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Sample records for adolescents scored higher

  1. Empathic veterinarians score cattle pain higher.

    PubMed

    Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101

  2. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  3. IQ Scores among Homeless Older Adolescents: Characteristics of Intellectual Performance and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Study showed IQ scores of homeless adolescents (N=50) were comparable to population means, and unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression, lower reported delinquency, and less self-control in…

  4. Comparison of self-esteem scores: American and Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wood, P C; Hillman, S B; Sawilowsky, S S

    1995-04-01

    The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory was administered to 112 African American adolescents who were academically at-risk for dropping out of high school. Results were similar to those of a previous study comparing a heterogeneous group of 100 American adolescents with 100 youths from India. Differences on scores of self-esteem for the two international groups were noted. PMID:7667445

  5. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. PMID:6547731

  6. IQ scores among homeless older adolescents: characteristics of intellectual performance and associations with psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rohde, P; Noell, J; Ochs, L

    1999-06-01

    Intellectual performance and the associations of IQ with the quality of psychosocial functioning were studied in a sample of homeless older adolescents. Fifty homeless older adolescents (ages 16-21) completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a questionnaire assessing psychosocial functioning and sexual risk factors. The WAIS-R scores were comparable to population means, with performance IQ scores tending to be higher than verbal IQ scores. The IQ was unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher IQ scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression and lower reported delinquency, but also less self-control in high-risk sexual situations, less perceived peer support for safer sex, and a higher perceived likelihood of acquiring HIV. PMID:10462423

  7. Scores on psychoticism of adolescent girls in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Porrata, J L

    1995-06-01

    This study concerns 425 Puerto Rican adolescent girls whose scores on personality factors are not consistent. When the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Junior was standardized for Puerto Rico values of factorial comparisons for the female adolescents were as low as .65 for Psychoticism. This result points to girls' confusion in showing toughness. This might be explained by high expectations but there are few opportunities for lower-class girls in a society in which women are taught to live around men and not to develop themselves as workers. PMID:7568593

  8. Healthy dietary habits score as an indicator of diet quality in New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Parnell, Winsome R

    2014-06-01

    Adoption of optimal dietary habits during adolescence is associated with better health outcomes later in life. However, the associations between a pattern of healthy dietary habits encapsulated in an index and sociodemographic and nutrient intake have not been examined among adolescents. This study aimed to develop a behavior-based diet index and examine its validity in relation to sociodemographic factors, nutrient intakes, and biomarkers in a representative sample of New Zealand (NZ) adolescents aged 15-18 y (n = 694). A 17-item Healthy Dietary Habits Score for Adolescents (HDHS-A) was developed based on dietary habits information from the 2008/2009 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey. Post hoc trend analyses were used to identify the associations between HDHS-A score and nutrient intakes estimated by single 24-h diet recalls and selected nutritional biomarkers. Being female, not of Maori or Pacific ethnicity, and living in the least-deprived socioeconomic quintile were associated with a higher HDHS-A score (all P < 0.001). HDHS-A tertile was associated positively with intake of protein, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and lactose and negatively with sucrose. Associations in the expected directions were also found with most micronutrients (P < 0.05), urinary sodium (P < 0.001), whole blood (P < 0.05), serum (P < 0.01), and RBC folate (P < 0.05) concentrations. This suggests that the HDHS-A is a valid indicator of diet quality among NZ adolescents. PMID:24744308

  9. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  10. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:25151117

  11. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  12. Excellence in Higher Education Workbook and Scoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment leads to stronger performance in the nation's colleges and universities. That's the premise of "Excellence in Higher Education," a model self-assessment program that has earned accolades from the higher education community. Based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award framework, the fourth edition of this bestseller is the…

  13. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  14. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  15. The Relationship between Scores on the ICMIC and Selected Talent Domains: An Investigation with Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Linda W.; Corn, Anne L.; Morelock, Martha J.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation compared fantasy-proneness levels and IQ scores in gifted adolescents with primary talent areas in 1 of 4 domains: mathematics, computer science, creative writing, and chemistry. The Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings: Children's Form (ICMIC; Myers, 1983) was used to assess fantasy-proneness. IQ scores were generated…

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Scores in Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores in a group of 815 academically talented adolescents. Reliability estimates of the purported factors' scores were in the low to moderate range. Exploratory factor analysis supported a five-factor…

  17. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Matthew D; Trucco, Elisa M; Coffman, Donna L; Colder, Craig R

    2015-08-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  18. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  19. Transactional Links Between Teacher-Student Relationships and Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior and Behavioral School Engagement: Moderating Role of a Dopaminergic Genetic Profile Score.

    PubMed

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2016-06-01

    Throughout adolescence, there is an increase in rule-breaking behavior and a decrease in behavioral school engagement. The role of teacher-student relationship quality in the development of these adjustment problems remains understudied. This study examined how adolescent-reported teacher-student affiliation and dissatisfaction and parent-reported rule-breaking behavior and behavioral engagement impact one another throughout adolescence. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of genes by means of a Biologically Informed Multilocus genetic Profile Score (BIMPS), a composite score reflecting the cumulative effect of multiple dopaminergic genes, with a higher score indicating higher dopamine signaling in the adolescent brain. We used three-year longitudinal data from 1111 adolescents (51 % boys; M age = 13.79), and their parents. Cross-lagged analyses revealed a transactional process in which adolescents who display more rule-breaking behavior and less behavioral engagement experienced increased subsequent dissatisfaction with their teachers, which in turn further increased their adjustment problems. Also, adolescents with more adjustment problems experienced decreased subsequent affiliation with their teachers. The other way around, adolescents' behavioral engagement also benefitted from positive relationships with teachers. Multi-group analyses revealed genetic moderation for behavioral engagement, but not for rule-breaking. Specifically, adolescents who had a BIMPS score coding for moderate levels of dopamine signaling (instead of high or low signaling) were most affected in their behavioral engagement when they experienced dissatisfaction with their teachers. Our study findings may guide schools in implementing interventions to create a supportive class and school environment including positive, supportive teacher-student relationships and indicate that providing a such a supportive school environment is important for all adolescents. PMID:27013478

  20. Higher Perceived Stress Scale scores are associated with higher pain intensity and pain interference levels in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert S.; Jiang, Julie; Hall, Charles B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sliwinski, Martin; Lipton, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of bodily pain measures (pain intensity and pain interference) in elderly people and their relationship with perceived stress scale (PSS) scores. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants A representative community sample of 578 subjects aged 70 and older. Measurements The prevalence of pain intensity and pain interference and their relationship with perceived stress scale scores, demographic factors, past medical history, and neuropsychological testing scores were examined. Pain intensity and pain interference were measured by the SF-36 bodily pain questions. Results The study sample of 578 participants has a mean age of 78.8 years and is 63% female. Bivariate analysis for pain measures showed that higher scores on the perceived stress scale, lower neuropsychological test scores, and medical histories were associated with both pain intensity and interference. Logistic regression showed that higher scores on the perceived stress scale were significantly associated with increased odds of having moderate/severe pain intensity and moderate/severe pain interference (with and without the inclusion of for pain intensity in the models). Conclusion Higher PSS scores are associated with higher levels of pain intensity and pain interference. In this cross-sectional analysis, directionality cannot be determined. As both perceived stress and pain are potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and other poor health outcomes, future research should address temporality and the benefits of treatment. PMID:25516031

  1. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  2. Reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Slovene version of the questionnaire about interpersonal difficulties for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Inglés, Candido S; Bajec, Boštjan; Puklek Levpušček, Melita

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzed the psychometric properties of scores on the Slovene version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) in a sample of 1,334 adolescents (44% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.61). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated five-factor structure of the QIDA: Assertiveness, Heterosexual Relationships, Public Speaking, Family Relationships, and Close Friendships. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were reasonable. Correlations of scores on the QIDA with scores of neuroticism, low extraversion, and low openness, as measured by the Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual Differences, and scores of fear of negative evaluation, and tension and inhibition in social contacts, as measured by the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents were found, revealing differential links with QIDA subscale scores. Girls reported more difficulties than boys. Age differences showed a small but significant decrease in QIDA total score over adolescence. PMID:21274619

  3. A comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 intelligence scores in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Katherine T; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven R; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-08-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing populations. However, they have not been compared in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whose core symptoms can make testing challenging, potentially compromising test reliability. We used a within-subjects research design to evaluate the convergent validity between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., and Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., in 40 youth (ages 10-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder. Corresponding intelligence scores were highly correlated (r = 0.78 to 0.88), but full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (t(38) = -2.27, p = 0.03, d = -0.16) and verbal IQ scores (t(36) = 2.23, p = 0.03; d = 0.19) differed between the two tests. Most participants obtained higher full-scale IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., compared to Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., with 14% scoring more than one standard deviation higher. In contrast, verbal indices were higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., Verbal-nonverbal discrepancy classifications were only consistent for 60% of the sample. Comparisons of IQ test scores in autism spectrum disorder and other special groups are important, as it cannot necessarily be assumed that convergent validity findings in typically developing children and adolescents hold true across all pediatric populations. PMID:25398894

  4. Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Scores in Children and Adolescents with the Fragile X Mutation or Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Gene S.; Simensen, Richard J.; Schroer, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Comparison of children and adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome (n=18) or autism (n=18) for changes in cognitive ability and adaptive behavior over 9 years found steeper decreases in IQ scores among Fragile X subjects with older autistic subjects autism exhibiting stable test-retest scores. Comparative declines in adaptive behavior scores were…

  6. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ2) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ2 = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ2 = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  7. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ (2) = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ (2) = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ (2) = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  8. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Slovene Version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Ingles, Candido S.; Bajec, Bostjan; Levpuscek, Melita Puklek

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the psychometric properties of scores on the Slovene version of the "Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents" (QIDA) in a sample of 1,334 adolescents (44% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.61). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated five-factor structure of the QIDA:…

  9. Psychopathic traits in adolescents are associated with higher structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Pape, Louise E; Cohn, Moran D; Caan, Matthan W A; van Wingen, Guido; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2015-09-30

    Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. In this study, a sample of 145 adolescents (mean age 17.6, SD 1.6) from a childhood arrestee cohort participated in a neuroimaging protocol including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD), as obtained by tract-based spatial statistics, were associated with juveniles' scores on the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Grandiose-manipulative traits were positively associated with FA and negatively with RD in a wide range of white matter tracts, suggesting abnormal myelination related to these traits. Callous-unemotional traits were positively associated with FA and AD in specific white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract. The differential associations between dimensions of psychopathic traits and measures of structural connectivity support the notion that multiple distinct neural mechanisms underlie antisocial and psychopathic development. PMID:26272037

  10. Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 by using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997) and psychopathy assessed at age 24 by using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995). Data from over 250 participants of the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used to examine this relation; approximately 9% of the sample met criteria for a possible PCL:SV diagnosis. Despite the long time lag, different sources, and different methods, psychopathy from early adolescence into young adulthood was moderately stable (r=.31). The relation was present for the PCL:SV total and facet scores, was not moderated by initial risk status or initial psychopathy level, and held even after controlling for other age 13 variables. Diagnostic stability was somewhat lower. Both specificity and negative predictive power were good, and sensitivity was adequate, but positive predictive power was poor. This constitutes the first demonstration of the relative stability of psychopathy from adolescence into adulthood and provides evidence for the incremental utility of the adolescent psychopathy construct. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17324026

  11. Nondaily drinkers score higher on the Alcohol Dependence Scale than daily drinkers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Linda D; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B; Dornheim, Liane; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between drinking pattern and alcohol dependence severity, 209 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for alcohol problems were administered the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire, and a 12-month Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) drinking assessment as part of their pretreatment assessment. Based on their TLFB data, participants were divided into two groups: daily (DD, n=84) and nondaily (NDD, n=125) drinkers. The two groups were compared on several demographic and drinking variables. It was hypothesized that DD would have higher scores on measures of alcohol dependence than NDD. However, the reverse pattern was found. The NDD had significantly higher ADS scores than the DD. An analysis of ADS subscale scores indicated that the primary difference between the two groups was in the domain of loss of behavior control. It is suggested that NDD may perceive intoxication as more impairing, perhaps because they have acquired less tolerance than DD. These results suggest that treatment focused on restoring a sense of behavior control would be beneficial for NDD. PMID:12573684

  12. Survival outcomes scores (SOFT, BAR, and Pedi-SOFT) are accurate in predicting post-liver transplant survival in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Praveen Kumar; Maksimak, Brian; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Youssef, Dalia H; Lopez, Rocio; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-09-01

    SOFT and BAR scores utilize recipient, donor, and graft factors to predict the 3-month survival after LT in adults (≥18 years). Recently, Pedi-SOFT score was developed to predict 3-month survival after LT in young children (≤12 years). These scoring systems have not been studied in adolescent patients (13-17 years). We evaluated the accuracy of these scoring systems in predicting the 3-month post-LT survival in adolescents through a retrospective analysis of data from UNOS of patients aged 13-17 years who received LT between 03/01/2002 and 12/31/2012. Recipients of combined organ transplants, donation after cardiac death, or living donor graft were excluded. A total of 711 adolescent LT recipients were included with a mean age of 15.2±1.4 years. A total of 100 patients died post-LT including 33 within 3 months. SOFT, BAR, and Pedi-SOFT scores were all found to be good predictors of 3-month post-transplant survival outcome with areas under the ROC curve of 0.81, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively. All three scores provided good accuracy for predicting 3-month survival post-LT in adolescents and may help clinical decision making to optimize survival rate and organ utilization. PMID:27478012

  13. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  14. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  15. Cultural Disparities of SAT Scores and the Influence on Higher Education Opportunities for African American and Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Nichelle

    2007-01-01

    Inequalities in the distribution of education resources and cultural identification can lead to lower SAT scores for African American and Latino students. By using SAT scores as one of the primary sources to determine admission to institutions of higher education, educators may be denying minority students admission to a variety of colleges and…

  16. Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

  17. The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS) was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations) and agreement (weighted κ statistics) between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1) in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64) with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70). ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted. PMID:23164095

  18. Elevated Biomarkers of Inflammation and Coagulation in Patients with HIV Are Associated with Higher Framingham and VACS Risk Index Scores

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sarah; Tracy, Russell; Osler, Turner; Grace, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of inflammation and altered coagulation are of increasing interest as predictors of chronic disease and mortality in HIV patients, as well as the use of risk stratification scores such as the Framingham index and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) score. Methods Demographic and laboratory data for 252 HIV patients were assessed for their relationship with 5 biomarkers: hsCRP, D-dimer, Cystatin C, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Analysis of variance was used to model the association between the number of elevated biomarkers patients had and their Framingham 10 year cardiovascular risk and VACS scores. Results 87% of patients were male and 75.7% were virally suppressed (HIV RNA <48 copies/ml). The median and interquartile ranges for each biomarker were: hsCRP 1.65 ug/mL (0.73, 3.89), D-dimer 0.17 ug/mL (0.09, 0.31), Cystatin C 0.87 mg/L (0.78, 1.01), IL-6 2.13 pg/mL (1.3, 3.59), TNF-alpha 4.65 pg/mL (3.5, 5.97). 62.6% of patients had more than one biomarker >75th percentile, while 18.6% had three or more elevated biomarkers. Increased age, cigarette smoking, CD4 counts of <200 cells/mm3, Framingham scores and VACS scores were most strongly associated with elevations in biomarkers. When biomarkers were used to predict the Framingham and VACS scores, those with a higher number of elevated biomarkers had higher mean VACS scores, with a similar but less robust finding for Framingham scores. Conclusions Despite viral suppression and immunological stability, biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation remain elevated in a significant number of patients with HIV and are associated with higher scores on risk stratification indices. PMID:26641655

  19. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575

  20. Cross-National Adolescent Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Reports: Analyses of Mean Scores and Response Style Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Huebner, E. Scott; Tian, Lili; Park, Nansook; O'Byrne, Jenny; Schiff, Miriam; Sverko, Dina; Langknecht, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous cross-national studies have assessed life satisfaction among adults, similar studies using adolescent samples have been rare. To address this shortage of research, a total of 1338 youth adolescents from two individualistic nations (Ireland, USA) and two collectivistic nations (China, South Korea) were administered the…

  1. The utility of the balance error scoring system for mild brain injury assessments in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Hugentobler, Jason; Ammon, Robin; Mwase, Najima; Kurowski, Brad; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-09-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes' post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals. PMID:25295764

  2. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Khadija; Kiani, Muhammad Rizwan Bash; Ayyub, Aisha; Khan, Atif Ahmed; Osama, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD=6.76) with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%). The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P=0.011). The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P=0.392). PMID:25308191

  3. Parents' differential treatment and adolescents' delinquent behaviors: direct and indirect effects of difference-score and perception-based measures.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Alexander C; Whiteman, Shawn D

    2014-08-01

    A body of work reveals that parents' differential treatment (PDT) is linked to adolescents' adjustment. To date, researchers have generally used 1 of 2 different methods of assessing PDT-difference scores or perception-based measures-yet have largely failed to consider whether these measures index similar or distinct aspects of PDT. The current study examined these distinctions and the conceptual and empirical links between these 2 approaches by assessing the direct and indirect associations (difference scores via perceptions) of PDT and adolescents' delinquency and substance use. Furthermore, we explored whether these within-family differences were moderated by between-family differences in levels of parenting. Data were analyzed from 282 adolescent sibling pairs (N = 564; older siblings, M = 17.17 years old, SD = .94; younger siblings, M = 14.52 years old, SD = 1.27). Results from structural equation models revealed that for youth in affectively mild (low in conflict and intimacy) and intense families (high in conflict and intimacy), difference scores and perceptions were uniquely and directly linked to adjustment, such that less favored treatment and the perception of less favored treatment was linked to greater participation in delinquent activities and substance use. In addition, in several instances, difference scores for youth in affectively mild and intense families were indirectly linked to delinquency and substance use through the perception of PDT. Discussion focuses on the distinctions and links between these 2 approaches within the social comparison theory framework and the greater context of family levels of conflict and intimacy. PMID:24821522

  4. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  5. Students' Attitudes toward Institutional Accountability Testing in Higher Education: Implications for the Validity of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent calls for an increase in educational accountability in K-16 resulted in an uptick of low-stakes testing and, consequently, an increased need for ensuring that students' test scores are reliable and valid representations of their true ability. Focusing on accountability testing in higher education, the current program of research was…

  6. Everyone Gains: Extracurricular Activities in High School and Higher SAT® Scores. Research Report No. 2005-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents evidence that links participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in high school with higher SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) scores. Using structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we analyzed data from a national sample of college-bound high school students. A series of structural equation models--isolating the…

  7. Field Reliability of Comprehensive System Scoring in an Adolescent Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert E.; Pogge, David L.; Stokes, John M.; Cragnolino, Ana; Zaccario, Michele; Hayman, Judy; Piacentini, Teresa; Wayland-Smith, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The extent to which the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is reliably scored has been a topic of some controversy. Although several studies have concluded it can be scored reliably in research settings, little is known about its reliability in field settings. This study evaluated the reliability of both response-level codes and protocol-level…

  8. Score Reliability of Adolescent Alcohol Screening Measures: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Campfield, Delia C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Howell, Ryan T.; Wallace, Kimberly; Weiss, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the reliability reporting practices in empirical studies using eight adolescent alcohol screening tools and characterizes and explores variability in internal consistency estimates across samples. Of 119 observed administrations of these instruments, 40 (34%) reported usable reliability information. The Personal Experience…

  9. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  10. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  11. Greater Equality: The Hidden Key to Better Health and Higher Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There are now many studies of income inequality and health that compare countries, American states, or other large regions, and the majority of these studies show that more egalitarian societies tend to be healthier. Inequality is associated with lower life expectancy, higher rates of infant mortality, shorter height, poor self-reported health,…

  12. Do Higher State Test Scores in Texas Make for Better High School Outcomes? Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Loeb, Susanna; Smith, Tiffany L.

    Texas has apparently achieved great success in closing the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students, at least in the lower grades. Texas students in all grades have made substantial gains on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS). The effect of TAAS-type accountability on student performance in the higher grades is important,…

  13. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  14. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  15. Knowledge of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Foster Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, E. V.; Pryde, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The sample consisted of 533 adolescent state wards. Knowledge levels were classified by sex and race. Scores were compared with results of National Adolescent Student Health Survey. Within sample, females scored higher than males, and whites scored higher than nonwhites. Variations in knowledge levels and implications for AIDS prevention education…

  16. MMPI Profiles of Rheumatic Fever Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehbens, James A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Showed that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores for adolescent and adult victims of rheumatic fever (N=162) were generally lower than Mayo Clinic norms. Significant age effects confirm findings that adolescents score higher on the MMPI. Found patients without carditis scored higher than carditis patients, contrary to…

  17. The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

  18. Sleep classification according to AASM and Rechtschaffen and Kales: effects on sleep scoring parameters of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Luana; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the new American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) rules and the old Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K) criteria for sleep scoring have been shown to produce significantly different results in adults. The aim of this study was to describe in detail such differences in a group of normal children. Polysomnographic recordings from 45 healthy children (18 females and 27 males) aged between 3 and 16 years were scored following both systems and the results compared. Several significant differences between the two scoring systems were found: N1 (AASM) was significantly higher than S1 (R&K) while Stages N2 and R (AASM) were significantly smaller than S2 and rapid eye movement (R&K). The Kendall Tau correlation coefficient revealed a relatively low concordance between the two systems for the scoring of number of stage shifts per hour, minutes and percentage of Stage N1/S1, and of a percentage of Stage S2/N2. The significant differences between R&K and AASM scoring systems suggest taking some caution in adopting the new scoring criteria in children; these might be shown to be potentially useful if careful selection of the appropriate indicators derived from this new method is carried out, such as the percentage of N1 and the number of stage shifts, which are measures very sensitive to the occurrence of arousals in the new AASM system. PMID:19912509

  19. Psychometric Properties of Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) Scores with Australian Adolescents from Diverse Ethnocultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; McEvoy, Peter; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the reliability and factor structure of scores on a 12-item version of Phinney's multigroup ethnic identity measure with an Australian sample from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 485 students aged between 10 and 15 years. The results generally supported the reliability of the ethnic identity scale…

  20. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  1. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  2. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  3. Identification of dietary patterns by factor analysis and study of the relationship with nutritional status of rural adolescents using factor scores.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, Kodavalla; Brahmam, Ginnela Narsimhachary Veera; Vijayaraghavan, Kamasamudram

    2015-01-01

    Study was undertaken to know food and nutrient consumption patterns and their relationship with nutritional status among rural adolescents in Orissa. It was a Community based cross sectional study, conducted at district level in the State of Orissa. Data on 686 adolescent boys and 689 adolescent girls were utilized. Factor analysis was used to find dietary pattern and discriminate analysis and its relationship with undernutrition. The study revealed that among adolescent boys, there existed six patterns among food-groups and three patterns among nutrients explaining 52% and 76% of total variation. Similarly among adolescent girls, seven patterns among food groups and three patterns among nutrients, explaining 67% and 80% of total variation. The discriminate analysis using the factor scores revealed overall 56% of adolescent boys, and 53% of girls were correctly classified. About 46% of boys who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 40% who were normal were predicted as thin. Among girls 50% who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 36% who were normal were predicted as thin. In conclusions, there exists considerable relationship between dietary patterns and nutritional status among rural adolescents. PMID:26825586

  4. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  5. Higher Weight, Lower Education: A Longitudinal Association between Adolescents' Body Mass Index and Their Subsequent Educational Achievement Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hermans, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. Methods: A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248…

  6. Valuing the Child Health Utility 9D: Using profile case best worst scaling methods to develop a new adolescent specific scoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Julie; Huynh, Elisabeth; Chen, Gang; Stevens, Katherine; Swait, Joffre; Brazier, John; Sawyer, Michael; Roberts, Rachel; Flynn, Terry

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to the recent proliferation of studies incorporating ordinal methods to generate health state values from adults, to date relatively few studies have utilised ordinal methods to generate health state values from adolescents. This paper reports upon a study to apply profile case best worst scaling methods to derive a new adolescent specific scoring algorithm for the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D), a generic preference based instrument that has been specifically designed for the estimation of quality adjusted life years for the economic evaluation of health care treatment and preventive programs targeted at young people. A survey was developed for administration in an on-line format in which consenting community based Australian adolescents aged 11-17 years (N = 1982) indicated the best and worst features of a series of 10 health states derived from the CHU9D descriptive system. The data were analyzed using latent class conditional logit models to estimate values (part worth utilities) for each level of the nine attributes relating to the CHU9D. A marginal utility matrix was then estimated to generate an adolescent-specific scoring algorithm on the full health = 1 and dead = 0 scale required for the calculation of QALYs. It was evident that different decision processes were being used in the best and worst choices. Whilst respondents appeared readily able to choose 'best' attribute levels for the CHU9D health states, a large amount of random variability and indeed different decision rules were evident for the choice of 'worst' attribute levels, to the extent that the best and worst data should not be pooled from the statistical perspective. The optimal adolescent-specific scoring algorithm was therefore derived using data obtained from the best choices only. The study provides important insights into the use of profile case best worst scaling methods to generate health state values with adolescent populations. PMID:27060541

  7. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  8. Childhood Victimization: Relationship to Adolescent Pregnancy Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Simon, Catherine; McAnarney, Elizabeth R.

