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Sample records for adolescents scored higher

  1. 10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

  2. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  3. IQ Scores among Homeless Older Adolescents: Characteristics of Intellectual Performance and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Study showed IQ scores of homeless adolescents (N=50) were comparable to population means, and unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression, lower reported delinquency, and less self-control in…

  4. Prevalence of low scores in children and adolescents on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Koushik, Nikhil S; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Horton, Arthur MacNeill; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolescents. Participants were 408 healthy children and adolescents (M(age) = 13.1 years, SD = 3.7) and 139 children and adolescents (M(age) = 12.4 years, SD = 3.1) diagnosed with a medical, neurological, or learning condition. All participants were administered the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ). The clinical sample performed significantly lower compared with the healthy control participants on three of the five TVCF scores. When all scores were considered simultaneously, 38% of healthy children obtained one or more scores below the 16th percentile and 15% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower. By comparison, significantly higher proportions of children in the clinical sample had low scores below each of the five cutoffs (i.e., 63% had one or more test scores below the 16th percentile and 37% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower). Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low TVCF scores in everyday clinical practice with children and adolescents.

  5. Healthy dietary habits score as an indicator of diet quality in New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Parnell, Winsome R

    2014-06-01

    Adoption of optimal dietary habits during adolescence is associated with better health outcomes later in life. However, the associations between a pattern of healthy dietary habits encapsulated in an index and sociodemographic and nutrient intake have not been examined among adolescents. This study aimed to develop a behavior-based diet index and examine its validity in relation to sociodemographic factors, nutrient intakes, and biomarkers in a representative sample of New Zealand (NZ) adolescents aged 15-18 y (n = 694). A 17-item Healthy Dietary Habits Score for Adolescents (HDHS-A) was developed based on dietary habits information from the 2008/2009 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey. Post hoc trend analyses were used to identify the associations between HDHS-A score and nutrient intakes estimated by single 24-h diet recalls and selected nutritional biomarkers. Being female, not of Maori or Pacific ethnicity, and living in the least-deprived socioeconomic quintile were associated with a higher HDHS-A score (all P < 0.001). HDHS-A tertile was associated positively with intake of protein, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and lactose and negatively with sucrose. Associations in the expected directions were also found with most micronutrients (P < 0.05), urinary sodium (P < 0.001), whole blood (P < 0.05), serum (P < 0.01), and RBC folate (P < 0.05) concentrations. This suggests that the HDHS-A is a valid indicator of diet quality among NZ adolescents. PMID:24744308

  6. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  7. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Scores across Spanish and Swiss Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Badoud, Deborah; Knecht, Francesca; Paino, Mercedes; Eliez, Stephan; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Debbané, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years). Results The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. PMID:24349180

  8. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia, and Brain Maturation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R.; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C. John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W. L.; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12–21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. RESULTS Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in

  9. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:25151117

  10. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  11. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  12. The Reliability and Validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Scores in Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores in a group of 815 academically talented adolescents. Reliability estimates of the purported factors' scores were in the low to moderate range. Exploratory factor analysis supported a five-factor…

  13. Using body mass index Z-score among severely obese adolescents: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jessica G

    2009-01-01

    Over 17% of US children aged 12-19 years are obese, leading to new issues in differentiating weight status among severely obese adolescents. Using the CDC 2000 growth curves and published equations, this study highlights the pitfalls of using body mass index (BMI) Z-score as an outcome measure in clinical research involving severely obese adolescents. Above BMIs of 40, which are typical for adolescent treatment programs, a wide range of BMI translates to a very narrow range of BMI Z-scores, and BMI Z-scores exhibit an upper limit similar to BMI percentiles. At this level, the correspondence between BMI and BMI Z-score differs by age, sex and starting BMI. Thus, a stable high BMI during adolescence results in increasing BMI Z-scores for boys and decreasing BMI Z-scores in girls. A new supplemental BMI reference may be needed specifically for severely obese adolescents to improve measurement and evaluation of treatment success in this group.

  14. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Matthew D; Trucco, Elisa M; Coffman, Donna L; Colder, Craig R

    2015-08-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed.

  15. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  16. Transactional Links Between Teacher-Student Relationships and Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior and Behavioral School Engagement: Moderating Role of a Dopaminergic Genetic Profile Score.

    PubMed

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2016-06-01

    Throughout adolescence, there is an increase in rule-breaking behavior and a decrease in behavioral school engagement. The role of teacher-student relationship quality in the development of these adjustment problems remains understudied. This study examined how adolescent-reported teacher-student affiliation and dissatisfaction and parent-reported rule-breaking behavior and behavioral engagement impact one another throughout adolescence. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of genes by means of a Biologically Informed Multilocus genetic Profile Score (BIMPS), a composite score reflecting the cumulative effect of multiple dopaminergic genes, with a higher score indicating higher dopamine signaling in the adolescent brain. We used three-year longitudinal data from 1111 adolescents (51 % boys; M age = 13.79), and their parents. Cross-lagged analyses revealed a transactional process in which adolescents who display more rule-breaking behavior and less behavioral engagement experienced increased subsequent dissatisfaction with their teachers, which in turn further increased their adjustment problems. Also, adolescents with more adjustment problems experienced decreased subsequent affiliation with their teachers. The other way around, adolescents' behavioral engagement also benefitted from positive relationships with teachers. Multi-group analyses revealed genetic moderation for behavioral engagement, but not for rule-breaking. Specifically, adolescents who had a BIMPS score coding for moderate levels of dopamine signaling (instead of high or low signaling) were most affected in their behavioral engagement when they experienced dissatisfaction with their teachers. Our study findings may guide schools in implementing interventions to create a supportive class and school environment including positive, supportive teacher-student relationships and indicate that providing a such a supportive school environment is important for all adolescents.

  17. Greater emotional eating scores associated with reduced frontolimbic activation to palatable taste in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relation between self-reported emotional eating scores and frontolimbic brain response to palatable taste in adolescents. Design and Methods Participants included 162 adolescents (Mean BMI percentile = 52.7, range 3–90). Participants completed a selfreport survey assessing emotional eating and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures signaling subsequent delivery of a chocolate milkshake or a control taste and receiving the corresponding taste. Results Results revealed no significant relation between emotional eating scores and brain response to anticipation of receipt of milkshake. In response to milkshake taste receipt, emotional eating scores were negatively related to activation in the right thalamus, the left insula and orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral putamen and caudate. These findings remained significant after controlling for body mass index and body fat percentage. Conclusions The current results are discussed in the context of findings of reduced reward activation to palatable taste receipt in obese adults and adolescents. PMID:24715468

  18. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  19. Characteristics of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents with Extreme Scores on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    This study examined self-reported depression among severely emotionally disturbed adolescents at a private school serving publicly funded adolescents enrolled in a therapeutically supportive, non-residential educational program. From a sample of 45 students, using the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), 15 students were selected for a…

  20. Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

  1. A comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 intelligence scores in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Katherine T; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven R; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-08-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing populations. However, they have not been compared in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whose core symptoms can make testing challenging, potentially compromising test reliability. We used a within-subjects research design to evaluate the convergent validity between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., and Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., in 40 youth (ages 10-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder. Corresponding intelligence scores were highly correlated (r = 0.78 to 0.88), but full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (t(38) = -2.27, p = 0.03, d = -0.16) and verbal IQ scores (t(36) = 2.23, p = 0.03; d = 0.19) differed between the two tests. Most participants obtained higher full-scale IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., compared to Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., with 14% scoring more than one standard deviation higher. In contrast, verbal indices were higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., Verbal-nonverbal discrepancy classifications were only consistent for 60% of the sample. Comparisons of IQ test scores in autism spectrum disorder and other special groups are important, as it cannot necessarily be assumed that convergent validity findings in typically developing children and adolescents hold true across all pediatric populations.

  2. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ2) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ2 = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ2 = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  3. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ (2) = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ (2) = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ (2) = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD.

  4. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Slovene Version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Ingles, Candido S.; Bajec, Bostjan; Levpuscek, Melita Puklek

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the psychometric properties of scores on the Slovene version of the "Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents" (QIDA) in a sample of 1,334 adolescents (44% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.61). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated five-factor structure of the QIDA:…

  5. A Risk Score for Identifying Overweight Adolescents with Dysglycemia in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Authors Joyce M.; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Woolford, Susan J.; Tarini, Beth A.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Bashir, Surair; Eason, Ashley J.; Choi, Preciosa Y.; Gurney, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a clinical risk scoring system for identifying adolescents with dysglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes) who need further confirmatory testing and to determine whether the addition of non-fasting tests would improve the prediction of dysglycemia. Study Design A sample of 176 overweight and obese adolescents (10 – 17 years) had a history/physical exam, a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and non-fasting tests [hemoglobin A1c, 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT), and random glucose test] performed. Given the low number of children with diabetes, we created several risk scoring systems combining the clinical characteristics with non-fasting tests for identifying adolescents with dysglycemia and compared the test performance. Results Sixty percent of participants were white and 32% were black; 39.2% had prediabetes and 1.1% had diabetes. A basic model including demographics, body mass index percentile, family history of diabetes, and acanthosis nigricans had reasonable test performance [area under the curve (AUC), 0.75; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.68 – 0.82]. The addition of random glucose (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75 – 0.87) or 1-h GCT (AUC, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75 – 0.88) to the basic model significantly improved the predictive capacity, but the addition of hemoglobin A1c did not (AUC, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.68 – 0.83). The clinical score thresholds to consider for the basic plus random glucose model are total score cutoffs of 60 or 65 (sensitivity 86% and 65% and specificity 60% and 78%, respectively) and for the basic plus 1-h GCT model are total score cutoffs of 50 or 55 (sensitivity 87% and 73% and specificity 59% and 76%, respectively). Conclusions Pending a validation in additional populations, a risk score combining the clinical characteristics with non-fasting test results may be a useful tool for identifying children with dysglycemia in the primary care setting. PMID:23435184

  6. Osteoprotegerin in pregnant adolescents differs by race and is related to infant birth weight z-score.

    PubMed

    Essley, B; McNanley, T; Cooper, B; McIntyre, A; Witter, F; Harris, Z; O'Brien, K

    2011-10-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover, but little is known about this protein during pregnancy or among neonates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to identify relationships between OPG, markers of bone turnover and birth outcomes in 155 pregnant adolescents (13-18 years) and their newborns. Maternal blood samples were collected at mid-gestation and at delivery. Cord blood was obtained at delivery. Serum OPG, estradiol and markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (N-telopeptide) were assessed in all samples. Placental OPG expression was assessed in placental tissue obtained at delivery. Bone markers and OPG increased significantly from mid-gestation (26.0 ± 3.4 weeks) to delivery (39.3 ± 2.6 weeks). Neonatal OPG was significantly lower, but bone turnover markers were significantly higher than maternal values at mid-gestation and at parturition (P < 0.001). African-American adolescents had higher concentrations of OPG than Caucasian adolescents at mid-gestation (P = 0.01) and delivery (P = 0.04). Gestational age and estradiol were also predictors of maternal OPG at mid-gestation and delivery. OPG concentrations in cord blood were correlated with maternal OPG concentrations and were negatively associated with infant birth weight z-score (P = 0.02) and ponderal index (P = 0.02). In conclusion, maternal OPG concentrations increased across gestation and were significantly higher than neonatal OPG concentrations. Maternal and neonatal OPG concentrations were not associated with markers of bone turnover or placental OPG expression, but neonatal OPG was inversely associated with neonatal anthropometric measures. Additional research is needed to identify roles of OPG during pregnancy.

  7. Dietary diversity score in adolescents - a good indicator of the nutritional adequacy of diets: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine dietary diversity and its relation to dietary adequacy in 10-18 year-old adolescents of district 13 of Tehran during the period 1999-2001. After excluding for over and under reporters, dietary intake assessment was conducted on 304, 10-18 year old individuals, participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A dietary diversity score was calculated as part of the pyramid serving database that is categorized into 23 broad food groups. Each of the 5 broad food categories received a maximum diversity score of 2 of the 10 possible score points. To be counted as a "consumer " for any of the food groups categories, a respondent needed to consume one-half serving, as defined by Food Guide Pyramid quantity criteria, at any time during a 2-day survey period. The nutrient adequacy ratio for a given nutrient is the ratio of a subject's intake to the current recommended allowance for the subject's sex and age category. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated. Student's t-test was used to compare the means. Those variables which had normal distribution were tested by Pearson correlation coefficient and the others were tested by the Spearman correlation coefficient. Mean +/-SD of dietary diversity score (DDS) was 6.25 +/- 1.08 (range 0-10). The maximum and minimum scores of dietary diversity were related to the fruit (1.46+/-0.61) and bread-grain (0.95+/-0.27) groups, respectively. Significant positive correlation was observed between DDS and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) (r =0.42, P <0.001). Fifty percent of people had DDS >or = 6. In people with a DDS of six or over, BMI was higher (19.81 +/- 4.08vs18.95+/- 3.30 Kg/m(2), P<0.01) than others. There was a significant and positive correlation between DDS and most of the nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). It is concluded that DDS is an appropriate method to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy in this group of adolescents. PMID:15003915

  8. HuSKY: a healthy nutrition score based on food intake of children and adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Christina; Mensink, Gert B M; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2009-08-01

    For many epidemiological questions an overall indicator of healthy nutrition can be useful. Based on the data from the FFQ of the German Health Interview and Examination Study for children and adolescents (KiGGS) we developed a healthy nutrition score based on a comparison with current recommendations for children and adolescents. We observed independent and statistically significant relationships between the nutrition score and age, sex, socio-economic status, immigration background, level of urbanisation and residence in former East v. former West Germany. Furthermore, the nutrition score was statistically significantly related to serum concentrations of homocysteine (inverse association) and folate (positive associations). The construction of a healthy nutrition score appears to be useful for several reasons. For instance, our score can be used to summarise an abundance of dietary information to a single measure, to get an overall impression of diets of individuals or groups, which can be useful to detect certain risk groups.

  9. Survival outcomes scores (SOFT, BAR, and Pedi-SOFT) are accurate in predicting post-liver transplant survival in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Praveen Kumar; Maksimak, Brian; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Youssef, Dalia H; Lopez, Rocio; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-09-01

    SOFT and BAR scores utilize recipient, donor, and graft factors to predict the 3-month survival after LT in adults (≥18 years). Recently, Pedi-SOFT score was developed to predict 3-month survival after LT in young children (≤12 years). These scoring systems have not been studied in adolescent patients (13-17 years). We evaluated the accuracy of these scoring systems in predicting the 3-month post-LT survival in adolescents through a retrospective analysis of data from UNOS of patients aged 13-17 years who received LT between 03/01/2002 and 12/31/2012. Recipients of combined organ transplants, donation after cardiac death, or living donor graft were excluded. A total of 711 adolescent LT recipients were included with a mean age of 15.2±1.4 years. A total of 100 patients died post-LT including 33 within 3 months. SOFT, BAR, and Pedi-SOFT scores were all found to be good predictors of 3-month post-transplant survival outcome with areas under the ROC curve of 0.81, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively. All three scores provided good accuracy for predicting 3-month survival post-LT in adolescents and may help clinical decision making to optimize survival rate and organ utilization. PMID:27478012

  10. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  11. Higher prostate weight is inversely associated with Gleason score upgrading in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Zani, Emerson Luis; Freitas, Leandro L L; Denardi, Fernandes; Billis, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    Background. Protective factors against Gleason upgrading and its impact on outcomes after surgery warrant better definition. Patients and Methods. Consecutive 343 patients were categorized at biopsy (BGS) and prostatectomy (PGS) as Gleason score, ≤6, 7, and ≥8; 94 patients (27.4%) had PSA recurrence, mean followup 80.2 months (median 99). Independent predictors of Gleason upgrading (logistic regression) and disease-free survival (DFS) (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank) were determined. Results. Gleason discordance was 45.7% (37.32% upgrading and 8.45% downgrading). Upgrading risk decreased by 2.4% for each 1 g of prostate weight increment, while it increased by 10.2% for every 1 ng/mL of PSA, 72.0% for every 0.1 unity of PSA density and was 21 times higher for those with BGS 7. Gleason upgrading showed increased clinical stage (P = 0.019), higher tumor extent (P = 0.009), extraprostatic extension (P = 0.04), positive surgical margins (P < 0.001), seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.003), less "insignificant" tumors (P < 0.001), and also worse DFS, χ (2) = 4.28, df = 1, P = 0.039. However, when setting the final Gleason score (BGS ≤6 to PGS 7 versus BGS 7 to PGS 7), avoiding allocation bias, DFS impact is not confirmed, χ (2) = 0.40, df = 1, P = 0.530.Conclusions. Gleason upgrading is substantial and confers worse outcomes. Prostate weight is inversely related to upgrading and its protective effect warrants further evaluation.

