or moderate trauma, is related to deficits in bone strength and cortical and trabecular bone macro- and microstructure compared with nonfracture controls. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to assess micro-finite element-derived bone strength (ie, failure load) and to measure cortical and trabecular bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia in 115 boys and girls with a recent (<1 year) DFF and 108 nonfracture controls aged 8 to 15 years. Trauma levels (mild versus moderate) were assigned based on a validated classification scheme. Compared with sex-matched controls, boys and girls with a mild-trauma DFF (eg, fall from standing height) showed significant deficits at the distal radius in failure load (−13% and −11%, respectively; p<0.05) and had higher (“worse”) fall load-to-strength ratios (both þ10%; p<0.05 for boys and p=0.06 for girls). In addition, boys and girls with a mild-trauma DFF had significant reductions in cortical area (−26% and −23%, respectively; p<0.01) and cortical thickness (−14% and −13%, respectively; p<0.01) compared with controls. The skeletal deficits in the mild-trauma DFF patients were generalized, as similar changes were present at the distal tibia. By contrast, both boys and girls with a moderate-trauma DFF (eg, fall from a bicycle) had virtually identical values for all of the measured bone parameters compared with controls. In conclusion, DFFs during growth have two distinct etiologies: those owing to underlying skeletal deficits leading to fractures with mild trauma versus those owing to more significant trauma in the setting of normal bone strength. PMID:23959563

  15. Impact of tobacco advertisements on tobacco use among urban adolescents in India: results from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Reddy, K Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the longitudinal relationship between exposure and receptivity to tobacco advertisements and progression towards tobacco use among adolescents in India. Design and setting A 2-year longitudinal group-randomised trial, Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives (MYTRI), was undertaken from 2004 to 2006 in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai. Among the control schools (n=16), mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the objectives. Subjects Students who were non-susceptible, never users of tobacco (n=2782) at baseline (2004) in the control schools of Project MYTRI, who progressed academically and were followed up at endline (2006). Main outcome measures Progression towards tobacco use (on tobacco uptake continuum). Results Bivariate results suggest that exposure to tobacco advertisements at baseline was associated in a dose-dependent manner with progression at endline. Students exposed at more than four places were 1.5 times (95% CI 1.12 to 1.94; p<0.05) more likely to progress towards tobacco use at endline versus those not exposed. Among boys, those exposed at more than four places were 1.7 times more likely to progress (95% CI 1.14 to 2.62; p<0.05). These significant results disappeared in multivariate analysis, when other psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use were controlled. In both bivariate and multivariate analyses, the risk of progression at endline was more than two times higher (95% CI 1.28 to 4.32; p<0.05) among boys who were highly receptive versus non-receptive boys. The same relationship did not hold among girls. Conclusion High receptivity to tobacco advertising predicts future progression to tobacco use among boys in India. Suggestive evidence exists of a causal relationship between tobacco marketing and adolescent tobacco use. PMID:21803927

  16. Patch test results in children and adolescents. Study from the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Dermatology Clinic, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing is an efficient method to identify the allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the results of patch tests in children and adolescents comparing these two age groups' results. METHODS Cross-sectional study to assess patch test results of 125 children and adolescents aged 1-19 years, with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, in a dermatology clinic in Brazil. Two Brazilian standardized series were used. RESULTS Seventy four (59.2%) patients had "at least one positive reaction" to the patch test. Among these positive tests, 77.0% were deemed relevant. The most frequent allergens were nickel (36.8%), thimerosal (18.4%), tosylamide formaldehyde resin (6.8%), neomycin (6.4%), cobalt (4.0%) and fragrance mix I (4.0%). The most frequent positive tests came from adolescents (p=0.0014) and females (p=0.0002). There was no relevant statistical difference concerning contact sensitizations among patients with or without atopic history. However, there were significant differences regarding sensitization to nickel (p=0.029) and thimerosal (p=0.042) between the two age groups under study, while adolescents were the most affected. CONCLUSION Nickel and fragrances were the only positive (and relevant) allergens in children. Nickel and tosylamide formaldehyde resin were the most frequent and relevant allergens among adolescents. PMID:26560213

  17. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  18. Preventing Multiple Risky Behaviors among Adolescents: Seven Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Andrews, Kristine M.; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Taking risks is fairly common in adolescence. Risky behaviors can be associated with serious, long-term, and--in some cases--life-threatening consequences. This is especially the case when adolescents engage in more than one harmful behavior. The tendency for risky behaviors to co-occur has been well-studied. Yet prevention efforts traditionally…

  19. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  20. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  1. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  2. Timing of menarche in Chinese girls with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: current results and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mao, Sai-Hu; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Xu; Zhao, Qinghua; Qian, Bang-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Shu, Hao; Qiu, Yong

    2011-02-01

    Age at menarche is closely related to scoliosis progression during adolescence. Current data concerning the timing of menarche between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls in the literature are conflicting, with inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution difference of age at menarche for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls and normal control population and to subsequently elucidate the menarche age difference through literature reviewing. Moreover, menarche age of AIS girls with Cobb angle <40°, 40-60°, >60° were compared to estimate its association with curve severity. Menstrual status data were available for 6,376 healthy female adolescents and 2,196 AIS girls. We notice that less than 10% of healthy Chinese girls experienced onset of menses before 11.38 years, and approximately 90% of healthy Chinese girls were menstruating by 13.88 years, with a median age of 12.63 years. As for AIS girls, less than 10% started to menstruate before 11.27 years, and approximately 90% were menstruating by 14.38 years, with a median age of 12.83 years. Average menarche age in AIS (12.83 ± 1.22 years) was significantly later than that of normal control girls (12.63 ± 0.98 years) (p < 0.001). Age at menarche for AIS affected girls was significantly greater than that of normal control girls at 75%, 90% of whom had attained menarche (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). Proportion of girls starting to menstruate after 14 years was significantly higher in AIS population compared with normal controls (16.3 vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001). In addition, AIS girls with Cobb angle >60° experienced onset of menses at an average age of 13.25 years, which was significantly later than AIS girls with Cobb angle <40° (12.81 years, p < 0.05) and marginally significantly later than AIS girls with Cobb angle between 40 and 60° (12.86 years, p = 0.053). In conclusion, a tendency of delayed onset of menarche was observed in Chinese idiopathic scoliotic girls in this large

  3. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  4. Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results of the 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)

    SciTech Connect

    Boelling, Tobias; Geisenheiser, Alina; Pape, Hildegard; Martini, Carmen; Ruebe, Christian; Fischedick, Karin; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Gerss, Joachim; Koch, Raphael; Willich, Normann

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK) has been established to prospectively characterize dose-volume effects of radiation in terms of side effects. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the function of the thyroid gland after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck region in children and adolescents. Methods and Materials: Detailed information regarding radiation doses to at-risk organs has been collected across Germany since 2001. Thyroid function was evaluated by blood value examinations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Information regarding thyroid hormone substitution was requested from the treating physicians. Results: Until May 2009, 1,086 patients from 62 centers were recruited, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiotherapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio of 3.072 (p = 0.002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had hazard ratios of 3.768 (p = 0.009) and 5.674 (p < 0.001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of thyroid hormone substitution therapy did not differ between defined subgroups. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid function impairment, including damage to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis, can frequently be observed after radiotherapy in children. A structured follow-up examination is advised.

  5. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123…

  6. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  7. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  8. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.

  9. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  10. Family Interaction and the Course of Adolescent Psychopathology: An Analysis of Adolescent and Parent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results indicated that adolescents using positive or neutral voice tones during emotionally laden discussions with their parents tended to show relatively adequate levels of psychosocial adjustment as young adults, while adolescents using exclusively negative voice tones tended to show adjustment difficulties in early adulthood. (Author/SW)

  11. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This publication presents an overview of the 2000 survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular emphasis on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also shows trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which this study has shown to be particularly important…

  12. Effect of savings-led economic empowerment on HIV preventive practices among orphaned adolescents in rural Uganda: results from the Suubi-Maka randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Improving economic resources of impoverished youth may alter intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors by motivating positive future planning to avoid HIV risk and by altering economic contexts contributing to HIV risk. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of economic-strengthening on economic and sexual behaviors of orphaned youth, despite high poverty and high HIV infection in this population. Hierarchal longitudinal regressions were used to examine the effect of a savings-led economic empowerment intervention, the Suubi-Maka Project, on changes in orphaned adolescents' cash savings and attitudes toward savings and HIV-preventive practices over time. We randomized 346 Ugandan adolescents, aged 10-17 years, to either the control group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring (n = 167) or the intervention group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring, financial education, and matched savings accounts (n = 179). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results indicated that intervention adolescents significantly increased their cash savings over time (b = $US12.32, ±1.12, p < .001) compared to adolescents in the control group. At 24 months post-baseline, 92% of intervention adolescents had accumulated savings compared to 43% in the control group (p < .001). The largest changes in savings goals were the proportion of intervention adolescents valuing saving for money to buy a home (ΔT1-T0 = +14.9, p < .001), pursue vocational training (ΔT1-T0 = +8.8, p < .01), and start a business (T1-T0 = +6.7, p < .01). Intervention adolescents also had a significant relative increase over time in HIV-preventive attitudinal scores (b = +0.19, ±0.09, p < .05), most commonly toward perceived risk of HIV (95.8%, n = 159), sexual abstinence or postponement (91.6%, n = 152), and consistent condom use (93.4%, n = 144). In addition, intervention adolescents had 2.017 significantly greater

  13. Effect of savings-led economic empowerment on HIV preventive practices among orphaned adolescents in rural Uganda: results from the Suubi-Maka randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Improving economic resources of impoverished youth may alter intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors by motivating positive future planning to avoid HIV risk and by altering economic contexts contributing to HIV risk. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of economic-strengthening on economic and sexual behaviors of orphaned youth, despite high poverty and high HIV infection in this population. Hierarchal longitudinal regressions were used to examine the effect of a savings-led economic empowerment intervention, the Suubi-Maka Project, on changes in orphaned adolescents' cash savings and attitudes toward savings and HIV-preventive practices over time. We randomized 346 Ugandan adolescents, aged 10-17 years, to either the control group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring (n = 167) or the intervention group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring, financial education, and matched savings accounts (n = 179). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results indicated that intervention adolescents significantly increased their cash savings over time (b = $US12.32, ±1.12, p < .001) compared to adolescents in the control group. At 24 months post-baseline, 92% of intervention adolescents had accumulated savings compared to 43% in the control group (p < .001). The largest changes in savings goals were the proportion of intervention adolescents valuing saving for money to buy a home (ΔT1-T0 = +14.9, p < .001), pursue vocational training (ΔT1-T0 = +8.8, p < .01), and start a business (T1-T0 = +6.7, p < .01). Intervention adolescents also had a significant relative increase over time in HIV-preventive attitudinal scores (b = +0.19, ±0.09, p < .05), most commonly toward perceived risk of HIV (95.8%, n = 159), sexual abstinence or postponement (91.6%, n = 152), and consistent condom use (93.4%, n = 144). In addition, intervention adolescents had 2.017 significantly greater

  14. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  15. The SHAZ! Project: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial of a Structural Intervention to Prevent HIV among Adolescent Women in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Lambdin, Barrot; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Nhamo, Definate; Padian, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent females in Zimbabwe are at high risk for HIV acquisition. Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ!) was a randomized controlled trial of a combined intervention package including life-skills and health education, vocational training, micro-grants and social supports compared to life-skills and health education alone. SHAZ! was originally envisioned as a larger effectiveness trial, however, the intervention was scaled back due to contextual and economic conditions in the country at the time. SHAZ! enrolled 315 participants randomly assigned to study arm within blocks of 50 participants (158 intervention and 157 control). The intervention arm participants showed statistically significant differences from the control arm participants for several outcomes during the two years of follow up including; reduced food insecurity [IOR = 0.83 vs. COR = 0.68, p-0.02], and having their own income [IOR = 2.05 vs. COR = 1.67, p = 0.02]. Additionally, within the Intervention arm there was a lower risk of transactional sex [IOR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83)], and a higher likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62)] over time compared to baseline. There was also evidence of fewer unintended pregnancies among intervention participants [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.37, 1.01)], although this relationship achieved only marginal statistical significance. Several important challenges in this study included the coordination with vocational training programs, the political and economic instability of the area at the time of the study, and the difficulty in creating a true standard of care control arm. Overall the results of the SHAZ! study suggest important potential for HIV prevention intervention packages that include vocational training and micro-grants, and lessons for further economic livelihoods interventions with adolescent females. Further work is needed to refine the intervention model, and

  16. Association Between Sleep Problems and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence: Results From a Large Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Lundervold, Astri J; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems and symptoms of ADHD are common in adolescence, but detailed epidemiological assessment of their association is lacking. Using data from a recent population-based study, 9,846 adolescents aged 16 to 19 provided detailed information on sleep and symptoms of ADHD. Results confirmed a large overlap between self-reported symptoms of ADHD and all sleep variables studied. Symptoms of ADHD were linked to shorter sleep duration, longer sleep latency, and nocturnal wake time, as well as larger sleep deficiency. ADHD symptoms also increased the odds of insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. The associations were only partially explained by confounders (mainly depression). The findings suggest that sleep problems should be included as a treatment target in efforts to reduce symptoms of ADHD in adolescence. PMID:26503122

  17. [Health of children and adolescents in single-parent, step-, and nuclear families: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Rattay, P; von der Lippe, E; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of data from KiGGS Wave 1, the following manuscript investigates potential differences in the health status of children and adolescents aged 3-17 years according to the family form they live in: nuclear, single-parent, or stepfamily (n = 10,298). Additionally, we investigate whether differences persist after controlling for age, gender, living area, parental social status, and getting along in the family. Parent-rated health, chronic diseases, emotional or behavior problems, health-related quality of life, and daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were analyzed (prevalence, odds ratios). While the parent-rated health was independent of the family form, the prevalence of the other outcomes differed significantly according to the family form. Emotional or behavior problems were measured more often among children and adolescents growing up in single-parent families (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.17-2.26) or stepfamily households (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.63-3.41) than among those growing up in nuclear families, after adjusting for age, gender, living area, social status, and getting along in the family. Additionally, children and adolescents from single-parent families had chronic diseases (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.20-1.96) more often than their counterparts who lived together with both parents. Compared with those growing up in nuclear families, children and adolescents from stepfamilies showed a greater risk of lower health-related quality of life (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.76-4.80) and of lower daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.67). The results indicate the importance of the family context for the health of children and adolescents.