    1994-01-01

    This study, involving 127 poor black pregnant girls (12 to 18 years old) of whom 33% reported previous physical or sexual abuse, found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Abused adolescents were also more likely to report…

  9. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  10. The relationship of calcaneal apophyseal ossification and Sanders hand scores to the timing of peak height velocity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A D; Sanders, J O; Liu, R W; Cooperman, D R

    2015-12-01

    The accurate assessment of skeletal maturity is essential in the management of orthopaedic conditions in the growing child. In order to identify the time of peak height velocity (PHV) in adolescents, two systems for assessing skeletal maturity have been described recently; the calcaneal apophyseal ossification method and the Sanders hand scores. The purpose of this study was to compare these methods in assessing skeletal maturity relative to PHV. We studied the radiographs of a historical group of 94 healthy children (49 females and 45 males), who had been followed longitudinally between the ages of three and 18 years with serial radiographs and physical examination. Radiographs of the foot and hand were undertaken in these children at least annually between the ages of ten and 15 years. We reviewed 738 radiographs of the foot and 694 radiographs of the hand. PHV was calculated from measurements of height taken at the time of the radiographs. Prior to PHV we observed four of six stages of calcaneal apophyseal ossification and two of eight Sanders stages. Calcaneal stage 3 and Sanders stage 2 was seen to occur about 0.9 years before PHV, while calcaneal stage 4 and Sanders stage 3 occurred approximately 0.5 years after PHV. The stages of the calcaneal and Sanders systems can be used in combination, offering better assessment of skeletal maturity with respect to PHV than either system alone. PMID:26637689

  11. Higher psychological and psychovegetative strain in adolescents with atypical pigment naevi.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Michael; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Hörlesberger, Nina; Schwantzer, Gerold; Komericki, Peter; Linder, Michael Dennis; Lvov, Andrey; Baulmann, Johannes; Richtig, Erika

    2015-01-01

    An observational, exploratory, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether the presence of atypical naevi (AN) in adolescents is associated with psychological and psychovegetative stress parameters. Fifty-one students of a secondary school in Graz, Austria, completed a defined test procedure consisting of an initial period of rest, a standardised mental stress task, another period rest and a questionnaire, the change-sensitive symptom list (ASS-SYM). Electrocardiogram and blood pressure were recorded continuously. The study population was divided in two groups: probands without AN (NAN, n = 33), and probands with at least one AN (n = 18). We found higher values for the AN group in all scales of ASS-SYM, reaching statistical significance in the dimensions "nervousness and mental tension" (p = 0.025), "psychophysiological dysregulation" (p = 0.020), burden of pain" (p = 0.023) and "general symptoms and problems" (p = 0.031). Regarding physiological parameters, the AN group showed higher vegetative strain reflected in heart rate and heart rate varibility during the periods of rest as well as a reduced baroreceptor sensitivity. On the basis of our results, the presence of AN in adolescents seems to be associated with a higher vegetative arousal. Additionally, participants with AN complained significantly more often about stress-associated general psychological symptoms and problems. PMID:24604032

  12. Application of Linear Mixed-Effect Models for the Analysis of Exam Scores: Online Video Associated with Higher Scores for Undergraduate Students with Lower Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Josee; Coutu, Josee; Laneuville, Odette

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, many of the new teaching interventions are introduced in the format of audio-visual files distributed through the Internet. A pedagogical tool consisting of questions listed as learning objectives and answers presented using online videos was designed as a supplement for a molecular biology course and made available to a large…

  13. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  14. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  15. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  16. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six normally…

  17. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  18. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  19. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. Methods A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Results Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Conclusion Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. PMID:25995637

  20. Orthogonal Higher Order Factor Structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fifth Edition for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB-5; Roid, 2003a) for child and adolescent samples is reported. Multiple criteria for factor extraction unanimously supported extraction of only one dimension and a unidimensional model. However, following results from DiStefano and Dombrowski (2006)…

  1. Parental Attachment and Adjustment to Higher Learning Institutions: The Role of Stress for a Malaysian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Ng, Ee Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of stress in the linkages between attachment to parents and adjustment to attending higher learning institutions in another country. Self-reports from 114 Malaysian late adolescents studying in Singapore supported the primacy of stress for adjustment; more pertinent, stress mediated all the…

  2. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  3. Predicting high-risk versus higher-risk substance use during late adolescence from early adolescent risk factors using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Andrea E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Data came from a selected subsample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 1,689). Predictors were measured when youth were about 12 years old; ATOD use was assessed when youth were aged 17 years. Results showed that adolescent ATOD use is not a homogenous behavior. Four distinct classes of adolescent ATOD users were derived. Each class had a qualitatively distinct and discriminable pattern of ATOD use. Ecological predictors were shown to differentiate between latent classes, with peer factors playing a particularly important role in differentiating between high-risk and higher-risk users. Implications for prevention and limitations are discussed. PMID:24511308

  4. Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS): reliability, initial validity and normative scores in higher education students.

    PubMed

    Allen Gomes, Ana; Ruivo Marques, Daniel; Meia-Via, Ana Maria; Meia-Via, Mariana; Tavares, José; Fernandes da Silva, Carlos; Pinto de Azevedo, Maria Helena

    2015-04-01

    Based on successive samples totaling more than 5000 higher education students, we scrutinized the reliability, structure, initial validity and normative scores of a brief self-report seven-item scale to screen for the continuum of nighttime insomnia complaints/perceived sleep quality, used by our team for more than a decade, henceforth labeled the Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS). In study/sample 1 (n = 1654), the items were developed based on part of a larger survey on higher education sleep-wake patterns. The test-retest study was conducted in an independent small group (n = 33) with a 2-8 week gap. In study/sample 2 (n = 360), focused mainly on validity, the BaSIQS was completed together with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In study 3, a large recent sample of students from universities all over the country (n = 2995) answered the BaSIQS items, based on which normative scores were determined, and an additional question on perceived sleep problems in order to further analyze the scale's validity. Regarding reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficients were systematically higher than 0.7, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8. Structure analyses revealed consistently satisfactory two-factor and single-factor solutions. Concerning validity analyses, BaSIQS scores were significantly correlated with PSQI component scores and overall score (r = 0.652 corresponding to a large association); mean scores were significantly higher in those students classifying themselves as having sleep problems (p < 0.0001, d = 0.99 corresponding to a large effect size). In conclusion, the BaSIQS is very easy to administer, and appears to be a reliable and valid scale in higher education students. It might be a convenient short tool in research and applied settings to rapidly assess sleep quality or screen for insomnia complaints, and it may be easily used in other populations with minor

  5. Reliability of Scores on the "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale": A Study with Adolescent Students in an Alternative School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Moyer, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Gerardo E.

    2011-01-01

    The "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale" (MOSS) is a norm-referenced, self-report instrument designed to assess characteristics of psychopathology among children and adolescents from 11 to 18 years of age. Although the MOSS has been used in several research studies within juvenile justice or disciplinary education contexts, the psychometric…

  6. Relationships of Intelligence Test Scores to Measures of Anxiety, Impulsiveness and Verbal Interests in Gifted Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, George S.

    The degree to which potentially useful group intelligence tests were affected by personality characteristics such as anxiety, impulsiveness or caution, and verbal interests was investigated by a battery of intelligence, interest, and personality tests administered to 1,163 gifted adolescents in special summer programs. Intelligence was measured by…

  7. Propensity Scoring and the Relationship between Sexual Media and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Comment on Steinberg and Monahan (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated a link between exposure to sexual content in media and subsequent changes in adolescent sexual behavior, including initiation of intercourse and various noncoital sexual activities. Based on a reanalysis of one of the data sets involved, Steinberg and Monahan (2011) have challenged these findings. However,…

  8. Exercise and BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a major global health problem, the effects of exercise on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are not well established despite numerous studies on this topic. The purpose of this study is to use the network meta-analytic approach to determine the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength training or both) on body mass index (BMI) z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Randomised exercise intervention trials >4 weeks, published in any language between 1 January 1990 and 31 September 2015, and which include direct and/or indirect evidence, will be included. Studies will be retrieved by searching 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual abstraction of data will occur. The primary outcome will be changes in BMI z-score while the secondary outcome will be changes in body weight in kilograms (kg). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment instrument while confidence in the cumulative evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument for network meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis will be performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve will be used to provide a hierarchy of exercise treatments (aerobic, strength training or both). Dissemination The results of this study will be presented at a professional conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42015026377. PMID:27084289

  9. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a screening instrument for norwegian child and adolescent mental health services, application of UK scoring algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. Methods A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Results Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. Conclusions The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view. PMID:21992589

  10. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive

  11. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology. PMID:25801205

  12. The Equity Raw-Score Matrix--A Multi-Dimensional Indicator of Potential Disadvantage in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Issues surrounding student participation, transition, retention and successful completion in higher education are topical. While the Australian federal government has identified broad groupings of under-represented students, these do not shed light on the complexities underlying the issues of the educationally disadvantaged, such as the…

  13. "Tristan Chords and Random Scores": Exploring Undergraduate Students' Experiences of Music in Higher Education through the Lens of Bourdieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Within a theoretical framework drawn from Bourdieu, this article explores the relationship between undergraduate students' experiences of music in higher education and their musical backgrounds and prior music education experiences. More critically, this study aims to discover whether ideologies surrounding musical value impact on the student…

  14. Exposure to Maternal Gestational Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Cardiovascular Responses to Stress in Adolescent Indians

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Jones, Alexander; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Karat, Samuel C.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Fall, Caroline H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Altered endocrinal and autonomic nervous system responses to stress may link impaired intra-uterine growth with later cardiovascular disease. Objective: To test the hypothesis that offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (OGDM) have high cortisol and cardiosympathetic responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Design: Adolescents from a birth cohort in India (n = 213; mean age, 13.5 y), including 26 OGDM, 22 offspring of diabetic fathers (ODF), and 165 offspring of nondiabetic parents (controls) completed 5 minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar “evaluators” (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were measured continuously at baseline, during the TSST-C, and for 10 minutes after the test using a finger cuff; the beat-to-beat values were averaged for these periods. Results: Cortisol and cardiosympathetic parameters increased from baseline during stress (P < .001). OGDM had greater systolic BP (mean difference, 5.6 mm Hg), cardiac output (0.5 L/min), and stroke volume (4.0 mL) increases and a lower total peripheral resistance rise (125 dyn · s/cm5) than controls during stress. ODF had greater systolic BP responses than controls (difference, 4.1 mm Hg); there was no difference in other cardiosympathetic parameters. Cortisol responses were similar in all three groups. Conclusions: Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with higher cardiosympathetic stress responses in the offspring, which may contribute to their higher cardiovascular disease risk. Further research may confirm stress-response programming as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in OGDM. PMID:25478935

  15. Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Rainey, D Y; Stevens-Simon, C; Kaplan, D W

    1995-10-01

    Adolescents who report prior sexual abuse are at increased risk for adolescent pregnancy. This may result from earlier, more frequent, less well-protected sexual activity or from a greater desire to conceive. To determine the relative contribution of these two possible explanations to the reported association between sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, we studied the reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active 13-18 year old females in relation to self-reported sexual abuse. Anonymous questionnaires revealed that 40 (20%) of the 200 subjects reported sexual abuse. Analyses revealed no group differences in the median age of first voluntary intercourse, the frequency of sexual intercourse, or the consistency of birth control use. Compared to their nonabused peers, however, teenagers reporting abuse were more likely to be trying to conceive (35% vs. 14% p < .01), to have boyfriends pressuring them to conceive (76% vs. 44% p < .01), and to have fears about infertility (38% vs. 16% p < .01). Our findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy by fostering the desire to conceive. Further study is needed to determine why a disproportionate number of sexually abused adolescents desire pregnancy. The efficacy of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may be improved by identifying previously abused adolescents and by designing educational interventions that specifically address their desire to conceive. PMID:8556442

  16. Psychiatric symptoms of adolescents reared in an orphanage in Ankara.

    PubMed

    Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

    2011-01-01

    This study compared male adolescents in an orphanage with adolescents raised by their families in terms of psychiatric symptoms, using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility, and Global Severity Index points were significantly higher in adolescents in the orphanage, although they did not reach pathological levels except with respect to hostility. Adolescents reared in orphanages scored high points for hostility, reaching pathological levels. PMID:21980809

  17. A Comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 Intelligence Scores in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Katherine T.; Shear, Paula K.; Howe, Steven R.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing…

  18. Adolescent marijuana use from 2002 to 2008: higher in states with medical marijuana laws, cause still unclear

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Poh, Ernest; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Since 1996, 16 states have legalized marijuana use for medical purposes. The current study provides a scientific assessment of the association of medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use using national data. Method State representative survey data on approximately 23,000 12–17 year olds was collected by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health annually from 2002–2008. Yearly state-specific estimates of prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perception of its riskiness were statistically tested for differences between states with and without MML by year and across years. Results States with MML had higher average adolescent marijuana use, 8.68% (95% CI: 7.95–9.42) and lower perception of riskiness, during the period 2002–2008 compared to states without MML, 6.94% (95% CI: 6.60–7.28%). In the eight states that passed MML since 2004, in the years prior to MML passage, there was already a higher prevalence of use and lower perceptions of risk in those states compared to states that have not passed MML. Conclusions While the most likely of several possible explanations for higher adolescent marijuana use and lower perceptions of risk in MML states cannot be determined from the current study, results clearly suggest the need for more empirically-based research on this topic. PMID:21820632

  19. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  20. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  1. Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Christo; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; de Oliveira, Roselene Lopes; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age with the modified Brazilian National Ministry of Health Scoring System (mBNMH-SS). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving 49 indigenous patients under 15 years of age with tuberculosis, treated between 2007 and 2010 in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 27 (56%) were under 5 years of age, 33 (67%) had symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 (49%) were underweight, and 36 (73.5%) had been BCG vaccinated. The tuberculin skin test was positive in 28 patients (57%), 18 (64%) of whom had an induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-rays were performed in 37 (76%) of the patients, 31 (84%) of whom had only one chest X-ray taken. Among those 37 patients, the radiological findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 16 (43%), infiltration/condensation in 10 (27%), and normal in 4 (11%). The Indigenous Health Care Teams made the diagnosis in 31 (63%) of the cases, using the original BNMH-SS in only 14 (45%). We calculated the mBNMH-SS scores for 30 (61%) of the 49 patients. Among the 30 cases scored, a diagnosis of tuberculosis was found to be highly likely, possible, and unlikely in 16 (53%), 11 (37%), and 3 (10%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of highly likely and possible diagnoses was consistent with the standard proportion of cases diagnosed by the teams (90%), demonstrating the epidemiological applicability of the mBNMH-SS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the indigenous population, within the scenario of the health care provided. PMID:23503490

  2. Are Adolescents Who Report Prior Sexual Abuse at Higher Risk for Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David Y.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…

  3. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  4. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

  5. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents. PMID:25248622

  6. The Relation between Child-Rearing Beliefs and the Home Environment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Rhoades, Kelly

    1989-01-01

    Examined quality of child care provided by adolescent mothers vs. older mothers and whether maternal child-rearing beliefs predict supportive care mothers. Administered inventory to adolescent mothers (N=20) and older mothers (N=65). Found higher supportive care scores among older mothers and found both supportive-care older and adolescent mothers…

  7. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  8. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  9. The influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding confidence and attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Marion; Heaman, Maureen; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Morris, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A prospective correlational study was conducted to examine the influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding attitudes and confidence on breastfeeding initiation and duration. A convenience sample of 100 pregnant adolescents who were contemplating breastfeeding completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and the Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ). The BSES-SF was readministered during the first week postpartum to those adolescents who initiated breastfeeding (n=84). Adolescents who were breastfeeding at the initial contact received a follow-up contact at 4 weeks postpartum. Comparisons were made between those adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n=84) and those who did not (n=16). Significantly more mothers with higher prenatal attitude scores initiated breastfeeding. Mothers with higher prenatal breastfeeding attitude scores and higher prenatal and postnatal confidence scores were more likely to continue breastfeeding to 4 weeks postpartum. Health professionals are encouraged to develop strategies to enhance breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among adolescent mothers. PMID:18689714

  10. Personality Features and Expressed Concerns of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Tamara; Wiederman, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates differences between adolescent females diagnosed with either anorexia nervosa (n=26) or bulimia nervosa (n=30) using the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory. About half of the participants displayed an inhibited personality style. Anorexics scored higher on the Respectful personality scale. Expressed concerns over self-concept,…

  11. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  12. Higher relative risk for multiple sclerosis in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population: analysis from DPV database.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Susanne; Blaschek, Astrid; Raile, Klemens; Dost, Axel; Freiberg, Clemens; Askenas, Meik; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Molz, Esther; Holl, Reinhard W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS) are typical autoimmune diseases in children and young adults. We assessed the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS by estimating the relative risk (RR) for MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population and looked for possible influencing factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Within the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV)-Wiss Project, from January 1995 to October 2012, data from 56,653 patients with type 1 diabetes were collected in 248 centers in Germany and Austria. Published data on German and Mid-European MS prevalence were taken for comparison. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify confounders for co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS. RESULTS The RR for MS in patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated at 3.35-4.79 (95% CI 1.56-7.21 and 2.01-11.39, respectively). Immigration status in all patients (P < 0.05) and the presence of thyroid antibodies in male patients only (P = 0.05) were identified as influencing factors on MS incidence within the DPV database. The month-of-birth pattern revealed that risk was higher during the spring and summer months in the population with type 1 diabetes and MS in comparison with the population with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The present cohort study demonstrates a higher risk of co-occurrence of MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population. Immigration status and thyroid antibodies in male patients were independent risk indicators for the incidental rate of MS. Diabetic patients born during spring and summer had a higher risk for the development of MS. We suggest that environmental factors modulate the individual's risk for the co-occurrence of both diseases. PMID:23990514

  13. Role of Individual, Family, and Peers in Sexual Initiation Among Late Adolescents Attending Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. PMID:27122624

  14. The effects of a multi-component higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program on adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Jessica J; Byrne, Mitchell K

    2013-12-01

    A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up. There were no spill-over effects of the program to non-targeted students. These results provide some preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of multi-session anti-stigma programs incorporating combined information for adolescent students in inclusive educational environments. PMID:23619951

  15. Higher Education is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

  16. Dieting, dietary restraint, and binge eating disorder among overweight adolescents in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 +/- 0.8 kg/m2 in the low-restraint group and 25.1 +/- 0.8 kg/m2 in the high-restraint group (p < 0.05).Twenty percent of participants in the low-restraint group and 72% of those in the high-restraint group followed weight management practices for losing weight. The mean total TFEQ score was 21.5 +/- 7.8 for chronic dieters and 25.5 +/- 8.7 for non-chronic dieters. Chronic dieter participants had significantly lower scores than non-chronic dieters (p < 0.05). Findings indicate that overweight adolescents (dieting 5-10 times or more than 10 times in the past year) reported higher disinhibition and hunger scores than others (no dieting in the past year). Also, adolescents with BED reported significantly higher scores of disinhibition and hunger than did adolescents with non-BED. Conversely, overweight adolescents with BED showed significantly higher cognitive restraint scores than did adolescents with non-BED. In sum, high scores on restraint, hunger, and disinhibition of overweight adolescent girls as measured by the TFEQ, are associated with low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety. PMID:19086675

  17. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  18. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students' exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a "B-" to a "B"). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections. PMID:26500828

  19. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students’ exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a “B-” to a “B”). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections. PMID:26500828

  20. Choosing a Major in Higher Education: Profiles of Students' Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germeijs, Veerle; Luyckx, Koen; Notelaers, Guy; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2012-01-01

    This study identified decision-making profiles of students who make a choice of a major in higher education. These profiles were examined in a sample of Belgian students at the end of Grade 12, when the educational system expects that these adolescents choose a specific major. Using latent class cluster analysis on adolescents' scores for coping…

  1. Snacking is associated with improved healthy eating index (HEI-2005 scores in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of snacking with diet quality in adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 5,811). Snacks/drinks were combined when eating occasions were named in the 24-h recall, but analysis separated snacks from snacks/drinks that were only drinks. Adolescents were cl...