  12. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  13. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  14. Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

  15. The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS) was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations) and agreement (weighted κ statistics) between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1) in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64) with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70). ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted. PMID:23164095

  16. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  17. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkoski, Marcelo; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Del-Bel, Elaine

    2012-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in several experimental models of brain injury. We aimed at investigating whether this drug could also improve locomotor recovery of rats submitted to spinal cord cryoinjury. Rats were distributed into five experimental groups. Animals were submitted to laminectomy in vertebral segment T10 followed or not by application of liquid nitrogen for 5 s into the spinal cord at the same level to cause cryoinjury. The animals received injections of vehicle or CBD (20 mg/kg) immediately before, 3 h after and daily for 6 days after surgery. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan motor evaluation test was used to assess motor function post-lesion one day before surgery and on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. The extent of injury was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin histology and FosB expression. Cryogenic lesion of the spinal cord resulted in a significant motor deficit. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited a higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor score at the end of the first week after spinal cord injury: lesion + vehicle, day 1: zero, day 7: four, and lesion + Cannabidiol 20 mg/kg, day 1: zero, day 7: seven. Moreover, at this moment there was a significant reduction in the extent of tissue injury and FosB expression in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The present study confirmed that application of liquid nitrogen to the spinal cord induces reproducible and quantifiable spinal cord injury associated with locomotor function impairments. Cannabidiol improved locomotor functional recovery and reduced injury extent, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of spinal cord lesions.

  18. Association of a Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score with Growth throughout Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan Yan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tilling, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Newnham, John; Davey-Smith, George; Palmer, Lyle J.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Lye, Stephen J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Briollais, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Background While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI) is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific. Methods Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328). Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived. Results The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m2 per allele) and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females) and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m2 per allele in males) at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth. Conclusions This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course. PMID:24244521

  19. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing.

  20. Cross-National Adolescent Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Reports: Analyses of Mean Scores and Response Style Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Huebner, E. Scott; Tian, Lili; Park, Nansook; O'Byrne, Jenny; Schiff, Miriam; Sverko, Dina; Langknecht, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous cross-national studies have assessed life satisfaction among adults, similar studies using adolescent samples have been rare. To address this shortage of research, a total of 1338 youth adolescents from two individualistic nations (Ireland, USA) and two collectivistic nations (China, South Korea) were administered the…

  1. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  2. The Utility of the Balance Error Scoring System for Mild Brain Injury Assessments in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Hugentobler, Jason; Ammon, Robin; Mwase, Najima; Kurowski, Brad; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes’ post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals. PMID:25295764

  3. Preterm Birth is Associated with Higher Uric Acid Levels in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Lisa K.; Nixon, Patricia A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; O’Shea, T. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare serum uric acid levels in adolescents born prematurely and adolescents born at term and to assess the correlation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in those born prematurely. Study design In this observational cohort study, 124 adolescents born prematurely and 44 adolescents born at term were studied at 14 years of age. Multivariate analyses were used to describe the relationship of premature birth to serum uric acid, while adjusting for confounding variables. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between uric acid and systolic blood pressure among those born prematurely. Results Adjusting for race, sex, maternal hypertension and fetal growth, preterm adolescents had higher serum uric acid levels than adolescents born at term [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval: 0.46 (0.10, 0.81) mg/dL, 27.4 (6, 48.2) μmol/L, p=0.012]. Among those born prematurely, uric acid was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure [Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.29 (0.12, 0.44; p= 0.0013). Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are higher in adolescents born prematurely than in those born at term and this difference could contribute to higher blood pressure among individuals born prematurely. PMID:25868431

  4. Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David M.; Metha, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between self-esteem and adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors using nonclinical (n=119) and clinical (n=30) adolescents. Nonclinical adolescents scored higher than clinical adolescents on all self-esteem dimensions. Males scored higher than females only on dimension of Self-Esteem Competence. Perceptions of…

  5. Coefficients of Correlation of IQ's on the WAIS-R with Standard Age Scores on the Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition for Previously Identified Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John C.

    This paper presents a study regarding the correlation of the Stanford-Binet: 4th Edition Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ scores for the purpose of improving the identification process for educable mentally handicapped (EMH) school age adolescents and young adults. The sample included…

  6. Field Reliability of Comprehensive System Scoring in an Adolescent Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert E.; Pogge, David L.; Stokes, John M.; Cragnolino, Ana; Zaccario, Michele; Hayman, Judy; Piacentini, Teresa; Wayland-Smith, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The extent to which the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is reliably scored has been a topic of some controversy. Although several studies have concluded it can be scored reliably in research settings, little is known about its reliability in field settings. This study evaluated the reliability of both response-level codes and protocol-level…

  7. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  8. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  9. Russian Higher Educational Institutions' Ability to Compete and the Strict Standards of "Hamburg Scoring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaksii, S.

    2009-01-01

    Russian universities rank poorly in international comparisons, and recent suggested reforms will not change this situation. There is an urgent need to find ways to improve the quality of Russia's higher education and to make it more appealing to scientists and to international students. In general, in order for the world to begin to appreciate and…

  10. Greater Equality: The Hidden Key to Better Health and Higher Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There are now many studies of income inequality and health that compare countries, American states, or other large regions, and the majority of these studies show that more egalitarian societies tend to be healthier. Inequality is associated with lower life expectancy, higher rates of infant mortality, shorter height, poor self-reported health,…

  11. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  12. Effects of type of physical exercise and leisure activities on the depression scores of obese Brazilian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stella, S G; Vilar, A P; Lacroix, C; Fisberg, M; Santos, R F; Mello, M T; Tufik, S

    2005-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that depressive states may lead to hypokinesia with diminished metabolic rate and energy use. Hypokinesia associated with certain eating behaviors may lead to an unfavorable energy balance that can contribute to the emergence and prevalence of obesity among children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of reducing depression inventory scores in female adolescents with third-degree obesity while testing the effectiveness of different exercise programs in reducing anxiety and depression scores. The sample consisted of 40 female subjects (mean age 16 +/- 1.56 years) divided into 4 groups (aerobic training, anaerobic training, leisure activities, and control). Subjects had a body mass index of 95% or more in relation to the 50th percentile. The aerobic program consisted of three ergometric bicycle sessions per week over a 3-month period (12 weeks) and the activities were prescribed after determining the anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VO2 threshold). Anaerobic training was based on the Wingate anaerobic power test. The leisure program consisted of a varied range of activities (games, exercises, etc.). A nutritionist interviewed the members of these two groups and the control group every week in order to adapt them to the nutritional guidelines proposed for the study. The study showed that all three programs (aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and leisure activities) were effective in reducing body mass. However, we found a significant reduction when analyzing the depression scores only for aerobic exercise (18.9 +/- 9.33 to 10.6 +/- 9.56 or 43.9%) but no significant alterations for anaerobic exercise (11.36 +/- 5.23 to 9.63 +/- 4.78 or 15.22%) and leisure (17.28 +/- 7.55 to 15.07 +/- 7.54 or 12.78%), thus indicating that in principle this type of activity could be included to improve emotional well-being of obese adolescent girls.

  13. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed.

  14. The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

  15. Knowledge of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Foster Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, E. V.; Pryde, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The sample consisted of 533 adolescent state wards. Knowledge levels were classified by sex and race. Scores were compared with results of National Adolescent Student Health Survey. Within sample, females scored higher than males, and whites scored higher than nonwhites. Variations in knowledge levels and implications for AIDS prevention education…

  16. Brief report: parent-adolescent informant discrepancies of social skill importance and social skill engagement for higher-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-10-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement.

  17. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  18. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  19. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  20. Identification of dietary patterns by factor analysis and study of the relationship with nutritional status of rural adolescents using factor scores.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, Kodavalla; Brahmam, Ginnela Narsimhachary Veera; Vijayaraghavan, Kamasamudram

    2015-01-01

    Study was undertaken to know food and nutrient consumption patterns and their relationship with nutritional status among rural adolescents in Orissa. It was a Community based cross sectional study, conducted at district level in the State of Orissa. Data on 686 adolescent boys and 689 adolescent girls were utilized. Factor analysis was used to find dietary pattern and discriminate analysis and its relationship with undernutrition. The study revealed that among adolescent boys, there existed six patterns among food-groups and three patterns among nutrients explaining 52% and 76% of total variation. Similarly among adolescent girls, seven patterns among food groups and three patterns among nutrients, explaining 67% and 80% of total variation. The discriminate analysis using the factor scores revealed overall 56% of adolescent boys, and 53% of girls were correctly classified. About 46% of boys who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 40% who were normal were predicted as thin. Among girls 50% who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 36% who were normal were predicted as thin. In conclusions, there exists considerable relationship between dietary patterns and nutritional status among rural adolescents. PMID:26825586

  1. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  2. Higher Weight, Lower Education: A Longitudinal Association between Adolescents' Body Mass Index and Their Subsequent Educational Achievement Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hermans, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. Methods: A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248…

  3. Teaching adolescents and adults about adjudicative proceedings: a comparison of pre- and post-teaching scores on the MacCAT-CA.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Odgers, Candice; Grisso, Thomas; Tillbrook, Chad

    2007-10-01

    The current study investigated whether teaching was associated with improved legal understanding among adolescents and adults. Participants included 927 youth and 466 young adults, who completed the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version, and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Adolescents aged 13 and younger were less likely than older individuals to improve with teaching. IQ score was positively associated with improvements following teaching, and individuals from ethnic minority groups showed greater improvements following teaching than non-Hispanic Caucasians. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  5. Effects of Higher-Order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist-Reasoning and Fact-Learning in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Hull, Elizabeth L.; Lyon, G. Reid

    2010-01-01

    Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student

  6. Effects of higher-order cognitive strategy training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Hull, Elizabeth L; Lyon, G Reid

    2010-01-01

    Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students' native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student

  7. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  8. Application of Linear Mixed-Effect Models for the Analysis of Exam Scores: Online Video Associated with Higher Scores for Undergraduate Students with Lower Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Josee; Coutu, Josee; Laneuville, Odette

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, many of the new teaching interventions are introduced in the format of audio-visual files distributed through the Internet. A pedagogical tool consisting of questions listed as learning objectives and answers presented using online videos was designed as a supplement for a molecular biology course and made available to a large…

  9. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. PMID:26043169

  10. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  11. Social and Cultural Factors Related to Eating Problems among Adolescents in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Administered Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) to 11,315 Norwegian adolescents. Scores showed only minor variations according to social class and none according to urbanization and region. Adolescent girls involved in aesthetic sports dieted marginally more than other sporting girls. Non-Western immigrant adolescents had higher EAT scores as compared to…

  12. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  13. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  14. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six normally…

  15. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  16. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. Methods A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Results Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Conclusion Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. PMID:25995637

  17. Quality of life profile--adolescent version: assessing the relationship of covariates to scale scores using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H

    2005-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of covariates on adolescent quality of life (QOL) using structural equation modeling (SEM). The Quality of Life Profile--Adolescent Version, a generic 54 item self-reported questionnaire, was administered to 363 adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years who were enrolled in 20 secondary schools within metropolitan Perth, the capital of Western Australia. Previous results based on a second-order SEM provided preliminary support for measuring adolescent QOL in terms of physical health, psychological, social, environment and opportunities for growth and development. The second-order model is further enhanced in this study by incorporating covariates age, presence of a chronic condition, amount of control and perception of health. The amount of control the adolescent perceived had a significant positive impact on QOL, whereas poorer reports of health had a negative impact. However, the presence of a chronic condition was found to have little effect on QOL, while the modest inverse relationship between age and QOL was not statistically significant.

  18. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  19. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  20. Orthogonal Higher Order Factor Structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fifth Edition for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB-5; Roid, 2003a) for child and adolescent samples is reported. Multiple criteria for factor extraction unanimously supported extraction of only one dimension and a unidimensional model. However, following results from DiStefano and Dombrowski (2006)…

  1. Reliability of Scores on the "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale": A Study with Adolescent Students in an Alternative School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Moyer, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Gerardo E.

    2011-01-01

    The "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale" (MOSS) is a norm-referenced, self-report instrument designed to assess characteristics of psychopathology among children and adolescents from 11 to 18 years of age. Although the MOSS has been used in several research studies within juvenile justice or disciplinary education contexts, the psychometric…

  2. Revisiting the Impact of Part-Time Work on Adolescent Adjustment: Distinguishing between Selection and Socialization Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The impact of part-time employment on adolescent functioning remains unclear because most studies fail to adequately control for differential selection into the workplace. The present study reanalyzes data from L. Steinberg, S. Fegley, and S. M. Dornbusch (1993) using multiple imputation, which minimizes bias in effect size estimation, and 2 types…

  3. Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS): reliability, initial validity and normative scores in higher education students.

    PubMed

    Allen Gomes, Ana; Ruivo Marques, Daniel; Meia-Via, Ana Maria; Meia-Via, Mariana; Tavares, José; Fernandes da Silva, Carlos; Pinto de Azevedo, Maria Helena

    2015-04-01

    Based on successive samples totaling more than 5000 higher education students, we scrutinized the reliability, structure, initial validity and normative scores of a brief self-report seven-item scale to screen for the continuum of nighttime insomnia complaints/perceived sleep quality, used by our team for more than a decade, henceforth labeled the Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS). In study/sample 1 (n = 1654), the items were developed based on part of a larger survey on higher education sleep-wake patterns. The test-retest study was conducted in an independent small group (n = 33) with a 2-8 week gap. In study/sample 2 (n = 360), focused mainly on validity, the BaSIQS was completed together with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In study 3, a large recent sample of students from universities all over the country (n = 2995) answered the BaSIQS items, based on which normative scores were determined, and an additional question on perceived sleep problems in order to further analyze the scale's validity. Regarding reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficients were systematically higher than 0.7, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8. Structure analyses revealed consistently satisfactory two-factor and single-factor solutions. Concerning validity analyses, BaSIQS scores were significantly correlated with PSQI component scores and overall score (r = 0.652 corresponding to a large association); mean scores were significantly higher in those students classifying themselves as having sleep problems (p < 0.0001, d = 0.99 corresponding to a large effect size). In conclusion, the BaSIQS is very easy to administer, and appears to be a reliable and valid scale in higher education students. It might be a convenient short tool in research and applied settings to rapidly assess sleep quality or screen for insomnia complaints, and it may be easily used in other populations with minor

  4. Exercise and BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a major global health problem, the effects of exercise on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are not well established despite numerous studies on this topic. The purpose of this study is to use the network meta-analytic approach to determine the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength training or both) on body mass index (BMI) z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Randomised exercise intervention trials >4 weeks, published in any language between 1 January 1990 and 31 September 2015, and which include direct and/or indirect evidence, will be included. Studies will be retrieved by searching 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual abstraction of data will occur. The primary outcome will be changes in BMI z-score while the secondary outcome will be changes in body weight in kilograms (kg). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment instrument while confidence in the cumulative evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument for network meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis will be performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve will be used to provide a hierarchy of exercise treatments (aerobic, strength training or both). Dissemination The results of this study will be presented at a professional conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42015026377. PMID:27084289

  5. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology.