  18. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  19. Helpless attributions and depression in adolescents: the roles of anxiety, event valence, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Sellers, Denise P; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary L

    2003-04-01

    The relationship between helpless attributions and depression is well established. This study evaluated whether anxiety, event valence (positive or negative) and demographic variables (gender, age, socioeconomic status or race) influence this relationship. Results showed: (1) adolescents with anxiety and depression who were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds made less helpless attributions for negative events than did adolescents from higher socioeconomic backgrounds, (2) male adolescents with anxiety-only had helpless attribution styles that were similar to male adolescents with depression, but the same was not true for female adolescents, and (3) African-American adolescents showed less helpless attributions for negative events than did Caucasian adolescents. Results replicate past research showing that a helpless attribution style is associated with depression in adolescence, but suggest that this pattern may be influenced by demographic factors. Results also suggest that helpless attributions may be related to both anxiety and depression in males. PMID:12581725

  20. Tuberculosis Infection in Urban Adolescents: Results of a School-Based Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, M. Anita; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a tuberculosis skin testing program introduced for seventh and tenth grade students in Boston (Massachusetts) public schools. Positivity rate was significantly higher in tenth grade students. Among those testing positive, the majority were born outside the United States. Results suggest that testing may identify a significant number of…

  1. School-Based Approaches to Affect Adolescents' Diets: Results from the TEENS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Varnell, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) study, a 2-year intervention study conducted in 16 middle schools with a goal of increasing students' intakes of fruits, vegetables, and lower fat foods. Despite positive interim results for students randomized to intervention schools, the positive…

  2. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  3. [15 years of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Results and its importance for obesity prevention in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Plachta-Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Lange, D; Langnäse, K; Müller, M J

    2011-03-01

    The Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS) has been performed since 1996 and aims to characterize determinants and to prevent overweight. A total of 15,251 children and adolescents aged 5-16 years were recruited, of whom 780 and 92, respectively, underwent school-based and family-based interventions. Long-term evaluation of the school-based intervention was available over 4 and 8 years, while family-based intervention was evaluated over 1 year. The prevalence of overweight was 18.8% for the whole KOPS cohort. Determinants of overweight were parental overweight and obesity, low socioeconomic status (SES), early life factors, and lifestyle factors. School-based intervention ameliorated the weight status of children of high SES and of normal weight mothers over the long-term. The intervention effect was small but within the expectable range as calculated from analysis of determinants. Alternative outcome variables (e.g., fat mass) and new evaluation approaches (e.g., excess gain in fat mass) gave no detailed information of the intervention success. Family-based intervention showed that even with this individual approach children of low SES could not be reached.

  4. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  5. Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a test of how personality may shape social behaviors in a long-lasting dyad: the parent-adolescent relationship. In a large Belgian community sample, it was examined which parent Big Five characteristics were related to parenting and whether adolescent Big Five characteristics elicited certain parenting behaviors. Further, the proposition that individual differences are amplified under stress was examined by exploring whether parent personality was differentially related to parenting for parents of "easy" versus "difficult" adolescents. Moreover, possible differences in associations across parental and adolescent gender were explored. Mothers (N = 467) and fathers (N = 428) reported on their personality using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory; adolescents (N = 475) assessed their personality with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Two types of parenting behaviors, overreactive discipline and warmth, were assessed 2 years later by parent self-reports, partner reports, and adolescent reports, from which multi-informant latent factors were created. Results indicate that parental personality was more relevant than adolescent personality for explaining overreactivity, but parent and adolescent personality were similarly relevant in explaining warmth. Especially parental and adolescent Agreeableness and adolescent Extraversion were important predictors of both types of parenting. Associations between parental personality and parenting were similarly related to parents of easy versus difficult adolescents, and for mothers and fathers parenting daughters or sons. Together, results show that parent characteristics as well as adolescent characteristics importantly affect dysfunctional and adaptive parenting.

  6. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  7. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  8. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-05-11

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  9. Effectiveness of wraparound vs. case management for children and adolescents: Results of a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Eric J.; Pullmann, Michael D.; Sather, April; Brinson, Ramona Denby; Ramey, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared service experiences and outcomes for youths with serious emotional disorder (SED) randomly assigned to care coordination via a defined wraparound process (n = 47) versus more traditional intensive case management (ICM; n = 46) The wraparound group received more mean hours of care management and services; however, there ultimately were no group differences in restrictiveness of residential placement, emotional and behavioral symptoms, or functioning. Wraparound implementation fidelity was found to be poor. Organizational culture and climate, and worker morale, were poorer for the wraparound providers than the ICM group. Results suggest that, for less-impaired youths with SED, less intensive options such as ICM may be equally effective to poor-quality wraparound delivered in the absence of wraparound implementation supports and favorable system conditions. PMID:24973891

  10. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  11. Adolescent Medication Misuse: Results from the MUSC Inventory of Medication Experiences (MIME)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A. Lee; Klintworth, Erin M.; Hinton, Jessica O.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To survey a diverse high school population on current prescription and over-the-counter medication misuse behaviors and attitudes. Methods We administered the MUSC Inventory of Medication Experiences (MIME), a newly developed self-report instrument, in demographically diverse high schools in Charleston, SC, to assess the feasibility of its administration and determine characteristics associated with medication misuse among high school students. Results A total of 3182 students completed the MIME (93% completion rate). Nearly one-third (31%) reported misuse of a medication more than once a month. Analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between misuse and age (<15=33%, 15=32%, 16=33%, 17=30%, 18=26%, >18=34%; p=.35), grade (9=29%, 10=32%, 11=33%, 12=30%; p=.22), race (White 34%, African-American 26%, others 30%; p<.001), gender (M=32%, F=28%; p=.01), parent/guardian level of education (college=30%; p=.12), if a participant was prescribed medication (yes=46%, no=21%; p<.001), if a family member was prescribed medication (yes=40%, no=26%; p<.001), and if a family member had ever offered their prescribed medication to the student (yes=91%, no=29%; p<.001). Conclusion Medication misuse may be more pervasive than originally thought, with a notably high level among those most familiar with medications. PMID:24772383

  12. Design of a Website on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Adolescents: Results From Formative Research

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The Internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Objective To collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly website promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Qualitative research, encompassing both focus group and interview techniques, were used to design the website. Participants were 12-17 year olds in Houston, Texas, and West Lafayette, Indiana. Results A total of 133 participants took part in 26 focus groups while 15 participated in one-on-one interviews to provide guidance for the development of teen-friendly content and structure for an online behavior change program promoting healthy eating and physical activity to 12-17 year olds. The youth made suggestions to overcome common barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Their feedback was used to develop “Teen Choice: Food & Fitness,” a 12-week online behavior change program, populated by 4 cartoon character role models. Conclusions It is critical that members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant, appealing, and address their needs and interests. PMID:22538427

  13. Long-term results of immunomodulatory treatment in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Angelo; Amato, Maria Pia; Annovazzi, Pietro; Capobianco, Marco; Gallo, Paolo; La Mantia, Loredana; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Martinelli, Vittorio; Milani, Nicoletta; Moiola, Lucia; Patti, Francesco; Pozzilli, Carlo; Trojano, Maria; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Comi, Giancarlo

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory agents (IMAs) (Interferon-Beta, Glatiramer Acetate) in a large cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with disease onset in childhood or adolescence, treated before 16 years of age, after a long-term follow-up. A total of 130 patients were identified, 77 were treated with Avonex, 39 with Rebif/Betaferon, 14 with Copaxone. After a mean (SD) treatment duration of 53.6 +/- 27.0, 59.9 +/- 39.5 and 74.6 +/- 35.5 months, respectively, the relapse rate decreased significantly. The final EDSS score was unchanged with respect to the initial score. Similar results were also observed in subjects who continued a long-term follow-up after they were included in an observational study in 2004, and in subjects who were treated before 12 years of age. The frequency of clinical and laboratory adverse events was similar to that observed in adult patients. To conclude, IMAs were effective and well tolerated in paediatric patients with MS. PMID:19387545

  14. Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C): survey design and pilot study results on selected exposure biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Lee, Kee Jae; Park, Inho; Lim, Young-Wook; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Yeni; Seo, Ju-Hee; Hong, Soo-Jong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Yu, Jeesuk; Kim, Jeongseon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Bo-Eun

    2014-03-01

    For the first nationwide representative survey on the environmental health of children and adolescents in Korea, we designed the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C) as a two-phase survey and planned a sampling strategy that would represent the whole population of Korean children and adolescents, based on the school unit for the 6-19 years age group and the household unit for the 5 years or less age group. A pilot study for 351 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years in elementary, middle, and high school of two cities was performed to validate several measurement methods and tools, as well as to test their feasibility, and to elaborate the protocols used throughout the survey process. Selected exposure biomarkers, i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium in blood, and bisphenol A, metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate and cotinine in urine were analyzed. We found that the levels of blood mercury (Median: 1.7 ug/L) and cadmium (Median: 0.30 ug/L) were much higher than those of subjects in Germany and the US, while metabolites of phthalates and bisphenol A showed similar levels and tendencies by age; the highest levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A occurred in the youngest group of children. Specific investigations to elucidate the exposure pathways of major environmental exposure need to be conducted, and the KorEHS-C should cover as many potential environmental hazards as possible.

  15. COMT Val(158)Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Anney, R J L; Collins, V; Hemphill, S A; Williamson, R; Patton, G C

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether a composite genetic factor, based on the combined actions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (Val(158)Met) and serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) (Long-Short) functional loci, has a greater capacity to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence than either locus in isolation. Analyses were performed on DNA collected from 962 young Australians participating in an eight-wave longitudinal study of mental health and well-being (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study). When the effects of each locus were examined separately, small dose-response reductions in the odds of reporting persisting generalized (free-floating) anxiety across adolescence were observed for the COMT Met(158) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.004] and 5HTTLPR Short alleles (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.033). There was no evidence for a dose-response interaction effect between loci. However, there was a double-recessive interaction effect in which the odds of reporting persisting generalized anxiety were more than twofold reduced (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.29-0.70, P < 0.001) among carriers homozygous for both the COMT Met(158) and the 5HTTLPR Short alleles (Met(158)Met + Short-Short) compared with the remaining cohort. The double-recessive effect remained after multivariate adjustment for a range of psychosocial predictors of anxiety. Exploratory stratified analyses suggested that genetic protection may be more pronounced under conditions of high stress (insecure attachments and sexual abuse), although strata differences did not reach statistical significance. By describing the interaction between genetic loci, it may be possible to describe composite genetic factors that have a more substantial impact on psychosocial development than individual loci alone, and in doing so, enhance understanding of the contribution of constitutional processes in mental health outcomes. PMID:17504250

  16. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.