  2. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

  3. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  4. Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been…

  5. Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder (DCD) in Adolescents and Adults in Further and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD…

  6. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  7. Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brittany E; Stam, Jacqueline; Huizink, Anja C; Willemen, Agnes M; Westenberg, P Michiel; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n=327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17 years, adolescents participated in a psychosocial stress procedure characterized by social evaluation during which cortisol, heart rate, pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate variability were assessed. Dual latent growth curve models were fitted in which the intercepts (mean level) and slopes (change) of personality across adolescence predicted the intercepts (baseline) and slopes (reactivity) of the physiological stress measures. Most comparisons revealed no relation between personality and stress reactivity. Adolescents with higher mean level scores on extraversion did show lower cortisol reactivity. Adolescents with higher mean level neuroticism scores showed higher PEP reactivity. Our findings lend partial support for a relation between personality and physiological stress reactivity. PMID:26956979

  8. Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

  9. The Effect of General Creative Personality and Freedom of Task Choice on Adolescents' Social Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Chuanhua; Hu, Bi Ying; Ngwira, Flemmings Fishani; Jing, Zhi; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on the social creativity of adolescents. The results indicated, first, that senior high school students scored higher than junior high school students. Second, girls scored higher than boys on originality, fluency, flexibility, appropriateness, and…

  10. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  11. Parental Ratings of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Marnie; Pei, Jacqueline; Leung, Wing Sze Wence; Mackenzie, Michelle; Hicks, Melanie D.; Thurm, Audrey E.; Han, Joan C.; Haqq, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated executive functioning in 25 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Significant deficits emerged, with mean scores on all but two scales reaching levels of clinical significance (T score = 65). Older children tended to have higher scores than younger…

  12. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil. PMID:17688087

  13. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  14. Characteristics of Screen Media Use Associated With Higher BMI in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Emily A.; Walls, Courtney E.; Shrier, Lydia A.; Rich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents’ screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity. METHODS: We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention. RESULTS: Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users. PMID:23569098

  15. What Causes the Test-Score Gap in Higher Education? Perspectives on the Office for Civil Rights Resource Guide on High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Considers the guide on high-stakes testing issued by the federal Office for Civil Rights, including the controversy which ensued upon release of the first draft, changes in the subsequent version, and the issue of differences in educational achievement among ethnic and racial groups of which differences in standardized test scores may be…

  16. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  17. Effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy with Higher Severity Substance-Abusing Adolescents: Report from Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Craig E.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used growth mixture modeling to examine heterogeneity in treatment response in a secondary analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials testing multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), an established evidence-based therapy for adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. Method: The first study compared 2 evidence-based adolescent substance…

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Higher Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Heather A.; Ono, Kim E.; McMahon, Camilla; Schwartz, Caley B.; Usher, Lauren V.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one’s own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8–16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on Theory of Mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PMID:24682651

  19. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  20. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  1. Higher breakfast glycaemic load is associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk, including lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations and increased TAG concentrations, in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Analise; du Heaume, Mary; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2014-12-28

    Almost all previous studies examining the associations between glycaemic load (GL) and metabolic syndrome risk have used a daily GL value. The daily value does not distinguish between peaks of GL intake over the day, which may be more closely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily and mealtime measures of GL and metabolic syndrome risk, including metabolic syndrome components, in adolescents. Adolescents participating in the 14-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed 3 d food records and metabolic assessments. Breakfast GL, lunch GL, dinner GL and a score representing meal GL peaks over the day were determined in 516 adolescents. Logistic regression models were used to investigate whether GL variables were independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome in this population-based cohort (3.5% prevalence of the metabolic syndrome). Breakfast GL was found to be predictive of the metabolic syndrome in girls (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27; P <0.01), but not in boys. Other meal GL values and daily GL were found to be not significant predictors of the metabolic syndrome. When breakfast GL was examined in relation to each of the components of the metabolic syndrome in girls, it was found to be negatively associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P= 0.037; β = - 0.004; 95% CI - 0.008, - 0.002) and positively associated with fasting TAG concentrations (P= 0.008; exp(β) = 1.002; 95% CI 1.001, 1.004). he results of the present study suggest that there may be an association between breakfast composition and metabolic syndrome components in adolescent girls. These findings support further investigation into including lower-GL foods as part of a healthy breakfast in adolescence, particularly for girls. PMID:25327283

  2. Immature Animals Have Higher Cellular Density in the Healing Anterior Cruciate Ligament than Adolescent or Adult Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Haus, Brian M.; Vavken, Patrick; Palmer, Matthew P.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the biologic stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. However, the effect of age on the ability of ligaments to heal has not yet been defined. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletal maturity would significantly affect the cellular and vascular repopulation rate of an ACL wound site. Skeletally Immature (open physes), Adolescent (closing physes), and Adult (closed physes) Yucatan minipigs underwent bilateral ACL transection and suture repair using a collagen-platelet composite. The response to repair was evaluated histologically at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. All three groups of animals had completely populated the ACL wound site with fibroblasts at 1 week. The Immature animals had a higher cellular density in the wound site than the Adult animals at weeks 2 and 4. Cells in the Immature ligament wounds were larger and more ovoid than in the Adult wounds. There were no significant differences in the vascular density in the wound site. Animal age had a significant effect on the density of cells populating the ACL wound site. Whether this observed cellular difference has an effect on the later biomechanical function of the repaired ACL requires further study. PMID:20127960

  3. The role of family, religiosity, and behavior in adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Casey, David M; Williams, Robert J; Mossière, Annik M; Schopflocher, Donald P; El-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Smith, Garry J; Wood, Robert T

    2011-10-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older, had more conflict in their family, were more likely to have used drugs, and have peers that gamble. Compared to adolescent female non-gamblers, adolescent female gamblers had more attention and thought problems, and scored higher on rule-breaking. For both males and females, religiosity was a protective factor against involvement in gambling. Some of the results are consistent with previous research, while some of these findings are unique to this study. These results shed light on factors to consider when developing programs to combat the negative impacts of gambling on adolescents. PMID:21388671

  4. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  5. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  6. Adolescents' Intimacy with Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' perceived levels of intimacy as a function of demographic, family and school, and psychological variables. Students with same-sex friends and greater interest in school reported greater intimacy with mother. Students with higher self-esteem, lower depression, and lower risk-taking scores revealed greater intimacy with both…

  7. Were the mental health benefits of a housing mobility intervention larger for adolescents in higher socioeconomic status families?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Schmidt, Nicole; Glymour, M. Maria; Rehkopf, David H.; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4–7 year evaluations (aged 12–19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412

  8. Were the mental health benefits of a housing mobility intervention larger for adolescents in higher socioeconomic status families?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Rehkopf, David H; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-09-01

    Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4 to 7 year evaluations (aged 12-19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412

  9. Racial Differences in the Structure of Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence: An Attitudinal Approach to Measurement and Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas

    This study examined distinctions between self-esteem as a general attitude of self and the underlying self-beliefs which link the self with a positively or negatively valued attribute. It was hypothesized that black adolescents would have higher scores on the general self-esteem measure, while they would not have have higher scores on all specific…

  10. Factor Structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) Scores across Gender among Students in Elementary and Secondary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents, a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students, is examined across gender. The sample consisted of 696 elementary and secondary school students (391 girls and 305 boys). Coefficient of congruence and salient…

  11. Excellence in Higher Education, 2003-2004: A Baldrige-Based Guide to Organizational Assessment, Improvement and Leadership. Workbook and Scoring Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assessment leads to stronger performance in the nation's colleges and universities. That's the premise of "Excellence in Higher Education," a model self-assessment program that has earned accolades from the higher education community. Based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award framework, the third edition of this bestseller is the…

  12. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  13. The Mediating Role of Extreme Peer Orientation in the Relationships between Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Linda M.; Berg, Cynthia; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined whether the quality of the adolescent-parent relationship was associated with better diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by decreasing adolescents' extreme peer orientation. Adolescents (n=252; 46% male and 54% female) aged 10-14 years with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of extreme peer orientation (i.e., tendency to ignore parental advice and diabetes care in order to fit in with friends), adolescent-parental relationship, and adherence; HbA1c scores indexed metabolic control. Adolescents with higher quality relationships with parents reported less peer orientation and better diabetes care. The mediational model revealed that adolescents' high quality relationships with their parents (mother and father) were associated with better treatment adherence and metabolic control through less peer orientation. It is likely that high quality adolescent-parent relationships may be beneficial to adolescent diabetes management through a healthy balance between peer and parental influence. PMID:20545403

  14. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  15. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    PubMed

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents. PMID:20035280

  16. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  17. Hopelessness and Loneliness among Suicide Attempters in School-Based Samples of Taiwanese, Philippine and Thai Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Yanagishita, Jun; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Zarco, Emilia Patricia; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of suicide attempts in three school-based samples of Southeast Asian adolescents (Taipei, Taiwan; the Philippines; Chiang Mai, Thailand) and determine whether adolescent suicide attempters score higher on measures of hopelessness and loneliness relative to nonattempters. It was hypothesized that…

  18. An Exploration into Self Concept: A Comparative Analysis between the Adolescents Who Are Sighted and Blind in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halder, Santoshi; Datta, Poulomee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the self concept of adolescents who are sighted and blind with respect to gender in India. The sample was made up of 160 participants aged 15 to 18 years: of whom 100 were sighted and 60 were blind. The results of the t-tests illustrated that sighted male adolescents scored higher in the overall…

  19. The Ego-Virtue of Fidelity: A Case for the Study of Religion and Identity Formation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom-Adams, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mormon adolescents (n=36) who were a majority group in their own community were found to score higher in identity foreclosure in comparison with Catholic and Protestant adolescents who were religious minorities in their communities. Results are discussed in terms of fidelity and identity commitment. (SLD)

  20. Relational Effects of Reading Motivation and Academic Achievement among Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…

  1. Radiotherapy Doses of 80 Gy and Higher Are Associated With Lower Mortality in Men With Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pahlajani, Niraj; Ruth, Karen J.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Chen, David Y.T.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Price, Robert A.; Pollack, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 prostate cancer (PCa) are assumed to have a high risk of micrometastatic disease at presentation. However, local failure is also a major problem. We sought to establish the importance of more aggressive local radiotherapy (RT) to {>=}80 Gy. Methods and Materials: There were 226 men treated consecutively with RT {+-} ADT from 1988 to 2002 for GS 8-10 PCa. Conventional, three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated (IM) RT was used. Radiation dose was divided into three groups: (1) <75 Gy (n = 50); (2) 75-79.9 Gy (n = 60); or (3) {>=}80 Gy (n = 116). The endpoints examined included biochemical failure (BF; nadir + 2 definition), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality (OM). Results: Median follow-up was 66, 71, and 58 months for Groups 1, 2, and 3. On Fine and Gray's competing risk regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced BF were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.011) and androgen deprivation therapy duration {>=}24 months (p = 0.033). In a similar model of DM, only RT dose {>=}80 Gy was significant (p = 0.007). On Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced OM were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.035) and T category (T3/4 vs. T1, p = 0.041). Dose was not a significant determinant of cause-specific mortality. Results for RT dose were similar in a model with RT dose and ADT duration as continuous variables. Conclusion: The results indicate that RT dose escalation to {>=}80 Gy is associated with lower risks of BF, DM, and OM in men with GS 8-10 PCa, independently of androgen deprivation therapy.

  2. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  3. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  4. Poor Sleep Is Related to Lower Emotional Competence Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Schmidt, Norman B; Lemola, Sakari; Correll, Christoph U; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the association between subjective insomnia and self-reported emotional competence in areas such as regulating and perceiving one's own emotions and empathy, in a sample of adolescents. Gender differences were also explored. 366 adolescents in 10th to 12th grade (mean age: M = 16.9 years) took part in this cross-sectional study. They completed questionnaires related to emotional competencies, empathy, and sleep. Higher scores for insomnia were associated with lower scores for some aspects of emotional competence and empathy. Compared to males, females generally had higher scores for emotional competence. Poor sleep as subjectively experienced among adolescents is associated with specific impairments in emotional competence and empathy. Gender-related patterns were also observed. PMID:26507446

  5. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    PubMed Central

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  7. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  8. Improvement in Intelligence Test Scores from 6 to 10 years in Children of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M.; Richardson, Gale A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Day, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigates change in IQ scores among 290 children born to teenage mothers and identifies social, economic, and environmental variables that may be associated with change in intelligence test performance. Methods The children of 290 teenage mothers (72% African American and 28% European American) were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (SBIS) at ages 6 and 10. Results The mean composite score at age 6 was 84.8 and was 91.2 at age 10, an improvement of 6.4 points. Significant cross-sectional predictors at both ages 6 and 10 of higher SBIS scores were maternal cognitive ability, school grade, Caucasian ethnicity, and caregiver education. Having more children in the household significantly predicted lower SBIS scores at age 6. Higher satisfaction with maternal social support predicted higher SBIS scores at age 10. Change in IQ scores was not related to maternal socioeconomic status, social support, home environment, ethnicity, or family interactions. Custodial stability was associated with an improvement in IQ scores, while increase in caregiver depression was related to decline in IQ scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that improvement in IQ scores of offspring of teenage mothers may be related to stability of maternal custody. More research is needed to determine the impact of the maturation of adolescent mothers' parenting and the role of early education on improvement in cognitive abilities. PMID:20495472

  9. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  10. Comparison of Subjective Wellbeing and Positive Future Expectations in Between Working and Nonworking Adolescents in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Semra; Karakoc, Ayse; Bingol, Fadime; Eren, Nurhan; Andsoy, Isil Isik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wellbeing is one’s evaluation and judgment of one’s life. It consists of 3 dimensions: positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and life satisfaction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations between working and nonworking adolescents. Patients and Methods: The study was designed as descriptive and comparative. The study sample consisted of 420 working and 482 nonworking adolescents (n = 902) aged 15 - 20 years, who were randomly recruited from two occupational education centers in Istanbul, Turkey and two high schools (formal educations) in the same district. Results: Adolescent subjective wellbeing scale (ASWS) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 48.76 (9.50) and 49.72 (8.01), respectively. In addition, positive future expectations scale (PFES) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 18.71 (4.50) and 19.06 (3.49), respectively. In this study, no significant difference was found between the general wellbeing (scale total median score) scores of the working and nonworking adolescent groups (Z = 1.01, P = 0.315). However, significant differences were found in the family relations satisfaction (Z = 3.23, P = 0.002) and relations with significant others (Z = 2.85, P = 0.004) subscales of the ASWS. Conclusions: A positive relationship was found between adolescent subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations. It was found that nonworking adolescents scored higher on the dimensions of “family relations” and “relations with significant others” of subjective wellbeing compared to those dimensions in working adolescents. PMID:27195141

  11. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  12. More Choices, Higher Scores, and Worse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If there is one thing all educators know and many studies have confirmed for decades, it is that there is no single answer to educational improvement. There are no grounds for the claim made in the past decade that accountability all by itself is a silver bullet, nor for the oft-asserted argument that choice by itself is a panacea. This article…

  13. Alcohol use and depression among African-American and Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maag, John W; Irvin, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI). Extreme groups were formed using upper (> 75%) and lower (< 25%) quartiles. Three other groups were formed using each instrument's normatively derived cutoff scores: depressed only (RADS > 77), heavy drinking (ADI > 16) and mixed (RADS > 77, ADI > 16). Several results were obtained. First, Caucasians obtained significantly higher scores on the ADI than African-Americans, although no differences were obtained for the RADS. Females scored higher on the RADS but lower on the ADI than males. In terms of extreme scores, females were less likely to belong to the severe depression group, while older adolescents in general and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the heavy-drinking group. Finally, using RADS and ADI cutoff scores, females were less likely than males to belong to the depression only group as were African-Americans. Older adolescents, in general, and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the mixed group than did their counterparts. PMID:15861619

  14. [Influence of sociodemographic variables on coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents].

    PubMed

    de la Paz Bermúdez, María; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender, age, and type of high school (public/private) on coping styles solve the problem coping style, reference to others coping style and non-productive coping, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents. A total of 4.456 adolescents participated. The following measures were used: Adolescent Coping Scale, Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Social Stress subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. This is a cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sampling considering Spanish regions and type of high school (public/private) to select participants. The sample is representative of the national level at a 95.5% confidence interval. Results showed that males had higher scores in sexual sensation seeking and social stress compared to females. Female adolescents scored higher in reference to others coping style and non-productive coping. Compared to adolescents of public high schools, adolescents who attended to private high schools scored higher in solve the problem coping style and reference to others coping style. Associations among sexual sensation seeking, coping styles, social stress, and health risk behaviors in adolescents are discussed. PMID:19403074

  15. Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence: Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Robbers, Sylvana C. C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood. Method A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was assessed three times across a six-year interval (10–17 years). Symptom scores of anxiety were analyzed with growth mixture models, stratified by gender. Results Three gender-specific anxiety trajectories were identified for both girls (93.3% low, 4.1% mid-adolescence limited, 2.6% mid-adolescence increasing) and boys (84.4% low, 9.5% mid-adolescence limited, 6.1% early-adolescence decreasing). Child, family and peer factors at baseline predicted group membership of the mid-adolescence limited anxiety trajectory and the early-adolescence decreasing anxiety trajectory in boys. Parental emotional problems predicted the early-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory in girls. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression during adolescence and in early adulthood was higher in both the mid-adolescence limited and the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory. Conclusions The longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence was characterized by three distinct gender-specific developmental trajectories. The most at-risk trajectory in girls was the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory, and in boys the mid-adolescence limited trajectory. None of the environmental (i.e., child, family and peer) factors distinguished the at-risk trajectories from the other trajectories. PMID:23390430

  16. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  17. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  18. Dog Ownership and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, John R.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and adult health outcomes have been observed, but research involving youth is lacking. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of family dog ownership to adolescent and parent physical activity, weight status, and metabolic risk factors. Methods Data were collected on dog ownership in 618 adolescent/parent pairs between 9/2006 and 6/2008 and analyzed in 2010. Adolescent physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers. Trained staff measured blood pressure, height and weight, and percentage body fat was calculated by impedance. A subsample of adolescents (n=318) opted for a fasting blood draw used to derive a metabolic risk cluster score. Parents and adolescents provided consent and assent, respectively. Results Adolescents’ mean age was 14.6±1.8 years and 49% were male. White and higher SES adolescents were more likely to own a dog. In models adjusted for age, puberty, gender, race, total household members and SES, adolescent physical activity (mean counts min−1 day−1) remained significantly associated with dog ownership (β=24.3, SE=12.4, p=0.05) while the association with minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity day−1 became nonsignificant (β=2.2, SE=1.2, p=0.07). No significant results were observed for other adolescent characteristics. Conclusions Dog ownership was associated with more physical activity among adolescents. Further research using longitudinal data will help clarify the role that dog ownership may have on adolescent physical activity. PMID:21335266

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  1. A dual process account of adolescent and adult binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Sally E; Hine, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    This study adopted a dual process perspective to investigate the relative contributions of implicit and explicit cognitions to predicting binge drinking in adolescents and adults. Two hundred and seventy-two participants (136 teen-parent pairs) completed measures of alcohol memory associations (reflecting implicit cognition), expectancies about potential costs and benefits of alcohol use (reflecting explicit cognition), and self-reported binge drinking. Adolescents had stronger alcohol memory associations and perceived drinking benefits to be more probable than did adults. In turn, higher scores on the memory association and expected benefit measures were both associated with significantly higher levels of binge drinking. Moderation analyses revealed that alcohol memory associations and expected benefits of drinking were stronger predictors of binge drinking for adolescents than for adults. The findings suggest that both implicit and explicit cognitions may play important roles in alcohol use decisions, and these roles may differ for adolescents and adults. PMID:21195555

  2. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  3. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  4. Creativity Lost: The Importance of Testing Higher-Level Executive Functions in School-Age Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delis, Dean C.; Lansing, Amy; Houston, Wes S.; Wetter, Spencer; Han, S. Duke; Jacobson, Mark; Holdnack, James; Kramer, Joel

    2007-01-01

    In school settings, students are typically evaluated using group achievement tests, IQ scales, and college entrance exams that focus more on rote-verbal skills (e.g., vocabulary, mathematical facts) than on higher level executive functions (e.g., abstract thinking, problem solving). However, recent neuropsychological findings suggest that…

  5. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  6. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  7. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  8. Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: understanding the distress of peer rejection

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Borofsky, Larissa A.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; McNealy, Kristin; Mazziotta, John C.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2009-01-01

    Developmental research has demonstrated the harmful effects of peer rejection during adolescence; however, the neural mechanisms responsible for this salience remain unexplored. In this study, 23 adolescents were excluded during a ball-tossing game in which they believed they were playing with two other adolescents during an fMRI scan; in reality, participants played with a preset computer program. Afterwards, participants reported their exclusion-related distress and rejection sensitivity, and parents reported participants’ interpersonal competence. Similar to findings in adults, during social exclusion adolescents displayed insular activity that was positively related to self-reported distress, and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity that was negatively related to self-reported distress. Findings unique to adolescents indicated that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subACC) related to greater distress, and that activity in the ventral striatum related to less distress and appeared to play a role in regulating activity in the subACC and other regions involved in emotional distress. Finally, adolescents with higher rejection sensitivity and interpersonal competence scores displayed greater neural evidence of emotional distress, and adolescents with higher interpersonal competence scores also displayed greater neural evidence of regulation, perhaps suggesting that adolescents who are vigilant regarding peer acceptance may be most sensitive to rejection experiences. PMID:19470528

  9. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 μmol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  10. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  11. Smoking quit success genotype score predicts quit success and distinct patterns of developmental involvement with common addictive substances

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, George R; Walther, Donna; Musci, Rashelle; Fisher, Christian; Anthony, James C; Storr, Carla L; Behm, Frederique M.; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas; Rose, Jed E.

    2013-01-01

    Genotype scores that predict relevant clinical outcomes may detect other disease features and help direct prevention efforts. We report data that validate a previously-established v1.0 smoking cessation quit success genotype score and describe striking differences in the score in individuals who display differing developmental trajectories of use of common addictive substances. In a cessation study, v1.0 genotype scores predicted ability to quit with p = 0.00056 and area under ROC curve 0.66. About 43 vs 13% quit in the upper vs lower genotype score terciles. Latent class growth analyses of a developmentally-assessed sample identified three latent classes based on substance use. Higher v1.0 scores were associated with a) higher probabilities of participant membership in a latent class that displayed low use of common addictive substances during adolescence (p = 0.0004) and b) lower probabilities of membership in a class that reported escalating use (p = 0.001). These results suggest that: a) we have identified genetic predictors of smoking cessation success, b) genetic influences on quit success overlap with those that influence the rate at which addictive substance use is taken up during adolescence and c) individuals at genetic risk for both escalating use of addictive substances and poor abilities to quit may provide especially urgent focus for prevention efforts. PMID:23128154

  12. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Examining Longitudinal Effects of Cultural Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Romero, Andrea J.; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M.; Soto, Daniel W.; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  14. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  15. An Analysis of Anger in Adolescent Girls Who Practice the Martial Arts

    PubMed Central

    Lotfian, Sara; Ziaee, Vahid; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n = 70) or karate (n = 66), while the control group was composed of swimmers (n = 59) and nonathletes (n = 96). Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.001) decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers. PMID:22164178

  16. Wagering the future: Cognitive distortions, impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective in adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, Marina; Nigro, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive distortions, self-reported impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective to gambling severity in Italian adolescents. One thousand and thirty high school students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14). A factor analysis, used to evaluate common factors assessed by the different measures, revealed a three-factor structure of Cognitive distortions, Impulsive present orientation, and Delay discounting. The results of regression analysis using factor scores showed that males scored higher than females on the SOGS-RA and that gambling severity correlated positively with high scores on the three factors. These results indicate that cognitive distortions associated with gambling are a powerful predictor of gambling severity, and that adolescent gamblers are impaired in their abilities to think about the future. PMID:26363842

  17. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency. PMID:20712498

  18. Very Happy Youths: Benefits of Very High Life Satisfaction among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Carmel; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of adolescents reporting very high levels of life satisfaction. Participants (N = 410) were divided into three life satisfaction groups: very high (top 10%), average (middle 25%), and very low (lowest 10%). Results revealed that very happy youths had significantly higher mean scores on all included…

  19. Cultural Identity and Peer Influence as Predictors of Substance Use among Culturally Diverse Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazis, Nicki; Connor, Jason P.; Ho, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cultural identity and peer influence on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in a culturally diverse sample of Northern Australian adolescents. Middle school students (n = 274) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and measures of their own and perceived friends' substance use. Higher scores on the full…

  20. Self-Esteem and Adjustment in Early Adolescence: A Social-Contextual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Bull, Catherine A.; Sherman, Michelle D.; Roberts, Magie

    1998-01-01

    Global self-esteem and social-contextual incongruity in factors contributing to the development and maintenance of self-esteem were studied as predictors of the emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment of 213 young adolescents. Higher reported levels of global self-esteem were associated with more favorable scores on most measures of…

  1. Anger & Aggression Management in Young Adolescents: An Experimental Validation of the SCARE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the SCARE program; an anger management program developed with high school students. Adolescents (n=207) exposed to the SCARE program had significantly lower levels of anger and aggression, slightly higher anger control, and lower scores on aggressive and violent attitudes a year after exposure. (Contains…

  2. Long-Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilmoeller, Gary L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen adolescent and 25 older mothers of infants reported on social networks and family support. Found no significant differences in social network size or interaction quality; older mothers scored significantly higher on perceived family support. Perceived family support and interaction quality were associated positively with maternal…

  3. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  4. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  5. Prenatal smoking exposure and psychiatric symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Indredavik, Marit S; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Romundstad, Pål; Vik, Torstein