  6. The Equity Raw-Score Matrix--A Multi-Dimensional Indicator of Potential Disadvantage in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Issues surrounding student participation, transition, retention and successful completion in higher education are topical. While the Australian federal government has identified broad groupings of under-represented students, these do not shed light on the complexities underlying the issues of the educationally disadvantaged, such as the…

  7. Exposure to Maternal Gestational Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Cardiovascular Responses to Stress in Adolescent Indians

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Jones, Alexander; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Karat, Samuel C.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Fall, Caroline H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Altered endocrinal and autonomic nervous system responses to stress may link impaired intra-uterine growth with later cardiovascular disease. Objective: To test the hypothesis that offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (OGDM) have high cortisol and cardiosympathetic responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Design: Adolescents from a birth cohort in India (n = 213; mean age, 13.5 y), including 26 OGDM, 22 offspring of diabetic fathers (ODF), and 165 offspring of nondiabetic parents (controls) completed 5 minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar “evaluators” (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were measured continuously at baseline, during the TSST-C, and for 10 minutes after the test using a finger cuff; the beat-to-beat values were averaged for these periods. Results: Cortisol and cardiosympathetic parameters increased from baseline during stress (P < .001). OGDM had greater systolic BP (mean difference, 5.6 mm Hg), cardiac output (0.5 L/min), and stroke volume (4.0 mL) increases and a lower total peripheral resistance rise (125 dyn · s/cm5) than controls during stress. ODF had greater systolic BP responses than controls (difference, 4.1 mm Hg); there was no difference in other cardiosympathetic parameters. Cortisol responses were similar in all three groups. Conclusions: Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with higher cardiosympathetic stress responses in the offspring, which may contribute to their higher cardiovascular disease risk. Further research may confirm stress-response programming as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in OGDM. PMID:25478935

  8. Greater responsiveness to donepezil in Alzheimer patients with higher levels of acetylcholinesterase based on attention task scores and a donepezil PET study.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Masashi; Meguro, Kenichi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Funaki, Yoshihito; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Naofumi; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict donepezil responders among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) based on cognitive tests and positron emission tomography. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol subtest (DigSm) of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised, and Trail-Making Test A were administered for 80 patients with AD to assess global function, attention, and executive function, respectively. The same tests and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were conducted after treatment with oral donepezil (5 mg/d) for 6 months (study 1). [C]-Donepezil positron emission tomography examinations were conducted before and after treatment for 30 randomly selected patients. The distribution volume (DV), which indicates the density of donepezil-binding sites, was calculated using Logan graphical analysis (study 2). In study 1, 35 patients were identified as responders based on the CGI and Mini-Mental State Examination changes. These patients had higher baseline DigSm scores compared with nonresponders. In study 2, 15 patients were responders. DigSm correlated with DV at baseline. DV at baseline and %DV change in responders were higher than in nonresponders, and these variables correlated with ΔDigSm and CGI scores. Higher baseline attention may predict responsiveness to donepezil in patients with AD, and higher acetylcholinesterase levels result in a greater clinical effect.

  9. A Comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 Intelligence Scores in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Katherine T.; Shear, Paula K.; Howe, Steven R.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing…

  10. Adolescent marijuana use from 2002 to 2008: higher in states with medical marijuana laws, cause still unclear

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Poh, Ernest; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Since 1996, 16 states have legalized marijuana use for medical purposes. The current study provides a scientific assessment of the association of medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use using national data. Method State representative survey data on approximately 23,000 12–17 year olds was collected by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health annually from 2002–2008. Yearly state-specific estimates of prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perception of its riskiness were statistically tested for differences between states with and without MML by year and across years. Results States with MML had higher average adolescent marijuana use, 8.68% (95% CI: 7.95–9.42) and lower perception of riskiness, during the period 2002–2008 compared to states without MML, 6.94% (95% CI: 6.60–7.28%). In the eight states that passed MML since 2004, in the years prior to MML passage, there was already a higher prevalence of use and lower perceptions of risk in those states compared to states that have not passed MML. Conclusions While the most likely of several possible explanations for higher adolescent marijuana use and lower perceptions of risk in MML states cannot be determined from the current study, results clearly suggest the need for more empirically-based research on this topic. PMID:21820632

  11. Health-related quality-of-life scores, spine-related symptoms, and reoperations in young adults 7 to 17 years after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Spanyer, Jonathan M; Crawford, Charles H; Canan, Chelsea E; Burke, Lauren O; Heintzman, Sara E; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to prevent disability associated with curve progression. Few investigators have considered whether the function of patients with AIS becomes adversely affected by major spine fusion surgery. Tertiary referral center patients (age, 10-17 years) who underwent spinal deformity correction a minimum of 5 years earlier were identified. Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) were administered. Data were available for 118 patients. Mean age was 14.1 years at surgery and 26.8 years at follow-up. Mean outcome scores were 50.9 (SF-12 physical composite summary), 49.4 (SF-12 mental composite summary), and 4.0 (SRS-22R total). One hundred patients (85%) were working. Common symptoms included occasional back pain (90, 76%), limited range of motion (52, 44%), activity limitations (54, 46%), waistline imbalance (41, 35%), rib prominence (28, 24%), wound/scar problems (18, 15%), and shortness of breath (18, 15%). Prominent implants were reported by 11 patients (9%). Seven of 14 reoperations were for instrumentation removal. There was a high incidence of occasional back pain and activity complaints after surgery for AIS in our cohort. However, normal SF-12 scores suggested that these symptoms did not lower the patients' general health.

  12. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  13. Are Adolescents Who Report Prior Sexual Abuse at Higher Risk for Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David Y.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…

  14. Do High Scores on the Adolescent-School Problems and Immaturity Scales of the MMPI-A Have Implications for Cognitive Performance as Measured by the WISC-III?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Lisa C.; Greenway, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Study aims to determine whether high scores on the Adolescent-School Problems (A-Sch) content scale and the Immaturity (IMM) supplementary scale were associated with cognitive performance as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). The association between IMM and the WISC-III was found to be a result of its…

  15. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p < .001). Participants on higher calories had faster weight gain (.46 [±.04] vs. .26 [±.03] %MBMI/day, p < .001), greater daily calorie advances (122 [±8] vs. 98 [±6], p = .024), shorter hospital stay (11.9 [±1.0] vs. 17.6 [±1.2] days, p < .001), and a greater tendency to receive phosphate supplementation (12 vs. 8 participants, p = .273). Conclusions Higher calorie diets produced faster weight gain in hospitalized adolescents with AN as compared with the currently recommended lower calorie diets. No cases of the refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  16. Loneliness and Alcoholism Risk in Late Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Cole, Galen E.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to subjects over age 18. Among late adolescents (aged 18 to 20), lonely females had highest mean scores, indicating higher degree of alcoholism risk than lonely males and nonlonely subjects. For males, loneliness appeared to increase alcoholism risk, not in late adolescence, but during early…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  18. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  19. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents.

  20. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  1. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  2. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

  3. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  4. Personality Features and Expressed Concerns of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Tamara; Wiederman, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates differences between adolescent females diagnosed with either anorexia nervosa (n=26) or bulimia nervosa (n=30) using the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory. About half of the participants displayed an inhibited personality style. Anorexics scored higher on the Respectful personality scale. Expressed concerns over self-concept,…

  5. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  6. The effects of a multi-component higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program on adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Jessica J; Byrne, Mitchell K

    2013-12-01

    A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up. There were no spill-over effects of the program to non-targeted students. These results provide some preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of multi-session anti-stigma programs incorporating combined information for adolescent students in inclusive educational environments. PMID:23619951

  7. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report markers of vulnerability and risk. Such a comparison may have important implications for treatment, prevention, and developmental models of self injury and borderline personality disorder. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to examine how adolescent SII differs from adolescent depression. Self-injuring, depressed, and typical adolescent females (n = 25 per group) and their mothers completed measures of psychopathology and emotion regulation, among others. In addition, we assessed electrodermal responding (EDR), a peripheral biomarker of trait impulsivity. Participants in the SII group (a) scored higher than depressed adolescents on measures of both externalizing psychopathology and emotion dysregulation, and (b) exhibited attenuated EDR, similar to patterns observed among impulsive, externalizing males. Self-injuring adolescents also scored higher on measures of borderline pathology. These findings reveal a coherent pattern of differences between self-injuring and depressed adolescent girls, consistent with theories that SII differs from depression in etiology and developmental course. PMID:22016199

  8. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  9. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  10. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  11. Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been…

  12. Higher adherence to a diet score based on American Heart Association recommendations is associated with lower odds of allostatic load and metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-11-01

    A score based on diet and lifestyle recommendations from the AHA has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to assess whether the diet components alone were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL; a composite measure of 10 physiologically dysregulated variables). The diet score ranged from 0 to 90 and included intake components for dietary fats, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, salt, added sugars, and alcohol and was tested in a cross-sectional analysis of 1318 Puerto Rican adults (aged 45-75 y; 72% women) living in Boston, MA. The mean ± SD diet score was 28.0 ± 9.9 for men and 30.0 ± 10.1 for women. Replicating findings from a previous study in this cohort that used both the diet and lifestyle components, we observed associations between the diet-only score and insulin, waist circumference, and HDL cholesterol. We found novel significant associations between the continuous diet score and AL components, namely an inverse association with urinary cortisol and a positive association with serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in women as well as an inverse association with urinary norepinephrine in men (all P < 0.05). In multinomial logistic regression, every 10 AHA diet score units were associated with 22% (95% CI: 1, 38; P = 0.043) lower odds of having ≥6 (vs. ≤2) dysregulated AL components in women. In men, every 10 diet score units were associated with lower odds of MetS (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.93; P = 0.016). Following AHA recommendations for a healthy diet may protect against the development of components of MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults.

  13. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Parental attitudes and ego identity status of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakir, S Gulfem; Aydin, Gul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 403 middle adolescents regarding Marcia's four identity statuses in terms of perceived parental attitudes and gender. The Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS-2) and Parental Education Scale (PAS) were used to collect data. Results showed that children of authoritative parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. Children of permissive parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. In addition, female students scored higher on achievement identity status while male students scored higher on identity foreclosure.

  15. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  16. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions.

  17. Characteristics of Screen Media Use Associated With Higher BMI in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Emily A.; Walls, Courtney E.; Shrier, Lydia A.; Rich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents’ screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity. METHODS: We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention. RESULTS: Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users. PMID:23569098

  18. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  19. Effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy with Higher Severity Substance-Abusing Adolescents: Report from Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Craig E.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used growth mixture modeling to examine heterogeneity in treatment response in a secondary analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials testing multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), an established evidence-based therapy for adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. Method: The first study compared 2 evidence-based adolescent substance…

  20. The Costs and Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Higher Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Heather A.; Ono, Kim E.; McMahon, Camilla; Schwartz, Caley B.; Usher, Lauren V.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one’s own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8–16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on Theory of Mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PMID:24682651

  1. Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

  2. The Effect of General Creative Personality and Freedom of Task Choice on Adolescents' Social Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Chuanhua; Hu, Bi Ying; Ngwira, Flemmings Fishani; Jing, Zhi; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on the social creativity of adolescents. The results indicated, first, that senior high school students scored higher than junior high school students. Second, girls scored higher than boys on originality, fluency, flexibility, appropriateness, and…

  3. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  4. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  5. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil. PMID:17688087

  6. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.

  7. Parental Ratings of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Marnie; Pei, Jacqueline; Leung, Wing Sze Wence; Mackenzie, Michelle; Hicks, Melanie D.; Thurm, Audrey E.; Han, Joan C.; Haqq, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated executive functioning in 25 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Significant deficits emerged, with mean scores on all but two scales reaching levels of clinical significance (T score = 65). Older children tended to have higher scores than younger…

  8. Factors associated with self-esteem in pre-adolescents and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Janeen C; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Camacho, Fabian; Smith, Beth Paterson; Koman, L Andrew

    2003-06-01

    Predictors of self-esteem were examined in 50 pre-adolescents and adolescents with cerebral palsy. On average, self-esteem was high, although 30% scored below a cut-point for low self-esteem. Self-esteem was bivariately associated with female gender, better physician-assessed functional ability, greater perception of the impact of the disability, and higher perceived parent overprotectiveness. In a multivariate model, only perceived impact of the disability remained significant.

  9. Were the mental health benefits of a housing mobility intervention larger for adolescents in higher socioeconomic status families?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Schmidt, Nicole; Glymour, M. Maria; Rehkopf, David H.; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4–7 year evaluations (aged 12–19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Image: Indian, American, Australian, and Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Padma

    1978-01-01

    American and Australian adolescents scored higher on the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire than did Indian and Irish adolescents. The Questionnaire measured 11 conflict areas: impulse control, emotional tone, body and self-image, social attitudes, morals, sexual attitudes, family relations, external mastery, vocational and educational goals,…

  11. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  12. Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?

    PubMed

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.

  13. Factor Structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) Scores across Gender among Students in Elementary and Secondary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents, a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students, is examined across gender. The sample consisted of 696 elementary and secondary school students (391 girls and 305 boys). Coefficient of congruence and salient…

  14. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  15. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is overexpressed in prostate cancer and correlates with higher Gleason scores

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The oncofetal protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an important factor for cell-migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in prostate carcinomas so far. Methods Immunohistochemical stainings for IMP3 were performed on tissue microarray (TMA) organized samples from 507 patients: 31 normal prostate tissues, 425 primary carcinomas and 51 prostate cancer metastases or castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). IMP3 immunoreactivity was semiquantitatively scored and correlated with clinical-pathologic parameters including survival. Results IMP3 is significantly stronger expressed in prostate carcinomas compared to normal prostate tissues (p < 0.0001), but did not show significant correlation with the pT-stage, the proliferation index (MIB1), preoperative serum PSA level and the margin status. Only a weak and slightly significant correlation was found with the Gleason score and IMP3 expression failed to show prognostic significance in clinico-pathological correlation-analyses. Conclusions Although IMP3 is overexpressed in a significant proportion of prostate cancer cases, which might be of importance for novel therapeutic approaches, it does not appear to possess any immediate diagnostic or prognostic value, limiting its potential as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer. These results might be corroborated by the fact, that two independent tumor cohorts were separately reviewed. PMID:20591150

  16. The Mediating Role of Extreme Peer Orientation in the Relationships between Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Linda M.; Berg, Cynthia; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined whether the quality of the adolescent-parent relationship was associated with better diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by decreasing adolescents' extreme peer orientation. Adolescents (n=252; 46% male and 54% female) aged 10-14 years with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of extreme peer orientation (i.e., tendency to ignore parental advice and diabetes care in order to fit in with friends), adolescent-parental relationship, and adherence; HbA1c scores indexed metabolic control. Adolescents with higher quality relationships with parents reported less peer orientation and better diabetes care. The mediational model revealed that adolescents' high quality relationships with their parents (mother and father) were associated with better treatment adherence and metabolic control through less peer orientation. It is likely that high quality adolescent-parent relationships may be beneficial to adolescent diabetes management through a healthy balance between peer and parental influence. PMID:20545403

  17. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  18. Substance Use among Adolescents: Fulfilling a Need State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Arch G., III; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 823 high school students found that the higher the adolescent is on a Need scale, the greater the likelihood of engaging in substance use. Further results indicated that cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and smoking marijuana are associated with significantly higher scores on the Need scale for both males and females. (RJM)

  19. Radiotherapy Doses of 80 Gy and Higher Are Associated With Lower Mortality in Men With Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pahlajani, Niraj; Ruth, Karen J.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Chen, David Y.T.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Price, Robert A.; Pollack, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 prostate cancer (PCa) are assumed to have a high risk of micrometastatic disease at presentation. However, local failure is also a major problem. We sought to establish the importance of more aggressive local radiotherapy (RT) to {>=}80 Gy. Methods and Materials: There were 226 men treated consecutively with RT {+-} ADT from 1988 to 2002 for GS 8-10 PCa. Conventional, three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated (IM) RT was used. Radiation dose was divided into three groups: (1) <75 Gy (n = 50); (2) 75-79.9 Gy (n = 60); or (3) {>=}80 Gy (n = 116). The endpoints examined included biochemical failure (BF; nadir + 2 definition), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality (OM). Results: Median follow-up was 66, 71, and 58 months for Groups 1, 2, and 3. On Fine and Gray's competing risk regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced BF were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.011) and androgen deprivation therapy duration {>=}24 months (p = 0.033). In a similar model of DM, only RT dose {>=}80 Gy was significant (p = 0.007). On Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced OM were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.035) and T category (T3/4 vs. T1, p = 0.041). Dose was not a significant determinant of cause-specific mortality. Results for RT dose were similar in a model with RT dose and ADT duration as continuous variables. Conclusion: The results indicate that RT dose escalation to {>=}80 Gy is associated with lower risks of BF, DM, and OM in men with GS 8-10 PCa, independently of androgen deprivation therapy.