  17. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  18. Effects of parents' experiential avoidance and PTSD on adolescent disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Polusny, Melissa A; Ries, Barry J; Meis, Laura A; DeGarmo, David; McCormick-Deaton, Catherine M; Thuras, Paul; Erbes, Christopher R

    2011-04-01

    Despite the importance of family context to adolescents' reactions following disaster, little research has examined the role of parents' functioning on adolescents' disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Using data from 288 adolescents (ages 12 to 19 years) and 288 parents exposed to a series of severe tornadoes in a rural Midwestern community, this study tested a conceptual model of the interrelationships between individual and parental risk factors on adolescents' disaster-related PTSD symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results showed that the psychological process of experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between family disaster exposure and PTSD for both adolescents and their parents. Parents' PTSD symptoms independently predicted adolescents' PTSD symptoms. Further, parents' postdisaster functioning amplified the effects of adolescent experiential avoidance on adolescents' disaster-related PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the importance of family context in understanding adolescents' postdisaster reactions. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. High prevalence of elevated haemoglobin A1C among adolescent blood donors: Results from a voluntary screening programme including 31,546 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gore, M Odette; Eason, Stephen J; Ayers, Colby R; Turer, Aslan T; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K; Sayers, Merlyn

    2015-07-01

    More than 1 in 10 US adolescents have prediabetes or diabetes, and elevated glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in youth is associated with increased risk of death before the age of 55 years. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of 31,546 consecutive volunteer blood donors, 16-19 years of age, who donated blood during school blood drives between 1 September 2011 and 21 December 2012 in Texas. In the overall cohort, the prevalence of elevated HbA1C was 11.5%, including 11.0% in the prediabetes range (HbA1C 5.7%-6.4%) and 0.5% in the diabetes range (HbA1C ⩾ 6.5%). The prevalence of elevated HbA1C was higher in boys compared with girls (15.7% vs. 7.9%, p < 0.001) and was especially high in racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks 32.7%, Asians 19.7%, Hispanics 13.1%) compared with Whites (8.0%, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in total cholesterol and blood pressure across categories of increasing HbA1C in the overall cohort and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Blood donation programmes can serve as unique portals for health screening with potential for intervention in adolescents.

  20. [Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.

  1. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  2. Neighborhood, Parenting, and Adolescent Factors and Academic Achievement in Latino Adolescents from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Plunkett, Scott W.; Sands, Tovah

    2008-01-01

    Self-report questionnaire, school records, and census block group data for 502 Latino adolescents in immigrant families were examined using multilevel modeling to test how structural neighborhood adversity, in addition to perceived neighborhood, parental, and adolescent factors, explained grade point average (GPA). The results showed perceived…

  3. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  4. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  5. Supportive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment across Time in Former East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents from the former East (n=97) and West (n=186) Germany were used to examine the effects of consistently versus inconsistently supportive parents on several aspects of adolescent adjustment. Results show that adolescents who reported having consistently supportive parents had lower levels of depression and delinquency, higher levels of…

  6. Everyday Memory and Working Memory in Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…

  7. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Spilsbury, James C.; Drotar, Dennis; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Developed the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a brief, self-completed instrument to measure excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Participants: A subsample of 411 adolescents 11–17 years of age recruited from area schools, churches, and “control” participants in a sleep disordered breathing cohort study; a second subsample of 62 adolescents with diagnosed sleep disordered breathing also participating in the sleep disordered breathing study. Measurements: Participants completed the CASQ along with two other available measures of daytime sleepiness and other sleep parameters (sleep duration on school nights, sleep duration on non-school nights, and sleep debt, defined as non-school night sleep duration minus school-night sleep duration). Demographic information was obtained from a caregiver-completed questionnaire. The CASQ was developed using exploratory factor analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling techniques. Results: Goodness-of-fit measures for the final 16-item scale structure ranged from good to excellent. The CASQ's internal consistency was good (α = 0.89). Correlations between the CASQ, two other measures of daytime sleepiness, and sleep parameters gave preliminary evidence of the CASQ's construct validity. Conclusion: The CASQ shows promise as a valid measure of daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Citation: Spilsbury JC; Drotar D; Rosen CL et al. The cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire: a new measure to assess excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. PMID:17993042

  8. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  9. Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  10. Brief Strategic Family Therapy versus Treatment as Usual: Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial for Substance Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Michael S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, Kathleen A.; Hodgkins, Candy; Carrion, Ibis; Vandermark, Nancy; Schindler, Eric; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to…

  11. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  12. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  13. Gender Segregation in Pre-Adolescent Peer Groups as a Matter of Class: Results from Two German Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Nicolle

    2010-01-01

    This study examines social class differences in the gender segregation of children and pre-adolescents and draws upon data from two recent German studies. Based on longitudinal quantitative data from a representative children's survey, the first analysis suggests that in comparison to children from upper-class families, lower-class children tend…

  14. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  15. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142

  16. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."

  17. A national database on children and adolescent with diabetes (e-DiCARE): results from April 2006 to June 2007.

    PubMed

    Fuziah, M Z; Hong, Janet Y H; Zanariah, H; Harun, F; Chan, S P; Rokiah, P; Wu, L L; Rahmah, R; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Chen, W S; Adam, B

    2008-09-01

    In Malaysia, Diabetes in Children and Adolescents Registry (DiCARE) was launched nationwide in August 2006 to determine and monitor the number, the time trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, their socio-demographic profiles, outcome of intervention and facilitate research using this registry. This is an on going real time register of diabetic patients < or = 20 years old via the e-DiCARE, an online registration system. To date were 240 patients notified from various states in Malaysia. The mean age was 12.51 years (1.08-19.75) and 46.4% were boys. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.31 +/- 4.13 years old with an estimated duration of diabetes of 4.32 +/- 3.55 years. A total of 166/240 (69.2%) have T1DM, 42/240 (17.5%) have T2DM and 18/240 (7.5%) have other types of DM. Basis of diagnosis was known in 162 patients with T1DM and 41 patients with T2DM. In T1DM patients, 6.0% of the girls and 19.1% boys were overweight or obese. As for T2DM, 64.3% had their BMI reported: 66.7% girls and 91.6% boys were overweight or obese. Most patients (80.4%) practiced home blood glucose monitoring. Patients were seen by dietitian (66.7%), diabetes educator (50.0%), and optometrist or ophthalmologist (45.0%). Only 10.8% attended diabetic camps. In the annual census of 117 patients, the mean HbAlc level was 10.0% + 2.2 (range 5.2 to 17.0%). The early results of DiCARE served as a starting point to improve the standard of care of DM among the young in the country. PMID:19230245

  18. Rapamycin and Chloroquine: The In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Autophagy-Modifying Drugs Show Promising Results in Valosin Containing Protein Multisystem Proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Angèle; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Nguyen, Christopher; Yazdi, Puya G.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP). Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem proteinopathies can

  19. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus among US adolescents: results from the continuous NHANES, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Ryan T; Zuk, Aleksandra M; Rosenbaum, Michael; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2013-10-01

    Although prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are reportedly increasing among adolescents, national data are lacking, particularly in regard to undiagnosed T2DM. To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM among US adolescents, we analyzed a nationally representative cross-section of 11,888 adolescents aged 12-19 years who received a diabetes interview in the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2010. Among them, a random subsample of 4,661 adolescents also had fasting blood samples collected. Persons who reported a previous diabetes diagnosis and were either taking no medication or taking an oral hypoglycemic agent (with or without insulin) were classified as having T2DM; persons who reported using insulin alone were classified as having type 1 diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose concentration of ≥126 mg/dL and was assumed to be type 2. In the fasting subsample, 31 diabetes cases (types 1 and 2) were identified, representing a prevalence of 0.84% (weighted 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.40) (276,638 cases; 95% CI: 134,255, 419,020). Estimates of the prevalences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were 0.48% (95% CI: 0.23, 1.02) and 0.36% (95% CI: 0.20, 0.67), respectively, indicating that T2DM accounted for 43% of all cases. Further, undiagnosed T2DM prevalence was 0.12% (95% CI: 0.05, 0.31), representing 34% of T2DM cases (40,611 cases; 95% CI: 2,850, 78,373). T2DM accounts for approximately half of adolescent diabetes in the United States, and one-third of these cases are undiagnosed.

  20. Identified risk factors and adolescents' beliefs about triggers for headaches: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Straube, Andreas; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2012-11-01

    Although there are few studies on adolescents' beliefs about triggers of headache, none of these compared the associations between perceived and observed triggers. This study aimed at comparing the prevalence of self-perceived and observed risk factors for headache among adolescents. Adolescents from the 10th and 11th grades of high schools answered questionnaires on their headaches and on potential risk factors regarding lifestyle, stress and muscle pain. Individuals reporting to have experienced headache in the preceding 6 months were asked to report what they believed to cause their headache (self-perceived triggers). 1,047 (83 %) of 1,260 adolescents reported headaches. Stress, lack of sleep and too much school work were the most frequently reported self-perceived triggers of headache; in contrast the statistical analysis identified alcohol and coffee consumption, smoking, neck pain, stress and physical inactivity as risk factors for headache. Among individuals with headache, 48 % believed that stress might trigger their headaches, while increased stress scores were only observed in 23 %. In contrast, while 7, 4, 0.3 and 0 % of individuals reporting headache considered consumption of too much alcohol, neck pain, physical inactivity and consumption of coffee might trigger their headache, 56, 51, 36 and 14 %, respectively, were exposed to these risk factors. The prevalence of self-perceived triggers of headache does not correspond to the prevalence of identified risk factors for headaches. While the role of stress was overestimated, the high prevalence of the other confirmed risk factors in adolescents with headache suggests potential for prevention by increasing awareness for these risk factors and appropriate interventions.

  1. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  2. [Prospective study of psychiatric and pedagogic evaluation of the adolescent service of the Student Health Foundation of France. Methodology and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Halfon, O; Laget, J; Ekbatani, A; Barbaux, J J

    1992-01-01

    The present prospective study, with a five-year follow-up, presents an extensive psychiatric and educational assessment of an adolescent population (N = 30) in the age range 14-20, suffering from several psychiatric disorders, though apt to follow a normal academic program. The residential settings where the study took place provide both psychiatric and schooling facilities. In this environment, what is the effectiveness of long-term hospitalization? Are there any criteria for predicting results? After discharge, could social adjustments difficulties be prevented? Assessment instruments are described and the results of one preliminary study are presented. The actual data seems to confirm the impact of the special treatment facilities combining schooling and psychiatric settings on the long term outcome of adolescents. PMID:1342658

  3. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  4. Physical Activity in German Adolescents Measured by Accelerometry and Activity Diary: Introducing a Comprehensive Approach for Data Management and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Heinrich, Joachim; von Berg, Andrea; Klümper, Claudia; Bauer, Carl P.; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of physical activity (PA) is increasingly based on accelerometry. However, data management guidelines are lacking. We propose an approach for combining accelerometry and diary based PA information for assessment of PA in adolescents and provide an example of this approach using data from German adolescents. Methods The 15-year-old participants comprised a subsample the GINIplus birth cohort (n = 328, 42.4% male). Data on PA was obtained from hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days, combined with a prospective activity diary. Major aspects of data management were validity of wear time, handling of non-wear time and diary comments. After data cleaning, PA and percentage of adolescents meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day were determined. Results From the 2224 recorded days 493 days (25%) were invalid, mainly due to uncertainties relating to non-wear time (322 days). Ultimately, 269 of 328 subjects (82%) with valid data for at least three weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analysis. Mean MVPA per day was 39.1 minutes (SD ±25.0), with boys being more active than girls (41.8±21.5 minutes vs. 37.1±27.8 minutes, p<0.001). Accordingly, 24.7% of boys and 17.2% of girls (p<0.01) met the WHO recommendations for PA. School sport accounted for only 6% of weekly MVPA. In fact, most MVPA was performed during leisure time, with the majority of adolescents engaging in ball sports (25.4%) and endurance sports (19.7%). Girls also frequently reported dancing and gymnastics (23%). Conclusion For assessment of PA in adolescents, collecting both accelerometry and diary-based information is recommended. The diary is vital for the identification of invalid data and non-compliant participants. Preliminary results suggest that four out of five German adolescents do not meet WHO recommendations for PA and that school sport contributes only little to MVPA. PMID:23750243

  5. Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

    2012-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight.

  6. Trends in adolescent suicide: misclassification bias?

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, B; Earls, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of misclassification of accidental deaths and undetermined deaths on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific adolescent suicide rates from 1979 through 1994. METHODS: Official mortality data were used to present suicide mortality trends. Two estimates of misclassified suicides in other death categories were applied to calculate "corrected" trends of adolescent suicide. RESULTS: The corrected trends showed a downward adjustment for Black adolescent males and young adolescents. This result does not, however, substantially alter the trend toward a recent increase in suicide in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite misclassification, the true direction of trends in adolescent suicide is reflected in recent official data. However, suicide rates should continuously be tested for misclassification, mainly in populations with proportionately high accidental and undetermined death rates. PMID:11189813

  7. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  8. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  9. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  10. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents.

  11. [Obesity in childhood and adolescence--first results of a multimodal intervention study in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern].

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Bernheim, Dorothee; Schröder, Carmen; Lauffer, Heinz; Fusch, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and young adults in Germany has dramatically increased during the last decades. We investigated the impact of an one year outpatient intervention including physical training, psychotherapy and nutrition counselling on psychological status and course of weight of 19 adolescents who were diagnosed with obesity (intervention group, IG). The following questions were of particular interest: Is there a difference between children with obesity (n = 19, mean age 12.4 years) and controls (without obesity and overweight, control group, CG, n = 38, matched for age and sex) regarding the extent of emotional and behavioural problems, self-esteem and physical complaints? Does the intervention lead to a decrease of these problems as rated by the adolescents and mothers? Can we find a significant reduction of the BMI-SDS after one year training in the IG? The group comparisons between the IG and the CG revealed lower feelings of self-esteem, more self rated physical complaints, higher values on measures of depression/anxiety and attention problems in the CBCL for children with obesity, compared with controls. After one year training adolescents' psychological well being increased significantly while the BMI-SDS only decreased moderately. We conclude that children with obesity can benefit from receiving outpatient intervention if psychological and medical aspects are considered.