    2007-01-01

    Aim Explore associations between smoking in pregnancy and psychiatric symptoms in the adolescent offspring. Design/subjects A prospective population based follow-up of 84 adolescents at 14 years of age, of whom 32 of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy. Main outcome measures The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), ADHD-Rating Scale IV, Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), estimated IQ based on four subscales of WISC-III. Results Adolescents who were born by smokers had significantly more rule-breaking and aggressive behaviour, externalizing and total problems on the ASEBA than adolescents of non-smokers (p < 0.01), when reported by mothers, fathers and teachers. ADHD symptoms were reported more frequently (p < 0.05), and mothers also reported more internalizing symptoms (p < 0.05) and social problems (p < 0.001). The ASSQ sum score was higher (p < 0.001), and overall function as measured by the CGAS was lower (p < 0.01) for the smoking-exposed group. Associations were still present after controlling for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Adolescents exposed to prenatal smoking had higher scores for both externalizing and internalizing psychiatric symptoms, which could not be explained by a broad range of possible psychosocial confounders. Thus, smoking in pregnancy may be a marker for increased risk of psychiatric symptoms in the offspring. PMID:17407460

  6. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). Using…

  7. Uncovering Concerns with Developing a Scoring System at ETS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stires, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes an expert panel member's experiences in working with Educational Testing Service to redesign the scoring for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Early Adolescence/English Language Arts Assessment. Maintains that a less mechanistic and more valid scoring system could have been developed if criticism and open discussion…

  8. Vocational interests of adolescents: relationships between self-esteem and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Mullis, A K; Mullis, R L

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among scores on vocational interests, self-esteem, and locus of control for high school students. Grade and sex differences were also examined. 1364 high school students ranging in age from 14 to 19 years of age were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. High school students with higher scores on self-esteem and showing an orientation toward internal locus of control expressed more interests in a variety of vocational themes than adolescents with lower scores on self-esteem and scores for external locus of control. Sex and grade differences in vocational interests of adolescents were also noted. The findings were discussed in light of theoretical and practical considerations. PMID:9461772

  9. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-05-01

    Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem. PMID:26674246

  10. Persisting Behavior Problems in Extremely Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992–1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8 to 14 years. Method Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 weeks) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cut-offs for clinical disorder. Results The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p’s<0.01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p< 0.01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Conclusions ELBW adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood. PMID:25741950

  11. Do Gaokao Scores Predict Chinese Business Students' Academic Success in Higher Education? An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Graduation and Cumulative GPA of Chinese Students in a Dual-Country Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Each year, millions of high school seniors in China take the National College Entrance Examination (or gaokao). The score the students receive on the gaokao is the sole determinant of whether they will be admitted to college and which college they may attend. Because the demand for college exceeds the availability of admission seats, the…

  12. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  13. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  14. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…

  15. The impact of gendered friendship patterns on the prevalence of homophobia among belgian late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hooghe, Marc

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia. PMID:20556503

  16. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  17. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. PMID:25218636

  18. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  19. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  20. Pain and pressure pain thresholds in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Anette; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is a significant symptom in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), pain is poorly understood in adolescents with CFS. The aim of this study was to explore pain distribution and prevalence, pain intensity and its functional interference in everyday life, as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in adolescents with CFS and compare this with a control group of healthy adolescents (HC). Methods This is a case–control, cross-sectional study on pain including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 HCs, aged 12–18 years. We measured pain frequency, pain severity and pain interference using self-reporting questionnaires. PPT was measured using pressure algometry. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of the Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial. Results Adolescents with CFS had significantly lower PPTs compared with HCs (p<0.001). The Pain Severity Score and the Pain Interference Score were significantly higher in adolescents with CFS compared with HCs (p<0.001). Almost all adolescents with CFS experienced headache, abdominal pain and/or pain in muscles and joints. Moreover, in all sites, the pain intensity levels were significantly higher than in HCs (p<0.001). Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of severe pain among adolescents with CFS and lowered pain thresholds compared with HCs. The mechanisms, however, are still obscure. Large longitudinal population surveys are warranted measuring pain thresholds prior to the onset of CFS. Trial registration number Clinical Trials, NCT01040429; The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25287104

  1. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  2. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  3. Measuring Changes in Social Behavior during a Social Skills Intervention for Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder was evaluated weekly over 19 weeks of a social skills training program. Participants' vocalizations were coded as initiating, responding, or other (e.g., self-talk). Participants' interactions were coded as dyadic peer interactions, dyadic leader interactions,…

  4. Does Political Socialization at Home Boost Adolescents' Expectation of Higher Education? An Analysis of Eighth-Grade Students in 35 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses comparative data to examine the impact of political socialization in the home on adolescents' expectations of university participation. The first part of the study is an international partial replication of design and findings of an earlier Norwegian study published in 2011. It examines, in socioculturally diverse countries, the…

  5. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  6. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Patients and methods In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Results Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. Conclusions We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and

  7. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  8. Attachment Styles and Psychopathology among Adolescent Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. Material/Methods We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Results Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles. PMID:25877235

  9. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  10. Walkable Communities and Adolescent Weight

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Barker, Dianne; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood design features have been associated with health outcomes, including the prevalence of obesity. Purpose This study examined the association between walkability and adolescent weight in a national sample of public secondary school students and the communities in which they live. Methods Data were collected through student surveys and community observations between February and August 2010, and analyses were conducted in Spring 2012. The sample size was 154 communities and 11,041 students. A community walkability index and measures of the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity were constructed. Multivariable analyses from a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade public school students in the U.S. were run. Results The odds of students being overweight (OR 0.975; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) or obese (OR 0.971; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) decreased if they lived in communities with higher walkability index scores. Conclusions Results suggest that living in more-walkable communities is associated with reduced prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity. PMID:23332334

  11. Socio-economic differences in health risk behavior in adolescence: do they exist?

    PubMed

    Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, J W; van den Heuvel, W J; Post, D

    1998-07-01

    Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The relation between socio-economic status (SES) and health risk behaviors was examined, by testing both the main and interaction effects of SES and gender on separate health risk behaviors on one hand, and on the behaviors cumulatively on the other. The data were derived from 1984 adolescents in the four northern provinces of The Netherlands. SES was measured by means of the educational level and the occupational status of both parents. Four health risk behaviors were included in this study: smoking, alcohol consumption, soft drug use, and (no) physical exercise. We found that the relationships between SES and health risk behaviors are not as linear as is often found in adulthood. Our findings can be characterised overall by an absence of relationship between SES and health risk behaviors. The only exception applies to sport, which is linearly related to SES. Adolescents in the lower SES groups engage in sport less than adolescents in the higher SES groups. There was an irregular relationship between the father's occupational status and the adolescents' smoking and drinking. Adolescents in the highest, lowest and middle of the six SES groups have the highest rates of health risk behaviors. All observed relationships are similar for both male and female adolescents. A relationship between gender and the separate health risk behaviors was found only for alcohol consumption and drug use. For both male adolescents showed higher rates of risk behavior. Males also scored higher on the cumulative health risk behaviors than their female counterparts. The findings of this study do not support the hypothesis of latent differences in adolescence. PMID:9683380

  12. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. PMID:27170447

  13. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue

    2014-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p values<0.05). Significant positive correlations existed between CTQ-SF subscale scores for EA, SA, CTQ-SF total scores, and EPQ-N, EPQ-P scores (all p values<0.05). Significant number of subjects in this adolescent sample reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24161247

  14. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  15. Gender and ethnic differences in health-promoting behaviors of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Horner, Sharon D; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E

    2015-06-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents (47.5% Hispanic; mean age at baseline 14.7 years). Males from all ethnic groups scored significantly higher than all females on physical activity; non-Hispanic Black males and females scored significantly higher than other ethnic groups on safety behaviors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White females scored higher than males in these ethnic groups on stress management. Nutrition, physical activity, and safety behaviors decreased significantly for most participants from Grade 9 to 12 whereas stress management remained relatively stable. Findings are similar to those from nationally representative samples that analyzed cross-sectional data and have implications for school nursing interventions to improve health-promoting behaviors in rural adolescents. PMID:25037685

  16. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues. Objective: To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV. Method: This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: The global perception of QV was higher among adolescents with visual impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms. Conclusion: The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population. PMID:26029272

  17. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  18. The relationship between parenting and the economic orientation and behavior of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed. PMID:24303576

  19. Adolescent Callous-Unemotional Traits and Parental Knowledge as Predictors of Unprotected Sex Among Youth.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Katherine Long; Shadur, Julia Madeline; Hoffman, Elana Michelle; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is common and results in many negative consequences. The present study investigated longitudinal predictors of adolescents' likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse. Parental knowledge, or the extent to which parents know about their children's activities, whereabouts, and friendships, is a robust predictor of youth risk behavior, including risky sexual behavior. However, parenting practices are typically less potent as predictors of subsequent behavior among youth with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We conducted three logistic regression models, each of which examined parental knowledge in a different way (through child report, parent report, and a discrepancy score), allowing us to examine parental knowledge, CU traits, and their interaction as predictors of adolescents' subsequent engagement in sex without a condom. Results indicated that adolescents who perceived their parents to possess greater knowledge were less likely to engage in unprotected sex. Higher parent report of parental knowledge was also related to decreased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with high levels of CU traits. In addition, greater discrepancy between parent and adolescent reports of parental knowledge was related to increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with low levels of CU traits. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and adolescent perceptions of parental knowledge and have important implications for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26584610

  20. Impaired reading comprehension and mathematical abilities in male adolescents with average or above general intellectual abilities are associated with comorbid and future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Nahon, Daniella; Kravitz, Efrat; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Noy, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    Research indicates that persons with learning disorders often suffer from psychopathology. We assessed current and future psychopathology in male adolescents with discrete impairments in reading comprehension (IRC) or arithmetic abilities (IAA) but with average or above-average general intellectual abilities. Subjects were a population-based cohort of 174,994 male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board with average or above-average intellectual abilities but with low scores (8.6th and 10th lowest percentile respectively) on reading or arithmetic tests. They were compared with adolescents who scored in the 10th percentile and above on these tests (comparison group). Relative to the comparison group, male adolescents with IRC, IAA, or IRC and IAA (0.69%), had poorer scores on most behavioral assessments and higher prevalence of current psychopathology: 4.2% (comparison group), 8.0% (IRC), 7.0% (IAA), and 9.8% (IRC and IAA). Adolescents with IRC were also at increased risk for later hospitalization for schizophrenia (hazard ratios = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.6). Male adolescents with average and above-average general intellectual abilities but with IRC or IAA are more likely to have current and future psychopathology. Impairments in intellectual functioning and abnormal behaviors leading to mental illnesses may share common neurobiological substrates. The results support screening male adolescents with learning disorders for psychopathology. PMID:18000449

  1. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  2. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  3. Do parents and adolescents differ in their perceptions of rearing styles? Analysis of the EMBU versions for parents and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; del Barrio, Victoria; García, Luis F

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, memories of rearing styles between parents, mother and father, and their son/daughters were explored through the EMBU versions for parents (EMBU-P) and adolescents (EMBU-A). Results show that parents differ in three of the four scales of the EMBU: Emotional Warmth, Control Attempts, and Favoring Subject. Also, mothers score higher on Emotional Warmth, and Control Attempts, but less on Favoring Subject. When parents and adolescents were compared in the common items to both versions, no substantial differences were found, except for the Favoring Subject scale. The sex of the adolescent seems not to play a relevant role in the observed differences. A revision of specialized literature suggested that differences in the fathers' and mothers' perceptions of their rearing styles could be related to differences in personality and marital satisfaction. These hypothetical relationships should be investigated in a parallel study. PMID:16542352

  4. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  5. Caffeine and Screen Time in Adolescence: Associations with Short Sleep and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Amy A.; Goodwin, James L.; Silva, Graciela E.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep duration and obesity incidence and risk factors among pre-adolescents and adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study of a community based cohort Setting: The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea follow-up study (TuCASA) cohort. Participants: 319 Caucasian and Hispanics between 10-17 years. Main Outcome: Parent-reported sleep duration and BMI z-score. Outcome Measures: Surveys of electronic screen time, dietary and caffeine intake, exercise and sleep habits by parents, and anthropometric measures. Results: Parent-reported total sleep time (TST) was inversely associated with BMI z-score, but not significantly correlated with any of the examined nutritional variables or exercise components. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with significantly lower parent-reported TST and higher BMI z-score. Parent-reported TST was inversely related to electronic screen time and caffeine use, but these findings were differentially related to age. Caffeine consumption was associated with decreasing parent-reported TST primarily in older adolescents. Electronic screen time was associated with lower parent-reported TST in younger adolescents. Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity and parental reports of TST were found to be the most closely associated with BMI z-score. Decreased TST and increased caffeine intake and screen time may result in higher obesity risk in the adolescent population. Citation: Drescher AA; Goodwin JL; Silva GE; Quan SF. Caffeine and screen time in adolescence: associations with short sleep and obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):337-342. PMID:21897768

  6. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  7. Self-Esteem in Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yachnik, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of self-esteem ratings of deaf adolescents (N=56) by adolescents and both parents (56 hearing and 56 deaf parents) on the Self Description Questionnaire III showed that adolescents with deaf parents generally rated themselves higher than did adolescents with hearing parents of global, same sex, and opposite sex self-esteem. (CB)

  8. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  9. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191

  10. Delinquency in male adolescents: the role of alexithymia and family structure.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Grégoire

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) (alexithymia), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS) (anxiety), the Liste d'Adjectifs Bipolaires et en Echelles de Likert (LABEL) (personality-Big Five) and demographic data. Findings revealed that the adolescents of the offender group scored high on alexithymia and that proportion of disrupted family structure in the offender group is higher than in the control group. Logistic regressions confirmed that alexithymia and family structure are the strongest discriminatory factors for juvenile delinquency. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:16182361

  11. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  12. A confirmatory model for depression among Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Chang, Janice Y; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T

    2005-02-01

    A confirmatory model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and depression was developed (N = 140). The model incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Major Life Events Scale, and Japanese Cultural Scale. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Cultural Scale and reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CES-D total and on 2 of the 3 CES-D factors than part-Japanese American adolescents. Predictors for depression were being Japanese American vs. part-Japanese American, female gender, and culturally intensified events. A significant interaction of behavior by self-identification was noted. The model had good overall fit and suggested that the formation of cultural identity may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced by adolescents, particularly adolescents of mixed heritage. PMID:15727494

  13. Neurobehavioral Functioning in Adolescents With and Without Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Design: Cross-sectional, case control. Setting: Sleep Center and community. Participants: Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Interventions: Neurobehavioral evaluation. Measurements and Results: Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P < 0.001) and lean (P < 0.001) controls, and more depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Conclusions: Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. Citation: Xanthopoulos MS, Gallagher PR, Berkowitz RI, Radcliffe J, Bradford R, Marcus CL

  14. Correlates of Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet S.; Herz, Elicia J.

    1987-01-01

    Studied correlates of teenage parenting in self-selected sample of 177 teenage parents. Parental race, punitive attitudes toward child rearing, and parental age were statistically significant predictors of total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores. Older, white adolescent mothers with less punitive attitudes toward child…

  15. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z-scores

  16. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  17. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  18. Agreement between parents and adolescents on emotional and behavioral problems and its associated factors among Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent–adolescent agreement on adolescents’ problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent–adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11–18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess parent–adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent–adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. Results The parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. Conclusions A high level of parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents. PMID:24735388

  19. Dentofacial abnormalities among adolescents: A study on the prevalence and severity

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Dentofacial abnormalities (DAI scores ≥ 26) were recorded in 38.5% subjects. Mean DAI score of the study population was 24.59 ± 6.09. Female subjects presented with higher prevalence and higher mean DAI scores than their male counterparts (p > 0.05). Assessment of severity of malocclusion between age groups revealed no differences (p > 0.05). Orthodontic treatment was highly desirable in 11% and mandatory in 5.2% subjects. Conclusions A high prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities was found among adolescents in Mangalore taluk pointing towards a need for designing effective programs for early diagnosis and treatment of this condition, especially among adolescents. Key words:Adolescents, Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI], dentofacial abnormalities, malocclusion, orthodontic treatment need, prevalence, severity. PMID:26155345

  20. Separation anxiety in parents of adolescents: theoretical significance and scale development.

    PubMed

    Hock, E; Eberly, M; Bartle-Haring, S; Ellwanger, P; Widaman, K F

    2001-01-01

    Parents of adolescents commonly face separation-related issues associated with children's increasing independence and imminent leave-taking. The aims of this investigation were (1) to develop a reliable and valid measure of parental emotions associated with separation and (2) to validate the measure by relating it to other attributes (attachment relationship quality, parent-child communication, and parent-adolescent differentiation) assessed in mothers, fathers, and their adolescents. The newly constructed, 35-item Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale (PASAS) was administered to 686 parents of teenagers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 or college-bound freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported formation of two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both subscales showed distinctive patterns of change with child age. Parents' reports indicated that healthy adult attachment styles were associated with lower AAD and higher CSBR scores; children of parents who had higher AAD scores reported lower quality of attachment to both mothers and fathers. PMID:11280485

  1. Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

  2. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder. PMID:21114410

  3. The Eating Disorders Examination in Adolescent Males with Anorexia Nervosa: How Does It Compare to Adolescent Females?

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Alison M.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka; Doyle, Peter; Le Grange, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to explore the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) for adolescent males with eating disorders (EDs) compared with adolescent females with EDs. Method Data were collected from 48 males and matched on percent median body weight (MBW) and age to 48 females at two sites. Results Adolescent males with anorexia nervosa-type presentation scored significantly lower than matched females on Shape Concern, Weight Concern, and Global score. They also scored lower on a number of individual items. Discussion The EDE has clinical utility with adolescent males with anorexic-type presentation although males’ scoring ranges are consistently lower than those from adolescent females with similar clinical presentations. Males scored significantly lower on a number of items representing core symptoms such as desire to lose weight. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the experience of adolescent males with EDs, particularly in relation to the nature of shape concern. PMID:22170022

  4. Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2008 and April 2009 in 648 Ecuadorian adolescents (52.3% boys), aged 11 to 15 years, attending secondary schools in Cuenca (urban n = 490) and Nabón (rural n = 158). Data collection included anthropometric measures, application of the EUROFIT battery, dietary intake (2-day 24 h recall), socio-demographic characteristics, and blood samples from a subsample (n = 301). The FITNESGRAM standards were used to evaluate fitness. The associations of fitness and residential location with blood lipid profile were assessed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for confounding factors. Results The majority (59%) of the adolescents exhibited low levels of aerobic capacity as defined by the FITNESSGRAM standards. Urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores in five EUROFIT tests (20 m shuttle, speed shuttle run, plate tapping, sit-up and vertical jump) and significantly most favorable improved plasma lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL) as compared to rural adolescents. There was a weak association between blood lipid profile and physical fitness in both urban and rural adolescents, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Physical fitness, in our sample of Ecuadorian adolescents, was generally poor. Urban adolescents had better physical fitness and blood lipid profiles than rural adolescents. The differences in fitness did not explain those in blood lipid profile between urban and rural adolescents. PMID:24745348

  5. Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huei-Fan; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and bullying involvement with anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severities of anxiety and depression were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of anxiety and depression. The results show that adolescents with ADHD who reported a higher behavioral inhibition system (BIS) score, had comorbid ASD, and were bullying victims, reported more severe anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD who bullied others reported more severe depressive symptoms than those who did not bully. The results of this study indicated that behavioral temperamental traits on the BIS, comorbid ASD, and bullying involvement were significantly associated with anxiety and depression among the adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26944330

  6. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) that were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions. Mothers also completed questionnaires at the start of the study (T1) and five years later (T6) on adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Path analysis showed that more emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence was associated with higher levels of adolescent disclosure in early adolescence and with relative decreases in maternal control from early to late adolescence. More emotional variability of mother-adolescent dyads serves an important function in adaptively dealing with relational challenges that arise during adolescence. PMID:24331301

  7. Discrepancies in perceptions of close relationships of young adolescents: a risk for psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Van Lier, Pol A C; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M

    2015-04-01

    Discrepancies between children and partners (e.g., parents, friends, peers) in reports of social functioning and self-other relationships are common in clinical practice and in research. However, it is not clear whether children's biased perceptions of self-other relationships, relative to the reports of partners, are predominantly a reflection of underlying psychological dysfunctions or whether these biased perceptions present a risk factor for subsequent problematic development. This longitudinal study therefore examined the effects of adolescent-mother disagreement and adolescent-best friend disagreement in perceptions of close (dyadic) relationships on the development of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample included 497 thirteen year-old adolescents of Dutch-Caucasian backgrounds (57 % boys; 41 % at high risk for externalizing problems), their mothers, and self-nominated best friends. The participants completed reports of positive dyadic relationship quality (warmth) in Grade 7. Discrepancy scores were based on difference scores between the adolescents' versus the partners' reports. Both absolute disagreement and direction of disagreement (i.e., over- or underestimation relative to the relationship partner) were examined. Self-reported symptoms of depression and mother-reported aggression were assessed in Grade 7, 8, and 9. Absolute disagreement in perceptions of warmth between adolescents and best friends was significantly related to higher baseline levels of aggression. No significant effects of discrepancy scores on growth curves of symptoms of depression and aggression were found. The results may suggest that it is more important for adolescents to develop positive perceptions of close relationships than to agree with partners on the quality of the relationship. PMID:25451864

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: the role of the severity of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sen, Yasar; Kandemir, Nurgun; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Gonc, Nazli; Ozon, Alev

    2008-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The study included 352 obese children and adolescents (body mass index [BMI] > or = 95th percentile) aged between 2 and 19 years. The diagnosis of MS was made according to the criteria adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. BMI z-scores were calculated to assess the degree of obesity. The prevalence of MS and risk factors were determined. Determinants of MS were examined using regression analysis. The prevalence of MS was 41.8%. The age at onset of obesity, sedentary life-span, fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were higher, while levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the number of actively spent hours were lower in cases with MS (p < 0.05). The most important determinant of MS was BMI z-score (r = 0.31, p < 0.0001). A one-point increase in BMI z-score yielded a 2-fold increase in the prevalence of MS. The prevalence of MS increased from 27.6% to 60.7% when the BMI z-score increased from 2.3 to 3.3. The risk of developing MS was 2.6-fold higher in cases with BMI z-score > 3 when compared to those with z-scores between 2 and 3. The results from this study indicate that, although the correlation between MS and the BMI z-score was weak, the BMI z-score may be an effective parameter in identifying obese children and adolescents at risk for MS. Screening the cases with BMI z-scores > or = 2 for MS is important for establishing an early diagnosis. PMID:18205011

  9. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12–17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures included the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire–Grades 7–9, and the perfectionism subscale from the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS). Predictor results indicate that adolescents with higher versus lower DAS perfectionism scores at baseline, regardless of treatment, continued to demonstrate elevated depression scores across the acute treatment period. In the case of suicidality, DAS perfectionism impeded improvement. Treatment outcomes were partially mediated by the change in DAS perfectionism across the 12-week period. PMID:20183664

  10. False memory for trauma-related Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gail S; Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Larson, Rakel P; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d' scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to (a) non-CSA group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and (b) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  11. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860

  12. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  13. Differences between adolescents exhibiting moderate binging and non-binging eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba; Toffle, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to study the association between personality and eating disorders using clinical samples. However, less research has been done on personality variables in non-clinical cases of adolescents prone to binge eating. The purpose of this study is to compare a group of 53 adolescents without binge eating with a group of 28 adolescents with moderate binging behaviors and to investigate the relationship between personality traits and eating behaviors. All participants completed BES, STAY, EPQ-R, IVE and EDI-2. The results demonstrated that the group with moderate binging presented higher scores in state and trait anxiety, psychoticism, neuroticism, and impulsivity than the adolescents without binge eating. The second hypothesis of this research was to analyze the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviors. In the group of adolescents without binge eating both neuroticism and psychoticism correlated with ED symptomatology. Similarly extraversion, impulsivity and venturesomeness correlated with ED symptomatology. In the group of adolescents with moderate binge eating, there was an association of trait anxiety, extraversion, venturesomeness and empathy with ED symptomatology in university samples. The results of this study represent a new stimulus to thoroughly investigate those aspects of personality that may be predictive of ED symptomatology and to develop preventative strategies. It is our opinion that it is necessary to focus attention not only on clinical or non-clinical samples, but also on adolescents who could be considered at risk. PMID:26543728