  20. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  1. Sense of identity and depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demir, Başaran; Kaynak-Demir, Hadiye; Sönmez, Emel Irmak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. Thirty-one depressed adolescents and 31 control subjects were included in the study. They were evaluated using the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Depressed adolescents were reevaluated during the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher baseline SIAF scores were detected in depressed adolescents as compared with non-depressed subjects. After antidepressant treatment, there was a significant decrease in SIAF scores in the depression group. Correlation analysis indicated that there are significant, positive relationships between SIAF, depression, and anxiety scores. The regression analysis results suggested that the change in SIAF scores can accurately predict 91.6% of the remitters and 42.8% of the non-remitters. Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a close association between depression symptoms and identity confusion-related distress in adolescents.

  2. Psychosocial factors associated with depressive mood in Israeli obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yackobovitch-Gavan, Michal; Meshy-Tamir, Revital; Nagelberg, Nessia; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare levels of depressive symptoms between normal-weight and obese Israeli adolescents and to identify sociodemographic factors that may explain differences in depression between these groups. Thirty normal-weight and 49 obese patients aged 12-18 years participated in this study. The obese group had a significantly higher depression score. On linear regression analysis, obesity, lower parental income, and lower self-esteem were significantly associated with a higher depression score. This model explained 32.4 percent of the variance. The results indicate that psychosocial assessment and identification of depressive signs should be considered integral components in the management of adolescent obesity. PMID:23479303

  3. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  4. Delinquency and Reputational Orientations of Adolescent At-Risk and Not-at-Risk Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…

  5. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  6. Relational Effects of Reading Motivation and Academic Achievement among Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…

  7. Increased plasma levels of the high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are associated with a higher score of gastrointestinal dysfunction in individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Babinská, K; Bucová, M; Ďurmanová, V; Lakatošová, S; Jánošíková, D; Bakoš, J; Hlavatá, A; Ostatníková, D

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. The etiology of autism is poorly understood, the evidence indicates that inflammation may play a key role. In autism a high prevalence of gastrointestinal disturbances is reported, that are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is an intranuclear protein that can be passively released from necrotic cells or actively secreted under inflammatory conditions as alarmin or late proinflammatory cytokine. The objective of this study was to measure plasma levels of HMGB1 in individuals with autism and to analyze their association with gastrointestinal symptoms. The study involved 31 subjects with low-functioning autistic disorder aged 2-22 years and 16 healthy controls. Plasma HMGB1 levels were significantly higher in individuals with autism than in controls (13.8+/-11.7 ng/ml vs. 7.90+/-4.0 ng/ml, p<0.02). In subjects with plasma HMGB1 levels higher than 11 ng/ml severe forms of GI disorders were more prevalent (83.3 %) than in subjects with lower levels (38.9 %, p<0.04). Results of the study support the involvement of the systemic low-grade inflammation in the pathomechanisms of autism and its possible association with GI symptoms.

  8. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    PubMed Central

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  10. Knowledge is Power! Increased Provider Knowledge Scores Regarding Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Higher Rates of PrEP Prescription and Future Intent to Prescribe PrEP.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jill; Jain, Sonia; Krakower, Douglas; Sun, Xiaoying; Young, Jason; Mayer, Kenneth; Haubrich, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher's exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with the outcomes. Of 233 respondents, the mean age was 40 years, 59 % were White, 59 % were physicians and 52 % were HIV providers. In univariate analysis, mean PrEP knowledge scores (max 5) were significantly higher for HIV providers (2.8 versus 2.2; p < 0.001), age > 41 (mean 2.8 versus 2.3; p = 0.004), White race (2.7 versus 2.2; p = 0.026) and participants in the New York region (3.0 versus 2.3; p < 0.001). In a multivariable model of knowledge scores, all but age remained significant. Among 201 potential prescribers, the rate of prior PrEP prescription was higher among HIV providers than non-HIV providers (34 versus 9 %; p < 0.001) and by knowledge score, but the association with provider status was no longer significant in multivariable analysis that controlled for knowledge. Intent to prescribe PrEP in the future was high for all provider types (64 %) and was associated with knowledge scores in multivariable analysis. The most common concerns about PrEP (>40 % of providers) were drug toxicities, development of resistance and patient adherence to follow-up; 32 % identified risk compensation as a concern. HIV providers had significantly greater PrEP knowledge

  11. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  12. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  13. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  14. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder in Suicidal Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shirley; Gagnon, Kerry; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescents has been controversial. Thus, few studies have examined BPD in suicidal adolescents, even though it is strongly associated with suicidal behaviors in adults. This study examines differences between suicidal adolescents with (n=47) and without (n=72) BPD on history and characteristics of suicidal behavior, Axis I comorbidity, affect regulation, and aggression. Assessments were completed with both adolescents and parents, and consensus ratings based on best available data were analyzed. BPD participants were more likely to have a past history of suicide attempts and to have been admitted due to a suicide attempt (vs. suicidal ideation). There were no significant differences in self-injurious behaviors or degree of suicidal ideation. BPD participants also had more psychiatric comorbidity and higher aggression scores, but no significant differences in affective dysregulation compared to suicidal adolescents without BPD. Diagnostic stability over 6 months was modest. Our results demonstrate that compared to other acutely suicidal adolescents, the clinical profile of BPD participants is unique and suggests an increased risk for suicidal behaviors. This extends upon other studies which support the construct validity of BPD during adolescence and suggests that BPD should be considered in suicide risk assessment for adolescents. PMID:24343935

  16. Comparison of Subjective Wellbeing and Positive Future Expectations in Between Working and Nonworking Adolescents in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Semra; Karakoc, Ayse; Bingol, Fadime; Eren, Nurhan; Andsoy, Isil Isik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wellbeing is one’s evaluation and judgment of one’s life. It consists of 3 dimensions: positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and life satisfaction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations between working and nonworking adolescents. Patients and Methods: The study was designed as descriptive and comparative. The study sample consisted of 420 working and 482 nonworking adolescents (n = 902) aged 15 - 20 years, who were randomly recruited from two occupational education centers in Istanbul, Turkey and two high schools (formal educations) in the same district. Results: Adolescent subjective wellbeing scale (ASWS) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 48.76 (9.50) and 49.72 (8.01), respectively. In addition, positive future expectations scale (PFES) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 18.71 (4.50) and 19.06 (3.49), respectively. In this study, no significant difference was found between the general wellbeing (scale total median score) scores of the working and nonworking adolescent groups (Z = 1.01, P = 0.315). However, significant differences were found in the family relations satisfaction (Z = 3.23, P = 0.002) and relations with significant others (Z = 2.85, P = 0.004) subscales of the ASWS. Conclusions: A positive relationship was found between adolescent subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations. It was found that nonworking adolescents scored higher on the dimensions of “family relations” and “relations with significant others” of subjective wellbeing compared to those dimensions in working adolescents. PMID:27195141

  17. General joint hypermobility and temporomandibular joint derangement in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Westling, L; Mattiasson, A

    1992-01-01

    Joint mobility was assessed in each member of an epidemiological sample of 96 girls and 97 boys, 17 years old, and graded by means of the hypermobility score of Beighton et al. Twenty two per cent of the girls and 3% of the boys could perform five or more of the nine manoeuvres. The prevalence of symptoms and signs of internal derangement in the temporomandibular joint was higher in adolescents with hypermobility of joints (score greater than or equal to 5/9). In subjects with a high mobility score oral parafunctions (overuse) correlated more strongly with several signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorder than in those with a low score. PMID:1540046

  18. More Choices, Higher Scores, and Worse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If there is one thing all educators know and many studies have confirmed for decades, it is that there is no single answer to educational improvement. There are no grounds for the claim made in the past decade that accountability all by itself is a silver bullet, nor for the oft-asserted argument that choice by itself is a panacea. This article…

  19. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  20. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day.

  1. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  2. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  3. Higher risk for obesity among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant children and adolescents than among peers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Valero, María A; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia; Hernández, Mike; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Anna V; Bondy, Melissa L; Olvera, Norma

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,717 children and adolescents of Mexican origin ages 5-19 years living in Mexico and Texas to explore the influence of country of birth and country of longest residence on their overweight and obesity status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participants born and raised in Mexico (Mexicans), born in Mexico and raised in the United States (Mexican immigrants), and born and raised in the United States (Mexican-Americans). Univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression was used to determine the demographic predictors of obesity adjusted by country of birth, country of residence, age, and gender. Almost half (48.8%) of the Mexican-Americans and 43.2% of the Mexican immigrants had body mass index at the 85th percentile or above, compared to only 29.3% of the Mexicans (P < .001). Thus, Mexican-Americans and Mexican immigrants were more likely to be obese than their Mexican peers [Mexican-Americans: odds ratio (OR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.4); Mexican immigrants: OR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.0)]. In addition, males were more likely than females to be obese [OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1)], and adolescents 15-19 years of age were less likely than their younger counterparts [OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7)] to be obese. The high prevalence of obesity among children of Mexican origin in the United States is of great concern and underscores the urgent need to develop and implement obesity preventive interventions targeting younger children of Mexican origin, especially newly arrived immigrant children. In addition, future obesity research should take into consideration the country of origin of the study population to develop more culturally specific obesity interventions.

  4. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  5. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  6. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  7. [Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexism Detection (ASD) scale].

    PubMed

    Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther

    2007-08-01

    In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.

  8. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  9. Adolescent grief: relationship category and emotional closeness.

    PubMed

    Servaty-Seib, Heather L; Pistole, M Carole

    Bereaved adolescents (N = 90) who had experienced relatively common death losses (e.g., grandparent, friend) completed the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief and the Emotional Closeness Scale and Continuum. Results indicated that present grief was significantly higher for friend than for grandparent death loss. A MANOVA revealed that those in the high closeness group reported significantly higher mean scores on past and present grief than those in the low closeness group. Finally, in a hierarchal multiple regression, after demographic variables were entered (e.g., age, present at death), emotional closeness added significant variance to the prediction of past and present grief. This research contributes to the understanding of grief intensity following adolescents' most common death losses and highlights the importance of counselors' intentionally and directly assessing bereaved adolescents' perceived emotional closeness to the deceased as part of grief-related counseling.

  10. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  11. The Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Hahn, Lori

    1991-01-01

    Developed Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale (ADIS) to measure level of drug involvement, considered as continuum ranging from no use to severe dependency, in adolescents. Administered ADIS to 453 adolescents referred for treatment. Results indicated acceptable internal consistency and provide preliminary evidence of validity. Scores correlated…

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  14. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  15. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    PubMed Central

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  16. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure is Associated with Higher Left Ventricular Mass in Adolescence. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Martin; Park, Chloe; Sharman, James; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura; Lawlor, Debbie; Chaturvedi, Nish; Smith, George Davey; Hughes, Alun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dynamic exercise results in an increase to systolic blood pressure (BP). Irrespective of resting BP, some individuals may experience an exaggerated rise in systolic BP with exercise, which in adulthood, is associated with greater risk of developing hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is not known if exercise BP is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk during adolescence. We determined associations of exercise BP with left ventricular mass (LVM) in adolescents, with consideration of the possible confounding effect of body composition. Design and method We undertook a cross-sectional study of 3,949 adolescents (mean age 17.8 ± 0.4 years, 45% male) who were part of a UK population-based birth cohort study. A sub-maximal exercise step-test with automated BP measurement immediately post-exercise was completed and body composition (total fat and lean mass) assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A sub-sample (n = 1,241) underwent comprehensive echocardiographic assessment. Results Each 5 mmHg increase in post-exercise systolic BP was associated with 0.34 g/m2.7 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.45) greater LVM indexed to height2.7 with adjustment for age, sex and hypertension status (p < 0.001). Further adjustment for lean mass attenuated this association to 0.29 g/m2.7 (95% CI 0.19, 0.39; p < 0.001) for each 5 mmHg of post-exercise systolic BP, adjustment for fat mass attenuated it to 0.15 g/m2.7 (95% CI 0.05, 0.25; p = 0.003), and adjustment for both lean and fat mass attenuated it to 0.13 g/m2.7 (95% CI 0.03, 0.23; p = 0.012). Individuals with post-exercise systolic BP ≥150 mmHg (corresponding to post-exercise systolic BP >70th percentile) had a 7% greater LVM compared to those with post-exercise systolic BP < 150 mmHg (p < 0.001). Conclusions Exaggerated exercise systolic BP is associated with higher LVM, adjustment for body composition attenuates but does not abolish this association. These results may have important implications for

  17. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.

  18. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health. PMID:25266429

  19. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  20. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  1. Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571

  2. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  3. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  4. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were

  5. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  6. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low.

  7. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 μmol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  8. Smoking quit success genotype score predicts quit success and distinct patterns of developmental involvement with common addictive substances.

    PubMed

    Uhl, G R; Walther, D; Musci, R; Fisher, C; Anthony, J C; Storr, C L; Behm, F M; Eaton, W W; Ialongo, N; Rose, J E

    2014-01-01

    Genotype scores that predict relevant clinical outcomes may detect other disease features and help direct prevention efforts. We report data that validate a previously established v1.0 smoking cessation quit success genotype score and describe striking differences in the score in individuals who display differing developmental trajectories of use of common addictive substances. In a cessation study, v1.0 genotype scores predicted ability to quit with P=0.00056 and area under receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.66. About 43% vs 13% quit in the upper vs lower genotype score terciles. Latent class growth analyses of a developmentally assessed sample identified three latent classes based on substance use. Higher v1.0 scores were associated with (a) higher probabilities of participant membership in a latent class that displayed low use of common addictive substances during adolescence (P=0.0004) and (b) lower probabilities of membership in a class that reported escalating use (P=0.001). These results indicate that: (a) we have identified genetic predictors of smoking cessation success, (b) genetic influences on quit success overlap with those that influence the rate at which addictive substance use is taken up during adolescence and (c) individuals at genetic risk for both escalating use of addictive substances and poor abilities to quit may provide especially urgent focus for prevention efforts.

  9. An analysis of anger in adolescent girls who practice the martial arts.

    PubMed

    Lotfian, Sara; Ziaee, Vahid; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n = 70) or karate (n = 66), while the control group was composed of swimmers (n = 59) and nonathletes (n = 96). Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.001) decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.