  12. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  13. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Alexandra R; Martin, Jennifer L; Sharples, Sarah; Crowe, John A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents’ needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. PMID:24669187

  14. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  15. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  16. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  17. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    PubMed

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  18. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed. PMID:20144204

  19. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  20. Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2011-11-01

    Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097

  1. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    PubMed

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  2. A longitudinal test of the theory of planned behavior predicting smoking onset among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2007-10-01

    Despite the particularly detrimental health risks of smoking for adolescent with asthma, several studies demonstrated higher smoking rates among asthmatic adolescents than among healthy adolescents. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, longitudinal studies on differences in smoking predictors between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents are essential. This longitudinal study with two waves with an 18 months interval tests the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) among 346 asthmatic adolescents and 3,733 non-asthmatic adolescents aged 12-16 years. Structural equation models were used to test the predictive value of the TPB in these two groups. The results show, consistent with the TPB, that smoking-related cognitions (attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm) predict smoking onset via intention among both asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The TPB predicted smoking onset even stronger among adolescents with asthma. These findings may contribute to the development of tailored interventions for the prevention of smoking among asthmatic adolescents.

  3. Medically Significant Infections Are Increased in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Treated With Etanercept: Results From the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Southwood, Taunton R.; Kearsley‐Fleet, Lianne; Lunt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy and increased rates of infection is widely documented in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Findings in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been less well documented. The aims of this analysis were to compare the rates of medically significant infections (MSIs) in children with JIA treated with etanercept (ETN) versus methotrexate (MTX) and to compare the rates between combination therapy with ETN plus MTX and monotherapy with ETN. Methods A total of 852 ETN‐treated children and 260 MTX‐treated children had been recruited to the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study (BSPAR‐ETN). MSIs included infections that resulted in death or hospitalization or were deemed medically significant by the clinician. This on‐drug analysis followed the patients until the first MSI, treatment discontinuation, the last followup, or death. Cox proportional hazards models, which were adjusted using propensity deciles, were used to compare rates of MSI between cohorts. Sensitivity analyses were conducted specifically with regard to serious infections (SIs), which were defined as those requiring hospitalization or treatment with intravenous antibiotics/antivirals. Results The ETN‐treated cohort was older and had a longer disease duration, but the disease activity was similar between the cohorts. A total of 133 first MSIs were reported (109 with ETN and 24 with MTX). Patients receiving ETN had higher rates of MSI than did the controls (propensity decile adjusted hazard ratio 2.13 [95% confidence interval 1.22–3.74]). The risk of MSI was higher whether patients were receiving combination or monotherapy. Sensitivity analysis showed no between‐group difference in the rate of SIs, which were much less common. Conclusion ETN therapy is associated with an increased risk of MSI; however, this increased risk disappears when considering only SIs, which

  4. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    PubMed

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  5. Long-term treatment with metformin in obese, insulin-resistant adolescents: results of a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, M P; Elst, M A J; van de Garde, E M W; van Mil, E G A H; Knibbe, C A J; van der Vorst, M M J

    2016-01-01

    Background: As adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance may be refractory to lifestyle intervention therapy alone, additional off-label metformin therapy is often used. In this study, the long-term efficacy and safety of metformin versus placebo in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance is studied. Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, 62 adolescents with obesity aged 10–16 years old with insulin resistance received 2000 mg of metformin or placebo daily and physical training twice weekly over 18 months. Primary end points were change in body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Secondary end points were safety and tolerability of metformin. Other end points were body fat percentage and HbA1c. Results: Forty-two participants completed the 18-month study (66% girls, median age 13 (12–15) years, BMI 30.0 (28.3 to 35.0) kg m−2 and HOMA-IR 4.08 (2.40 to 5.88)). Median ΔBMI was +0.2 (−2.9 to 1.3) kg m−2 (metformin) versus +1.2 (−0.3 to 2.4) kg m−2 (placebo) (P=0.015). No significant difference was observed for HOMA-IR. No serious adverse events were reported. Median change in fat percentage was −3.1 (−4.8 to 0.3) versus −0.8 (−3.2 to 1.6)% (P=0.150), in fat mass −0.2 (−5.2 to 2.1) versus +2.0 (1.2–6.4) kg (P=0.007), in fat-free mass +2.0 (−0.1 to 4.0) versus +4.5 (1.3 to 11.6) kg (P=0.047) and in ΔHbA1c +1.0 (−1.0 to 2.3) versus +3.0 (0.0 to 5.0) mmol mol−1 (P=0.020) (metformin versus placebo). Conclusions: Long-term treatment with metformin in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance results in stabilization of BMI and improved body composition compared with placebo. Therefore, metformin may be useful as an additional therapy in combination with lifestyle intervention in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27571249

  6. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  7. Positive Self-Beliefs as a Mediator of the Relationship between Adolescents' Sports Participation and Health in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an…

  8. Repeat Pregnancies among Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lewis, Steven M.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Spencer, Michael S.; White, Rachelle D.

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of an event history analysis of rapidly repeated pregnancies among a sample of 170 adolescents. Results show that the best fitting model for these girls included two proximate determinants of pregnancy, contraceptive use, and other factors. Findings indicate that such pregnancies among teenagers are somewhat predictable. (RJM)

  9. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  10. Prosocial Reward Learning in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Huettel, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development—and influences reward learning—we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N = 75, 8–16 years) performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, Kwak et al., 2014) and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N = 102) performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards. PMID:27761125

  11. The Impact of Support for Black Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nancy Donohue; Lee, Diane

    1983-01-01

    Examined the association between social support and adolescents' responses to motherhood. Interviews with three groups of Black adolescent mothers (high school, Infant-Parent Program, and dropouts) assessed stress, self-esteem, and kinds of support available. Results showed support from individuals was related to decreased stress and increased…

  12. Preparing Inner-City Adolescents to Transition into High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article investigated how academic preparation, career development skills, parental assistance, and social/environmental barriers predicted inner-city adolescents' psychological preparation to transition into high school. Results showed that academic preparation, parents' instrumental assistance, adolescents' career development…

  13. Coping Strategies among Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olah, Attila

    1995-01-01

    Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…

  14. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  15. Sharing the Past and Future among Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Toshiaki; Higata, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how sharing past and future life events among late adolescents and their parents influenced the quality of their own time perspectives. Triads (N =104) of female students and their parents described three important life events from their past and future. The results showed that adolescents who shared past and future life events…

  16. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  17. Parent-Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…

  18. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  19. The Role of Adolescent Attachment in Moderating and Mediating the Links between Parent and Adolescent Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Warner, Stephanie; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that…

  20. Promoting interaction amongst autistic adolescents using robots.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sandra; Santos, Cristina; Soares, Filomena; Ferreira, Manuel; Moreira, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Most autistic people present some difficulties in developing social behavior, living in their own world. The intent of this study is to improve the social life of adolescents with both autism and mental impairment, with a main focus on promoting their social interaction and communication. An experiment designed to call for the adolescents' attention and enforce their collaboration is described; in it a LEGO MindStorm robot behaves as a mediator/promotor of this interaction. Further, sensory motor coordination and accuracy skills of the adolescents are also slightly explored. Four scenarios were envisaged. Results are described showing the outcomes of the experiment.

  1. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  2. The effects of social anxiety on alcohol and cigarette use across adolescence: Results from a longitudinal twin study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jeanne E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Verhulst, Brad; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting reports exist on the direction of the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol/cigarette use (AU/CU) and alcohol/nicotine dependence (AD/ND), with both positive and negative associations reported. A prospective, longitudinal sample of Finnish twins (n = 1,906) was used to test potential explanations for these discrepancies. Specifically, this study used peer, parent, and teacher ratings of SA, and a clinical interview screening item for social anxiety disorder (SAD-Sc) to examine associations between SA and AU/CU and AD/ND from early adolescence into young adulthood. Peer-rated SA was negatively associated with AU, CU, and AD from age 14 through age 22, implying a protective effect (β = -0.01 to -.03). Teacher- and parent-rated SA associations were in the same directions but weaker or nonsignificant, indicating that aspects of SA that are recognizable by peers may be most relevant to AU/CU. Self-reported SAD-Sc was also negatively associated with AU, but positively associated with AD symptoms in young adulthood (β = 0.38). Our findings partially support the existence of different associations between SA and AU versus AD, but only in the context of SAD-Sc rather than trait SA. Neither trait SA nor SAD-Sc significantly predicted ND symptoms, although SAD-Sc was associated with both cigarette abstinence and daily smoking. These findings suggest that adolescent SA is modestly associated with lower AU/CU, although there may be some individuals with more severe SA who develop alcohol problems later in life. There was little evidence of a common underlying liability contributing to both SA and alcohol/cigarette use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322804

  3. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  4. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  5. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  6. Growth patterns of adolescents in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Mater, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R; Musaiger, A O

    1990-10-01

    Weight and height of adolescents in Bahrain (15.5-19.5 years) was measured to evaluate their growth patterns. A cross-sectional survey was done on 825 students that represented 5% of total secondary students. The results showed that median height and weight of Bahraini adolescents were below the 50th percentiles of the Western standard. However, when compared with earlier surveys in Bahrain, the growth pattern has improved. This is because of improvement in health and in the environment.

  7. [Chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adolescents in Germany: results of the KiGGS study: first follow up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, H; Poethko-Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) 2003-2006 is the first nationwide comprehensive study on the health of children and adolescents living in Germany. The KiGGS first interview follow-up is a telephone interview study that collected, among other things, data on a number of chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in 2009-2012 and is a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study based on a population registry sample from the 167 KiGGS study points. The analysis is based on 12,368 respondents (7913 KiGGS follow-up participants aged 7-17 years, response 72 % and 4455 newly recruited 0- to 6-year-olds, response 42 %). Based on parent reports the lifetime prevalence of both chickenpox and pertussis has decreased in the population targeted by recently changed vaccination recommendations. For measles the prevalence remained unsatisfactorily high in each investigated age group. Of the children and adolescents aged 0-17 years 16 % (95 % confidence interval CI 15.2-17.0 %) had a long-standing chronic health condition according to the parents. Of these, however, only one in five was affected in their routine daily activities. The lifetime prevalence in 7- to 17-year-olds was 1.2 % (0.9-1.6) for epilepsy (0.4 % for the past 12 months), 5.0 % (4.4-5.7) for migraine, 0.2 % (0.1-0.3) for diabetes and in 0 to 6-year-olds 2.0 % (1.5-2.6) for heart conditions and 3.1 % (2.5-3.8) for febrile seizures with a -prevalence in 0 to 2-year-olds which are most affected of 1.0 % (0.6-1.6) in the past 12 months. The vast majority of children and adolescents in Germany are in good or very good health as suggested by other results reported in this issue; however, chronic conditions are not rare and need continuous monitoring. These results confirm that implementation of the vaccination recommendations of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) can lead to effective prevention of infectious diseases in Germany.

  8. Further Psychodrama with Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Patricia; Sandberg, Salek

    1985-01-01

    Adjusted delinquent adolescents (N=7) participated in a 12-session psychodramatic group therapy program which integrated behavioral-cognitive techniques. Participants and control subjects (N=10) completed pre- and post-tests measuring acting-out behavior and ego strength. Results showed that significant improvement occurred in the experimental…

  9. The Impact of Exposure to Interpersonal Violence on Gender Differences in Adolescent-Onset Major Depression: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Willett, John B.; Slopen, Natalie B.; Molnar, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Beginning in adolescence, females are at significantly higher risk for depression than males. Despite substantial efforts, gaps remain in our understanding of this disparity. This study tested whether gender differences in adolescent-onset depression arise because of female’s greater exposure or sensitivity to violence. Methods Data came from 5692 participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Trained interviewers collected data about major depression and participants’ exposure to four types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, sexual assault, rape, and witnessing violence) using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used discrete time survival analysis to investigate gender differences in the risk of adolescent onset depression. Results 5.7% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for depression by age 18; 5.8% of the sample reported being physically abused, 11.7% sexually assaulted, 8.5% raped, and 13.2% witnessed violence by age 18. Females had 1.51 times higher odds of depression by age 18 than males. Exposure to all types of violence was associated with an increased odds of depression in both the past year and the years following exposure. Adjusting for exposure to violence partially attenuated the association between gender and depression, especially for sexual assault (OR attenuated=1.28; 15.23%) and rape (OR attenuated=1.32; 12.59%). There was no evidence that females were more vulnerable to the effects of violence than males. Discussion Gender differences in depression are partly explained by females’ higher likelihood of experiencing interpersonal violence. Reducing exposure to sexual assault and rape could therefore mitigate gender differences in depression. PMID:22447513

  10. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  11. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  12. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  13. Dietary predictors of the insulin-like growth factor system in adolescent females: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)123