  14. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  15. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25603371

  16. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  17. Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: a Greek prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bakoula, Chryssa; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Veltsista, Alexandra; Gika, Artemis; Chrousos, George P

    2009-11-01

    Systematic research about the continuity of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence is limited, but necessary to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We used a population-based representative sample of Greek adolescents, followed-up from birth to the age of 18 years, to assess early influences on and the persistence of mental health problems in youth. We examined the role of peripartum, early development and parental characteristics in predicting mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Results suggest a strong relationship between behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence for both genders, while emotional problems were more likely to persist in boys. Age and sex-specific models revealed significant positive associations between higher scores on the behavioural and emotional problems scales and higher frequency of accidents in preschool years, physical punishment in early childhood, lack of parental interest in child's school and activities, and perceived maternal stress in all children. Perceived paternal stress was associated with higher scores on the Total and Internalizing problems scales in the total population. Our results suggest that early interventions are necessary as mental health problems strongly persist from childhood to late adolescence. The adverse effects of parental stress and poor care-giving practices on child's psychopathology need to be recognised and improved. PMID:19206015

  18. Short-term and long-term influences of family arguments and gender difference on developing psychological well-being in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Jing-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent mental health is crucial for social competence and accomplishment in later life. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 20% of adolescents suffer from psychological symptoms. However, improving family risk and school environments can largely promote adolescent mental health. A longitudinal survey was conducted to investigate adolescent psychological well-being (PWB) status and associated factors in adolescents 15-20 years of age. Family and school context variables were interviewed and recorded. A total of 2896 participants were included from high, middle, and less urbanized resident areas in Northern Taiwan with completed interview data. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors associated with adolescent PWB at various stages included quarrelsome parents, quarrels with parents, severed friendships, and cigarette and alcohol use. In all three adolescent stages, females yielded higher psychological symptom scores than did males, and diverse weights of risk factors on PWB were observed between genders. Family arguments and cigarette and alcohol use were found to have more pronounced effects on outcomes among females than males. Whereas males are more sensitive to severed friendships than females, cigarette and alcohol use showed more harmful effects on mental health in earlier adolescence than in later life. Moreover, family arguments and severed friendships in earlier adolescence were found to have lasting effects on PWB in later adolescence. In this study, gender differences were observed in the temporal relationship on adolescent mental health. Variables of family arguments and severed friendships exhibited short-term and long-term effects on adolescent mental health across the early to late developmental stages. The family argument environment and regulating cigarette and alcohol use are worthy of focus to promote adolescent mental health. PMID:25077832

  19. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolescents in two cities of Iran, Urmia and Tabriz. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in which 1990 adolescent boys and girls were selected through multistage random sampling. The study was based on self-report questionnaires including eating attitudes test (EAT-26) and DSM-IV criteria for the presence of eating disorders. To analyze the obtained data we calculated measures of central tendency and dispersion, linear and logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to diagnostic criteria of EAT-26, 492 students (24.2%) were at risk of ED and scored above the recommended cut-off point on EAT-26. Among 1990 students, a total of 51 cases (0.25%) of eating disorder (14 anorexia nervosa, 18 bulimia nervosa, and 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified) were diagnosed. Conclusions: The obtained prevalence of ED in our study was higher than previous studies in Iran. We found high numbers of boys with ED. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide screening and treatment services for Iranian adolescents. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders among Iranian adolescents. PMID:26568851

  20. Eating attitudes and their psychological correlates among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Aşçi, F Hülya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the females) had abnormal eating attitude scores. Chi-square analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the prevalance of abnormal eating behaviors based on gender. Analysis of covariance indicated that participants who had disturbed eating attitudes had lower self-esteem, higher social physique anxiety, and higher trait anxiety than those who had normal eating attitudes. It was concluded that the prevalence of disturbed eating attitudes was high among these Turkish late adolescents, and that disturbed eating attitudes were related to several psychological characteristics. PMID:15673232

  1. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R.; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire–Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  2. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Wagner, Clara A.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Methods A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12–13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Results Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Conclusions Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. PMID:23978629

  3. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  4. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  5. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  6. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  7. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  8. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  9. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  10. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents. PMID:26373289

  11. The UPA score and teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F

    1993-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores. PMID:8480012

  12. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  13. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  14. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style. PMID:18853670

  15. [Quality of the diet of 18-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Cristina Bossle de; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the quality of the diet of adolescents according to sociodemographic and behavioral factors. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,959 eighteen-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire with a recall period of 12 months. The diet quality was assessed using the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R). This index ranges from 0 to 100 points and the higher the score, the better the diet quality. The overall DQI-R mean score was 62.4 points (DP). The lowest rates were observed for dark green and orange vegetables (3.0), total vegetables (3.4) and dairy products (3.6). Non-Caucasian adolescents (63.1), from families in which the heads of the household had less schooling (63.6) and belonging to the lowest quintile of the asset index (64.7) had higher average scores in the DQI-R. Lower averages were found among adolescents who smoked (58.5) and who consumed alcoholic beverages (56.0). This study showed that diet quality of the adolescents assessed deserve attention, especially with regard to the intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products. PMID:26602709

  16. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  17. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    PubMed

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  18. Internet café addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei

    2007-04-01

    With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed. PMID:17474839

  19. Prevalence and predictors of substance use: a comparison between adolescents with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Maag, J W; Irvin, D M; Reid, R; Vasa, S F

    1994-04-01

    A considerable body of literature has accumulated that examines patterns of substance use and abuse among adolescents attending general education classes. However, much less information exists on the prevalence and predictors of substance use among adolescents with learning disabilities. One purpose of this study was to determine the comparative prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among a sample of 123 students with learning disabilities (91 male and 32 female, mean age = 14.37 years) and 138 nondisabled students (77 male and 61 female, mean age = 13.71 years). A second purpose was to determine whether two psychosocial variables (self-esteem and type of behavior problem) or severity of drinking problem best predicted use of tobacco and marijuana. Students were administered the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI)-School form (Coopersmith, 1987) and the Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI) (Harrell & Wirtz, 1989); their teachers completed the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) (Quay & Peterson, 1987). Tobacco and marijuana use were proportionally higher for adolescents with learning disabilities; no differences emerged for alcohol use between groups. A discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on the SEI and subscale scores of the RBPC did not reliably predict tobacco or marijuana use for either group. ADI scores were reliable predictors of marijuana use for students with learning disabilities and tobacco use for both groups. PMID:8051503

  20. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  1. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, S D; Mounts, N S; Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M

    1991-10-01

    In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful. PMID:1756655

  2. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-06-01

    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  3. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  4. The Influence of Hand Preference on Grip Strength in Children and Adolescents; A Cross-Sectional Study of 2284 Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hepping, Ann M.; Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In adults the preferred hand is often considered to be around 10% stronger than the non-preferred hand. Whether the same is true for children and adolescents remains unclear. The objective of this study is therefore to determine whether there is a difference in grip strength between the preferred and non-preferred hand in developing children, to establish whether this difference is similar for children of a different gender or hand preference, and whether there is a difference in grip strength of the preferred hand of left-preferent (LP) and right-preferent (RP) children. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Participants were recruited from schools in the northern provinces of the Netherlands. The study included healthy children and adolescents in the age range of 4–17 years. Outcome Measures Each child was allowed a total of four attempts using the JAMAR hand dynamometer, two attempts with each hand. All individual attempts were scored. Hand preference was determined by asking which hand was used to write, or in the case of 4- and 5-year-olds, which hand was used to draw a shape. Results The study population comprised 2284 children and adolescents. RP boys and girls scored significantly higher with their preferred hand, the difference amounting to 9.5 and 10.1% respectively. LP girls scored significantly higher with their preferred hand, but this difference was only 3.0%. For LP boys no significant difference was found in favor of either hand. LP children score higher with the non-preferred hand and tie scores on both hands more often than RP children. Conclusion The 10% rule of hand preference is applicable to RP children ranging in age between 4 and 17 years, but not to LP children. In contrast to LP boys, LP girls are generally significantly stronger with their preferred hand. PMID:26599429

  5. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954

  6. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  7. Westernization, intuitive eating, and BMI: an exploration of Jordanian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036

  8. Pattern and predictors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy

    2014-12-01

    Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem. PMID:24627151

  9. Big Cities Credit Conceptual Math for Higher Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    The two city districts that made the greatest strides in math on the latest national assessment relied on similar strategies: building students' conceptual math skills and investing in professional development in that subject for elementary and middle school teachers. While administrators in Boston and San Diego say that many factors were at work…

  10. Let's Get Higher Scores on These New Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This column explains three ways that teachers can improve reading test performance. Basically, the idea is that instead of teaching students to respond to particular question types as is typical of test preparation despite the ineffectiveness of this practice, it is better to teach students to read the test passages more effectively. Three…

  11. Elucidating dimensions of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their functional correlates in disaster-exposed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Pietrzak, Robert H; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Adams, Zachary W; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2000 adolescents aged 12-17 years (M = 14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M = 8.8, SD = 2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15-17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12-14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogenous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention. PMID:25248557

  12. Elucidating Dimensions of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and their Functional Correlates in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Adams, Zachary W.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2,000 adolescents aged 12–17 years (M=14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M=8.8, SD=2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15–17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12–14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogeneous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention. PMID:25248557

  13. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.03) as compared to controls. The female population skewed the result of one cytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (p<0.001, p=0.007 higher in medicated). Depression in adolescents was associated with elevation of proinflammatory serum cytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17. PMID:26163725

  14. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (β = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children

  15. The relationship between poor performance on attention tasks and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seog Ju; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to examine the relationship between attention and suicidal ideation in a school-based adolescent population. This cross-sectional study involved 2,462 students from eight high schools in South Korea (1,021 males and 1,441 females, mean age 17.3 ± 0.6 years). The participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and took part in computerized attention tasks. Participants with high SSI scores (16 or higher) exhibited a higher mean number of omission errors (OEs) and commission errors (CEs) on the visual sustained attention tasks than did participants with low SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). On the divided attention tasks, the high SSI group exhibited a higher mean number of CEs than the low SSI group did (p < 0.001). In a general linear model adjusting for age, gender, and high BDI (10 or higher), membership in the high OE group in the visual sustained attention tasks was associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.015). Belonging to the high OE or CE group in the divided attention tasks were associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.024 and p = 0.035, respectively). For both the visual sustained and divided attention tasks, interactions between gender and high OE rates were significant (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, membership in the high OE group was associated with high SSI scores for girls. In a multiple linear regression analysis including all participants and controlling for age, gender, and BDI scores, higher numbers of OEs and CEs on the visual sustained attention tasks predicted higher SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). On the divided attention task, the number of CEs was positively correlated with the SSI score (p = 0.031). The findings of this study indicate an association between attention deficits and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents after controlling for depressed mood. The current results suggest a direct

  16. The association between cortisol and neighborhood disadvantage in a U.S. population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Wand, Gary S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Glass, Thomas A; Marques, Andrea H; Duncko, Roman; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood conditions and cortisol is rarely studied in children or adolescents and has been hampered by small sample size and racial/ethnic and geographic homogeneity. Our objective was to estimate the association between neighborhood disadvantage and salivary cortisol levels in a large, geographically and racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Salivary cortisol was collected before and after an interview administered in the adolescent's home. We used a propensity score approach to match adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods with those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods to create two similar groups based on the time and day of cortisol collection as well as demographic characteristics. Adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods had higher pre-interview cortisol levels and steeper rates of decline in cortisol levels over the course of the interview than similar adolescents in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. This bolsters the evidence base suggesting that place may influence the stress response system. PMID:24367996

  17. Gender Differences in Factors Associated With Anal Intercourse Among Heterosexual Adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy K W; Sen, Priya; Chio, Martin T W; Koh, David

    2015-08-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined the gender differences in prevalence of and factors associated with anal sex among adolescents attending the only public STI clinic in Singapore. Data were collected from 1035 sexually active adolescents aged 14 to 19 and analyzed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of anal intercourse was 28%, with significantly more females (32%) than males (23%) ever engaged in it. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with anal intercourse for both genders were oral sex and the nonuse of contraception at last sex. For males, anal intercourse was associated with younger age of sexual debut and greater perceived external control. Among females, it was associated with higher rebellious scores and lack of confidence to resist peer pressure to engage in sex. Consistent condom use for anal sex was 22% and 8% for males and females, respectively. STI prevention programs for adolescents should address anal sex, be gender-specific, and take into consideration individual personality characteristics. PMID:26241386

  18. The impact of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders on severity of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Brand-Gothelf, Ayelet; Leor, Shani; Apter, Alan; Fennig, Silvana

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders on the severity of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescent girls. Adolescent girls with AN (N = 88) were divided into one group with and another group without comorbid disorders, and selected subjective and objective measures of illness severity were compared between the two groups. The comorbid group had significantly higher scores than the noncomorbid group for all four subscales and total scores of the Eating Disorders Examination as well as for all Eating Disorders Inventory-2 subscales, except for bulimia. The comorbid group also had significantly more suicide attempts and hospitalizations compared with the noncomorbid group. There were no significant group differences for the lowest ever body mass index, duration of AN symptoms, and age at AN onset. Our findings suggest that AN with comorbid depression and anxiety disorder is a more severe clinical variant of the disorder, especially with respect to severity of psychological symptoms and suicide risk. PMID:25265267

  19. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    PubMed

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850

  20. Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Risky Sexual Behaviors among Nigerian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, Jennifer; Enejoh, Victor; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge has been rated as the most important factor for HIV prevention. However, studies have also shown that knowledge alone does not always translate into reduced risky sexual behavior (RSB). Health locus of control (HLC) categorized as perceived control over health status (internal locus of control) or attribution of health status to chance or fate (external health locus of control) is a psychological construct that has been shown to impact health outcomes including RSB. This study thus investigated the relationship between HLC and RSB among Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey design was employed among 361 adolescents from nine senior secondary schools selected through stratified random sampling from Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Data were collected between August and October of 2008. Health Locus of Control Scale was used to categorize individuals into having either an internal or external HLC. RSB was assessed using the Brief HIV Screener (BHS). Descriptive statistics were computed and Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences in BHS scores by HLC categories. Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for individual BHS question responses based on HLC. Participants were 169 males (46.8%) and 192 females (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. When grouped into HLC categories, 141 were internal and 220 were external. The mean score on the BHS showed statistically significant difference based on HLC (p=0.01). Odds for using a condom during sexual intercourse were higher for adolescents with an internal HLC while adolescents with an external HLC had significantly higher RSB scores. Prevention programs targeted at adolescents should also aim to internalize their HLC. PMID:26779383

  1. Self-esteem among Arab adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, I

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the level of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. A group of 1,560 11th- and 12th-grade Israeli-Arab adolescents answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). The results revealed significant relationships (a) between global self-esteem and students' evaluations of their scholastic levels, their schools' academic levels, and their plans to take matriculation exams and (b) between self-esteem and family and peer relations. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and community type. Participants living in cities and villages scored higher than those living in Bedouin townships. There were no significant gender differences or differences among grade levels. PMID:10457762

  2. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  3. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  4. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  5. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  6. Estimated Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Brian J; Wadwa, R Paul; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen J; Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are similar in adolescents with and without diabetes (T1D) in the most insulin sensitive (IS) tertile and CVD risk factors are more atherogenic with decreasing IS in adolescents with T1D. Study design Adolescents with IS T1D (n=292; age=15.4±2.1 years; duration=8.8±3.0 years, HbA1c=8.9±1.6%) and non-diabetic (non-DM) controls (n=89; age=15.4±2.1 years) was estimated using the model: logeIS=4.64725 – 0.02032(waist, cm) – 0.09779(HbA1c, %) – 0.00235(triglycerides, mg/dl). CVD risk factors (blood pressure, fasting total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, and BMI Z-score) were compared between all non-DM adolescents and those with T1D in the most IS tertile, and then examined for a linear trend by IS tertile in adolescents with T1D, adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner Stage. Results Estimated IS was significantly lower in adolescents with T1D compared with those without (T1D=7.8±2.4, non-DM=11.5±2.9; p<0.0001). CVD risk factors were similar for non-DM compared with the adolescents with most IS T1D, except for higher HDL-c and DBP in adolescents with T1D (p<0.05). Among adolescents with T1D, all CVD risk factors except for HDL-c, were more atherogenic across decreasing IS tertiles in linear regression analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with T1D who are the most IS have similar CVD risk factors compared with non-DM adolescents. CVD risk factors are inversely associated with adolescents with IS T1D. IS may be an important therapeutic target for reducing CVD risk factors in adolescents with T1D. PMID:22921593

  7. Temperament and Character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): Comparison to the General Population, and Genetic Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C. Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Method Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). Results The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Conclusions Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared

  8. Characterizing the Longitudinal Relations between Depressive and Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Sarah J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Sucharew, Heidi J.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined association between depressive and menstrual symptoms in adolescent girls in a three-year longitudinal study. It was hypothesized that menstrual symptoms would increase in early adolescence and decrease in later adolescence; girls with greater depressive symptoms would report greater menstrual symptoms; and effects would persist after adjusting for general somatic complaints. METHODS A community sample of girls (N = 262) enrolled in an observational study by age cohort (11, 13, 15, 17 years) completed three annual visits. Girls completed the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire and the Children’s Depression Inventory at each time point, along with the Youth Self Report to assess general somatic complaints. RESULTS Menstrual symptoms increased significantly across adolescence (linear age B=10.2, SE=3.7, p=.006), and began to plateau in later adolescence (quadratic age B=−0.27, SE=0.12, p=0.020). Depressive symptoms at study entry were significantly associated with menstrual symptoms (B=0.44, SE=0.08, p<.001). When general somatic complaints were included in the models, the effect of depressive symptoms on menstrual symptoms remained significant for the sum score (B=0.23, SE=0.09, p=0.015) and the menstrual somatic symptoms subscale (B=0.14, SE=0.04, p=0.001). After adjusting for somatic complaints, initial report of depressive symptoms predicted change in menstrual symptoms only for girls with the lowest menstrual symptoms sum score (B=0.39, SE=0.17, p=0.025). Initial report of somatic complaints predicted change in menstrual symptoms (B=0.37, SE=0.16, p=0.020). CONCLUSION Girls with higher depressive symptoms and higher somatic complaints are at greater risk for experiencing menstrual symptoms and increasing symptoms across adolescence, with a heightened vulnerability for girls with lower baseline menstrual symptoms. PMID:25170752

  9. Neural Correlates of Treatment in Adolescents with Bipolar Depression During Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Segreti, Anna Maria; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Almeida, Jorge RC; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Phillips, Mary L; Pan, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Abnormal prefrontal and subcortical activity during cognitive control tasks is identified in non-depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD); however, little is known about the neural correlates of bipolar adolescents in a depressed state (BDd). We aimed to investigate baseline versus after-treatment patterns of neural activity underlying motor response and response inhibition in adolescents with BDd. Methods In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 10 adolescents with BDd relative to 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) completed a well-validated go/no go block-design cognitive control task at baseline and after 6 weeks of naturalistic treatment. We used whole-brain analysis and controlled our results for multiple comparisons. Results There was significant improvement in depression scores (mean change: 57%±28). There was no behavioral difference in BDd baseline versus HC and after treatment. BDd adolescents relative to HC had higher baseline cortical, but not subcortical, neural activity (e.g., bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal during both the go [motor control] and the no go [response inhibition] conditions, and left superior temporal during the no go condition). However, after-treatment activity relative to baseline neural activity during response inhibition was significantly increased in subcortical (e.g., right hippocampus and left thalamus), but not cortical, regions. In addition, at baseline, lower left thalamus activity was correlated with higher depression scores. Conclusions Adolescents with BDd had baseline prefrontal and temporal hyperactivity underlying motor control and response inhibition that did not change after treatment in contrast to relatively decreased baseline subcortical activity underlying response inhibition associated with the depressive state that was increased after the treatment. PMID:23607410

  10. Surviving genocide in Srebrenica during the early childhood and adolescent personality

    PubMed Central

    Kravić, Nermina; Pajević, Izet; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine how the experience of genocide in Srebrenica in the early childhood (ages 1-5) influences the psychological health in adolescence. Methods This study included 100 school-attending adolescents, age 15-16 (born in 1990-91) who were divided in two groups according to the place of residence from 1992-1995: the Srebrenica group – adolescents who lived in Srebrenica during the siege and the non-Srebrenica group who lived in the “free territory,” were not wounded, and experienced no losses. We used the socio-demographic questionnaire created for the purposes of our study and the War Trauma Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Reactions Questionnaire, Self-report Depressive Scale (Zung), Freiburg Personality Inventory, and the Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results Srebrenica adolescents experienced significantly more traumatic experiences (14.26 ± 3.11 vs 4.86 ± 3.16, P < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in the total score of posttraumatic stress reactions and intensity of depression between the two groups, significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress reaction were noticed for several specific questions. The most prominent defense mechanisms in both groups were projection, intellectualization, and reactive formation. Srebrenica adolescents had higher sociability levels (34.7% vs 16.0%, χ2 = 7.231, P = 0.020). Conclusion Srebrenica adolescents reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability. Our findings could be used for planning treatment and improving communication and overcoming traumas in war-affected areas. PMID:23444247

  11. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Excess Weight and Unhealthier Lifestyle Behaviors in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Fiorella; Francis, Lori; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms and obesity. This study examined the association of depressive symptoms with standardized BMI (BMI z-score), lifestyle behaviors, and self-efficacy measures in a sample of urban adolescents. Methods: A school-based study was conducted among adolescents (N=1508) enrolled from 11 public schools. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Kandel's depressive symptoms scale for adolescents. Fruit and vegetable intake and intake of energy-dense foods were assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire. Sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) were obtained by self-report. Height and weight were measured directly and BMI z-scores were calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of depressive symptoms with BMI z-score and lifestyle behaviors, accounting for clustering at school level and adjusting for confounders. Self-efficacy measures were evaluated as potential mediators. Results: The sample was 53% female, 75% Hispanic, and 82% US born, with a mean age of 13.9 years. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI z-score (β=0.02; p=0.02), intake of energy-dense foods (β=0.42; p<0.001), and sedentary behavior (β=0.48; p<0.001), but lower PA (β=−0.03; p=0.01). There was an interaction by gender in the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Self-efficacy mediated the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Conclusions: Obesity prevention and treatment programs should consider addressing the role of negative emotions as part of their preventive strategies. PMID:25181530

  12. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  13. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  14. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parenting Behaviours and Its Relationship to Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  17. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7 ± 3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT). Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p < 0.005) and BTT (p < 0.0005) z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p < 0.0001) and significantly lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.0001), osteocalcin (p < 0.05), and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.005). Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages. PMID:27413371

  18. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  19. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  20. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  1. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  2. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (p<0.05). Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05). In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05). According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05). According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (p<0.05). According to CPI

  3. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  4. Temperament, character, and adolescents' depressive symptoms: focusing on affect.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: "self-fulfilling" (high PA, low NA), "high affective" (high PA, high NA), "low affective" (low PA, low NA), and "self-destructive" (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The "self-fulfilling" profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). "Self-destructive" adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  5. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  6. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  7. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

  8. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  9. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  10. Negative emotionality and cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ponirakis, A; Susman, E J; Stifter, C A