  10. Quality of life and life skill baseline measures of urban adolescents with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Emily S; Wolf-Branigin, Michael; White, Patience

    2012-01-01

    Many gaps exist in the understanding of how adolescents with disabilities successfully transition to adulthood and the services contributing to this success. This study attempts to fill one gap by establishing quality of life baseline measures for low-income urban adolescents. We compared baseline data for a representative sample of adolescents with disabilities in the District of Columbia to national norms using three instruments-the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0, the Ansell-Casey Life Skills Assessment, and the Career Maturity Inventory-Attitude Scale. The sample for this study was primarily African American and had a higher level of disability as measured by receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The baseline scores of the adolescents in DC may be lower than the normed scores of their peers with disabilities in the U.S. because of socioeconomic and racial inequities and because the population has to contend with greater levels of disabilities. PMID:23145550

  11. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  12. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Examining Longitudinal Effects of Cultural Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Romero, Andrea J.; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M.; Soto, Daniel W.; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  14. Psychological impact of cancer on adolescents: self-image, locus of control, perception of illness and knowledge of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jamison, R N; Lewis, S; Burish, T G

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and three healthy adolescents were compared with 31 adolescent cancer patients on self-image, health locus of control, perception of illness, and knowledge of cancer. No differences were found between the patient and the control groups on self-image. Adolescents with cancer had significantly lower internal orientation scores and higher external health locus of control scores. The adolescent patients also perceived cancer to be significantly less severe and better understood by doctors and they believed that cancer patients had a higher probability of recovery compared with normals. No differences were noted on a knowledge of cancer test between groups. Support was found for the theory that cancer diagnosis does influence health perception but does not contribute to a lower self-image. Increased knowledge of cancer may benefit some patients in coping with their disease.

  15. Exploring the relationship between identity status development and alcohol consumption among Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between identity statuses and alcohol use and misuse in adolescence. A sample of 440 Italian students completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-Version 2 (EOM-EIS-II) and the Alcohol Addiction Scale of the Shorter Promise Questionnaire (SPQ-ALC). The results suggested that problematic alcohol use during early and middle adolescence is associated with developmentally less sophisticated identity development. Foreclosed and diffused adolescents were classified as binge drinkers and heavy drinkers. The latter reported a higher mean dependence score than other identity groups. The risk and mediating factors about alcohol misuse and dependence are provided.

  16. How adolescents construct their future: the effect of loneliness on future orientation.

    PubMed

    Seginer, Rachel; Lilach, Efrat

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of loneliness, gender, and two dimensions of prospective life domains on adolescent future orientation. Future orientation was studied in four prospective domains: social relations, marriage and family, higher education and work and career. These domains are described in terms of two dimensions: theme (relational vs. instrumental) and distance (near vs. distant future). Data collected from Israeli Jewish adolescents (11th graders) were analysed by repeated measures ANOVAs and ANCOVAs (covariate: depressive experiences) for seven future orientation variables: value, expectance, control (motivational variables), hopes, fears (cognitive representation variables), exploration, commitment (behavioural variables). As predicted, lonely adolescents scored lower than socially embedded adolescents on future orientation variables applied to the relational and near future domains and lonely boys scored lower than lonely girls. However, effects were found only on the three future orientation motivational variables and not on the cognitive representation and behavioural variables. Contrary to prediction controlling for the effect of depressive experiences did not reduce the effect of loneliness on the future orientation variables, but reduced the tendency of adolescents to score higher on all future orientation variables in the instrumental than in the relational prospective domains. The contribution of these findings to the understanding of adolescent loneliness and future orientation was discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  17. Considering the factors of gender and body weight in the promotion of healthy behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Yang, Rea-Jane

    2005-09-01

    Obesity among adolescents is increasing in both developed and developing countries. However, previous studies have paid little attention to the roles that gender and body weight variables play in health-related behavior. This article examines the effects of these two variables on health-related behavior in Taiwanese adolescents. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with three body weight categories (underweight, average and overweight) and two gender categories (female and male). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc test. The results showed that average weight adolescents scored significantly higher than their overweight peers in the three dimensions of social support, health responsibility, and exercise behavior. Average weight adolescents also scored higher than the underweight group in the dimension of health responsibility. Girls scored significantly better than boys in five out of the total six health-related behavior - scoring lower only in the exercise dimension. These findings should sound an alarm for all public health professionals to take heed to what is happening to our youth. School and family health promotion counseling should be encouraged for overweight adolescents to improve their exercise and lifestyle habits. Based on the findings, school health promotion programs should focus on gender differences. Girls, in particular, need encouragement to improve their exercise habits.

  18. Adolescent's perceptions of parenting behaviours and its relationship to adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hale, William W; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated symptoms of GAD. The findings of this study demonstrate that adolescent perceptions of parental alienation and rejection are strongly associated with adolescent GAD symptom scores. Additionally, mid-adolescence females perceive more parental alienation in relation to their GAD symptom scores than both early and mid-adolescent males. And early adolescent males perceive more parental rejection in relation to their GAD symptom scores than mid-adolescent males.

  19. Wagering the future: Cognitive distortions, impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective in adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, Marina; Nigro, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive distortions, self-reported impulsivity, delay discounting, and time perspective to gambling severity in Italian adolescents. One thousand and thirty high school students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14). A factor analysis, used to evaluate common factors assessed by the different measures, revealed a three-factor structure of Cognitive distortions, Impulsive present orientation, and Delay discounting. The results of regression analysis using factor scores showed that males scored higher than females on the SOGS-RA and that gambling severity correlated positively with high scores on the three factors. These results indicate that cognitive distortions associated with gambling are a powerful predictor of gambling severity, and that adolescent gamblers are impaired in their abilities to think about the future.

  20. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents. PMID:26096660

  1. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  2. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency. PMID:20712498

  3. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.

  4. Long-Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilmoeller, Gary L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen adolescent and 25 older mothers of infants reported on social networks and family support. Found no significant differences in social network size or interaction quality; older mothers scored significantly higher on perceived family support. Perceived family support and interaction quality were associated positively with maternal…

  5. Cultural Identity and Peer Influence as Predictors of Substance Use among Culturally Diverse Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazis, Nicki; Connor, Jason P.; Ho, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cultural identity and peer influence on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in a culturally diverse sample of Northern Australian adolescents. Middle school students (n = 274) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and measures of their own and perceived friends' substance use. Higher scores on the full…

  6. Very Happy Youths: Benefits of Very High Life Satisfaction among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Carmel; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of adolescents reporting very high levels of life satisfaction. Participants (N = 410) were divided into three life satisfaction groups: very high (top 10%), average (middle 25%), and very low (lowest 10%). Results revealed that very happy youths had significantly higher mean scores on all included…

  7. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  8. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  9. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). Using…

  10. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  11. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  12. Does allowing adolescents to smoke at home affect their consumption and dependence?

    PubMed

    Luther, Emily J; Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Bagot, Kara S; Royo, Marc B; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2008-06-01

    Negative parental attitudes towards smoking decrease adolescent smoking initiation but limited research explores the relationship between parental attitudes and degree of adolescent smoking among established smokers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental allowance of smoking in the home and adolescent smoking behavior and level of dependence. Interviews from 408 youths seeking assistance to quit smoking showed that adolescents who were allowed to smoke at home smoked more cigarettes per day and had higher scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence than those not allowed to smoke at home. Studies that additionally evaluate parental smoking status and the temporal relationship of parental allowance of smoking with changes in adolescent smoking behavior are warranted to clarify public health implications of parental smoking interdictions. PMID:18272294

  13. FIRO-B scores and success in a positive peer-culture residential treatment program.

    PubMed

    Lee, R E

    1996-02-01

    FIRO-B Wanted Inclusion, Wanted Affection, and Total scores discriminated between 28 adolescent boys who would be successful graduates of a positive peer-culture residential program and 29 who would not. Successful graduates had higher mean scores on these scales. Successful and unsuccessful residents did not differ in scores on Exner Rorschach Experience Balance, Experienced Stimulation, or Adjusted D. Likewise they did not differ in Verbal IQ or age. Openness to social relationships may be an important variable in assessing for whom group-based treatment will work. Where the capacity for relatedness is not present, staff in a group-based program may have to recognize and treat this if the program is to succeed.

  14. Psychosis, aggression, and self-destructive behavior in hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Delga, I; Heinssen, R K; Fritsch, R C; Goodrich, W; Yates, B T

    1989-04-01

    The authors studied the history of aggressive and self-destructive behaviors in psychotic and nonpsychotic hospitalized adolescents (N = 137). A multidimensional measure of self- and other-directed aggression was retrospectively applied to each patient's social and developmental history. Nonsignificant gender and diagnostic differences were obtained on ratings of violence and suicide. Broader definitions of internal and external aggression yielded nonsignificant diagnostic differences, but gender differences were observed on both internal and external aggression measures. Females displayed greater internal aggression, and males reported higher external aggression scores. These results, compared to those of other investigators, suggest the importance of social and cultural variables in understanding adolescent psychosis and aggression.

  15. Do Gaokao Scores Predict Chinese Business Students' Academic Success in Higher Education? An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Graduation and Cumulative GPA of Chinese Students in a Dual-Country Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Each year, millions of high school seniors in China take the National College Entrance Examination (or gaokao). The score the students receive on the gaokao is the sole determinant of whether they will be admitted to college and which college they may attend. Because the demand for college exceeds the availability of admission seats, the…

  16. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  17. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Are Independently Associated with Weight in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the relationship between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and body weight in Korean adolescents. Methods: This study used a nationally representative sample of 72,368 South Korean adolescents, aged 13 to 18 years. The study sample was categorized according to BMI as follows: underweight, body mass index (BMI) <18.5; normal weight, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0; overweight, 23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0; and obese, 25.0 ≤ BMI. An analysis was then performed to determine if meeting the recommended guidelines for PA frequency (5 times/week ≤) and amount of SB (<2 hours/day) was associated with weight category. Results: The percentage of normal weight adolescents was 54.3% while the percentages of underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents were 27.4%, 10.2%, and 8.1%, respectively. Significantly fewer underweight and obese adolescents met PA guidelines compared to normal weight adolescents. In addition, underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents had significantly higher SB scores. Conclusion: The present study indicates that in Korean adolescents, physical activity and sedentary behavior are independently associated with weight status. Overweight, obese and underweight Korean adolescents should all be independently monitored for management of health-related behaviors. PMID:26064854

  18. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-01

    Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.

  19. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  20. The stability of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood: a six-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    1990-10-01

    The stability and gender differences of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood were studied in 894 randomly selected Finnish subjects using the shortened version of the Coopersmith (1967) Self-Esteem Inventory. There were no differences between the men and women in the total score for self-concept. In early adulthood, men scored higher than women on general self-esteem, and women scored higher on the home-parents factor in each developmental period from pre-adolescence to adulthood. The stability of self-concept, as well as its different components, was rather high. General self-esteem showed the highest predictive value for the total score 6 years later.

  1. Reduced nucleus accumbens reactivity and adolescent depression following early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Goff, B; Gee, D G; Telzer, E H; Humphreys, K L; Gabard-Durnam, L; Flannery, J; Tottenham, N

    2013-09-26

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early-life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youths without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  2. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  3. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  4. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…

  5. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  6. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  7. The Continuation of Intimate Partner Violence from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Gordon, Mellissa; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether violence in adolescent romantic relationships is associated with relationship violence later in young adulthood. This study examined the continuation of intimate partner violence (IPV) from adolescence to young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, results from negative binomial models and propensity score models showed that being victimized by relationship partners in adolescence was significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization in romantic relationships in young adulthood. Women reported higher levels of perpetration and lower levels of victimization than men did. Those who were living together (married or cohabiting) reported higher levels of victimization and perpetration than those who were dating. Further, such associations existed beyond the effects of parent–child violence and general aggression tendencies, suggesting the continuation of relationship-specific violence. Finally, these patterns persisted after controlling for participants’ age, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family structure. PMID:23687386

  8. Associations between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ruth; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Esperanza-Díaz, Ligia; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2011-08-01

    We examined the associations between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents. Cognitive performance was measured by a validated Scholar Aptitudes test in 2,162 participants. Parental educational and occupational levels were positively associated with all specific cognitive abilities and the overall score (p<001 to .04). The odds ratios of having a high cognitive performance (top quartile) in adolescents with high parental educational level were 1.6 to 1.7 times higher than for those with a low parental educational level. Similarly, the odds ratios were 1.9 to 2.4 times higher for adolescents with high parental occupational level. These findings suggest an association between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents and support the parents' role in the creation of a stimulating intellectual environment.

  9. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet among adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  10. Measuring Changes in Social Behavior during a Social Skills Intervention for Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder was evaluated weekly over 19 weeks of a social skills training program. Participants' vocalizations were coded as initiating, responding, or other (e.g., self-talk). Participants' interactions were coded as dyadic peer interactions, dyadic leader interactions,…

  11. Does Political Socialization at Home Boost Adolescents' Expectation of Higher Education? An Analysis of Eighth-Grade Students in 35 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses comparative data to examine the impact of political socialization in the home on adolescents' expectations of university participation. The first part of the study is an international partial replication of design and findings of an earlier Norwegian study published in 2011. It examines, in socioculturally diverse countries, the…

  12. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  13. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. PMID:25218636

  14. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality.

  15. Inter-Personal Perceptions Within Families Containing Behavior Problem Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Terry T.; Goldsmith, Douglas F.

    Little research has examined the relationships between parents' perceptions of their adolescent children, the adolescents' self-perceptions and the congruence of those perceptions to adolescent behavior problems. Two parent families (N=64) with an adolescent member completed a Behavior Adjustment Scale. Based on these scores 42 families were…

  16. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Patients and methods In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Results Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. Conclusions We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and

  17. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  18. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  19. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  20. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  1. Attachment Styles and Psychopathology among Adolescent Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. Material/Methods We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Results Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles. PMID:25877235

  2. Stability of emotionality scores.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Sueiro, E

    1991-12-01

    We hypothesized the stability of scores on emotionality given by 111 young adults, whose mean age was 16.6 yr, 132 adults, whose mean age was 29.9 yr., and 48 older adults, whose mean age was 53.3 yr. Significant correlations were obtained between scores given to 210 words across age and sex groups. Pearson correlations were calculated over words and not over subjects. The correlations between scores of young people and adults were .90, between young and older people .80, and between adults and older people .87. Men's and women's scores correlated .89.

  3. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.

  4. Quality-of-life factors in adolescent inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, M; Hoffenberg, E J; Feranchak, A

    1998-02-01

    Little is known about the specific psychosocial factors that influence quality of life in adolescents with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We adapted a model by Garrett and Drossman to assess adolescent adjustment to recent-onset IBD. Thirty adolescent-parent pairs completed a set of standardized questionnaires. The inclusion criteria were adolescents 12-18 years of age with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis of < 5 years' duration. Adolescents' health-related quality-of-life scores significantly correlated with satisfaction and degree of closeness with their social support members, such as parents. An unexpected finding was that the adolescents included more extended family than peers in their social support networks. Also of note was that parental coping styles rather than adolescent coping styles significantly correlated with adolescents' quality-of-life health scores. Severity of illness did not correlate with adolescent quality-of-life health scores. There was significant agreement between adolescent and parental quality-of-life health scores and stressful event ratings. Adolescents with recent-onset IBD rely more on family members than their peers for emotional support, and they depend more on their parents' coping skills than their own. These findings may indicate lags in normal adolescent development. Adolescents and parents do communicate and share concerns with each other. Support programs for adolescents with IBD should reinforce existing coping skills and parent-adolescent communication while promoting normative development.

  5. Stress and happiness among adolescents with varying frequency of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Moljord, Inger Elise Opheim; Moksnes, Unni Karin; Eriksen, Lasse; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between physical activity, stress, and happiness, as well as possible sex and age differences on these variables in a survey of 1,508 adolescent pupils (13 to 18 yr.) in middle Norway. Adolescents who reported they participated in physical activity 2 to 3 times per week or more scored significantly lower on stress and higher on happiness than those who participated in physical activity 1 day per week or less. There was no significant difference on stress and happiness between those being physically active 2 or 3 times a week and those being active almost every day. There was no sex difference in physical activity frequency. Girls had higher mean scores on stress, and boys scored higher on happiness. Adolescents 15 to 16 years old showed higher stress scores than those 17 to 18 years old, but there were no significant differences between the different age groups when looking at happiness and physical activity. A statistically significant two-way interaction of sex by age was found on both stress and happiness.