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Joseph C; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rosen, Cliff J; Velie, Ellen M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is associated with the adult diet and chronic disease. Childhood diet may influence chronic disease through its effect on the IGF system; however, there is limited information describing the dietary predictors of the IGF system in adolescents. Objective: We examined associations between dietary food intake [fat, protein (animal and vegetable), carbohydrate, lactose, dietary fiber, calcium, zinc, and sodium] and serum IGF-I, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratio in adolescent females. Design: One hundred fifty-nine adolescent females in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (age range: 14–18 y; 0.2–6.3 y postmenarche) were included. The dietary intake was assessed via three 24-h dietary recalls. IGF-related biomarkers were determined by using radioimmunoassays. Associations between dietary intakes and biomarkers were assessed with Pearson's correlations and multivariable linear regression. Dietary intakes and biomarkers were logarithmically transformed; thus, β coefficients represented percentages. Results: In analyses adjusted for energy, age, and time since menarche, significant correlations (P < 0.05) were as follows: IGF-I with total protein, lactose, calcium, and sodium; IGFBP-3 with total fat (inverse), lactose, fiber, and calcium; IGF-I/IGFBP-3 with lactose and calcium; and IGFBP-1 with vegetable protein. In multivariable analyses, significant predictors of IGF-I were energy (β = 0.14, P < 0.05) and calcium (β = 0.14, P < 0.01), the significant predictor of IGFBP-3 was calcium (β = 0.07, P < 0.05), and significant predictors of IGFBP-1 were vegetable protein (β = 0.49, P < 0.05) and body mass index–for-age percentile (β = −0.01, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that dietary intake affects IGF-related biomarkers—particularly elevated calcium with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and elevated vegetable protein with

  14. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    PubMed

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  15. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops for Improving Adolescent Behavioral and Mental Health: Results from the Common Sense Parenting Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  16. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  17. Nonshared environmental mediation of the association between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors over time: results from a cross-lagged monozygotic twin differences design.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    It has been argued that peers are the most important agent of adolescent socialization and, more specifically, that this socialization process occurs at the child-specific (or nonshared environmental) level (J. R. Harris, 1998; R. Plomin & Asbury, 2005). The authors sought to empirically evaluate this nonshared environmental peer influence hypothesis by examining the association between externalizing behaviors and deviant peer affiliation in a sample of 454 pairs of monozygotic (genetically identical) twins, assessed at ages 14 and 17, within a cross-lagged twin differences design. Results argued against a causal nonshared environmental influence of peer affiliation on the development of externalizing behaviors and in favor of nonshared environmental "selection." In particular, the twin with more externalizing behaviors at age 14 reported increased deviant peer affiliation relative to his or her co-twin 3 years later, regardless of his or her genetic predispositions toward externalizing behavior. Such findings suggest that adolescents with higher levels of externalizing behaviors select or shape (either intentionally or inadvertently) subsequent environmental experiences to involve increased affiliation with deviant peers. Implications are discussed.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Emotion Dysregulation Through Parental Invalidation of Emotions: Implications for Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Parra, Gilbert R; Jobe-Shields, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    We examined parent emotion dysregulation as part of a model of family emotion-related processes and adolescent psychopathology. Participants were 80 parent-adolescent dyads (mean age = 13.6; 79 % African-American and 17 % Caucasian) with diverse family composition and socioeconomic status. Parent and adolescent dyads self-reported on their emotion regulation difficulties and adolescents reported on their perceptions of parent invalidation (i.e., punishment and neglect) of emotions and their own internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results showed that parents who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation tended to invalidate their adolescent's emotional expressions more often, which in turn related to higher levels of adolescent emotion dysregulation. Additionally, adolescent-reported emotion dysregulation mediated the relation between parent invalidation of emotions and adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Potential applied implications are discussed.

  19. Psychosocial adjustment in adolescent child molesters.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C

    1990-01-01

    This study compared adolescent child molesters (n = 31) with nonsex offending delinquents (n = 34) and normal adolescents (n = 71) on standardized measures of social competence and psychological adjustment. The measures included the Adolescent Assertiveness Scale, the Survey of Heterosocial Interactions, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Norwicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Jesness Inventory. Results were consistent with predictions. Molesters showed significantly more global maladjustment than normals and were more socially anxious and threatened by heterosocial interactions than nonsex offending delinquents. A discriminant function analysis suggested that molesters, more than delinquents, were likely to perceive themselves as socially inadequate and to be externally oriented in their attributional style. Results support the hypothesis that social skill deficits and social isolation are risk factors that may predispose some adolescents to commit sexual crimes against children.

  20. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  1. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  2. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  3. Nutrition Habits and Knowledge in Competitive Adolescent Female Gymnasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Diet quality and nutrition knowledge were evaluated in 97 female adolescent competitive gymnasts. Results showed their nutritional knowledge to be poor, with both their caloric intake and their vitamin and mineral intake below recommended levels. (Author/MT)

  4. Development of Mastery during Adolescence: The Role of Family Problem Solving*

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137

  5. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. PMID:22281841

  6. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles.

  7. Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.

  8. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  9. Non-Participation of Children and Adolescents In Out-of-School Time Programs: Child, Family, and Neighborhood Factors. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can offer a secure and nurturing environment for children and adolescents, reducing the worries about what they are doing during these most vulnerable hours. For example, research suggests that participation in out-of-school time programs and activities can lessen the likelihood that children and adolescents will engage…

  10. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  11. The Effect of Wilderness Therapy on Adolescents' Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: Results of a Non-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Amichai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents participate in decision-making processes involving risky behaviors. Management of these important decisions may be promoted by enhancing adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive autonomy. Objective: In order to elucidate the value of wilderness therapy to the successful management of decision making processes…

  12. Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Diethelm, Katharina; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; Mistura, Lorenza; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Hallström, Lena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents' school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2 × 24 h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet. PMID:24055659

  13. Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Diethelm, Katharina; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; Mistura, Lorenza; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Hallström, Lena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents' school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2 × 24 h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.

  14. Pattern of beverage consumption and long-term association with body-weight status in German adolescents--results from the DONALD study.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Stehle, Peter; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Buyken, Anette E; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-06-01

    In the present study the relationship between the consumption of different beverage groups and body-weight status in 5 years of study participation in German adolescents was investigated. We used anthropometric and dietary data from 3 d weighed records of 244 subjects between 9 and 18 years of age participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Only subjects with at least four out of six possible weighed dietary records were considered. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of beverage consumption on body-weight status. BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and body fat percentage (%BF) were chosen as the dependent variables. In boys, energetic beverage consumption was not associated with BMI-SDS or %BF, neither cross-sectionally nor prospectively. In girls, baseline consumption of energetic beverages did not predict baseline BMI-SDS, baseline %BF, or change in either variable over the study period. However, an increase in energetic beverage consumption over the study period was associated with an increase in BMI-SDS (+0.070 SDS/MJ increase in energetic beverage consumption; P = 0.01). Separate consideration of regular soft drinks and fruit juices revealed that, in girls, BMI-SDS increased with increased fruit juice consumption (+0.096 SDS/MJ increase in fruit juice consumption; P = 0.01), and to a lesser extent with regular soft drink consumption (+0.055 SDS/MJ increase in regular soft drink consumption; P = 0.08). In conclusion, these results suggest that an increase in energetic beverage consumption may result in weight gain, at least in adolescent girls. PMID:18034911

  15. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence.

  16. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence. PMID:19237190

  17. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  18. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  19. The Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Hahn, Lori

    1991-01-01

    Developed Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale (ADIS) to measure level of drug involvement, considered as continuum ranging from no use to severe dependency, in adolescents. Administered ADIS to 453 adolescents referred for treatment. Results indicated acceptable internal consistency and provide preliminary evidence of validity. Scores correlated…

  20. Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones for Calling and for Sending Text Messages After Lights Out: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study with a One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of the use of mobile phones by adolescents after lights out and its relationship to tiredness levels after one year. Design: Prospective cohort study with self-reports and follow up questionnaire after one year. Setting: Second- and fifth-year secondary school children in 15 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Participants: 1656 school children; 52.1% boys. Average age was 13.7 years (SD: 0.68) in the youngest group and 16.9 years (SD: 0.83) in the oldest group at baseline. Main outcome measures: Self-reported tiredness. Results: Only 38% of the subjects never used their mobile phone after lights out. Multinomial logistic regression showed that using the mobile phone less than once a month increased the odds of being very tired one year later by 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 – 2.8). Those who used it less than once a week were 2.2 times more likely to be very tired (95% CI 1.4 – 3.5). Using it about once a week increased the odds by 3.3 (95% CI 1.9 – 5.7) and those who used it more than once a week were 5.1 times more likely to be very tired (95% CI 2.5 – 10.4). Overall 35% of the cases of being very tired were attributed to the use of the mobile phone. Use of the phone right after lights out increased the odds of being very tired by 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 – 3.4); between 00:00 and 03:00 the odds were 3.9 times higher (95% CI 2.1 – 7.1), and in those who used it at any time of the night the odds were 3.3 times higher (95% CI 1.8 – 6.0). Conclusion: Mobile phone use after lights out is very prevalent among adolescents. Its use is related to increased levels of tiredness. There is no safe dose and no safe time for using the mobile phone for text messaging or for calling after lights out. Citation: Van den Bulck J. Adolescent use of mobile phones for calling and for sending text messages after lights out: results from a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1220-1223. PMID:17910394

  1. BRAIN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes geared to ensure reproduction and achieve independence are very likely mediated by growth of neural processes, remodeling of synaptic connections, increased myelination in prefrontal areas, and maturation of connecting subcortical regions. These processes, greatly accelerated in adolescence, follow an asynchronous pattern in different brain areas. Neuroimaging research using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging has produced most of the insights regarding brain structural and functional neuropathology in adolescent psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, first episodes during adolescence are linked to greater-than-normal losses in gray matter density and white matter integrity, and show a divergence of maturational trajectories from normative neural development, in a progression similar to that of adult-onset schizophrenia. Anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence have been linked to abnormally increased activity in the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortical areas, although some data suggest that neural abnormalities in the amygdala and anxiety maybe particularly more frequent in adolescents than in adults. Alcohol misuse in adolescence results in reduced integrity in the white matter and reduced gray matter density that, given the high intensity of adolescent synaptic and myelin remodeling, may result in persistent and profound changes in circuits supporting memory, emotional and appetitive control. Interaction of persistent changes due to prenatal exposure with contemporaneous expression of genetic factors and disturbing environmental exposure may be an important factor in the appearance of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. Further progress in understanding adolescent psychopathology will require postmortem research of molecular and cellular determinants in the adolescent brain. PMID:23828425

  2. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  3. Private peer group settings as an environmental determinant of alcohol use in Dutch adolescents: results from a representative survey in the region of Twente.

    PubMed

    Korte, Jojanneke; Pieterse, Marcel E; Postel, Marloes G; Van Hoof, Joris J

    2012-07-01

    This study supports the hypothesis that the drinking setting can be an environmental risk factor for hazardous alcohol use. In a survey of Dutch adolescents (n = 1516), alcohol consumption and participation in private peer group settings (PPSs), environments where adolescents meet and drink alcohol without direct adult supervision, were measured. After controlling for demographic variables, adolescents visiting PPSs as compared to non-visitors, appeared to have a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of alcohol use, average weekly consumption, and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Moreover, accounting for school clustering, the frequency of PPS visits was associated with increased alcohol consumption. PMID:22429488

  4. Effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: exposure to SO/sub 2/ alone or SO/sub 2/ + sodium chloride droplet aerosol during rest and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.; Frank, R.

    1982-01-01

    Statistically significant changes in pulmonary functional measurements in asthmatic adolescents exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at reset and during exercise were recently reported. To determine whether those results were due to the subjects' adolescence or to their asthma, the identical exposures were repeated in healthy adolescents. The healthy subjects showed small, statistically significant changes after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but these changes were slight compared to those seen in the asthmatic adolescents. It was concluded that asthmatic adolescents are much more sensitive to the effects of inhaled SO/sub 2/ than are healthy adolescents. (JMT)

  5. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBOURGEOIS, MONIQUE K.; GIANNOTTI, FLAVIA; CORTESI, FLAVIA; WOLFSON, AMY; HARSH, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R = .40; Americans: R = .46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R2 = .38; Americans: R2 = .44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

  6. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: a content analysis of media reports.

    PubMed

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  7. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: a content analysis of media reports.

    PubMed

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  8. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  9. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  10. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations.

  11. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  12. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  13. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  14. Longitudinal study of striatal activation to reward and loss anticipation from mid-adolescence into late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.