    1998-09-01

    This research examined the relations among maternal emotionality, biology, and infant outcome and autonomic nervous system reactivity (cardiac vagal tone). The sample consisted of 27 pregnant adolescents and their 3-week-old infants. Measures of anxiety, depression, anger, and saliva cortisol were obtained from the adolescents both pre- and postnatally. Infant outcome measures consisted of gestational age at delivery, birth weight, number of risk factors at birth and at 24 hr, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, abnormalities on newborn physical exam, number of resuscitation measures used on the infant, and cardiac vagal tone. Significant relations were found among the adolescent's emotionality, infant physical outcomes, and cardiac vagal tone. Higher concentrations of adolescent cortisol were associated with lower infant Apgar scores and an increased need for resuscitation measures performed on the infant. The positive association between negative emotions and better infant outcomes also was found and may reflect the sensitivity of the adolescents to their feelings and needs during pregnancy. Social support during pregnancy mediated the effects of maternal negative emotionality and infant cardiac vagal tone. PMID:9742411

  11. Coping and caregiving experience of parents of children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhadada, Sanjay; Kate, Natasha; Sarkar, Siddharth; Bhansali, Anil; Avasthi, Ajit; Sharma, Sunil; Goel, Rashi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the coping strategies and the relationship of coping with subjective burden and positive caregiving consequences as perceived by the caregivers of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional assessment. Setting: Outpatient of Endocrinology Department. Participants: Forty-one parents of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes Main Outcome Measure: Ways of coping checklist (WCC), involvement evaluation questionnaire (IEQ) and scale for assessment of positive aspects of caregiving experience (scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience) to study the coping, burden and positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Results: On WCC, the highest score was obtained for seeking social support, followed by planful problem-solving. More frequent use of coping strategies of confrontation and escape-avoidance was associated with significantly higher score on the tension domain of IEQ. Those who more frequently used problem-solving and distancing had significantly higher scores on worrying-urging-I domain of IEQ. supervision domain of IEQ was associated with more frequent use of confrontation, self-control, social support, escape-avoidance and positive reappraisal. More frequent use of distancing and problem-solving were associated with lower caregiving personal gains. More frequent use of problem-solving was associated with higher caregiver satisfaction and lower scores in the domain of self-esteem and social aspects of caring. Conclusion: Caregivers of patients with Type-1 diabetes predominantly use adaptive coping strategies. Higher use of certain coping strategies is associated with negative and positive caregiving consequences. PMID:26955574

  12. Psychological Assessment of Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria

    1993-01-01

    This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…

  13. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    PubMed

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers. PMID:11881270

  14. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  15. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  16. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

  17. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Dengel, Donald R.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skipping breakfast and consuming fast food are related to the risk of obesity and are common adolescent behaviors. The relationship between these behaviors and biomarkers related to diabetes and CVD is understudied in this population. Methods: Data are from a study of the etiologic factors related to obesity risk in adolescents. Breakfast and fast food consumption were assessed using a self-report survey. Anthropometrics, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between dietary behaviors and selected biomarkers, controlling for calories consumed, body mass index (BMI), and demographic covariates. Results: 367 adolescents (11 to 18-years; mean 14.7 ± 1.8 years) were assessed at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities from 2006–2008. Breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower BMI, body fat, insulin, HOMA-IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) cluster score, while fast food consumption was associated with higher BMI, body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MetS cluster score. Some gender differences were observed. Conclusion: Breakfast and fast food consumption appear to be related to important metabolic syndrome biomarkers for chronic disease in a sample of healthy adolescents. The importance of this finding needs to be validated by examining the stability of this pattern over time and to assess the pattern in other populations. PMID:26844187

  18. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the families. Methods A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles), KidScreen-10 (QoL), SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children), and CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory). The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version), and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life) Family Impact Module. Results The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers’ positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively). The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75) and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51) than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from IBD positively correlated with the QoL of the adolescents evaluated by KidScreen-10. The positive parental style of the fathers negatively correlated with the children’s state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with the severity of childhood depression. Conclusion The fathers of the IBD adolescents may exhibit low levels of

  19. Familism, mother-daughter mutuality, and suicide attempts of adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ana A; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    National surveys in the U.S. reveal that Latina adolescents have higher rates of suicide attempts than females of other ethnic and racial groups. Past reports indicate that the suicide attempts among Latinas are lodged within family contexts in which sociocultural and individual experiences influence parental and adolescent behaviors. To better understand the parent-adolescent relations that explain the Latina suicidal phenomenon, we examined how the high value on family unity and support, as reflected by familism, and its effects on mother-daughter mutuality (i.e., reciprocal empathy and engagement) were evident in a group of adolescent Latinas with suicide attempts and a group of adolescent Latinas without suicide attempts. Drawing from data on 169 mother-daughter dyads recruited from Latino communities in a Northeastern metropolis and who self-identified as being of Latino origin or heritage, we considered how differences in familism between mothers and daughters influenced their sense of mutuality, the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts. Results show that gaps in familism (mothers scoring higher than their daughters on the scale) predicted less mother-daughter mutuality and more externalizing behaviors in the adolescents. Also, mother-daughter mutuality was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors which, in turn, predicted suicide attempts. Findings point to further research on family interactions that raise the risk for suicidality in Latino youth, particularly to including fathers and siblings in study designs. Clinical implications point to enhancing family and dyadic communication skills focusing mutuality while observing the cultural value of familism. PMID:20954772

  20. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  1. The association of personal resilience with stress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: variable- and person-focused approaches.

    PubMed

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Yaptangco, Mona; Semana, Sharla; Buscaino, Emil; Thompson, Valeria; Cochrane, Katie; Tabile, Marissa; Alving, Erin; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the association between personal resilience and distress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in 50 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Resilience was defined by a factor score derived from validated instruments measuring self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem. Variable- and person-focused methodologies were used to explore these associations. Low resilience was associated with higher distress, poor quality of life, and poor glycemic control. Participants with low resilience used more maladaptive coping strategies and were at greatest risk of poor outcomes. Findings suggest that resilience is a promising candidate for interventions designed to reduce distress and improve outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24271691

  2. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  3. Voxel-level comparison of arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with internet gaming addiction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although recent studies have clearly demonstrated functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (IGA), less is known about how IGA affects perfusion in the human brain. We used pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the effects of IGA on resting brain functions by comparing resting cerebral blood flow in adolescents with IGA and normal subjects. Methods Fifteen adolescents with IGA and 18 matched normal adolescents underwent structural and perfusion fMRI in the resting state. Direct subtraction, voxel-wise general linear modeling was performed to compare resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the 2 groups. Correlations were calculated between the mean CBF value in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) scores, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores, or hours of Internet use per week (hours) in the 15 subjects with IGA. Results Compared with control subjects, adolescents with IGA showed significantly higher global CBF in the left inferior temporal lobe/fusiform gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus/amygdala, right medial frontal lobe/anterior cingulate cortex, left insula, right insula, right middle temporal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left cingulate gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe. Lower CBF was found in the left middle temporal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, and right cingulate gyrus. There were no significant correlations between mean CBF values in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and CIAS or BIS-11 scores or hours of Internet use per week. Conclusions In this study, we used ASL perfusion fMRI and noninvasively quantified resting CBF to demonstrate that IGA alters the CBF distribution in the adolescent brain. The results support the hypothesis that IGA is a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological

  4. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  5. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. RESULTS For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:26308261

  6. Effects of media exposure on adolescents traumatized in a school shooting.

    PubMed

    Haravuori, Henna; Suomalainen, Laura; Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Marttunen, Mauri

    2011-02-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the media on adolescents traumatized in a school shooting. Participants were trauma-exposed students (n = 231) and comparison students (n = 526), aged 13-19 years. A questionnaire that included the Impact of Event Scale and a 36-item General Health Questionnaire was administered 4 months after the shooting. Being interviewed was associated with higher scores on the Impact of Event Scale (p = .005), but posttraumatic symptoms did not differ between those who refused to be interviewed and those not approached by reporters. Following a higher number of media outlets did not affect symptoms. PMID:21268117

  7. Good Self-Control Moderates the Effect of Mass Media on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Tests With Studies of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Sargent, James D.; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. Design In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10–14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Main Outcome Measures Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). Results In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Conclusion Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. PMID:20836609

  8. Binge eating symptoms, diet composition and metabolic characteristics of obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Arthur, Thais; Rodrigues, Mariana D B; Guazzelli, Isabel; Frazzatto, Eliana; Deram, Sophie; Nicolau, Christiane Y; Halpern, Alfredo; Villares, Sandra M F

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of symptoms of binge eating (BE) among children and adolescents seeking treatment for their obesity, as well as to evaluate their diet composition and metabolic characteristics. The Binge Eating Scale (BES) was answered by 128 children and adolescents (10.77+/-2.04 years, BMI 29.15+/-4.98 kg/m2, BMI Z score 2.28+/-0.46, 53.91% pubescent), who were classified into two subgroups--binge eaters (score greater than or equal to 18 points) and non-binge eaters (score lower than 18 points). Anthropometric data, body composition and Tanner stages were collected and dietary evaluation conducted. Blood pressure was determined, and glucose, lipid profile and insulin assays were performed. Insulin resistance was determined using HOMA-IR. BE symptoms were present in 39.06% of patients. Carbohydrate intake in diet composition was significantly higher among binge eaters. Children with BE did not demonstrate significant dissimilar metabolic characteristics when compared to their counterparts without BE. Therefore, BE seems to be a prevalent problem among children and adolescents seeking help for their obesity. When associated with obesity, this eating behaviour can influence macronutrient consumption through increased carbohydrate intake. Further research would be valuable to verify the reproducibility of these findings. PMID:17804118

  9. Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents. PMID:24418246

  10. The Relationship of Caffeine Intake with Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Sleep in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mi-Joo; Ko, Hae-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Min; Kim, A-Sol; Moon, Ha-Na; Jung, Seung-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background In various studies in adults, caffeine may increase wakefulness and relieve pain, but caffeine overdose can cause many adverse serious effects on health. Caffeine intake has recently been increasing in adolescents. In spite of importance of caffeine effects on Korean adolescents, there are lack of scientific and systematic studies. The purpose of our study was to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects on adolescents. Methods We performed study on 234 middle school students at one middle school in Daegu using a self-report questionnaire. We divided students to quartiles according to amount of caffeine intake. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate the degree of depression and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to evaluate the degree of anxiety. We also used Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI) to evaluate the degree of insomnia and Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) to evaluate the stress in students. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects. Results Higher caffeine intake was associated with higher weight, height, lower academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS (P for trend <0.005). Higher caffeine intake quartile was associated with greater odds of having significant depression (BDI ≥10, P for trend=0.011), and insomnia (ISI ≥8, P for trend=0.015) after adjustment for factors that can affect the psychological status. Conclusion We found that caffeine intake is associated weight, height, academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS. Caffeine intake was positively associated with the severity of depression and the severity of insomnia among adolescents in Korean. PMID:27073610

  11. Influence of sources of information about influenza vaccine on parental attitudes and adolescent vaccine receipt.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Lisa M; Underwood, Natasha L; Sales, Jessica M; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011-2012, only 34% of 13-17 years olds in the United States (US) received seasonal influenza vaccine. Little is known about the link between parents' sources of health information, their vaccine-related attitudes, and vaccination of their adolescent against influenza. This study seeks to determine the relationship between number of sources of information on influenza vaccine, parental attitudes toward influenza vaccine, and influenza vaccine uptake in adolescents. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among US parents of students enrolled in 6 middle and 5 high schools in Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between the number of information sources about influenza vaccine and vaccine receipt and whether parent vaccine-related attitudes act as a mediator. The most commonly reported sources of information were: a physician/medical professional (95.0%), a family member or friend (80.6%), and television (77.2%). Parents who had higher attitude scores toward influenza vaccine were 5 times as likely to report their adolescent had ever received influenza vaccine compared to parents who had lower attitude scores (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.1-8.4; P < 0.01). Parent vaccine-related attitudes were a significant mediator of the relationship between sources of information and vaccine receipt. In light of the low response rate and participation in an adolescent vaccination intervention, findings may not be generalizable to other populations. This study shows the importance of multiple sources of information in influencing parental decision-making about influenza vaccine for adolescents. Harnessing the power of mass media and family members and friends as health advocates for influenza vaccination can potentially help increase vaccination coverage of adolescents. PMID:25996686

  12. Influence of sources of information about influenza vaccine on parental attitudes and adolescent vaccine receipt

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Lisa M; Underwood, Natasha L; Sales, Jessica M; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2012, only 34% of 13–17 years olds in the United States (US) received seasonal influenza vaccine. Little is known about the link between parents' sources of health information, their vaccine-related attitudes, and vaccination of their adolescent against influenza. This study seeks to determine the relationship between number of sources of information on influenza vaccine, parental attitudes toward influenza vaccine, and influenza vaccine uptake in adolescents. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among US parents of students enrolled in 6 middle and 5 high schools in Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between the number of information sources about influenza vaccine and vaccine receipt and whether parent vaccine-related attitudes act as a mediator. The most commonly reported sources of information were: a physician/medical professional (95.0%), a family member or friend (80.6%), and television (77.2%). Parents who had higher attitude scores toward influenza vaccine were 5 times as likely to report their adolescent had ever received influenza vaccine compared to parents who had lower attitude scores (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.1–8.4; P < 0.01). Parent vaccine-related attitudes were a significant mediator of the relationship between sources of information and vaccine receipt. In light of the low response rate and participation in an adolescent vaccination intervention, findings may not be generalizable to other populations. This study shows the importance of multiple sources of information in influencing parental decision-making about influenza vaccine for adolescents. Harnessing the power of mass media and family members and friends as health advocates for influenza vaccination can potentially help increase vaccination coverage of adolescents. PMID:25996686

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  14. Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score and its relation take of nutrients and the number of servings from each food group consumed by adolescents residing in district 13 of Tehran. This study, conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), was a part of a dietary intake assessment carried out in 443 families, including 465 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, according to the Food Guide Pyramid and dietary guidelines on individuals residing in district 13 of Tehran. In this study, dietary intake was assessed with two-day 24-hour recalls. HEI was calculated based on nine components. The score range of each component was 0 to 10, the sum score of this index therefore being 90. The HEI score was categorized into three groups: less than 45 (poor diet), between 45-72 (needs improvement) and more than 72 (good diet). The mean score of HEI was 64.9 +/- 9.6 in boys and 64.8 +/- 9.4 in girls. The results showed that the number of servings of food groups in those with good diet was significantly higher than the two other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast the percent of saturated fat intake and cholesterol consumption in those with HEI > or = 72 was lower than the other groups (p < 0.05). The approximate number of food items consumed and the total nutrient intake by adolescents with HEI score > or = 72 was significantly higher than the others (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of servings of grains group (r = 0.1), vegetables (r = 0.4), fruits (r = 0.4), dairy (r = 0.3), meat (r = 0.1), and HEI (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between fat intake (r = -0.2, p < 0.001), percent of saturated fatty acids (r = -0.2, p < 0.05), cholesterol consumption (r = -0.4, p < 0.05), and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (P/S) in diet (r = 0.2, p < 0.05), and HEI score. Seventy-four, 23, and 3% of diets were categorized into "needs improvement

  15. Past dieting is related to rigid control and disinhibition in adolescents from the Québec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse, Louis; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky

    2012-12-14

    Eating behaviour traits of rigid control and disinhibition have been associated with body weight in both adults and adolescents. Moreover, adults reporting a dieting history have increased levels of unhealthy eating behaviours. Against this background, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between dieting history and eating behaviour traits in adolescents. For the purpose of this research, a total of sixty adolescents (aged 15 (sem 2·4) years) from the Québec Family Study completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and a questionnaire regarding eating habits. Self-reported current and past dieting were analysed against eating behaviour traits measured by the TFEQ, including all subscales. As the results revealed, few adolescents reported currently dieting (n 3). Adolescents who reported a dieting history (23·3 %) were older (16·9 v. 14·4 years, P < 0·001), were more likely to be female (78·6 v. 41·3 %, P < 0·05) but did not have a significantly higher BMI z-score (1·5 v. 0·9, P = 0·10), although they were more likely to be either overweight or obese (P < 0·01). After correcting for sex, BMI and age, adolescents who reported a dieting history had higher levels of rigid control and disinhibition (P < 0·05-0·0001) than those reporting no dieting history. A greater proportion of adolescents characterised by high rigid control and high disinhibition were past dieters, compared to those characterised by low levels of both behaviour traits (53 v. 4 %). The study arrived at the following conclusions: as observed in adults, adolescents with a history of dieting present unfavourable eating behaviour traits. These behavioural traits may represent an additional challenge to the long-term regulation of body weight. PMID:22369701

  16. The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B; Beghin, Laurent; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Benito, Pedro J; Diaz, Ligia E; Ferrari, Marika; Moschonis, George; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Dallongeville, Jean; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents' FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples. PMID:21512510

  17. Facial Emotion Recognition in Adolescents With Disabilities: The Effects of Type of Disability and Gender.

    PubMed

    Memisevic, Haris; Mujkanovic, Edin; Ibralic-Biscevic, Inga

    2016-08-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for successful social interactions. This study compared adolescents with intellectual disability and adolescents with hearing impairment on a facial emotion recognition task. The sample for this study comprised 78 adolescents (46.2% females, 53.8% males; M age = 16.4, SD = 1.0) divided into three groups (N = 26) of adolescents with intellectual disability, adolescents with hearing impairment, and adolescents without disabilities. Emotion recognition abilities were measured using a computerized Emotion Recognition Test. Adolescents with intellectual disability achieved lower scores on Emotion Recognition Test in comparison with adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. There were no significant differences on Emotion Recognition Test between adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. Given the importance of emotion recognition in everyday functioning, it is of crucial importance to have emotional training programs as part of the school curriculum. PMID:27440764

  18. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  19. The effect of a wellness program on adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jenifer M; Haas, Barbara K; Gosselin, Kevin P

    2014-05-01

    Guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a comprehensive wellness intervention on total wellness, physical fitness, and self-efficacy for health promoting behaviors in adolescent females, ages 14 to 19, enrolled in physical education (PE) classes in Grades 9 to 12. The intervention was administered in an experimental pre-test, post-test, two group design in rural east Texas. Participants (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a 12-week intervention or control group. Independent t-tests to determine differences between the intervention and control groups were nonsignificant for overall wellness and physical fitness. The Wellness Essential-Self subscale score was significantly higher in the intervention group, t(64, 36) = 2.67, p = .005, d = .84. Self-Efficacy Health Promotion subscale scores for the intervention group were also significantly higher, t(20,28) = 2.60, p = .006, d = .74. The intervention has potential to improve overall wellness in adolescent females. PMID:24178783

  20. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  1. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  2. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  3. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  4. Do Caucasian and black adolescents differ at psychiatric intake?

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H; Ulrich, R; Mezzich, J E

    1993-03-01

    A large sample of adolescents brought for psychiatric evaluation to a public University based facility are the subjects of the study. Material incorporated in a DSM-III multiaxial formulation plus symptoms constituted the dependent variables. Analyses concentrated on ethnic differences, with variation associated with gender and social class controlled statistically. Caucasians showed comparatively greater clinical morbidity: higher number of Axis I definite diagnoses and level of symptoms. Eating disorder diagnoses were more common in Caucasians. There were no significant differences pertaining to level of stress or social impairment. Blacks showed higher levels of symptoms scored as "social aggression" and diagnosed as conduct disorders. The pattern of results raised the question of a possible referral bias, with blacks shunted to the psychiatric facility with lower levels of standard clinical psychopathology, but higher levels of social oppositional behavior. Further research is needed to verify if such a bias does exist. PMID:8444771

  5. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  6. Effects of internal displacement and resettlement on the mental health of Turkish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Neşe; Şimşek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of internal displacement and resettlement within Turkey on the emotional and behavioral profile of children, age 5–18 after controlling for possible confounding and demographic variables. Method We conducted a national population survey using a self-weighted, equal probability sample. We compared the CBCL, TRF and YSR responses regarding children with (n = 1644) and without (n = 1855) experience of internal displacement. We examined the effects of gender, age, paternal employment, resettlement, urban residence and physical illness. Results The children and adolescents with internal displacement had significantly higher internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores on the CBCL and YSR, and higher internalizing scores on the TRF. The effect of displacement was related to higher internalizing problems when factors like physical illness, child age, child gender and urban residence were accounted. The overall effect was small explaining only 0.1–1.5% of the total variance by parent reports, and not evident by teacher reports. Discussion To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine Turkish children and adolescents with and without experience of internal displacement. The results are consistent with previous immigration studies: child age, gender, presence of physical illness and urban residence were more important predictors of internalization and externalization problem scores irrespective of informant source. PMID:15797700

  7. Motivational Effects on Test Scores of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven M.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of motivational manipulated conditions on students' mathematics scores, elementary students received either ordinary standardized test instructions or special instructions (do as well as possible for themselves, parents, and teachers). Those given special instructions scored significantly higher in the test, implying that…

  8. Using Dogmatism Scores as a Counseling Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklare, Gerald B.; Cunningham, Nancy Jean

    1980-01-01

    Counselors with low dogmatism scores are more effective than counselors with higher dogmatism scores. Over the course of training, the group of trainees classified as highly dogmatic both decreased in level of dogmatism and increased in level of counseling effectiveness as measured by improvement in level of performance. (Author)

  9. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  10. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  11. Cumulative Neighborhood Risk of Psychosocial Stress and Allostatic Load in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12–20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents. PMID:23035140

  12. A longitudinal investigation into the progression of dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sinéad; Boreham, Colin; Doherty, Cailbhe; Wang, Dana; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent female athletes have a higher incidence of certain non-contact lower limb injuries compared to their male counterparts. Decreased postural stability is an established risk factor for lower limb injuries; however developmental-related sex differences in postural stability during adolescence have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to longitudinally examine changes over time, and potential sex differences in dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents. One hundred and eighty four adolescent athletes participated (mean age=13±0.34 years). Participants were assessed, using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) at baseline (T1) and at 6 (T2), 12 (T3), 18 (T4) and 24 (T5) months. At each time-point, participants performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-lateral directions of the SEBT on each limb. Reach distance for each direction was averaged across the 3 trials normalised to leg length. General linear mixed model analyses were carried out on each of the dependant variables (reach directions) with sex and time as the categorical independent variables. There was a significant sex×time interaction for the posterior-lateral reach distance scores. There were no significant sex×time interactions for any of the other reach directions. Males increased performance on the posterior-lateral reach direction from T1 to T5, while females only increased performance until T3. Young males and females demonstrate diverging postural stability profiles during adolescence. PMID:27285476

  13. A Hierarchical Factor Model of Executive Functions in Adolescents: Evidence of Gene-Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Li, James J.; Chung, Tammy A.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Wood, D. Scott; Ferrell, Robert; Clark, Duncan B.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are a complex set of neurodevelopmental, higher-ordered processes that are especially salient during adolescence. Disruptions to these processes are predictive of psychiatric problems in later adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the latent structure of EF using bifactor analysis and to investigate the independent and interactive effects of genes and environments on EF during adolescence. Using a representative young adolescent sample, we tested the interaction of a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and parental supervision for EF through hierarchical linear regression. To account for the possibility of a hierarchical factor structure for EF, a bifactor analysis was conducted on the eight subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS). The bifactor analysis revealed the presence of a general EF construct and three EF subdomains (i.e., conceptual flexibility, inhibition, and fluency). A significant 5-HTTLPR by parental supervision interaction was found for conceptual flexibility, but not for general EF, fluency or inhibition. Specifically, youth with the L/L genotype had significantly lower conceptual flexibility scores compared to youth with S/S or S/L genotypes given low levels of parental supervision. Our findings indicate that adolescents with the L/L genotype were especially vulnerable to poor parental supervision on EF. This vulnerability may be amenable to preventive interventions. PMID:25499600