  6. False Positives among Adolescent Sex Offenders: Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Wallace A.; Licht, Mark H.; Caminez, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the "Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory"("MACI"; Millon, 1993) to identify serious adolescent, male sexual-offenders and to predict their recidivism following treatment was examined. "MACI" scores were evaluated for 381 adolescent, male sexual-offenders adjudicated delinquent for felony crimes and given maximum sentences, and, on…

  7. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  8. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  9. Higher HEI-2005 scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: Findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Cremer, Alexandra; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression affects over 15 million Americans in a given year. Compared to physical health, less is known about the affect of diet quality on symptoms of depression. Objective This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and reported symptoms of depression in a low-income urban population. Subjects/setting Subjects included 1,118 African American and white adults, aged 30–64 years, living in Baltimore, MD and represented a sub-sample of the initial examination and recruitment phase of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Methods Nutrition data were based on two 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained interviewers using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a trained interviewer using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Statistical analysis Both linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether or not diet quality was associated with depressive symptoms. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms and independent variables included HEI-2005, race, sex, age, education, income, and food assistance program participation. Results Mean HEI-2005 score (± SEM) was 52.17 ± 0.40 (out of 100). Mean CES-D score was 11.64 ± 0.25 (out of 40). Diet quality was significantly associated with reported symptoms of depression. However, income was a significantly stronger predictor of depression compared to diet quality, education and sex. Conclusion Registered dietitians should be aware of relationship between psychological status and nutritional health when assisting clients to better manage their food choices to improve their overall health and quality of life. PMID:20184988

  10. The relationship between parenting and the economic orientation and behavior of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed.

  11. The relationship between parenting and the economic orientation and behavior of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed. PMID:24303576

  12. Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence; patterns and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C; Casswell, S; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21. Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood. Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups. Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change. PMID:12933777

  13. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue

    2014-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p values<0.05). Significant positive correlations existed between CTQ-SF subscale scores for EA, SA, CTQ-SF total scores, and EPQ-N, EPQ-P scores (all p values<0.05). Significant number of subjects in this adolescent sample reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents.

  14. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  15. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues. Objective: To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV. Method: This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: The global perception of QV was higher among adolescents with visual impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms. Conclusion: The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population. PMID:26029272

  16. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  17. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  18. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  19. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  20. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  1. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191

  2. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented.

  3. Risk factors for depressive symptoms in adolescent pregnancy in a late-teen subsample.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.

  4. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  5. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  6. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  7. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  8. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z-scores

  9. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  10. Scholastic achievement and family marital structure: Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Bart, W M; Hektner, J M

    2000-08-01

    In a sample of Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in the Negev region of Israel, the authors examined scholastic achievement levels in the subjects of Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics. There were no significant differences in the scholastic achievement levels in those 4 disciplines between adolescents from monogamous families and those from polygamous families. There was, however, a significant interaction between gender and family marital structure for Hebrew scores: Polygamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the male participants, whereas monogamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the female participants. However, the major overall finding was that polygamous family marital structures did not affect deleteriously the scholastic achievement levels of the Bedouin-Arab participants.

  11. Measuring Changes in Social Behavior during a Social Skills Intervention for Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder was evaluated weekly over 19 weeks of a social skills training program. Participants’ vocalizations were coded as initiating, responding, or other (e.g., self-talk). Participants’ interactions were coded as dyadic peer interactions, dyadic leader interactions, interactions with a group of peers, interactions with a group of peer(s) and leader(s), or time spent by self. Over the course of the intervention, participants made fewer initiating and other vocalizations, more responding vocalizations, spent more time interacting with a group of peers, and spent marginally less time interacting with a leader. Gender, age, and intervention attendance effects on social behavior are also noted. PMID:23239098

  12. Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2008 and April 2009 in 648 Ecuadorian adolescents (52.3% boys), aged 11 to 15 years, attending secondary schools in Cuenca (urban n = 490) and Nabón (rural n = 158). Data collection included anthropometric measures, application of the EUROFIT battery, dietary intake (2-day 24 h recall), socio-demographic characteristics, and blood samples from a subsample (n = 301). The FITNESGRAM standards were used to evaluate fitness. The associations of fitness and residential location with blood lipid profile were assessed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for confounding factors. Results The majority (59%) of the adolescents exhibited low levels of aerobic capacity as defined by the FITNESSGRAM standards. Urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores in five EUROFIT tests (20 m shuttle, speed shuttle run, plate tapping, sit-up and vertical jump) and significantly most favorable improved plasma lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL) as compared to rural adolescents. There was a weak association between blood lipid profile and physical fitness in both urban and rural adolescents, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Physical fitness, in our sample of Ecuadorian adolescents, was generally poor. Urban adolescents had better physical fitness and blood lipid profiles than rural adolescents. The differences in fitness did not explain those in blood lipid profile between urban and rural adolescents. PMID:24745348

  13. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns: Validity and Reliability of the Sleep Hygiene Index and Sleep Disturbances Scale in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Brimeyer, Chasity; Russell, Kathryn; Avis, Kristin T.; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy C.; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep is critical for adolescent health and well-being. However, there are a limited number of validated self-report measures of sleep for adolescents, and no well-validated measures of sleep that can be used across middle childhood and adolescence. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP) has already been validated in children ages 8-12 years. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CRSP as a multidimensional, self-report sleep measure for adolescents. Methods Participants included 570 adolescents aged 13 – 18 years, 60% female, recruited from pediatricians’ offices, sleep clinics, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population. A multi-method, multi-reporter approach was used to validate the CRSP. Along with the CRSP, a subset of the sample completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), with a different subset of adolescents undergoing polysomnography. Results The CRSP demonstrated good reliability and validity. Group differences on the CRSP were found for adolescents presenting to a sleep or medical clinic (vs. community sample), for older adolescents (vs. younger adolescents), those who regularly napped (vs. infrequently napped), and those with poor sleep quality (vs. good sleep quality). Self-reported sleep quality in adolescents was also associated with higher apnea-hypopnea index scores from polysomnography. Finally, the CRSP Sleep Hygiene Indices were significantly correlated with indices of the ASHS. Conclusions The CRSP is a valid and reliable measure of adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep disturbances. With a parallel version for middle childhood (8-12 years), the CRSP likely provides clinicians and researchers the ability to measure self-reported sleep across development. PMID:25441749

  14. Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Kristi B.; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Goldfield, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

  15. Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

  16. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder.

  17. Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huei-Fan; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and bullying involvement with anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severities of anxiety and depression were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of anxiety and depression. The results show that adolescents with ADHD who reported a higher behavioral inhibition system (BIS) score, had comorbid ASD, and were bullying victims, reported more severe anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD who bullied others reported more severe depressive symptoms than those who did not bully. The results of this study indicated that behavioral temperamental traits on the BIS, comorbid ASD, and bullying involvement were significantly associated with anxiety and depression among the adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26944330

  18. Development of a mentoring program for Chinese immigrant adolescents' cultural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Christine J; Ching, Alison M; Okubo, Yuki; Luthar, Suniya S

    2007-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a peer mentoring program for Chinese immigrant adolescents' cultural adjustment is described. Twenty-three high school students who recently immigrated from Mainland China participated in the year-long program and 4 high school students served as their peer mentors. Data analyses revealed that the students who participated in the mentoring program had significantly higher peer attachment-trust and need for closeness scores at post-test than at pre-test. Implications for working with adolescent immigrants are discussed.

  19. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  20. When ignorance is bliss: weight perception, body mass index and quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, J; Millar, L; Petersen, S; Swinburn, B; Lewis, A J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body weight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may

  1. Discrepancies in perceptions of close relationships of young adolescents: a risk for psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Van Lier, Pol A C; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M

    2015-04-01

    Discrepancies between children and partners (e.g., parents, friends, peers) in reports of social functioning and self-other relationships are common in clinical practice and in research. However, it is not clear whether children's biased perceptions of self-other relationships, relative to the reports of partners, are predominantly a reflection of underlying psychological dysfunctions or whether these biased perceptions present a risk factor for subsequent problematic development. This longitudinal study therefore examined the effects of adolescent-mother disagreement and adolescent-best friend disagreement in perceptions of close (dyadic) relationships on the development of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample included 497 thirteen year-old adolescents of Dutch-Caucasian backgrounds (57 % boys; 41 % at high risk for externalizing problems), their mothers, and self-nominated best friends. The participants completed reports of positive dyadic relationship quality (warmth) in Grade 7. Discrepancy scores were based on difference scores between the adolescents' versus the partners' reports. Both absolute disagreement and direction of disagreement (i.e., over- or underestimation relative to the relationship partner) were examined. Self-reported symptoms of depression and mother-reported aggression were assessed in Grade 7, 8, and 9. Absolute disagreement in perceptions of warmth between adolescents and best friends was significantly related to higher baseline levels of aggression. No significant effects of discrepancy scores on growth curves of symptoms of depression and aggression were found. The results may suggest that it is more important for adolescents to develop positive perceptions of close relationships than to agree with partners on the quality of the relationship.

  2. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolescents in two cities of Iran, Urmia and Tabriz. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in which 1990 adolescent boys and girls were selected through multistage random sampling. The study was based on self-report questionnaires including eating attitudes test (EAT-26) and DSM-IV criteria for the presence of eating disorders. To analyze the obtained data we calculated measures of central tendency and dispersion, linear and logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to diagnostic criteria of EAT-26, 492 students (24.2%) were at risk of ED and scored above the recommended cut-off point on EAT-26. Among 1990 students, a total of 51 cases (0.25%) of eating disorder (14 anorexia nervosa, 18 bulimia nervosa, and 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified) were diagnosed. Conclusions: The obtained prevalence of ED in our study was higher than previous studies in Iran. We found high numbers of boys with ED. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide screening and treatment services for Iranian adolescents. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders among Iranian adolescents. PMID:26568851

  3. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  4. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  5. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  6. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  7. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  8. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R.; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire–Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  9. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  11. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right.

  12. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  13. Feedback-related negativity is enhanced in adolescence during a gambling task with and without probabilistic reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Velázquez, Eduardo S; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-21

    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection that appears around 250 ms after the gain or loss of feedback to chosen alternatives in a gambling task in frontocentral regions following outcomes. Few studies have reported FRN enhancement in adolescents compared with adults in a gambling task without probabilistic reinforcement learning, despite the fact that learning from positive or negative consequences is crucial for decision-making during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to identify differences in FRN amplitude and latency between adolescents and adults on a gambling task with favorable and unfavorable probabilistic reinforcement learning conditions, in addition to a nonlearning condition with monetary gains and losses. Higher rate scores of high-magnitude choices during the final 30 trials compared with the first 30 trials were observed during the favorable condition, whereas lower rates were observed during the unfavorable condition in both groups. Higher FRN amplitude in all conditions and longer latency in the nonlearning condition were observed in adolescents compared with adults and in relation to losses. Results indicate that both the adolescents and the adults improved their performance in relation to positive and negative feedback. However, the FRN findings suggest an increased sensitivity to external feedback to losses in adolescents compared with adults, irrespective of the presence or absence of probabilistic reinforcement learning. These results reflect processing differences on the neural monitoring system and provide new perspectives on the dynamic development of an adolescent's brain.

  14. Estimating one's own personality and intelligence scores.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2004-05-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven university students completed the full NEO-PI-R assessing the five super-traits and 30 primary traits, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test of general intelligence. Two months later (before receiving feedback on their psychometric scores), they estimated their own scores on these variables. Results at the super-factor level indicated that participants could significantly predict/estimate their own Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness scores. The correlation between estimated and psychometrically measured IQ was r=.30, showing that participants could, to some extent, accurately estimate their intelligence. In addition, there were a number of significant correlations between estimated intelligence and psychometrically assessed personality (particularly Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Extraversion). Disagreeable people tended to award themselves higher self-estimated intelligence scores. Similarly, stable people tended to award themselves higher estimates of intelligence (even when other variables were controlled). Regressing both estimated and psychometric IQ scores onto estimated and psychometric personality scores indicated that the strongest significant effect was the relationship between trait scores and self-estimated intelligence. PMID:15142299

  15. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  16. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents. PMID:26373289

  17. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  18. Attributional Style in Clinically Depressed and Conduct Disordered Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John F.; Craighead, W. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Tested reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression with adolescent inpatients (N=63) diagnosed as depressed, conduct disordered, or both. Adolescents with major depressive diagnosis differed from nondepressed adolescents with significantly lower attributional style scores for positive events. Subjects who reported more severe depression…

  19. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-06-01

    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  20. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-06-01

    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  1. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  2. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  3. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  4. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  5. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style. PMID:18853670

  6. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.

  7. Psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Akış, Havva Kaya; Eskioğlu, Fatma; Kılıç, Emine Zinnur

    2010-01-01

    Information about the relationship between psoriasis and psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in children and adolescents is limited. We aimed to examine the symptoms of depression and anxiety and health-related quality of life levels in children and adolescents with psoriasis. Forty-eight outpatients with psoriasis aged 8 to 18 years are included in this study. Child Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventories for Children (STAI-C) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Parent and Child Versions (PedQL-P and C) were applied to both patient and control groups. Psoriasis symptom severity was measured by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Both study and control groups were divided into two age groups, child (8-12 yrs) and adolescent (13-18 yrs), to exclude the effect of puberty on psychological condition. The mean CDI score was higher, and PedQL-C psychosocial and total scores were lower in the children compared with controls. Duration of psoriasis had an increasing effect on physical-health and total scores of PedQL-C in the child group and all PedQL-C scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis severity showed a negative correlation with psychosocial and total scores of PedQL-P in the adolescent group and PedQL-P physical-health scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis is related to depression and impaired quality of life in children. The depressive symptoms in children with psoriasis should not be overlooked and psychiatric assessment of these children should be provided.

  8. Self-concept, Adjustment to Blindness, and Quality of Friendship among Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Hen, Irit; Weisse, Izhak

    2007-01-01

    The self-concept and quality of friendship of 40 adolescents with visual impairments (20 in public schools and 20 in a residential school) were compared to those of 41 sighted adolescents. The findings indicate a similar self-concept profile for sighted adolescents and adolescents with visual impairments, although the scores of the participants…

  9. Internet café addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei

    2007-04-01

    With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed.

  10. Internet café addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei

    2007-04-01

    With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed. PMID:17474839

  11. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  12. Validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (Pidaq) in Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of PIDAQ for application in adolescents. Study Design: The questionnaire was translated, cross-culturally adapted and completed by 627 adolescents (366 12-year-olds and 261 15-year-olds). The adolescents were also examined by 4 examiners who had been calibrated against a gold standard and relative to each other (Kappa >0.85) in determining treatment need with the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) DHC and AC components. Results: Cronbach´s alpha of the translated PIDAQ was 0.90. The 23 items of the questionnaire were divided into four domains that explained 60% of the variance. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.93. Discriminant validity revealed a significant association between the scores for the questionnaire and its subscales or domains and those for the DAI, IOTN-DHC and IOTN-AC treatment need indices. Adolescents with orthodontic treatment need scored higher in the questionnaires. Conclusions: The results show that the Spanish version of PIDAQ has a very similar internal structure and psychometric properties to those of the original questionnaire and demonstrate its validity for use with Spanish adolescents. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, quality of life, malocclusion. PMID:23229257

  13. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, S D; Mounts, N S; Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M

    1991-10-01

    In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful.