  15. Should Parents Allow Their Adolescent Children to Drink at Home? Family Factors as Predictors of Alcohol Involvement Trajectories Over 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined familial risk and protective factors as moderators of parents allowing their adolescent children to drink at home on longitudinal alcohol involvement trajectories. Method: A total of 772 community adolescents and their parents provided data beginning in 1989 and at four subsequent time points over 15 years; Black adolescents were intentionally oversampled (50% at baseline). Results: Outcomes related to allowing adolescents to drink at home depended on family structure: Adolescents from intact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the lowest levels of alcohol use and problems over time, whereas those from nonintact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the highest levels of involvement. These results controlled for family history of alcohol problems, consistent parenting styles, and demographic characteristics. Conclusions: Results suggest that allowing adolescents to drink at home is neither inherently protective nor risky but depends on the family context. Implications for the development of adolescent alcohol involvement are discussed. PMID:26402346

  16. [Family dynamics around the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Gérard

    2005-05-31

    Family dynamics around the adolescent Adolescence modifies the family dynamics around the adolescent because adolescence comprises an unavoidable process of psychological separation between the subject and the parents of his childhood. On the adolescent side, the relations with his parents show a newer claim of recognition. On the parents' side, the mourning deals with several topics. The outcome of the crisis depends on the inner family control of anxiety and on the degree of differentiation of its members. Parents, grandparents and siblings have an important role to play in those transformations. PMID:16097251

  17. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; O'Mara, Roisin M.; Hayward, Charles N.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    and the POSIT scores of those with positive screens due to alcohol abuse and depression indicated substantial impairment. The addition of alcohol abuse with co-occurring depression as a positive screen criterion did not result in improved case identification. Among the subgroup screening positive due to depression plus alcohol abuse, all but one (>90%) also reported severe suicide ideation and/or a recent suicide attempt. This subgroup (approximately 17% of adolescents who screened positive) also reported significantly more impulsivity than other adolescents who screened positive. Conclusions The suicide risk screen showed evidence of concurrent validity. It also demonstrated utility in identifying 1) adolescents at elevated risk for suicide who presented to the ED with unrelated medical concerns and 2) a subgroup of adolescents who may be at highly elevated risk for suicide due to the combination of depression, alcohol abuse, suicidality, and impulsivity. PMID:19845554

  18. The Relationships of Adolescent School-Related Deviant Behaviour and Victimization with Psychological Distress: Testing a General Model of the Mediational Role of Parents and Teachers Across Groups of Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Estevez, Estefania; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant…

  19. Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference < 0.5 standard deviations) ranges from 34.9% for the 'Self-esteem' scale to 51.9% in the 'Psychological' scale. The most important factor explaining parents rating was the level of the child's self-assessment followed by the parent's assessment of the subjective health, or reported emotional abnormalities. Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information. PMID:22111939

  20. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents.

  1. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  2. Randomized clinical trial of musical distraction with and without headphones for adolescents' immunization pain.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, Ólöf; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2011-03-01

    Distraction has shown to be a helpful pain intervention for children; however, few investigations have studied the effectiveness of this method with adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an easy and practical musical distraction in reducing adolescents' immunization pain. Furthermore, to examine whether musical distraction techniques (with or without headphones) used influenced the pain outcome. Hundred and eighteen 14-year-old adolescents, scheduled for polio immunization, participated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to one of three research groups; musical distraction with headphones (n=38), musical distraction without headphones (n=41) and standard care control (n=39). Results showed adolescents receiving musical distraction were less likely to report pain compared to the control group, controlling for covariates. Comparing musical distraction techniques, eliminating headphone emerged as a significant predictor of no pain. Results suggest that an easy and practical musical distraction intervention, implemented without headphones, can give some pain relief to adolescents during routine vaccination.

  3. The Stability of Psychopathy Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The current diagnostic system suggests that personality disorder categories be applied to children and adolescents in rare circumstances due to expected changes in personality pathology across development. The present study examined the stability in personality pathology, specifically psychopathy, across childhood and adolescence. Using a short form of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; Lynam, 1997) and mixed models incorporating fixed and random effects, we examined the reliability, individual stability, mean-level stability, and predictive utility of juvenile psychopathy as a function of age (i.e., from 7 years old to 17 years old) in over 1500 boys from the three cohorts of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. If adolescent development contributes to instability in personality pathology, large age-related fluctuations in reliability, stability, and predictive utility should be observed, particularly in the latter part of adolescence when normative changes are hypothesized to influence levels of psychopathy. Such fluctuations were not observed. In general, juvenile psychopathy could be reliably assessed beginning in childhood, was fairly stable across short and long intervals, showed little mean-level fluctuation, and predicted delinquency across adolescence. These results suggest that concerns about large changes in personality pathology across childhood and adolescence may be overstated. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:19825261

  4. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5882

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Results from the Monitoring the Future's 2005 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students are given in this report. Recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs are emphasized, as well as trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug. This study has shown these beliefs and attitudes to…

  5. "Bone-οn-Bone" surgical reconstruction of moderate severity, flexible single curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: continuing improvements of the technique and results in three scoliosis centers after almost twenty years of use.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert W; Min, Kan; Zarzycki, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The "bone-on-bone" reconstruction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is reviewed in this article. Extensive use over the past 18 years has identified it's functional benefits outstanding clinical results, and very limited complications. This is an extensive update of it's application, since it's introduction, 18 years ago. PMID:26000031

  6. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil. PMID:17688087

  7. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.

  8. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control.

  9. [Transition of adolescents with the exstrophy-epispadias complex to adult medicine: influence of long-term outcome results on management].

    PubMed

    Ebert, A-K; Reutter, H; Neissner, C; Rösch, W

    2012-11-01

    Today, young individuals with rare congenital anomalies as the Exstrophy-Epispadias-Complex (EEC) are mostly monitored interdisciplinary with a high standard of care and enthusiasm during childhood. However, when growing up through adolescence to adulthood adequate care-givers are not available at the moment in adult medicine in Germany and a concrete transition process has yet not been established. Over the past years, we put much effort in systematic evaluation of long-term outcome after reconstruction of the EEC in the newborn period to further improve outcome results. Beside predictive parameters for continence and long-term bladder function, genital function and fertility, as well as postoperative pelvic floor morphology and gynecological outcome, orthopedic results and psychosexual and psychosocial development in EEC were of major interest. As a consequence we currently develop a German-wide follow-up concept in EEC patients regarding age- and gender specific outcome issues. Long-term observations of the EEC outcome however, underline the unrestricted importance of careful long-term follow-up of all EEC patients, as well as the necessity of close cooperation of pediatric urologist, pediatric surgeons, urologists, orthopedic surgeons, gynecologists, andrologists, psychologists and urotherapists from early childhood and the need of knowledge transfer and hopefully a successful transition of the EEC individuals to general medicine.

  10. Impact of an Intervention Designed to Reduce Sexual Health Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenner, Lynne W.; Walsh, Sarah; Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To replicate an evidence-based HIV risk reduction program and assess its impact on 2 behavioral outcomes—inconsistency of condom use and frequency of sex—6 months after the program. Methods. The study was an individual-level randomized controlled trial in which we randomly assigned 850 youths (aged 14–18 years) to 1 of 2 conditions. The treatment (Becoming a Responsible Teen) is a group-level sociocognitive and skills training sexual education course; the control is a general health intervention that includes the same initial informational component as the treatment. Participants were recruited over 3 summers (2012–2014) from a summer employment program in New Orleans, Louisiana, that serves primarily African American adolescents. Results. Six months after program exposure, we found no statistically significant difference between treatment and control group members’ self-reported inconsistency of condom use or frequency of sex (P > .05). Conclusions. Although previous evidence has indicated that this particular program can be effective, this study’s findings indicate that it was not effective in this setting with this specific population. Results should provide an incentive to learn why the intervention works in some cases and what conditions are necessary for causal impacts. PMID:27689499

  11. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  12. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  13. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  14. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  15. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-02-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

  17. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents. PMID:1434562

  18. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  19. Social Contexts of Regular Smoking in Adolescence: Towards a Multidimensional Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Van Duker, Heather; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Add Health, this study examined multilevel factors of adolescent smoking after controlling for the baseline smoking behavior and individual characteristics. Results showed that peer, family and school were all important life domains contextually influencing subsequent smoking behavior among adolescents. Time spent with peers,…

  20. Singaporean Adolescents' Perceptions of Online Social Communication: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…

  1. The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

  2. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms…

  3. Drug Dependence in Adolescents: Changing Trends at a De-Addiction Centre in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is scarcity of Indian data on substance dependence in children and adolescents. Methods: Case records of 85 adolescents with the final diagnosis of substance dependence were analyzed (out of 115 registrations during 1978-2003). Results: Time trends showed an increase in individuals with good social support and higher family…

  4. Binge eating and binge drinking behaviors: individual differences in adolescents' identity styles.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Liga, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Considering the significant negative consequences that are directly related to binge eating and drinking behaviors, many studies have explored the reasons why adolescents engage in them. This study examined the differences in the development, maintenance, and co-occurrence of "binge" behaviors associated with adolescent's identity style and the level of commitment. One thousand four hundred Italian adolescents completed self-report measures assessing binge behaviors and identity styles. Overall, results show that diffused adolescents were more likely to be engaged in binge eating and binge drinking behaviors than others, validating the idea that the achievement of a consolidated ego identity is important for enhancing well-being.

  5. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  6. Long-term results of high-dose imatinib in children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Giona, Fiorina; Putti, Maria C; Micalizzi, Concetta; Menna, Giuseppe; Moleti, Maria L; Santoro, Nicola; Iaria, Grazia; Ladogana, Saverio; Burnelli, Roberta; Consarino, Caterina; Varotto, Stefania; Tucci, Francesca; Messina, Chiara; Nanni, Mauro; Diverio, Daniela; Biondi, Andrea; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Gottardi, Enrico; Saglio, Giuseppe; Foà, Robin

    2015-08-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used for the management of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The most effective dosage of IM and its long-term efficacy in children are not well defined. The purpose of this multicentre study is to report on the long-term results of high-dose IM (340 mg/m2 /d) in CML patients in chronic phase (CP-CML) aged <18 years at diagnosis. A total of 47 CP-CML patients with a median age at diagnosis of 11 years 9 months were enrolled in nine Italian centres. Complete cytogenetic response was achieved in 91.5% of the evaluable patients at a median time of 6 months. BCR-ABL1 International Scale ≤ 0.1% (major molecular response; MMR) and ≤0.01% (molecular response; MR) at 12 months were 66.6% and 33%, respectively. During follow-up, MMR and MR were achieved in 78.6% and 61% of children, respectively. IM was safely discontinued in 3 long-term treated children with a durable MR. Twelve patients (eight cytogenetic/molecular responders) underwent stem cell transplantation. The progression-free survival probabilities at 96 months for responding patients who continued IM and for those transplanted were 60% and 50%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 52 months (range 3-146), all patients are alive. High-dose IM is a long-term effective therapy in children and adolescents with CP-CML.

  7. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults.

  8. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. PMID:23849664

  9. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family.

  10. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools.

  11. Exploring adolescents' intentions regarding the online learning courses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Feng-Cheng; Chang, Su-Chao

    2007-10-01

    This research combines computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, innovation diffusion theory, the technology acceptance model, and a proposed new hybrid technology acceptance model to study adolescents' behavioral intentions to use online learning courses. The results of the study show computer self-efficacy, compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use have a great positive effect, and computer anxiety has a great negative effect, on the behavioral intention to use online learning courses. By explaining adolescents' behavioral intentions from a user's perspective, the findings of this research provide insight into the best way to promote new e-learning tools for adolescents.

  12. Adolescent pregnancy: an interpersonal skill training approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D

    1977-01-01

    The research literature reports numerous negative consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Unfortunately, contemporary approaches to preventing teenage pregnancies have been largely unsuccessful. Recent evidence, however, suggests that interpersonal communication skill training may represent an important step in helping adolescents deal with their sexual and contraceptive behavior. This describes a pilot study of an interpersonal skill training model for sexually active inner-city teenagers. Results show that this training model is a feasible and attractive approach to modifying the youths' communication patterns. Findings indicate that such training is a fruitful direction for future pregnancy prevention research with the adolescent target population.

  13. Intergroup Contact and Social Outcomes for Mainstreamed EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Susan Ferencz; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    The prediction of the contact hypothesis, that contact between nonretarded and educable mentally retarded (EMR) adolescents would result in the EMR adolescents being viewed as more competent, likeable, and socially acceptable, was examined with 26 mainstreamed ERM adolescents. (Author)

  14. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  15. Adolescent neurodevelopment of cognitive control and risk-taking in negative family contexts.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Ethan M; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have an increased need to regulate their behavior as they gain access to opportunities for risky behavior; however, cognitive control systems necessary for this regulation remain relatively immature. Parents can impact their adolescent child's abilities to regulate their behavior and engagement in risk taking. Since adolescents undergo significant neural change, negative parent-child relationship quality may impede or alter development in prefrontal regions subserving cognitive control. To test this hypothesis, 20 adolescents completed a Go/NoGo task during two fMRI scans occurring 1year apart. Adolescents reporting greater family conflict and lower family cohesion showed longitudinal increases in risk-taking behavior, which was mediated by longitudinal increases in left VLPFC activation during cognitive control. These results underscore the importance of parent-child relationships during early adolescence, and the neural processes by which cognitive control may be derailed and may lead to increased risk taking. PMID:26434803

  16. Adolescent neurodevelopment of cognitive control and risk-taking in negative family contexts.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Ethan M; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have an increased need to regulate their behavior as they gain access to opportunities for risky behavior; however, cognitive control systems necessary for this regulation remain relatively immature. Parents can impact their adolescent child's abilities to regulate their behavior and engagement in risk taking. Since adolescents undergo significant neural change, negative parent-child relationship quality may impede or alter development in prefrontal regions subserving cognitive control. To test this hypothesis, 20 adolescents completed a Go/NoGo task during two fMRI scans occurring 1year apart. Adolescents reporting greater family conflict and lower family cohesion showed longitudinal increases in risk-taking behavior, which was mediated by longitudinal increases in left VLPFC activation during cognitive control. These results underscore the importance of parent-child relationships during early adolescence, and the neural processes by which cognitive control may be derailed and may lead to increased risk taking.