  14. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Maayan, L; Hoogendoorn, C; Sweat, V; Convit, A.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, obesity has been associated with disinhibited eating, decreased cortical gray matter volume, and lower performance on cognitive assessments. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescence and there are no studies assessing behavioral, cognitive, and neurostructural measures in the same group of study participants. This study examined the relationship between obesity, executive function, disinhibition, and brain volumes in relatively healthy youth. Participants included 54 obese and 37 lean adolescents. Participants received a cognitive battery, questionnaires of eating behaviors, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuropsychological assessments included tasks targeting frontal lobe function. Eating behaviors were determined using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and structural MRIs were performed on a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MRI System (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) to determine brain gray matter volumes. Lean and obese adolescents were matched on age, years of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. Relative to lean adolescents, obese participants had significantly higher ratings of disinhibition on the TFEQ, lower performance on the cognitive tests, and lower orbitofrontal cortex volume. Disinhibition significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, Stroop Color-Word score, and orbitofrontal cortex volume. This is the first report of these associations in adolescents and point to the importance of better understanding the associations between neurostructural deficits and obesity. PMID:21350433

  15. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:15468343

  16. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour

  17. How Schools Use Talent Search Scores for Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the talent search program from the perspectives of local school officials who enroll their students in the program, a topic on which little research currently exists. Specifically, the authors were interested in the following issues and questions: (1) How do local schools learn about talent search and how do they encourage…

  18. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  19. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  20. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  1. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  2. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  3. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  4. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  5. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  6. The relationship between disordered eating and sexuality amongst adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Annie; Russon, Jody; Herres, Joanna; Atte, Tita; Kodish, Tamar; Diamond, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that gay and bisexual males are at increased risk for disordered eating symptoms (DES); however, studies examining DES amongst lesbians and bisexual women have produced mixed findings. Furthermore, few studies have included questioning or "unsure" individuals. This study examined DES symptoms in adolescents and young adults across self-reported sexual attraction and behavior. Participants were recruited from ten primary care sites in Pennsylvania and administered the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) - a web-based screening tool that assesses psychiatric symptoms and risk behaviors - during a routine visit. As expected, males who were attracted to other males exhibited significantly higher disordered eating scores than those only attracted to members of the opposite sex. Males who engaged in sexual activities with other males also exhibited significantly higher scores than those who only engaged in sexual activities with females. Amongst females, there were no significant differences in DES scores between females who were only attracted to females and those only attracted to males. Those who reported being attracted to both sexes, however, had significantly higher scores, on average, than those only attracted to one sex. More surprisingly, females who were unsure of who they were attracted to reported the highest DES scores of all. These findings are contrary to previous assumptions that same-sex attraction plays a protective role against eating pathology in females. Females who are unsure or attracted to both sexes may actually be at increased risk for developing DES. PMID:26332989

  7. Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, Britt; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Gacono, Carl; Alm, Per Olof

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11-14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32-40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36-44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group--the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology. PMID:18511121

  8. The effect of burn injury on adolescents autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Stokes, D J; Dritschel, B H; Bekerian, D A

    2004-11-01

    Autobiographical memory recall was investigated in two female adolescent groups; one group who had experienced a burn injury and a matched control group. The Burn group was not currently depressed or anxious, but scored significantly higher on the intrusion subscale of the impact of event scale compared to controls. Two autobiographical memory tasks, the autobiographical memory cueing task and the Children's Autobiographical Memory Inventory (CAMI), were used. For the cueing task, the Burn group was significantly slower to recall specific memories. This group also recalled significantly fewer specific memories and significantly more extended overgeneral memories. For the CAMI, the burns group produced significantly lower semantic and episodic recall. The Burn group also produced significant correlations between sub-scales of the impact of event scale and selected measures on the autobiographical memory tasks. Higher intrusion scores were associated with less detailed episodic recall. Higher avoidance scores were associated with longer latencies to recall memories to negative cue words and fewer specific memories to all cue words. These results are discussed from the perspective that the Burn group experienced intrusive thoughts which interfered with normal autobiographical functioning. PMID:15381443

  9. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  10. Relationship between exercise capacity and quality of life in adolescents with asthma *

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Jamami, Mauricio; Labadessa, Ivana Gonçalves; Regueiro, Eloisa Maria Gatti; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Costa, Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the quality of life of adolescents with asthma correlates with parameters obtained prior to and after the six-minute step test (6MST); spirometric results after the 6MST; and level of physical activity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with asthma, ranging from 11-15 years of age, were assessed with spirometry, 6MST, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), and the 10-point Borg category-ratio scale. RESULTS: Sensation of dyspnea correlated negatively with the total PAQLQ score (r = −0.54) and with the scores of its activity limitation (AL) and symptoms domains (r = −0.64 and r = −0.63, respectively), leg fatigue also correlating negatively with those same domains (r = −0.49 and r = −0.56, respectively). The total IPAQ score correlated with the total PAQLQ score (r = 0.47) and with the PAQLQ AL domain (r = 0.51); IPAQ time spent walking correlated with the PAQLQ symptoms domain (r = 0.45); and IPAQ time spent in vigorous activity correlated with the AL domain (r = 0.50). In the regression analysis, only sensation of dyspnea remained significantly correlated with the total PAQLQ score and the PAQLQ AL domain; leg fatigue remained significantly correlated with the symptoms domain. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity indicate better quality of life, as do lower perception of dyspnea and less leg fatigue. The 6MST proved to be a viable option for evaluating exercise capacity in adolescents with asthma, because it reflects the discomfort that asthma causes during activities of daily living. PMID:23670496

  11. Assessment of primary care nursing in relation to adolescent health behaviour by means of trigger films.

    PubMed

    Eshed, H; Epstein, L

    1991-01-01

    The patterns of adolescents' behaviour place them at a risk from developing health and social pathology. In order to assess whether primary care nursing meets adolescents' health needs, the reported performance of 306 registered nurses working in different primary health care settings was studied. The research tool developed especially for the study was a video-taped trigger film. Demographic, education and work-related variables were studied by means of a questionnaire. The behaviour patterns studied were smoking, sexual activity, alcohol and drug consumption, and eating habits. The clinical issues were hypertension, obesity and anorexia nervosa. Reported performance was low--35% of the total possible score--with the lowest scores in the areas of preventive care, data gathering and recording, and somewhat higher in the areas of curative care and follow-up. The video-taped trigger films were considered to have face validity; they were found to be reliable, with an ability to assess the nurses' reported performance and to differentiate between the nurses in the three different work settings. This is the first study of its kind in Israel. The results show that primary health nursing of adolescents is insufficient, and that teenagers should get higher priority as a target population from the nursing profession in order to achieve WHO's aims of 'health for all by the year 2000'. PMID:2005286

  12. The Relationship between Spoken Language Ability and Intelligence Test Performance of Deaf Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret; Care, Esther; Rickards, Field

    2007-01-01

    For several decades the intellectual abilities of deaf children and adolescents, as measured by performance IQ, have been reported as comparable with those of hearing children and adolescents. Differences have been reported, however, on measures of verbal IQ, with deaf children and adolescents typically obtaining verbal IQ scores within the low…

  13. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  14. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  15. [Eating disorders in children and adolescents. First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Hölling, H; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    Eating disorders are included in the category of mental and behavioural disorders (ICD 10). They are among the most common chronic health problems encountered in children and adolescents. A total of 7,498 children and adolescents (weighted) aged 11 to 17 years answered the SCOFF questionnaire, a screening instrument to identify cases of suspected eating disorder. Parallel to the SCOFF questionnaire, further factors for possible eating disorders, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI), information on abnormal behaviour (using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) smoking, sexual and body self-image assessment, were gathered to substantiate the results. In total, 21.9 % of the children and adolescents in Germany aged 11 to 17 years showed symptoms of eating disorders. With 28.9%, girls are more frequently affected than boys (15.2 %); this difference is highly significant. In the presence of almost identical initial values, the rate of subjects with abnormal SCOFF scores increases, starting from age 11 years, in girls as they age, while it drops in boys. Children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status (SES) are, with 27.6 %, almost twice as often affected than those with high SES (15.6 %). Migrants have an approx. 50 % higher rate compared to non-migrants. A 2.5-fold increase in the percentage of individuals with normal weight who perceive themselves as too fat is found among those with abnormal SCOFF scores. Individuals with abnormal SCOFF scores smoke more and report more frequently about sexual harassment. Because of the severity, the tendency to chronification and the protracted therapy of the clinically apparent disorders, effective concepts for prevention should be developed. PMID:17514465

  16. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidality at 6-Month Follow-up in Adolescent Inpatients Who Attempted Suicide: An Exploratory Model

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Mirkovic, Bojan; Knafo, Alexandra; Mahé, Vincent; Laurent, Claudine; Renaud, Johanne; Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk and protective factors for suicidality at 6-month follow-up in adolescent inpatients after a suicide attempt. Methods: One hundred seven adolescents from 5 inpatient units who had a suicide attempt were seen at 6-month follow-up. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, mood and suicidality, dependence, borderline symptomatology, temperament and character inventory (TCI), reasons for living, spirituality, and coping scores. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 41 (38%) subjects relapsed from suicidal behaviours. Among them, 15 (14%) had repeated a suicide attempt. Higher depression and hopelessness scores, the occurrence of a new suicide attempt, or a new hospitalization belonged to the same factorial dimension (suicidality). Derived from the best-fit structural equation modelling for suicidality as an outcome measure at 6-month follow-up, risk factors among the baseline variables included: major depressive disorder, high depression scores, and high scores for TCI self-transcendence. Only one protective factor emerged: coping–hard work and achievement. Conclusion: In this very high-risk population, some established risk factors (for example, a history of suicide attempts) may not predict suicidality. Our results suggest that adolescents who retain high scores for depression or hopelessness, who remain depressed, or who express a low value for life or an abnormally high connection with the universe are at higher risk for suicidality and should be targeted for more intense intervention. Improving adolescent motivation in school and in work may be protective. Given the sample size, the model should be regarded as exploratory. PMID:25886668

  17. Sexual Communication and Knowledge among Mexican Parents and their Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Esther C.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Gómez, Marco Vinicio; Onofre, Dora Julia; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the sexual knowledge and communication of Mexican parents and adolescents. Pre-intervention data was analyzed from 829 high school students (ages 14-17) and one of their parents. Differences were found between parents and adolescents in sexual knowledge (M = 16.16 vs. M = 14.92; t = 7.20; p < 0.001); specifically parents had higher knowledge related to STD’s, HIV/AIDs, and condom use. Parents perceived more general communication (t (787) = 6.33 p < .001), and less discomfort talking about sex (t (785) = 4.69, p < .001) than adolescents. Parents with higher education levels scored higher in HIV knowledge and general communication. Fathers had higher total sexual knowledge while mothers perceived higher sexual communication than fathers. There were no differences in knowledge and communication by parental socioeconomic level. Results suggest health care providers need to assist parents in developing specific knowledge and skills to support their adolescents’ sexual decision making. PMID:17403494

  18. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  19. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  20. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  1. A novel score predicting PEG placement in ICH – the GRAVo score

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysphagia after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to morbidity, often necessitating placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. This study describes a novel risk prediction score for PEG placement after ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 234 ICH patients presenting during a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty nine patients met inclusion criteria. The sample was randomly divided into a development and a validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk score by weighting predictors of PEG placement based on strength of association. Results Age (OR 1.64 per 10 years increase in age, 95% CI 1.02–2.65), African American race (OR 3.26, 95% CI 0.96–11.05), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62–1.03), and ICH volume (OR 1.38 per 10 cc increase in ICH volume) were independent predictors of PEG placement. The final model for score development achieved an AUC of 0.7911 (95% CI 0.6931–0.8892) in the validation group. The score was named the GRAVo score: GCS ≤12 (2 points), Race (1 point for African-American), Age >50 years (2 points), and ICH Volume >30 cc (1 point). A score >4 was associated with nearly 12 times higher odds of PEG placement compared to a score ≤4 (OR 11.81, 95% CI 5.04–27.66), predicting PEG placement with 46.55% sensitivity and 93.13% specificity. Conclusion The GRAVo score, combining information about GCS, race, age, and ICH volume, may be a useful predictor of PEG placement in ICH patients. PMID:25468881

  2. The Relationship of PSAT/NMSQT Scores and AP® Examination Grades. Research Notes. RN-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.

    1997-01-01

    There is a strong and consistent relationship between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Examination grades for nearly all courses--higher scores on the PSAT/NMSQT indicate a higher probability of success on AP Examinations. PSAT/NMSQT verbal or mathematics scores are often more highly related to AP Examination grades than overall high school GPA, number of…

  3. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. PMID:26210652

  4. The AFC Score: Validation of a 4-Item Predicting Score of Postoperative Mortality After Colorectal Resection for Cancer or Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Mantion, Georges; Slim, Karem; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Vicaut, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present prospective study was to validate externally a 4-item predictive score of mortality after colorectal surgery (the AFC score) by testing its generalizability on a new population. Summary Background Data: We have recently reported, in a French prospective multicenter study, that age older than 70 years, neurologic comorbidity, underweight (body weight loss >10% in <6 months), and emergency surgery significantly increased postoperative mortality after resection for cancer or diverticulitis. Patients and Methods: From June to September 2004, 1049 consecutive patients (548 men and 499 women) with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal resection, were prospectively included. The AFC score was validated in this population. We assessed also the predictive value of other scores, such as the “Glasgow” score and the ASA score. To express and compare the predictive value of the different scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Results: Postoperative mortality rate was 4.6%. Variables already identified as predictors of mortality and used in the AFC score were also found to be associated with a high odds ratio in this study: emergency surgery, body weight loss >10%, neurologic comorbidity, and age older than 70 years in a multivariate logistic model. The validity of the AFC score in this population was found very high based both on the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P = 0.37) and on the area under the ROC curve (0.89). We also found that discriminatory capacity was higher than other currently used risk scoring systems such as the Glasgow or ASA score. Conclusion: The present prospective study validated the AFC score as a pertinent predictive score of postoperative mortality after colorectal surgery. Because it is based on only 4 risk factors, the AFC score can be used in daily practice. PMID:17592296

  5. Parental Relations, Mental Health, and Delinquency in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Willy

    1994-01-01

    A shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument, used in a sample of Norwegian adolescents, aged 15-19, indicated that adolescents' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' care and control/overprotection were related to measures of both depression/anxiety and delinquency. Scores may indicate risks in a broad range of psychosocial problems.…

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; Steer, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) was administered to 121 adolescent inpatients. Twelve characteristics found to be associated with adolescent suicide ideation were entered into multiple regression to estimate BSI scores, along with Beck inventories for anxiety, depression (BDI), and hopelessness (BHS), and Youth Self Report. BHS and BDI were…

  7. Weight's up? Predictors of weight-related communication during primary care visits with overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Østbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Tulsky, James A.; Bilheimer, Alicia; Dolor, Rowena J.; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Bodner, Michael E.; Bravender, Terrill

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physicians' use of Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques when discussing weight with adolescent patients is unknown. Methods We coded audio-recorded encounters between 49 primary care physicians and 180 overweight adolescent patients. During weight discussions, we used the MITI 3.0 to assess: Empathy, MI Spirit, open-ended questions, reflections, MI consistent behaviors (e.g., praising,) and MI inconsistent behaviors (e.g., confronting). We examined associations of patient and physician characteristics with 1) MI techniques, 2) time discussing weight, and 3) encounter time. Results Physicians used more MI consistent techniques with female patients (p=0.06) and with heavier patients (p=0.02). Physicians with prior MI training also used more MI consistent techniques (p=0.04) and asked more open-ended questions (p=0.05). Pediatricians had a higher MI Spirit score than family physicians (p=0.03). Older patient age was associated with physicians spending less time discussing weight-related topics (p=0.04) and higher BMI percentile was associated with physicians spending more time discussing weight-related topics (p=0.01). Increased use of MI inconsistent techniques was associated with longer encounters (p=0.02). Conclusion Physicians' weight discussions vary based on adolescent and physician characteristics. Importantly, not using MI lengthened encounter time. Practice implications Physicians might consider using MI techniques more and attempt to use these equally with all adolescents. PMID:25130793

  8. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  9. [Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

  10. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  11. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  12. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  13. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lundervold, Astri J; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993-1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  14. Self-reports versus parental perceptions of health-related quality of life among deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which was adapted to Spanish sign language for children, with a written version for parents. Respondents completed a self-administered paper questionnaire. Parents' and children's mean scores differences were not significant, except for the "Autonomy and Parents" and "Peers and Social Support" dimensions. Children aged 8-11 years scored higher in some domains of QoL compared to those aged 12-18 years. The level of agreement between children/adolescents' and parents/proxies' responses was acceptable, except for the dimension "Autonomy and Parents." Overall, deaf children/adolescents' self-ratings of HRQoL did not differ from their parents' proxy reports; however, differences were found in the dimensions that explored the quality of the interaction of children/adolescents and parents, the perceived level of autonomy, and social relations and support. PMID:25986604

  15. Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Parameters in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Alp, Hayrullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, our aim was to determine cardiovascular risk and cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted on 198 obese children and adolescents 6-18 years of age. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and HbA1c levels of patients were assessed. Prediabetes was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and tissue Doppler measurements records were used. Results: LVMi was found to be significantly higher in the prediabetes group (p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in right ventricular tissue Doppler measurements between the prediabetic and non-prediabetic groups. Left ventricular tissue Doppler measurements were significantly higher in the prediabetes group: LVEEM (left ventricular E/e ratio) (p=0.04); LVEM (left ventricular myocardial velocity cm/s) (p=0.035). LVMi was found to positively correlate with triglyceride level, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body weight standard deviation score and to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.043, r=0.15; p=0.039, r=0.15; p=0.025, r=0.17; p=0.009, r=0.19; p=0.038, r=-0.15, respectively). LVEM was correlated with glucose (p=0.046, r=0.15) and LVEEM was correlated with systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, r=0.15). In linear regression analysis for clinical cardiovascular risk factors, fasting glucose level was the best predictor of LVEM. Conclusion: In this study, deterioration of cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents was shown. We recommend determining cardiovascular risk and cardiac dysfunction at early stages in prediabetic obese children and adolescents. PMID:26759114

  16. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  17. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  18. Low socioeconomic status predicts abnormal eating attitudes in Latin American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113

  19. The adaptation of Chinese adolescents in two societies: a comparison of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Karnilowicz, Wally

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the adaptation of two groups of migrant Chinese adolescents with their nonmigrant peers. The migrant adolescents included 55 Chinese migrant adolescents who migrated to Australia (Chinese-Australian) and 111 China-born adolescents who migrated to Hong Kong (Chinese-Hong Kong). The nonmigrant adolescents included 157 Anglo-Australian adolescents residing in Australia and 456 Hong Kong-born Chinese adolescents residing in Hong Kong. There were three research questions in this study. First, would there be any differences in the adaptation of Chinese migrant adolescents in different societies of settlement? Second, would migrant adolescents experience more adaptation problems than nonmigrant adolescents? Third, would there be any differences in the adaptation of adolescents in the two societies, Australia and Hong Kong? It was hypothesized that: (1) mainland Chinese migrant adolescents in Hong Kong would experience more adaptation problems than Chinese migrant adolescents in Australia; (2) migrant adolescents would report better adaptation than nonmigrant adolescents; (3) adolescents in Hong Kong would report poorer adaptation than adolescents in Australia. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on various adaptation outcome measures including life satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological symptoms, academic satisfaction, and behaviour problems. The results indicated that Chinese-Australian adolescents reported better psychological adaptation but Chinese-Hong Kong adolescents reported better sociocultural adaptation. Adolescents resident in Australia reported higher psychological adaptation but lower sociocultural adaptation than those in Hong Kong. Migrant adolescents reported better psychological and sociocultural adaptation than their nonmigrant counterparts. The results were discussed in relation to the social and educational systems of the two societies. PMID:22029492

  20. The Relation between Stress and Alcohol Use among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Cervantes, Richard C.; Duan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relation between eight domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t-tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in five domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  1. Ethnicity and adolescent depression: the case of Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, I G; Roberts, R E; Aday, L A

    1998-10-01

    This paper is concerned with whether an instrument developed in the U.S. may identify lower rates of major depression among Chinese, because its content may not cover culture-specific symptoms of depression. Data were obtained from approximately 952 Anglo and Chinese American middle school students, aged 10 to 17 years, in the Teen Life Changes Survey conducted in the spring of 1994. We investigated the hypothesis that rates of missing values would be higher, the mean score for total depression items would be lower, and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the DSM Scale for Depression (DSD) would be lower for Chinese American adolescents compared with Anglo American adolescents. We also examined whether response functions on the DSD item would differ for these two groups. Only the latter was observed. Five of 26 items in the DSD exhibited differential functioning between Anglo and Chinese students. The results suggest that the lower prevalence of depression was not due to the ethnocentric character of the instrument in the Chinese sample. Stronger immunity to depression or other cultural factors may contribute to the lower rate of depression for the Chinese American adolescents in the Teen Life Changes study. PMID:9788639

  2. Empathy and conflict resolution in friendship relations among adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Wied, Minet; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2007-01-01

    The present study addressed empathy's role in conflict resolution within the context of adolescent same-sex friendship relations. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess dispositional affective empathy and conflict resolution styles (problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance). The data of 307 adolescents (149 boys, 158 girls) were included in a multigroup path analysis with sex as a moderator variable. In agreement with the hypothesis that higher levels of dispositional empathy are associated with more successful conflict management, dispositional affective empathy was found to be positively linked to problem solving and negatively linked to conflict engagement among adolescent boys and girls. Dispositional affective empathy was not related to the two more passive strategies (withdrawal and compliance). Sex differences were demonstrated in empathic tendencies, with girls being more empathic than boys. Sex differences were also established in conflict resolution strategies, with girls using problem solving, withdrawal and compliance more frequently than boys. Both sexes scored equally low on conflict engagement, however, and were found to prefer problem solving to all other conflict resolution strategies. Findings are discussed in terms of previous research on empathy and conflict resolution. PMID:17441005

  3. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  4. Internet and written respiratory questionnaires yield equivalent results for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Raat, H; Mangunkusumo, RT; Mohangoo, AD; Juniper, EF; Van Der Lei, J

    2007-01-01

    This study compared results from Internet and written questionnaires about respiratory symptoms in order to find out if both forms of the survey yielded the same answers. One thousand seventy-one students, ages 13 to 17, were asked to complete either an Internet or a written questionnaire. The demographic characteristics of the participants equalled those of the general Dutch adolescent population. Participants were randomly assigned to fill out an electronic or written questionnaire. In addition to eight items from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, two items on doctor visits (medical attention) regarding asthma or allergic disease during the past 12 months were included. The participation rate was 87%. The Internet version of the questionnaire showed fewer missing answers than the written version, but this was not statistically significant. The respiratory items did not show statistically significant score differences between the Internet and written modes of administration, and there was no visible trend for higher respectively lower scores by either mode of questionnaire administration. From these results, we conclude that respiratory questionnaires may be provided to adolescents electronically rather than on paper, since both approaches yielded equal results. To generalize these findings, we recommend repeated studies in other settings. PMID:17335011

  5. Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special issue on adolescence in the Israeli kibbutz contains a series of seven papers that seek to advance thought and research regarding the relationship between a communal way of life and individual developmental processes in adolescence and early adulthood. The articles represent a transitional era as the kibbutz evolves. (SLD)

  6. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  7. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  8. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  9. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  10. Altered Default Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. Results There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (p<0.0001) and higher CIAS (p<0.0001) and BIS-11 (p = 0.01) scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with

  11. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  12. Effects of an early intervention group program for anxious and depressed adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Bogie, N; Hoogsteder, A

    2001-04-01

    The Resourceful Adolescent Program is an early intervention program designed to enhance psychological resilience in adolescents with emotional problems. Eight adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms were treated with this 11-session group program. Treatment effects were examined by means of self-report questionnaires of anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy. Pre- and postintervention data showed reductions in anxiety and depression scores and a concomitant increase in adolescents' self-efficacy. PMID:11351893

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease starting before adolescence.