  14. Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmrich, Barbara H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has suggested that musicians process music in the same cortical regions that adolescents process algebra. An early adolescence synaptogenesis might present a window of opportunity during middle school for music to create and strengthen enduring neural connections in those regions. Six school districts across Maryland provided scores from…

  15. Rural Adolescent Loneliness and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John C.; Frank, Barbara D.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated loneliness of rural Nebraskan adolescents (n=387)) in relation to aspects of their self-esteem. Gathered data using the Loneliness Inventory (Woodward, 1967), Bachman's (1970) Self Esteem Scale, and Coping Strategies Inventory (Woodward, 1987). Results indicated that rural adolescents had extremely high loneliness scores and that 10…

  16. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  17. Mental health aspects of Arab-Israeli adolescents from polygamous versus monogamous families.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2002-08-01

    The authors considered the mental health consequences of polygamy in a sample of 101 Arab Muslim adolescents (19 from polygamous and 82 from monogamous families) at Juarish (Ramla), Israel. The respondents completed the Self-Esteem Scale (SE; M. Rosenberg, 1979), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; L. Derogatis & N. Melsavados, 1983; L. Derogatis & P. Spencer, 1982), and the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; N. B. Epstein, M. N. Baldwin, & D. S. Bishop, 1983). The respondents from polygamous families had lower SE scores, statistically significant higher scores in 2 BSI dimensions, higher scores in all other BSI dimensions, and higher levels of self-reported family dysfunction. The respondents from polygamous families reported lower levels of socioeconomic status, academic achievement, and parental academic attainment. Those variables may have had a more direct impact on mental health than did parental marital status. The data also indicated that perceived family functioning was the best predictor of mental health.

  18. Relationship between Healthy Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors in Adolescents in Catalonia: Application of VISA-TEEN Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Balic, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a clear relationship between the way of life and the health of individuals, and therefore, we can speak of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. There are different surveys and questionnaires that evaluate the lifestyles of adolescents, but none of them offers a final score that can quantify the healthfulness of an adolescent’s lifestyle. It was with this goal that the VISA-TEEN questionnaire is developed and validated. The objective of this study is to apply the questionnaire to a sample of adolescents who attend school in Catalonia to evaluate the healthfulness of their lifestyles and to relate the scores obtained to different sociodemographic variables. Methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 2,832 students from 25 schools in Catalonia responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed, calculating the mean (Standard deviation), median (p25, p75), and confidence interval. The results were calculated for the total population, factoring according to gender, age, urban/rural population, origin (native/immigrant), and family wealth, which was based on the Family Affluence Scale (FAS II). The significance of the difference was calculated for each factor with the appropriate statistical test. Results For the total score of healthy lifestyle, the youngest students and those with the highest family wealth obtained higher scores. With respect to eating habits, girls scored higher than boys, and higher scores were observed in natives and those with high family wealth. For physical activity, boys scored higher, as well as younger individuals, natives, and those from rural areas. With respect to substance abuse, the worst scores were found in older individuals, students from rural areas, and natives. The rational use of leisure technology was only associated with age (worsening scores with older age). Lastly, hygiene was better with girls, decreased with age, and was worse with natives than immigrants. PMID:27684476

  19. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  20. Let's Get Higher Scores on These New Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This column explains three ways that teachers can improve reading test performance. Basically, the idea is that instead of teaching students to respond to particular question types as is typical of test preparation despite the ineffectiveness of this practice, it is better to teach students to read the test passages more effectively. Three…

  1. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  2. The role of romantic attachment security and dating identity exploration in understanding adolescents' sexual attitudes and cumulative sexual risk-taking.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships.

  3. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  4. [Adolescents' diet quality and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Wendpap, Loiva Lide; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Loureiro, Anarlete da Silva; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze adolescents' diet quality and associated factors using the Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,326 adolescents from public and private schools. Food intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Crude prevalence ratio was used to evaluate the association between high DQI-R (≥ 75th percentile) and independent variables. Variables with p-value < 0.20 were included in the Poisson regression analysis. Mean DQI-R was 75.1 points (95%CI: 74.8-75.5). Higher DQI-R scores were associated with ≤ 2 hours per day of sedentary activities (e.g., TV, computer, and videogames), ≥ 300 minutes per week of physical activity, and overweight. Healthy lifestyle was associated with better diet quality. The results emphasize the importance of encouraging physical activity, reducing the number of daily hours in sedentary activities, and intervening in adolescents' eating habits.

  5. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  6. Schizotypy in adolescence: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela

    2008-02-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that appears to indicate psychosis proneness. Supposedly, schizotypal traits behave differently depending on a person's age and gender, but few studies have examined this relationship. In our study we used the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire and the Junior Schizotypy Scales. The sample was made up of 321 students (169 males) with an age range of 12 to 17 years. The results show significant differences in gender and age groups. Males score higher than females on Physical Anhedonia, Social Anhedonia, and Impulsive Non-Conformity scales, while females score higher or Positive Symptoms, Negative Evaluation, and Social Paranoia scales. Significant differences were also found among age groups: Unusual experiences, self-referent ideation, social paranoia, thought disorder, and negative evaluation were more frequent in later stages of adolescence. However, the meaning of this difference could be interpreted in terms of emotional turbulence rather than as a direct indicator of vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:18277226

  7. Elucidating dimensions of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their functional correlates in disaster-exposed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Pietrzak, Robert H; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Adams, Zachary W; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2000 adolescents aged 12-17 years (M = 14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M = 8.8, SD = 2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15-17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12-14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogenous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention.

  8. Elucidating Dimensions of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and their Functional Correlates in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Adams, Zachary W.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2,000 adolescents aged 12–17 years (M=14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M=8.8, SD=2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15–17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12–14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogeneous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention. PMID:25248557

  9. Stress in Adolescents with a Chronically Ill Parent: Inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness Model.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Dikkers, A L C; Visser-Meily, J M A; Meijer, A M

    2012-12-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.

  10. Elucidating dimensions of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their functional correlates in disaster-exposed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Pietrzak, Robert H; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Adams, Zachary W; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2000 adolescents aged 12-17 years (M = 14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M = 8.8, SD = 2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15-17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12-14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogenous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention. PMID:25248557

  11. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832

  12. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  13. Causes of individual differences in adolescent optimism: a study in Dutch twins and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Mavioğlu, Rezan Nehir; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent optimism. Optimism (3 items and 6 items approach) and pessimism were assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) in 5,187 adolescent twins and 999 of their non-twin siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Males reported significantly higher optimism scores than females, while females score higher on pessimism. Genetic structural equation modeling revealed that about one-third of the variance in optimism and pessimism was due to additive genetic effects, with the remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental effects. A bivariate correlated factor model revealed two dimensions with a genetic correlation of -.57 (CI -.67, -.47), while the non-shared environmental correlation was estimated to be -.21 (CI -.25, -.16). Neither an effect of shared environment, non-additive genetic influences, nor quantitative sex differences was found for both dimensions. This result indicates that individual differences in adolescent optimism are mainly accounted for by non-shared environmental factors. These environmental factors do not contribute to the similarity of family members, but to differences between them. Familial resemblance in optimism and pessimism assessed in adolescents is fully accounted for by genetic overlap between family members.

  14. The metacognitions questionnaire for children: development and validation in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Bacow, Terri Landon; Pincus, Donna B; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Brody, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    A self-report measure of metacognition for both children and adolescents (ages 7-17) (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children; MCQ-C) was adapted from a previous measure, the MCQ-A (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Adolescents) and was administered to a sample of 78 children and adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders and 20 non-clinical youth. The metacognitive processes included were (1) positive beliefs about worry (positive meta-worry); (2) negative beliefs about worry (negative meta-worry); (3) superstitious, punishment and responsibility beliefs (SPR beliefs) and (4) cognitive monitoring (awareness of one's own thoughts). The MCQ-C demonstrated good internal-consistency reliability, as well as concurrent and criterion validity, and four valid factors. In line with predictions, negative meta-worry was significantly associated with self-reports of internalizing symptoms (excessive worry and depression). Age-based differences on the MCQ-C were found for only one subscale, with adolescents reporting greater awareness of their thoughts than children. Adolescent girls scored higher on the total index of metacognitive processes than adolescent boys. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the use of the MCQ-C with a broader age range as well as an association between metacognitive processes and anxiety symptomatology in both children and adolescents, with implications for cognitive behavioral interventions with anxious youth.

  15. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  16. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  17. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockaday, Cathy; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Shelley, Mack C., II; Stockdale, Dahlia F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines prospectively the characteristics contributing to adolescent pregnancy in a pregnant and comparison group of adolescents. Adolescent pregnancy in Blacks was predicted by approval of delaying a family and pursuing a career, aspirations of working, and lower educational expectations. Higher educational wishes, lower educational…

  18. Predicting treatment initiation in a family-based adolescent overweight and obesity intervention.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Akshay; Brennan, Leah; Walkley, Jeff

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about factors associated with treatment initiation in overweight and obese adolescents. This study investigated parent-reported adolescent demographic, adolescent health, and parent motivation factors associated with initiation of a family-based adolescent overweight and obesity intervention. A telephone survey was completed by 349 parents calling to register their interest in participating in a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention for adolescent overweight and obesity. A total of 172 families (49.3%) returned their consent form to initiate treatment. A binomial logistic regression, with predictors entered in three blocks: (i) adolescent demographic (adolescent age, gender, adolescent BMI-for-age z-score, parent BMI); (ii) adolescent health (perceived adolescent physical and mental health, presence of an adolescent physical health problem or mental health problem, medication intake); and (iii) parent motivation (perceived adolescent weight category, concern about adolescent weight, importance of adolescent weight, confidence in adolescent capacity to change weight, priority of adolescent weight loss, discrepancy between adolescent current and ideal weight, previous weight loss attempts), was significant (χ2 (16) = 35.19, P = 0.004) accounting for 12.4-16.5% (95% confidence interval) of treatment initiation variance. Parent-reported adolescent physical health problem, parent perception of adolescent weight category, parent priority of adolescent weight loss, and parent perception of discrepancy between adolescent current and ideal weight were significant in the model. These findings indicate that data collected at intake are associated with treatment initiation and highlight the role of assessing and enhancing treatment motivation from initial contact.

  19. Learning from SimCity: an empirical study of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanes, Zeynep; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2010-10-01

    SimCity is a system simulation game frequently used in educational settings. This study investigates whether playing SimCity could change Turkish adolescents' perception of the city they live in. We hypothesized that playing the game would lead to perceptional changes in the players regarding their ideal and real cities. Two hundred forty eight 13-year old Turkish adolescents attending 7th grade constituted the sample. Ninety adolescents played the game for six weeks. Their scores on various perception variables on city issues were compared to those of the control group's. Results showed that students in the experimental group changed their expectations of an ideal city to resemble the game, expected city authorities to pay greater attention to city issues, and reported higher level of distrust to city authorities at the post-test compared to those in the control group. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential of SimCity in training informed citizens. PMID:19931157

  20. The relationship between poor performance on attention tasks and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seog Ju; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to examine the relationship between attention and suicidal ideation in a school-based adolescent population. This cross-sectional study involved 2,462 students from eight high schools in South Korea (1,021 males and 1,441 females, mean age 17.3 ± 0.6 years). The participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and took part in computerized attention tasks. Participants with high SSI scores (16 or higher) exhibited a higher mean number of omission errors (OEs) and commission errors (CEs) on the visual sustained attention tasks than did participants with low SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). On the divided attention tasks, the high SSI group exhibited a higher mean number of CEs than the low SSI group did (p < 0.001). In a general linear model adjusting for age, gender, and high BDI (10 or higher), membership in the high OE group in the visual sustained attention tasks was associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.015). Belonging to the high OE or CE group in the divided attention tasks were associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.024 and p = 0.035, respectively). For both the visual sustained and divided attention tasks, interactions between gender and high OE rates were significant (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, membership in the high OE group was associated with high SSI scores for girls. In a multiple linear regression analysis including all participants and controlling for age, gender, and BDI scores, higher numbers of OEs and CEs on the visual sustained attention tasks predicted higher SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). On the divided attention task, the number of CEs was positively correlated with the SSI score (p = 0.031). The findings of this study indicate an association between attention deficits and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents after controlling for depressed mood. The current results suggest a direct

  1. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  2. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  3. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  4. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  5. Estimated Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Brian J; Wadwa, R Paul; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen J; Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are similar in adolescents with and without diabetes (T1D) in the most insulin sensitive (IS) tertile and CVD risk factors are more atherogenic with decreasing IS in adolescents with T1D. Study design Adolescents with IS T1D (n=292; age=15.4±2.1 years; duration=8.8±3.0 years, HbA1c=8.9±1.6%) and non-diabetic (non-DM) controls (n=89; age=15.4±2.1 years) was estimated using the model: logeIS=4.64725 – 0.02032(waist, cm) – 0.09779(HbA1c, %) – 0.00235(triglycerides, mg/dl). CVD risk factors (blood pressure, fasting total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, and BMI Z-score) were compared between all non-DM adolescents and those with T1D in the most IS tertile, and then examined for a linear trend by IS tertile in adolescents with T1D, adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner Stage. Results Estimated IS was significantly lower in adolescents with T1D compared with those without (T1D=7.8±2.4, non-DM=11.5±2.9; p<0.0001). CVD risk factors were similar for non-DM compared with the adolescents with most IS T1D, except for higher HDL-c and DBP in adolescents with T1D (p<0.05). Among adolescents with T1D, all CVD risk factors except for HDL-c, were more atherogenic across decreasing IS tertiles in linear regression analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with T1D who are the most IS have similar CVD risk factors compared with non-DM adolescents. CVD risk factors are inversely associated with adolescents with IS T1D. IS may be an important therapeutic target for reducing CVD risk factors in adolescents with T1D. PMID:22921593

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  7. Parental Contexts of Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberg, Roberta S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem were analyzed for 40 male and 50 female early adolescents from multiple settings. Increasing individuation in self-esteem regulation occurs during adolescent development; adolescents of higher levels of ego development evaluate themselves more independently of parental feedback…

  8. Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools’ Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00–1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23027917

  9. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parenting Behaviours and Its Relationship to Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…

  11. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  12. Surviving genocide in Srebrenica during the early childhood and adolescent personality

    PubMed Central

    Kravić, Nermina; Pajević, Izet; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine how the experience of genocide in Srebrenica in the early childhood (ages 1-5) influences the psychological health in adolescence. Methods This study included 100 school-attending adolescents, age 15-16 (born in 1990-91) who were divided in two groups according to the place of residence from 1992-1995: the Srebrenica group – adolescents who lived in Srebrenica during the siege and the non-Srebrenica group who lived in the “free territory,” were not wounded, and experienced no losses. We used the socio-demographic questionnaire created for the purposes of our study and the War Trauma Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Reactions Questionnaire, Self-report Depressive Scale (Zung), Freiburg Personality Inventory, and the Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results Srebrenica adolescents experienced significantly more traumatic experiences (14.26 ± 3.11 vs 4.86 ± 3.16, P < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in the total score of posttraumatic stress reactions and intensity of depression between the two groups, significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress reaction were noticed for several specific questions. The most prominent defense mechanisms in both groups were projection, intellectualization, and reactive formation. Srebrenica adolescents had higher sociability levels (34.7% vs 16.0%, χ2 = 7.231, P = 0.020). Conclusion Srebrenica adolescents reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability. Our findings could be used for planning treatment and improving communication and overcoming traumas in war-affected areas. PMID:23444247