  17. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  18. The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Payne, John W.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making – despite adolescents' competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative, loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models. Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions, adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively, these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental transition in economic decision making: adolescents' decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models, while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate heuristics. PMID:26388664

  19. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values. PMID:17992960

  20. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Sheriff, Michael J; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner.

  1. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner. PMID:26580066

  2. Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values.

  3. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  4. Increasing healthy behaviors in adolescents of Mexican heritage in rural emerging Latino communities: results from a school-based health intervention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Villalba, José A; Amirehsani, Karen; Lewis, Todd F

    2011-06-01

    The rapid Latino population growth in emerging Latino communities (EmLCs) presents a challenge to health care providers as most current health interventions and health promotion programs intended for Latinas/os are based on characteristics of established Latino communities (EsLCs). This study addresses the gap in the literature by modifying and testing the beginning efficacy of a school-based health intervention for adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC. Seventy adolescents of Mexican heritage attending a rural middle school participated in the intervention. Paired samples t-tests were performed to determine differences between healthy behaviors at post-intervention compared to pre-intervention. Significant improvements in participants' physical activity and healthy eating were observed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. A school-based health intervention designed to increase healthy behaviors of adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC was successful. PMID:20803071

  5. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    PubMed

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  6. [Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents in Germany: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Ellert, U; Brettschneider, A-K; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a change in the health and disease spectrum among children and adolescents, with an increase in mental health problems and a shift from acute to chronic illness. In this phase, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has increased in importance as a dimension of subjective health. The aim of this study is to describe the HRQoL of children and adolescents measured with the internationally standardized screening instrument KIDSCREEN-10. In the follow-up of the KiGGS study in 2009-2012 (KiGGS Wave 1), 2,567 parents of children aged 7-10 years and 4,878 adolescents aged 11 years or older completed the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. In all, 94% of parents of 7- to 10-year-old girls and boys estimate the HRQoL of their children to be "very good" or "good." Of the 11- to 17-year-old adolescents, 96% report their HRQoL as "very good" or "good." Somatic diseases and pain as well as mental health problems and a low social status are included in the HRQoL in only a limited way. Potential differences in HRQoL by social status were not confirmed in multivariate models. The HRQoL of the examined children and adolescents is predominantly very good or good. Interventions to improve the HRQoL of children and adolescents with diseases and psychopathological problems are necessary, regardless of their social status.

  7. EEG Power Spectra of Adolescent Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; McPherson, W. Brian; Oglesby, D. Michael; Dykman, Roscoe A.

    1998-01-01

    Electroencephalographic power spectra were studied in two poor-reading adolescent groups (n=38), dysphonetic and phonetic. Significant Group x Hemisphere effects were found in the alpha and beta bands, with the phonetic group showing right greater than left asymmetry. Results suggest more circumscribed and mature processing in the phonetically…

  8. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  9. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  10. Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent: A Study from Islamic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sham, Fariza Md

    2015-08-01

    Rapid social changes in current times which can be quite abrupt present a challenge to adolescent life. Adolescents who are unable to adapt themselves experience stress which may affect their health. Psychological issues of adolescents require attention because the long-term consequence is worse than the short-term effects, namely, there will be a group of people within society who live under stress. Stressed people show symptoms such as being aggressive, prone to rebel, uncontrollable anger, depression, mental disorders and health problems. Early recognition of adolescent stress symptoms is vital. Pursuant to this, a study is conducted among adolescents in Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia for the purpose of determining whether they experience stress or otherwise, based on stress symptoms in terms of psychology, physiology and social behaviour. An analysis is conducted on 403 respondents who comprise of male and female adolescents aged 16-17 years. The required data are gathered through questionnaire and structured interview. Analysis is based on descriptive statistical method and is explained in a table in terms of frequency, percentage and mode. Research results show that adolescents do experience stress and that the majority of them exhibit psychological stress symptoms.

  11. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  12. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  13. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  14. Reduced nucleus accumbens reactivity and adolescent depression following early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Goff, B; Gee, D G; Telzer, E H; Humphreys, K L; Gabard-Durnam, L; Flannery, J; Tottenham, N

    2013-09-26

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early-life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youths without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  15. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  16. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  17. Expressed concerns of Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, A; Upton, G; Baluch, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of adolescents in the Republic of Yemen. A short version of the Mooney Problem Check List was administered to 150 13- to 17-year-old males and females. Results indicated that the major concerns and problems reported by Yemeni adolescents were related to their vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Problems related to social life, family, and health and physical issues were less prominent. Results also showed that though there were similarities in the number of concerns expressed by males and females, males reported more difficulties with their vocational and educational future, marriage and sexual matters, and finances and employment, while females reported more problems with recreational activities, personal relationships, and health. PMID:9583671

  18. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  19. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.

  20. Risky or Needy? Dynamic Risk Factors and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescents in Secure Residential Youth Care.

    PubMed

    Harder, Annemiek T; Knorth, Erik J; Kalverboer, Margrite E

    2015-09-01

    Although it is known that adolescents in secure residential care often show multiple behavior problems, it is largely unknown which dynamic risk factors are associated with their problems. The aim of the present study is to examine dynamic risk factors for 164 Dutch adolescents in secure residential care. Results show that a majority reports multiple risk factors in both an individual and contextual domain but that about a fifth shows relatively few risk factors. Substance abuse and delinquent friends were among the five most prevalent risk factors and predicted the seriousness of the adolescents' delinquent behavior prior to admission. The four groups that were found by cluster analysis could be distinguished by problem type and seriousness. The findings indicate that treatment for some adolescents should be mainly focused on their individual needs, while other adolescents need intensive, multimodal treatment focusing on both risks in the individual, family, and peer domains.

  1. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role

  2. School characteristics and adolescent smoking. Results from the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study 1974-8 and from a follow up in 1981.

    PubMed

    Murray, M; Kiryluk, S; Swan, A V

    1984-06-01

    In the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study a cohort of about 6000 adolescents was surveyed annually from 1974 when they entered secondary school aged 11-12 years until 1978 when they reached 15-16 years. In 1981 after the adolescents had left school they were again surveyed by post. Each year from 1974 to 1978 and again in 1981 they answered a questionnaire on their smoking behaviour and other issues. Information on the schools attended by these adolescents was obtained from their teachers and headteachers. This paper examines the relation between the school environment and the adolescents' smoking behaviour both before and after leaving school. The prevalence of smoking was higher among those boys who attended schools that were single sex, non-denominational, or had a parent-teacher association, no health education, no female teachers, or whose headteacher smoked cigarettes. Among girls the prevalence of smoking was higher if they attended a school that had optional school uniform and no health or antismoking education. The importance of these findings for the development of effective preventive measures is discussed. PMID:6747518

  3. Assessing Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Meghan; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Ball, Victoria N.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive health of American adolescents has been, and continues to be, a matter of serious concern. America's teen birth rate--already one of the highest among developed nations--is again on the rise. Also, rates of sexually-transmitted infection (STI) among teens remain disconcertingly high, with one-quarter of the 19 million new cases of…

  4. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.

  5. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  6. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  7. Assessing Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…

  8. Increasing the Complexity of Young Adolescents' Beliefs about Poverty and Inequality: Results of an 8th Grade Social Studies Curriculum Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia Spears; Chow, Kirby A.; Collins, Geri S.

    2012-01-01

    Poverty and economic hardship remain a reality for many of America's children. Although the causes of poverty are varied, Americans strongly endorse individual responsibility as a primary cause. Because beliefs about poverty originate in childhood and adolescence, intervention efforts targeting young people may be particularly effective in…

  9. Assessing the Mental Health of Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    Mental health problems can develop at any point in life and may be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics or family history of a disorder, chemical imbalances in the brain, or stressors in the environment. Adolescence is a time of great change and transition, when youth are starting to make decisions about career paths, further…

  10. Influencing Antecedents of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behaviour in Elementary School: Results of a 4-Year Quasi-Experimental Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruska, K.; Morgenstern, M.; Isensee, B.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the life skills programme "Eigenstandig werden" (Becoming independent) on life skills and on identified antecedents of adolescent health risk behaviour, childhood internalizing and externalizing behaviour were tested in an elementary school setting. A quasi-experimental controlled trial with five repeated measures was conducted.…

  11. Chronic Migraine in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur; Yalin, Osman Özgür

    2016-02-01

    Chronic migraine is defined as having more than 15 headache days in a month, half of these showing migraine features, for at least 3 months. It is a chronic painful syndrome with aspects such as psychiatric comorbid, decreased quality of life, and environmental and intrinsic psychological factors that make face-to-face treatment difficult. Children and adolescent migraine differ from adults as a result of growing brain and evolving disorder. In this paper, we will emphasize the definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, burden of life, and management of chronic migraine in children and adolescent.

  12. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  13. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development. PMID:868627

  14. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.

  15. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents.

  16. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents. PMID:20453381

  17. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  18. Developmental changes in conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years. Adolescents' reported use of positive problem solving increased with mothers, but did not change with fathers. Fathers reported an increase of positive problem solving with adolescents, whereas mothers reported no change. Adolescents' use of conflict engagement was found to temporarily increase with mothers, but showed no change with fathers. Mothers and fathers reported a decrease in conflict engagement with adolescents. Adolescents' use of withdrawal with parents increased, although this increase was temporarily with mothers. Mothers reported no change in withdrawal, whereas fathers' use of withdrawal increased. Generally, we found that both adolescents and their parents changed in their use of conflict resolution from early to middle adolescence. These results show that conflict resolution in parent-adolescent relationships gradually change in favor of a more horizontal relationship.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  20. Veridicality of self-concept of strength in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-06-01

    Changes in physical self-concept and veridicality (i.e., the appropriateness of one's self-perceptions to reality) during childhood and adolescence are related to performance in physical fitness, exercise, and global self-esteem, particularly in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between the self-concept of strength and actual strength in groups of male adolescents ages 12 to 15 years. For this purpose, 889 male adolescents (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.0) were questioned about their self-concept of strength, after which a test of strength was carried out. The results showed that the correlation between self-concept of strength and actual strength was higher in older (14- and 15-year-old) than younger (12- and 13-year-old) adolescents. There was a statistically significant association between age group and veridicality, indicating that realistic self-concept is underrepresented among younger, but overrepresented among older adolescents. No association was found between the adolescents' physical activity and veridicality. The consequences for further research on the development of veridicality in the physical domain are discussed. PMID:24175470

  1. Parental Criticism is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495

  2. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  3. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives.

  4. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 ) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods ... from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the ...

  5. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  6. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  7. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  8. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  9. Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, S.; Jerman, O.; Dal Pont, E.; Alberti, A.; Vianello, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether…

  10. Personality subtypes in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Peloso, Anna; Giordani, Silvia; Vesco, Serena; Zanna, Valeria; Filippucci, Ludovica; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study are to (1) empirically identify the personality subtypes of adolescents with anorexic disorders and (2) investigate the personality disorders, identity disturbances, and affective features associated with the different subtypes. We assessed 102 adolescent patients with Eating Disorders (anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified) using three clinical instruments: the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure for Adolescents (SWAP-200-A) (Westen D, Shedler J, Durrett C, Glass S, Martens A. Personality diagnoses in adolescence: DSM-IV Axis II diagnoses and an empirically derived alternative. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:952-966), the Affective Regulation and Experience Questionnaire (AREQ) (Zittel Conklin C, Bradley R, Westen D. Affect regulation in borderline personality disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2006;194:69-77), and the Identity Disorder Questionnaire (IDQ) (Wilkinson-Ryan T, Westen D. Identity disturbance in borderline personality disorder: An empirical investigation. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:528-541). We performed a Q factor analysis of the SWAP-200-A descriptions of our sample to identify personality subtypes. We correlated these personality styles with AREQ and IDQ factors and explored the personality differences among individuals with the different types of ED. The Q factor analysis identified three personality subtypes: high-functioning/perfectionist, emotionally dysregulated, and overcontrolled/constricted. Each subtype showed specific identity and affective features, comorbidities with different personality disorders, and clinical implications. These results contribute to the understanding of adolescents with ED and seem to be relevant for treatment planning.

  11. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations.

  12. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  13. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  14. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  15. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  16. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.

  17. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  18. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  19. Mood reactivity to daily negative events in early adolescence: relationship to risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Josien; Nicolson, Nancy A; Berkhof, Johannes; Feron, Frans J; van Os, Jim; deVries, Marten W

    2006-05-01

    Emotional responses to negative daily experiences in young adolescents may provide important clues to the development of psychopathology, but research is lacking. This study assessed momentary mood reactivity to daily events as a function of risk profile in a school sample, ages 11-14. High-risk (HR, n=25) and low-risk (LR, n=106) subgroups completed frequent self-reports of mood and events for 5 days. HR adolescents reported more negative events involving family and peers. Multilevel modeling results showed that negative events, especially if stressful, were associated with increased negative and decreased positive affects, with heightened responses in HR adolescents. HR adolescents with greater stress over the last 3 months showed additional increases in depressed mood following negative events. Altered reactivity to and dysfunctional appraisals of daily events may link adolescent risk profiles to later mental health problems.