    PubMed

    Donis, Karina Carvalho; Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Krum-Santos, Ana Carolina; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Mattos, Eduardo Preusser; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2016-04-01

    Onset of Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) before adolescence has been rarely reported. This study aims to describe a cohort of SCA3/MJD with onset before 12 years of age, comparing their disease progression with the progression observed in patients with usual disease onset. We identified all cases from our cohort whose onset was before adolescence. After consent, patients were examined with clinical scales Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Neurological Examination Score for Spinocerebellar Ataxia (NESSCA). Gender, age, age at onset, disease duration, CAG expanded repeats, transmitting parent, and anticipation of cases with infantile and adult onset were studied. Progression of NESSCA and SARA scores was estimated through a mixed model, and was compared with a historical group with onset after adolescence. Between 2000 and 2014, 461 symptomatic individuals from our region were diagnosed as SCA3/MJD. Onset of eight cases (2.2 %), all heterozygotes, was before adolescence: seven were females (p = 0.054). CAG expanded repeats-75 ± 3 versus 84 ± 4-and anticipations-7 ± 9.7 versus 14.4 ± 7.2 years-were different between early childhood and adult onset groups (p < 0.03). The median survival of early childhood onset group was 23 years of age. The annual progression of SARA-2.3 and 0.6 points/year (p = 0.001)-and NESSCA-2.04 and 0.88 points/year (p = 0.043)-was faster in childhood than in adult onset group. Onset of SCA3/MJD before adolescence was related to larger expanded CAG repeats in heterozygosis; females seemed to be at higher risk. Disease progression was faster than in SCA3/MJD starting after 12 years. PMID:26780339

  14. Racial differences in the built environment—body mass index relationship? A geospatial analysis of adolescents in urban neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Built environment features of neighborhoods may be related to obesity among adolescents and potentially related to obesity-related health disparities. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial relationships between various built environment features and body mass index (BMI) z-score among adolescents, and to investigate if race/ethnicity modifies these relationships. A secondary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of findings to the spatial scale of analysis (i.e. 400- and 800-meter street network buffers). Methods Data come from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a school-based sample of public high school students in Boston, MA. Analyses include data collected from students who had georeferenced residential information and complete and valid data to compute BMI z-score (n = 1,034). We built a spatial database using GIS with various features related to access to walking destinations and to community design. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables was calculated with the Global Moran’s I statistic. We fit conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and spatial simultaneous autoregressive error models that control for the spatial autocorrelation in the data as appropriate. Models were conducted using the total sample of adolescents as well as including an interaction term for race/ethnicity, adjusting for several potential individual- and neighborhood-level confounders and clustering of students within schools. Results We found significant positive spatial autocorrelation in the built environment features examined (Global Moran’s I most ≥ 0.60; all p = 0.001) but not in BMI z-score (Global Moran’s I = 0.07, p = 0.28). Because we found significant spatial autocorrelation in our OLS regression residuals, we fit spatial autoregressive models. Most built environment features were not associated with BMI z-score. Density of bus stops was associated with a higher BMI z-score among Whites (Coefficient: 0

  15. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425

  16. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship. PMID:11247523

  17. Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Arthur; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Rafael, Marianna da Silva; Pfeilsticker, Larissa; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders. Methods: Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old), 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4) and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9) between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2 and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m2. Results: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01) and z-score (p<0.01) than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04). Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community. PMID:26525687

  18. The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

    2011-01-01

    One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

  19. The Predictive Ability of IQ and Working Memory Scores in Literacy in an Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gregory, David

    2013-01-01

    Literacy problems are highly prevalent and can persist into adulthood. Yet, the majority of research on the predictive nature of cognitive skills to literacy has primarily focused on development and adolescent populations. The aim of the present study was to extend existing research to investigate the roles of IQ scores and Working Memory…

  20. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  1. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  2. Adolescent online gambling in Cyprus: associated school performance and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Paradisioti, Anna; Hadjimarcou, Michalis; Mappouras, Demetrios G; Karkanioti, Olga; Siomos, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents results from the study of gambling behaviors in a representative sample of Cypriot high-school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain epidemiology of adolescent online gambling in Cyprus and possible correlates. The sample consisted of 2,684 students (48.5% boys, 51.5% girls) from the first grades of junior (Gymnasium) and senior (Lyceum) high school. Our results indicate that gamblers presented with lower school achievement and related expectations while scoring consistently higher on measures of Internet addiction, parental bonding and psychopathology. Discriminant analysis revealed two profiles which explained the most variance in gambling behavior; the first profile that corresponded to more explained variance was the student with higher psychopathology, less prosocial behavior, higher Internet addiction score with higher frequencies of online activities and moderate levels of truancy and lower expectation of school achievement. The second profile was that of a student who reported less psychopathology, more prosocial behavior, less involvement with the Internet in general but skipped classes more and his prospects on finishing high school were even slimmer. These results will be utilized in the design of a comprehensive prevention program in an effort to combat online addictive behaviors. PMID:24293015

  3. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  4. Prevalence, stability, 1-year incidence and predictors of depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents in the general population as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Bo; Ingul, JoMagne; Jozefiak, Thomas; Leikanger, Einar; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-01-01

    Background In numerous surveys the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents has been examined in single sites and at one time point. Aims We examined depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 10-19 years in four different large school samples including two cohorts over a 10-year period in different locations in the same health region in central Norway including a total of 5804 adolescents. Two cohorts were retested within a 1-year time period to predict high versus low depressive symptom scores. Changes over a 6-year period in depressive symptom levels were examined in two of the samples of 12-14-year olds. Methods Depressive symptoms were estimated by the 13-item Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Covariates were student age, sex, school size and location. Results "Miserable or unhappy", "Tired", "Restlessness" and "Poor concentration" were the most commonly reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptom levels and proportions of high scoring students were consistently higher among girls, in particular in mid and late adolescence. Poisson regression analysis showed that all SMFQ items significantly predicted total scores for the whole sample, while sex (girls having a higher risk) emerged as a consistent 1-year predictor of high depressive symptom levels. Conclusions The SMFQ constitutes a short, practical and feasible measure. We recommend that this standardized measure should be used in the assessment of depressive symptoms among adolescents in school, primary care and clinical settings but also to evaluate treatment outcome. High scorers should be evaluated in subsequent clinical interviews for the presence of a depressive disorder. PMID:26817811

  5. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (p<0.001), and longer time spent in a private educational institute (p=0.025). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (p<0.001), longer time spent in a private educational institute (p=0.046), and poorer academic record (p=0.029) were associated with suicide attempt and self-injury during the past year. The present results suggest that weekend catch-up sleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. PMID:24267542

  6. Cognitive Flexibility and Social Responsiveness in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Güler, Ayşegül Selcen; Berkem, Meral; Yazgan, Yanki; Kalaça, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined cognitive flexibility and social responsiveness in children and adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (TS). Thirty one subjects with TS were compared to 32 age-matched healthy controls. Assessments included semi-structured interviews to assess psychopathology, parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and a brief neuropsychological battery selected as measures of cognitive flexibility. Completion time for both Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) were significantly longer for TS group than controls, however the difference in perseverative errors on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was not significant. SRS total score was significantly higher in the TS group compared to controls, indicating greater impairment in social responsiveness. Group difference for TMTs and SRS failed to reach significance after controlling for co-occurring conditions. Clinicians might consider social impairment in the evaluation plan of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. PMID:25631951

  7. Postformal thinking and creativity among late adolescents: a post-Piagetian approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive development levels and creative performance among late adolescents from a post-Piagetian perspective. Participants were 386 college students, ranging in age from 19 to 26 years. The Social Paradigm Belief Scale was employed to measure the three cognitive styles of late adolescence: formal, relativistic, and dialectical thinking. The Divergent Thinking Test (DTT) was used to measure creative performance. Dialectical and relativistic thinking were positively correlated with creative performance, whereas formal thinking was negatively correlated. Planned contrasts revealed that postformal thinkers scored higher than formal thinkers in all dimensions of creativity, and additional MANOVA analysis exhibited a similar pattern. Multiple discriminant analysis showed that the linear combination of the six dimensions of creativity recognized in the DTT discriminated between formal and postformal thinkers, which supported our findings about the relationship between postformal thinking and creativity. Future research directions and implications for creativity pedagogy are discussed. PMID:18689099

  8. Single-leg postural stability deficits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R; Micheli, Lyle J; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postural stability of pediatric and adolescent athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injury with those who underwent anterior cruciate reconstruction (ACLR). Postural stability ratings derived from a video-force plate system during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System were collected from pediatric and adolescent athletes who underwent ACLR (N=24; mean 1.2 years after surgery) and from uninjured controls (N=479). The postural control rating was calculated as the mean of the displacement and variance of the torso and center of pressure data, normalized on a scale from 0 to 100. A higher rating indicates greater postural stability. Participants who underwent ACLR showed lower postural stability ratings during single-leg stance compared with uninjured controls (40.0 vs. 48.7; P=0.037). ACLR is associated with deficits in postural stability. PMID:26863483

  9. Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Demetriou, Chara A; Kimonis, Eva R

    2013-07-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research suggests that lower anxious primary and high-anxious secondary variants exist. Using a community sample of 2,306 Greek-Cypriot adolescents (M age = 16 years; 49.7 % female), the first aim of the study was to examine whether variants of callous-unemotional traits could be identified using latent profile analysis of scores on measures of callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety. Additional aims of the study were to compare the identified clusters on external measures theorized to distinguish them (i.e., self-esteem, narcissism, impulsivity, sensation seeking and proactive/reactive aggression) and social factors relevant to adolescent development. Results indicated that, in addition to low risk (i.e., low scores on callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety) and anxious (i.e., high scores on anxiety, low scores on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems) subgroups, two groups of youth scoring high on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems were identified. High-anxious secondary callous-unemotional variants were distinguished by lower self-esteem in combination with greater narcissism, aggression, and markedly higher conduct problems, whereas lower anxious primary variants showed higher self-esteem. Secondary callous-unemotional variants also reported greater susceptibility to peer pressure and popularity striving than primary variants. Both variants exhibited poorer outcomes relative to low risk and anxious youth, although anxious youth reported lower self-esteem and higher impulsivity and reactive aggression scores in comparison with low risk youth. Findings integrate two

  10. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  11. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. PMID:26078419

  12. Hemisphere Preference Test: psychometric properties and relations with academic performance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored, in adolescents, the dimensionality (factorial structure), reliability (internal consistency and test-retest stability) and predictive validity (in relation with academic grades) of the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), a widely used self-report index of thinking styles among adults. A sample of 990 Spanish adolescents aged 10-14 completed HPT and reported their academic grades. Results indicated a two-factor structure for HPT that can be interpreted in terms of left- and right-Hemisphere Preference (HP). The two-factor structure was clearer in boys compared to girls. The internal consistency and test-retest at 6 and 12 months were satisfactory. Left-HP scores decreased with age whereas girls obtained a higher mean score on right-HP sub-scale. Finally, Left-HP accounted for a significant variance percentage on academic grades after controlling for age and sex. Results suggested that Spanish version of the HPT was effective and reliable among adolescents. PMID:24666096

  13. The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates hypothesis used to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent drug use, using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS). Reports that adolescents who resided in single-parent or stepparent families had heightened drug use. Higher adolescent drug use was found in communities with a large…

  14. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  15. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  16. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  17. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescent (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding the teen's recent use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. Irrespective of adolescent treatment status, fair-to-good congruence was found on cigarette and marijuana use, alcohol use frequency, and overall substance use frequency. Poor congruence was found on the incidence of alcohol and other illicit drug use, and the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking day. Multiple regression analysis revealed that poorer congruence on substance use frequency occurred when the teen was younger, when the parent scored low on monitoring and high on psychological distress, and when the parent used alcohol more frequently. Results indicate that parental awareness of teen substance use varies with the substance used and its measurement. In the absence of a cooperative teen, however, parental report of the frequency of adolescent substance use appears to serve as a fair-to-good proxy. PMID:19180245

  18. A Western dietary pattern is associated with poor academic performance in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a 'Healthy' and a 'Western' dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the 'Western' dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = -13.14; 95% CI: -24.57; -1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = -19.16; 95% CI: -29.85; -8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = -17.28; 95% CI: -35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the 'Western' dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  19. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K.; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  20. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  1. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  2. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  3. [Pregnancy and adolescence today].

    PubMed

    Conceicao, I S

    1993-09-01

    The high rate of adolescent pregnancy has been a social, medical, and personal problem defying solution since the 1970s. Pregnancy in young women is the major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, social inequality of adolescent mothers, the exacerbation of neuroses, and the great number of abandoned or maladjusted children in society. The principal element of profound social transformations currently taking place is the question of sexual activity and sexual roles. Adults educated in a conservative society question the results of this education, where sex is prohibited for women but it is obligatory for men. In the last three decades this repression has been contested by accepting sexuality as a natural individual right. As a consequence of this sociocultural transition, adolescents are not prepared to restrain their sexuality until they reach maturity. In the preceding decades, a social stimulus induced young people (especially women) to start premarital sex without being sufficiently prepared for the eventual consequences, such as sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. The feminist movement wants a new place in society. These changes are ill-defined and obscure and provoke anxiety and insecurity in the fulfillment of women's role. Adolescence is a phase of change of identity, and anxiety and uncertainty about the proper sexual role also contribute to emotional instability. Preparation for a profession requires a long time and dependency on the family postponing economic independence for marriage. This dichotomy promotes premarital sexual life. On the other hand, those who do not study find it difficult to get a job, which also involves adolescents in irresponsibility and disrespect for social values. Pregnancy is often the solution to this unproductivity by creating a condition that is socially recognized. These factors may explain the high rate of adolescent pregnancies, which is ten times higher than it was at the beginning of the century

  4. Adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  5. Fostering the Intellectual Development of Verbally Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Peter V.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-one very bright adolescents participated in a productive-thinking program and a challenging course in either creative writing or the social sciences. The program produced significant gains in verbal intelligence scores. The productive-thinking program also significantly raised scores on measures of creativity. (Author/GDC)

  6. [Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients

  7. The body-image of physically abused and normal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, C W; Harway, M

    1981-10-01

    Compared the human figure drawings of physically abused adolescents with those of normal adolescents. The Draw-A-Person test was administered to 60 adolescents, 30 of whom were victims of physical abuse. Significant differences were found between the drawings of the two groups on six of the eight scoring criteria utilized. Significant DAP aspects included erasure, clothing, detail, fingers, symmetry and arm position. The drawings of the physically abused adolescents, taken as a whole, seemed to be indicative of poor body image with signs of insecurity, inadequacy, withdrawal, and interpersonal problems. PMID:7309879

  8. 3-D volumetric computed tomographic scoring as an objective outcome measure for chronic rhinosinusitis: Clinical correlations and comparison to Lund-Mackay scoring

    PubMed Central

    Pallanch, John; Yu, Lifeng; Delone, David; Robb, Rich; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon; Edwards, Phil; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Ponikau, Jens; Dearking, Amy; Lane, John; Primak, Andrew; Shinkle, Aaron; Hagan, John; Frigas, Evangelo; Ocel, Joseph J.; Tombers, Nicole; Siwani, Rizwan; Orme, Nicholas; Reed, Kurtis; Jerath, Nivedita; Dhillon, Robinder; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to test the hypothesis that 3-D volume-based scoring of computed tomographic (CT) images of the paranasal sinuses was superior to Lund-Mackay CT scoring of disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We determined correlation between changes in CT scores (using each scoring system) with changes in other measures of disease severity (symptoms, endoscopic scoring, and quality of life) in patients with CRS treated with triamcinolone. Methods The study group comprised 48 adult subjects with CRS. Baseline symptoms and quality of life were assessed. Endoscopy and CT scans were performed. Patients received a single systemic dose of intramuscular triamcinolone and were reevaluated 1 month later. Strengths of the correlations between changes in CT scores and changes in CRS signs and symptoms and quality of life were determined. Results We observed some variability in degree of improvement for the different symptom, endoscopic, and quality-of-life parameters after treatment. Improvement of parameters was significantly correlated with improvement in CT disease score using both CT scoring methods. However, volumetric CT scoring had greater correlation with these parameters than Lund-Mackay scoring. Conclusion Volumetric scoring exhibited higher degree of correlation than Lund-Mackay scoring when comparing improvement in CT score with improvement in score for symptoms, endoscopic exam, and quality of life in this group of patients who received beneficial medical treatment for CRS. PMID:24106202

  9. Associations between the serotonin-1A receptor C(-1019)G polymorphism and disordered eating symptoms in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon; Shin, Dong-Won; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Kye-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the C(-1019)G polymorphism of the serotonin-1A receptor gene and eating behavior in female adolescents. A total of 204 post-menarche, adolescent women, aged 16-17 years, were recruited from two neighboring high schools in Seoul. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to isolate and examine the C(-1019)G polymorphism in the serotonin-1A receptor genes (rs6295) of all participants. The Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total score of the EAT-26 differed significantly among the three genotype groups [CC, CG, GG (F = 4.844, p = 0.009)]. Both the EAT-26 (F = 9.69, p = 0.002) and the BITE (F = 5.22, p = 0.023) scores were higher in the participants who were G allele carriers than in the non-carrier group. The dieting subscale of the EAT-26 was higher among the G allele carriers (F = 12.941, p < 0.001), and these results were maintained even after adjusting for depression and anxiety. These findings suggest that the C(-1019)G polymorphism in the 5-HT1A receptor gene is associated with disordered eating symptoms in Korean female adolescents. PMID:20454985

  10. Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Variants of Callous Unemotional Traits among Adolescents in a Clinic-referred Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used model-based cluster analyses to determine if there are two distinct variants of adolescents (ages 11 - 18) high on callous-unemotional (CU) traits that differ on their level of anxiety and history of trauma. The sample (n = 272) consisted of clinic-referred youths who were primarily African-American (90%) and from low income families. Consistent with hypotheses, three clusters emerged, including a group low on CU traits, as well as two groups high on CU traits that differed in their level of anxiety and past trauma. Consistent with past research on incarcerated adults and adolescents, the group high on anxiety (i.e., secondary variant) was more likely to have histories of abuse and had higher levels of impulsivity, externalizing behaviors, aggression, and behavioral activation. In contrast, the group low on anxiety (i.e., primary variant) scored lower on a measure of behavioral inhibition. On measures of impulsivity and externalizing behavior, the higher scores for the secondary cluster only were found for self-report measures, not on parent-report measures. Youths in the primary cluster also were perceived as less credible reporters than youth in the secondary or cluster low on CU traits. These reporter and credibility differences suggest that adolescents within the primary variant may underreport their level of behavioral disturbance, which has important assessment implications. PMID:23647031

  11. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  12. Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; Barnett, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses medical and pedagogical issues of concern to physical educators as they confront and respond to adolescent pregnancy in their schools, making recommendations for the role higher education can play in facilitating exercise programs for pregnant students and discussing an exercise program for pregnant adolescents that has served students…

  13. The Adolescent Victim of Crime and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency have both been widely studied. While statistics on the number of cases of abuse or delinquency are quite high, they are considered conservative, and estimates of actual as opposed to reported cases are much higher. There are striking parallels between adolescent victimization and adolescent antisocial…

  14. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  15. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents: A Concurrent Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    1993-01-01

    Administered Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents to 150 adolescents in grades 8 through 12. Correlational and cross-validation multiple regression analyses found that RSE total score and both its factor scores were strongly related to Global Self-Worth. Females reported significantly lower RSE…

  16. Genetic scores of smoking behaviour in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517

  17. A virtual reality test identifies the visuospatial strengths of adolescents with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Attree, Elizabeth A; Turner, Mark J; Cowell, Naina

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests that the deficits characterizing dyslexia may also be associated with superior visuospatial abilities. Other research suggests that superior visuospatial abilities of people with dyslexia may not have been so far identified because of the lack of appropriate tests of real-life spatial ability. A recent small-scale study found that visuospatial superiority was evident in men with dyslexia. This study assessed the visuospatial ability of adolescents with dyslexia in order to determine whether these adolescents performed better on a pseudo real-life visuospatial test than did their nondyslexic peers. Forty-two adolescents took part in the study. There was an equal numerical split between the experimental and control groups. The experimental group all had a diagnosis of dyslexia by an educational psychologist or specialist teacher. Visuospatial ability was assessed using the Recall of Designs and the Pattern Construction subtests from the British Ability Scales (2nd edition; BAS-11) together with a computer-generated virtual environment test. The assessments were administered in a counterbalanced order. Adolescents with dyslexia tended to perform less well than their nondyslexic peers on the BAS-11 tests; however, this difference was not statistically significant. For the computer-generated virtual environment test (pseudo real-life measure), statistically significant higher scores were achieved by the dyslexic group. These findings suggest that adolescents with dyslexia may exhibit superior visuospatial strengths on certain pseudo real-life tests of spatial ability. The usefulness of these findings is discussed in relation to possible implications for assessment and educational intervention programs for adolescents with dyslexia. PMID:19250016

  18. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Steinberg, Stacy; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel M; Johannesson, Magnus; Galesloot, Tessel E; Hottenga, Jouke J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Ullén, Fredrik; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Walters, G Bragi; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Ingason, Andres; Helgason, Agnar; Kong, Augustine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Koellinger, Philipp; Boomsma, Dorret I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots. PMID:26053403

  19. Physical Activity throughout Adolescence and Cognitive Performance at 18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Grégore I; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Ekelund, Ulf; Rombaldi, Airton J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prospective associations of physical activity at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with cognitive performance in young adulthood in a large birth cohort study from Brazil. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3235 participants). Physical activity was self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years and also was objectively measured at 18 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using an adapted Brazilian version of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) at 18 years. Results At 11 years, participants in the middle tertile of self-reported physical activity presented a significantly higher cognitive performance score as compared to the lowest tertile. Physical activity at 15 years of age was unrelated to cognitive performance at 18 years. Self-reported physical activity was cross-sectionally positively associated with cognitive performance at 18 years (p<0.001). Data from objectively measured physical activity at 18 years showed that those in the highest moderate to vigorous physical activity tertile presented lower cognitive performance scores at 18 years as compared to those in the lowest tertile (−2.59; 95%CI: −3.41; −1.48). Analyses on changes in tertiles of physical activity showed that maintaining an intermediate physical activity level from 11 to 18 years and from 15 to 18 years was associated with higher cognitive performance score of 2.31 (95%CI: 0.71; 3.91) and 1.84 score (95%CI: 0.25; 3.42), respectively. Conclusion Physical activity throughout adolescence is associated with cognitive performance before adulthood. Adolescents who are active at moderate levels, specifically those who maintain these levels of physical activity, tend to show higher cognitive performance. However, high levels of physical activity might impair cognitive performance. PMID:25973558

  20. Changes in ego and moral development in adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, B M

    1986-12-01

    A longitudinal study was designed to examine the relation between Loevinger's measure of ego development and moral development as indexed by Rest's Defining Issues Test in a sample of 123 adolescents at 12 to 14 years of age and four years later. Study I assessed differential rates of change and theoretically predicted directions of change in the two developmental functions and gender differences in ego development. Substantial ego stage movement occurred (60 per cent advancement, 40 per cent stability); moral growth was moderate. Girls scored a half ego stage ahead of boys; patterns of directional change were similar. Ego level and moral development related at either fixed point in time, but ego functioning in early adolescence did not predict subsequent moral development. Study II addressed adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles in relation to these social cognitive functions. Parental behaviours that involve loving or support related to higher ego levels; parental demanding associated with lower ego development in early adolescence. Traditional gender-related parent socialization was found among girls and boys with greater ego development. The mediating role of perceived childrearing styles was considered in relation to gender differences in ego development. PMID:3805434