  20. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  1. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  2. Children's and Adolescents' Tolerance for Divergent Beliefs: Exploring the Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Moral Conviction in Our Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Moral conviction predicts interpersonal tolerance in adults, but its role in children and adolescents is not as well understood. This study measured moral conviction for a variety of issues along two separate dimensions--cognitive and affective--in children and adolescents (4th-12th grade). Results showed that, like adults, when children and…

  3. Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

  4. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  5. [Familial coping with cancer in childhood and adolescence. Possibilities for standardized assessment with a self-assessment method: results of an empirical pilot study].

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, L

    1998-10-01

    44 parents of pediatric oncology patients answered mailed questionnaires about their own coping and about their sick children's coping and bodily complaints during oncological therapy. Most of the families coped well from parents' view. The dominant coping style of the parents consisted of active, problem-focused coping strategies in combination with an optimistic basic attitude, maintainance of family cohesion and belief in god or search for a meaning of the illness. The children and adolescents used predominantly adaptive coping strategies. The parental problem-group with a predominantly maladaptive coping-style reported low family cohesion, high depression, high wishful thinking and minimization. The maladaptive children and adolescents were rated as more socially withdrawing, more irritable, less optimistic and competent as well as less compliant. Strong correlations were found between parents' and their children's coping. Problem families with a special need for psychosocial support can early be identified by the coping questionnaires used in this study. Prospective longitudinal studies with multi-methodal and multi-perspective designs should be conducted to reach a better understanding of the family coping process in case of childhood and adolescence cancer.

  6. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  7. Association of Arsenic with Kidney Function in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Darcy; Chin-Chi, Kuo; Ana, Navas-Acien; Abraham, Alison G.; Virginia, Weaver; Jeffrey, Fadrowski

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests adverse health effects even at low levels of exposure. This study examined the association of arsenic exposure with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compared methods of adjustment for urinary dilution in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,253 participants ages 12–30 years in the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urinary arsenic and eGFR measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the association of urinary total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA) with eGFR. Results The median urinary total arsenic and DMA concentrations were 6.3 μg/L (IQR 3.3 – 12.7 μg/L) and 3.3 μg/L (IQR 1.7 – 5.7 μg/L), respectively. Median eGFR was 109 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusting arsenic for urine concentration with urinary creatinine, eGFR was 4.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 7.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% CI 0.5 to 8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) per log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA, respectively. When using urine osmolality to adjust for urine concentration, a log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA was associated with a 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.8 to 1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 0.01 (95% CI −1.9 to 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) lower eGFR, respectively. Conclusions Discordant associations were observed between arsenic and eGFR levels depending on whether urinary creatinine or osmolality was used to adjust for urine concentration. Further study should be dedicated to validating the best approach to account for urinary dilution in research in toxicants, and this may have implications for all studies which examine urinary biomarkers. PMID:25909687

  8. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  9. Family process and peer influences on substance use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-Wah

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are "authoritarian" (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are "permissive" were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends' invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  10. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  11. Parental Acculturative Stressors and Adolescent Adjustment Through Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships in Chinese American Families.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships.

  12. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents.This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na]), U[Na] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na]/Cr), and U[Na] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion.The mean levels of U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1-3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na]/Cr and U[Na]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly increasing trends with

  13. Maturation of coordinated IEG expression by cocaine during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Caster, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence may be critical period for drug addiction. Young adolescent male rats have greater locomotor responses than adults after acute low dose cocaine administration. Further, repeated cocaine administration produces as much or more conditioned place preference but reduced locomotor sensitization in adolescents compared to adults. Acute activation of neurons by cocaine induces long-term changes in behavior by activating transcriptional complexes. The purpose of the present study was to correlate cocaine-induced locomotor activity with neuronal activation in subregions of the striatum and cortex by acute cocaine in young adolescent (post natal (PN) 28) and adult (PN 65) male rats by measuring the induction of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and zif268 using in situ hybridization. Animals were treated with saline, low (10 mg/kg), or high (40 mg/kg) dose cocaine in locomotor activity chambers and killed 30 min later. Low dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity and striatal c-fos expression in adolescents than adults whereas high dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity, striatal c-fos, and striatal zif268 expression in adults. Locomotor activity correlated with the expression of both genes in adults but correlated with striatal c-fos only in adolescents. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the expression of c-fos and zif268 in the adult striatum but not in adolescents. Our results suggest that the coordinated expression of transcription factors by cocaine continues to develop during adolescence. The immature regulation of transcription factors by cocaine could explain why adolescents show unique sensitivity to specific long-term behavioral alterations following cocaine treatment. PMID:19245875

  14. Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: the moderating effect of celebrity adoration.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Jyh-Shen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of adolescents' attitude toward an act (the degree to which the person had a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the act's behavior in question), perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting Taiwanese adolescents' intention to purchase the merchandise of a celebrity when they had different levels of celebrity adoration. The present results showed that the relative strengths of attitude toward the act and the perception of behavioral control in predicting purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity were stronger for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group. On the other hand, the relative importance of the perceived norm in predicting the attitude toward the act and the purchase intention was stronger for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group. PMID:15960003

  15. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2015-04-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.

  16. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  17. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  18. Update on Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. PMID:27519138

  19. Identity development in adolescents with mental problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. Results In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Conclusion Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems. PMID:23899433

  20. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults. PMID:20167542

  1. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.

  2. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  3. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  4. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  5. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  6. The Development of Ego Defenses in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levit, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A model for developmental transitions in defense use in adolescence based on an integration of psychoanalytic views of adolescence and J. Loevinger's theory of ego development was tested with 31 male and 35 female adolescents. Results support some hypothesized developmental transitions and not others. Implications of findings are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Satanism among adolescents: empirical and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Steck, G M; Anderson, S A; Boylin, W M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Results from a pilot study are presented along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation are discussed.

  8. Satanism among Adolescents: Empirical and Clinical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Gary M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Presents results from a pilot study along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Discusses interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation. (Author/NB)

  9. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  10. The role of family and peer relations in adolescent antisocial behaviour: comparison of four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Wissink, Inge B; Marie Meijer, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is applicable to adolescents belonging to different ethnic groups. The sample included 603 adolescents (318 females and 285 males) from four ethnic groups: 68% of adolescents were Dutch, 11% were Moroccan, 13% were Turkish and 8% were Surinamese. The questionnaires assessing antisocial behaviour, quality of parent-adolescent relationship and involvement with deviant peers were completed by adolescents individually at schools. Results show few ethnic differences in the mean level of the assessed constructs: adolescents from different ethnic groups show similar levels of antisocial behaviour, are to a similar degree satisfied with their relationships with parents, disclose as much information to them, and do not differ in their involvement with deviant peers. However, the associations of parent and peer relations with antisocial behaviour differed across the ethnic groups.

  11. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  12. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  13. Cannabis use among Swedish men in adolescence and the risk of adverse life course outcomes: results from a 20 year‐follow‐up study

    PubMed Central

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter; Agardh, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To examine associations between cannabis use in adolescence (at age 18) and unemployment and social welfare assistance in adulthood (at age 40) among Swedish men. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants A total of 49 321 Swedish men born in 1949–51, who were conscripted to compulsory military service at 18–20 years of age. Measurements All men answered two detailed questionnaires at conscription and were subject to examinations of physical aptitude psychological functioning and medical status. By follow‐up in national databases, information on unemployment and social welfare assistance was obtained. Findings Individuals who used cannabis at high levels in adolescence had increased risk of future unemployment and of receiving social welfare assistance. Adjusted for all confounders (social background, psychological functioning, health behaviours, educational level, psychiatric diagnoses), an increased relative risk (RR) of unemployment remained in the group reporting cannabis use > 50 times [RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.53] only. For social welfare assistance, RR in the group reporting cannabis use 1–10 times was 1.15 (95% CI = 1.06–1.26), RR for 11–50 times was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.04–1.42) and RR for > 50 times was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.19–1.62). Conclusions Heavy cannabis use among Swedish men in late adolescence appears to be associated with unemployment and being in need of social welfare assistance in adulthood. These associations are not explained fully by other health‐related, social or behavioural problems. PMID:26172111

  14. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward hepatitis B infection and vaccination between adolescents in juvenile detention centers and in schools in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok; Lee, Hae Ok; Kim, Susie; Kang, Young Woo; Lee, Moo Sik; Han, Su Jeong; Shim, Moon Sook; Yang, Nam Yeong

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the level of knowledge and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and vaccination of adolescents in juvenile detention facilities and in schools in South Korea. A cross-sectional comparison design with a convenient sampling method was used. Participants in the study were 301 delinquent and 410 school adolescents. The results showed that knowledge of HBV infection among juvenile detention adolescents was significantly lower but there was no difference between groups in attitudes toward infection and vaccination.

  15. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  16. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  18. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  19. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  20. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  1. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  2. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  3. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  4. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  5. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. Methods In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Results Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015) and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001) or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders. PMID:24868156

  8. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  9. Affective Quality of Family Relations and Adolescent Identity Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent pubertal status, the affective quality of family relations, and the early adolescent's exploration of a sense of ego identity in families (N=51) with seventh-grade adolescents. Results revealed that affective quality of parent-child relationships and pubertal status of adolescent appeared to influence…

  10. Differential Effects of Support Providers on Adolescents' Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differential effects of parent, teacher, and peer social support on depression and self-esteem of 217 adolescents. Results indicate that female adolescents perceived significantly more support from friends than male adolescents did, whereas male adolescents perceived significantly more support from fathers. Self-esteem was…

  11. Body image and cognitive restraint are risk factors for obesity in French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Megalakaki, Olga; Mouveaux, Marie; Hubin-Gayte, Mylène; Wypych, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored the links between cognitive restraint and body image in obese adolescents when compared with normal-weight adolescents according to sex. Body image was measured on the Body Esteem Scale and cognitive restraint by means of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18). Although the results did not reveal any significant correlation between overall scores on these two measures, subscale scores showed that the obese adolescents used cognitive restraint more than the normal-weight adolescents did as a strategy for regulating their diet and were less satisfied with their body image. The normal-weight adolescents' use of cognitive restraint was correlated with body-weight dissatisfaction. Despite these differences, the two populations shared several characteristics. All the adolescents were dissatisfied with the way they thought that others saw them. The loss of control was one of their major concerns, although in the obese adolescents, it went hand in hand with major emotional investment. The results suggest that these are the variables responsible for adolescents' eating habits, regardless of their weight. The most discriminating variable when crossed with weight was sex, with girls being less satisfied with their body image, especially when they were obese. PMID:23807773

  12. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  13. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. PMID:23245219

  14. [Sexual education of adolescents: a role for the family or the school?].

    PubMed

    Janeiro, José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    2008-09-01

    The change from extended to nuclear families, the growing influence of the media on masses, the unhealthy lifestyles adopted by adolescents, weakened family ties stress the important role of education, particularly sexual education, today. A descriptive-correlational study was carried out to analyze the influence of the school and the family on the process of adolescent sexual education. A sample of 109 individuals was assessed. The following instruments were used: semi-structured interview, Parental Bonding Instrumen, and Sexual Attitude Scale. The results showed that the first sexual intercourse was by the age of 14, and that teachers and adolescents believed that the family is a safe and sufficient source of sexual education. These data highlight the need of schools and families to work together with the adolescents, providing information and skills for responsible sexual health in adolescence.

  15. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  16. Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Theodore W; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M

    2008-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A multi-agent construct was created using adolescent, parent, and teacher reports of self-regulation and peer deviance. Results indicated that self-regulation shows convergent validity and covaries as expected with developmental patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Self-regulation moderated the association of peer deviance with later self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior after controlling for prior levels of antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for models for the development of antisocial behaviors and for intervention science are discussed.

  17. [Pregnancy and motherhood in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Desaunay, Pierre; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Gérardin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are two periods which involve major psychological and identity changes. Teenage pregnancies are often considered to be a result of a confusion between these periods. The circumstances of teenage pregnancies and early motherhood are diverse and sit within the wider context of the psychopathology of adolescence, the heterogeneity of family configurations and evolutions in society. PMID:27444529

  18. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  19. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  20. Musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kamper, Steve J.; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise; Dunn, Kate M.; Williams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations and they are typically higher in teenage girls than boys. Epidemiological research has identified conditions such as back and neck pain as major causes of disability in adolescents, and in up to a quarter of cases there are impacts on school or physical activities. A range of physical, psychological and social factors have been shown to be associated with MSK pain report, but the strength and direction of these relationships are unclear. There are few validated instruments available to quantify the nature and severity of MSK pain in children, but some show promise. Several national surveys have shown that adolescents with MSK pain commonly seek care and use medications for their condition. Some studies have revealed a link between MSK pain in adolescents and chronic pain in adults. Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain conditions are often recurrent in nature, occurring throughout the life-course. Attempts to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:27437719