  13. Neural Correlates of Treatment in Adolescents with Bipolar Depression During Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Segreti, Anna Maria; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Almeida, Jorge RC; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Phillips, Mary L; Pan, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Abnormal prefrontal and subcortical activity during cognitive control tasks is identified in non-depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD); however, little is known about the neural correlates of bipolar adolescents in a depressed state (BDd). We aimed to investigate baseline versus after-treatment patterns of neural activity underlying motor response and response inhibition in adolescents with BDd. Methods In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 10 adolescents with BDd relative to 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) completed a well-validated go/no go block-design cognitive control task at baseline and after 6 weeks of naturalistic treatment. We used whole-brain analysis and controlled our results for multiple comparisons. Results There was significant improvement in depression scores (mean change: 57%±28). There was no behavioral difference in BDd baseline versus HC and after treatment. BDd adolescents relative to HC had higher baseline cortical, but not subcortical, neural activity (e.g., bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal during both the go [motor control] and the no go [response inhibition] conditions, and left superior temporal during the no go condition). However, after-treatment activity relative to baseline neural activity during response inhibition was significantly increased in subcortical (e.g., right hippocampus and left thalamus), but not cortical, regions. In addition, at baseline, lower left thalamus activity was correlated with higher depression scores. Conclusions Adolescents with BDd had baseline prefrontal and temporal hyperactivity underlying motor control and response inhibition that did not change after treatment in contrast to relatively decreased baseline subcortical activity underlying response inhibition associated with the depressive state that was increased after the treatment. PMID:23607410

  14. Decreased levels of physical activity in adolescents with down syndrome are related with low bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    higher BMD Z-score at the hip. This data provides an idea regarding the importance of accumulated minutes of PA, and not only moderate or vigorous in the bone health in adolescents with DS. PMID:23826810

  15. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians. PMID:20483551

  16. Temperament and Character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): Comparison to the General Population, and Genetic Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C. Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Method Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). Results The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Conclusions Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared

  17. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Excess Weight and Unhealthier Lifestyle Behaviors in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Fiorella; Francis, Lori; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms and obesity. This study examined the association of depressive symptoms with standardized BMI (BMI z-score), lifestyle behaviors, and self-efficacy measures in a sample of urban adolescents. Methods: A school-based study was conducted among adolescents (N=1508) enrolled from 11 public schools. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Kandel's depressive symptoms scale for adolescents. Fruit and vegetable intake and intake of energy-dense foods were assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire. Sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) were obtained by self-report. Height and weight were measured directly and BMI z-scores were calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of depressive symptoms with BMI z-score and lifestyle behaviors, accounting for clustering at school level and adjusting for confounders. Self-efficacy measures were evaluated as potential mediators. Results: The sample was 53% female, 75% Hispanic, and 82% US born, with a mean age of 13.9 years. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI z-score (β=0.02; p=0.02), intake of energy-dense foods (β=0.42; p<0.001), and sedentary behavior (β=0.48; p<0.001), but lower PA (β=−0.03; p=0.01). There was an interaction by gender in the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Self-efficacy mediated the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Conclusions: Obesity prevention and treatment programs should consider addressing the role of negative emotions as part of their preventive strategies. PMID:25181530

  18. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7 ± 3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT). Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p < 0.005) and BTT (p < 0.0005) z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p < 0.0001) and significantly lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.0001), osteocalcin (p < 0.05), and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.005). Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages. PMID:27413371

  19. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  20. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  1. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  2. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  3. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  4. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  5. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

  6. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  7. [Physical activity, sedentary behavior and quality of life in undergraduate adolescents of Ciudad Guzman, State of Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos Alejandro; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of evaluating the association between physical activity and sedentary behavior with quality of life (QoL) in undergraduate students of Ciudad Guzman, state of Jalisco, Mexico, a total of 881 adolescents aged between 17 and 19 were studied. Online questionnaires were used, namely the research version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Odd ratios (OR) were obtained using simple and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The number of days with physical activity was related to a higher total perceptual score, higher general QoL domain, higher self domain as well as higher environment domain. Playing in > 2 sports teams was related to a higher total perceptual score, higher general QoL domain, higher self domain as well as higher environment domain. Having 4-5 physical education classes/week was related with a higher general QoL domain. Limiting recreational screen time to < 2 hours/day was related with a higher relationship domain. In conclusion, in Mexican undergraduate adolescent students, higher QoL was associated with: physical activity at least 4 days/week; physical education classes 4 or more days/week; playing in 2 or more sports teams and limiting recreational screen time to 2 hours or less.

  8. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  9. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (p<0.05). Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05). In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05). According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05). According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (p<0.05). According to CPI

  10. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  11. Longitudinal changes in adiposity during adolescence: a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla; Ramos, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the trends in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) from the age of 13 to 17 years and to evaluate how sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics at the age of 13  impact changes in BMI and BF%. Setting Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 1451 adolescents in a community-based cohort. Outcome measures BMI z-scores were calculated according to CDC references. BF% was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Variables with a significant effect in adiposity changes were identified through linear regression models. In girls, estimates were controlled for duration of follow-up, parental education, baseline BMI z-score, age at menarche and the interaction term baseline BMI z-score×age at menarche; in boys, adjustments were performed for duration of follow-up, parental education, baseline BMI z-score and the interaction term baseline BMI z-score×duration of follow-up. Results On average, BMI z-score decreased from the age of 13 to 17 years (mean difference −0.20, 95% CI −0.23 to −0.16 among girls and −0.15, 95% CI −0.19 to −0.11 among boys). Accordingly, 12.4% of girls and 13% of boys moved to a lower BMI category and 2.2% of girls and 5.5% of boys to a higher category. There were sex differences in the significant determinants of adiposity trends. Among girls, BMI z-score significantly decreased with baseline BMI z-score (β=−0.163, 95% CI −0.204 to −0.122) and significantly increased with age at menarche (β=0.078, 95% CI 0.050 to 0.107). Results were similar for BF%. Among boys, BMI z-score significantly increased with higher parental BMI, and BF% decreased among those who wished to look larger at the age of 13 (β=−1.367, 95% CI −2.174 to −0.560), compared with those who were satisfied with their image. Conclusions In adolescents, ageing resulted in a decrease in BMI z-scores and BF%. BMI and BF% at the age of 13 were the major determinants of the observed trends. Our results suggest

  12. Psychological Assessment of Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria

    1993-01-01

    This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…

  13. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  14. Coping and caregiving experience of parents of children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhadada, Sanjay; Kate, Natasha; Sarkar, Siddharth; Bhansali, Anil; Avasthi, Ajit; Sharma, Sunil; Goel, Rashi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the coping strategies and the relationship of coping with subjective burden and positive caregiving consequences as perceived by the caregivers of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional assessment. Setting: Outpatient of Endocrinology Department. Participants: Forty-one parents of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes Main Outcome Measure: Ways of coping checklist (WCC), involvement evaluation questionnaire (IEQ) and scale for assessment of positive aspects of caregiving experience (scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience) to study the coping, burden and positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Results: On WCC, the highest score was obtained for seeking social support, followed by planful problem-solving. More frequent use of coping strategies of confrontation and escape-avoidance was associated with significantly higher score on the tension domain of IEQ. Those who more frequently used problem-solving and distancing had significantly higher scores on worrying-urging-I domain of IEQ. supervision domain of IEQ was associated with more frequent use of confrontation, self-control, social support, escape-avoidance and positive reappraisal. More frequent use of distancing and problem-solving were associated with lower caregiving personal gains. More frequent use of problem-solving was associated with higher caregiver satisfaction and lower scores in the domain of self-esteem and social aspects of caring. Conclusion: Caregivers of patients with Type-1 diabetes predominantly use adaptive coping strategies. Higher use of certain coping strategies is associated with negative and positive caregiving consequences. PMID:26955574

  15. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  16. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  17. The effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Esenboğa, Saliha; Akgül, Sinem; Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents. Forty-seven adolescents with gynecomastia and 63 healthy adolescents were enrolled in the study. The Body Image Perception Scale (BIPS) and the Bem Gender Role Inventory (BGRI) were administered to the study group after the first evaluation and also one month later. The percentage of adolescents with a BIPS score lower than the median was higher in the study group than in the control group, although there was no significant difference. Additionally, considering the single item "my breasts," it was observed that body image perception disturbance existed mostly, if not entirely, in relation to this body part. After detailed information regarding gynecomastia was given during the first clinical session, the BIPS score improved at the one-month follow-up, emphasizing the importance of informing and educating patients regarding this condition. BGRI results showed that gender roles of patients with gynecomastia are not influenced in the feminine direction.

  18. Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors.

  19. Cyberbullying among adolescents: the role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Goh, Dion H

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and gender on cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants were 396 adolescents from Singapore with age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents responded to a survey with scales measuring both affective and cognitive empathy, and cyberbullying behavior. A three-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used with cyberbullying scores as the dependent variable. Gender was dummy coded and both affective and cognitive empathy were centered using the sample mean prior to creating interaction terms and entering them into the regression equations. The testing, probing and interpretation of interaction effects followed established statistical procedures. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated a significant three-way interaction. At low affective empathy, both boys and girls who also had low cognitive empathy had higher scores on cyberbullying than those who had high cognitive empathy. This pattern of results was similarly found for boys at high affective empathy. However, for girls, high or low levels of cognitive empathy resulted in similar levels of cyberbullying. Implications of these findings include the need for empathy training and the importance of positive caregiver-child relationships in reducing cyberbullying behavior among adolescents.

  20. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

  1. Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997

  2. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Dengel, Donald R.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skipping breakfast and consuming fast food are related to the risk of obesity and are common adolescent behaviors. The relationship between these behaviors and biomarkers related to diabetes and CVD is understudied in this population. Methods: Data are from a study of the etiologic factors related to obesity risk in adolescents. Breakfast and fast food consumption were assessed using a self-report survey. Anthropometrics, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between dietary behaviors and selected biomarkers, controlling for calories consumed, body mass index (BMI), and demographic covariates. Results: 367 adolescents (11 to 18-years; mean 14.7 ± 1.8 years) were assessed at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities from 2006–2008. Breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower BMI, body fat, insulin, HOMA-IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) cluster score, while fast food consumption was associated with higher BMI, body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MetS cluster score. Some gender differences were observed. Conclusion: Breakfast and fast food consumption appear to be related to important metabolic syndrome biomarkers for chronic disease in a sample of healthy adolescents. The importance of this finding needs to be validated by examining the stability of this pattern over time and to assess the pattern in other populations. PMID:26844187

  3. Psychological assessment of adolescents and adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Martos Perez, J; Fortea Sevilla, M S

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a small follow-up study on 17 autistic adolescents and young adults who are also intellectually retarded. The aim is to examine how far scores on the Psychoeducational Profile (PEP) predicts scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP) 5 years later. One subscale eye-hand coordination significantly predicts the scores on three subscales of the AAPEP: Vocational Skills, Independent Functioning, and Vocational Behavior. Imitation predicts Interpersonal Behavior. Fine Motor predicts Leisure Skills and Cognitive Performance predicts Functional Communication. Results are interpreted in terms of the implications for educational intervention programs with autistic adolescents and adults.

  4. Familism, mother-daughter mutuality, and suicide attempts of adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ana A; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    National surveys in the U.S. reveal that Latina adolescents have higher rates of suicide attempts than females of other ethnic and racial groups. Past reports indicate that the suicide attempts among Latinas are lodged within family contexts in which sociocultural and individual experiences influence parental and adolescent behaviors. To better understand the parent-adolescent relations that explain the Latina suicidal phenomenon, we examined how the high value on family unity and support, as reflected by familism, and its effects on mother-daughter mutuality (i.e., reciprocal empathy and engagement) were evident in a group of adolescent Latinas with suicide attempts and a group of adolescent Latinas without suicide attempts. Drawing from data on 169 mother-daughter dyads recruited from Latino communities in a Northeastern metropolis and who self-identified as being of Latino origin or heritage, we considered how differences in familism between mothers and daughters influenced their sense of mutuality, the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts. Results show that gaps in familism (mothers scoring higher than their daughters on the scale) predicted less mother-daughter mutuality and more externalizing behaviors in the adolescents. Also, mother-daughter mutuality was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors which, in turn, predicted suicide attempts. Findings point to further research on family interactions that raise the risk for suicidality in Latino youth, particularly to including fathers and siblings in study designs. Clinical implications point to enhancing family and dyadic communication skills focusing mutuality while observing the cultural value of familism. PMID:20954772

  5. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the families. Methods A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles), KidScreen-10 (QoL), SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children), and CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory). The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version), and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life) Family Impact Module. Results The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers’ positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively). The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75) and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51) than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from IBD positively correlated with the QoL of the adolescents evaluated by KidScreen-10. The positive parental style of the fathers negatively correlated with the children’s state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with the severity of childhood depression. Conclusion The fathers of the IBD adolescents may exhibit low levels of

  6. Aggression, conflict resolution, popularity, and attitude to school in Russian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Timentschik, Vera M; Burkova, Valentina N

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of aggression and conflict-managing skills on popularity and attitude to school in Russian adolescents. Three types of aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect), constructive conflict resolution, third-party intervention, withdrawal, and victimization were examined using the Peer-Estimated Conflict Behavior (PECOBE) inventory [Bjorkquist and Osterman, 1998]. Also, all respondents rated peer and self-popularity with same-sex classmates and personal attitude to school. The sample consisted of 212 Russian adolescents (101 boys, 111 girls) aged between 11 and 15 years. The findings attest to significant sex differences in aggression and conflict resolution patterns. Boys scored higher on physical and verbal aggression, and girls on indirect aggression. Girls were socially more skillful than boys in the use of peaceful means of conflict resolution (they scored higher on constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention). The attributional discrepancy index (ADI) scores were negative for all three types of aggression in both sexes. Verbal aggression is apparently more condemned in boys than in girls. ADI scores were positive for constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention in both genders, being higher in boys. In girls, verbal aggression was positively correlated with popularity. In both sexes, popularity showed a positive correlation with constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention, and a negative correlation with withdrawal and victimization. Boys who liked school were popular with same-sex peers and scored higher on constructive conflict resolution. Girls who liked school were less aggressive according to peer rating. They also rated higher on conflict resolution and third-party intervention. Physical aggression was related to age. The results are discussed in a cross-cultural perspective.

  7. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  8. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  9. The association of personal resilience with stress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: variable- and person-focused approaches.

    PubMed

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Yaptangco, Mona; Semana, Sharla; Buscaino, Emil; Thompson, Valeria; Cochrane, Katie; Tabile, Marissa; Alving, Erin; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the association between personal resilience and distress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in 50 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Resilience was defined by a factor score derived from validated instruments measuring self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem. Variable- and person-focused methodologies were used to explore these associations. Low resilience was associated with higher distress, poor quality of life, and poor glycemic control. Participants with low resilience used more maladaptive coping strategies and were at greatest risk of poor outcomes. Findings suggest that resilience is a promising candidate for interventions designed to reduce distress and improve outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  11. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. RESULTS For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:26308261

  12. Quality of Primary Health Care for children and adolescents living with HIV 1

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Leticia; de Paula, Cristiane Cardoso; Magnago, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Harzheim, Erno; da Silva, Clarissa Bohrer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV. PMID:27579927

  13. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  14. Facial Emotion Recognition in Adolescents With Disabilities: The Effects of Type of Disability and Gender.

    PubMed

    Memisevic, Haris; Mujkanovic, Edin; Ibralic-Biscevic, Inga

    2016-08-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for successful social interactions. This study compared adolescents with intellectual disability and adolescents with hearing impairment on a facial emotion recognition task. The sample for this study comprised 78 adolescents (46.2% females, 53.8% males; M age = 16.4, SD = 1.0) divided into three groups (N = 26) of adolescents with intellectual disability, adolescents with hearing impairment, and adolescents without disabilities. Emotion recognition abilities were measured using a computerized Emotion Recognition Test. Adolescents with intellectual disability achieved lower scores on Emotion Recognition Test in comparison with adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. There were no significant differences on Emotion Recognition Test between adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. Given the importance of emotion recognition in everyday functioning, it is of crucial importance to have emotional training programs as part of the school curriculum. PMID:27440764

  15. Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents.

  16. Influence of sources of information about influenza vaccine on parental attitudes and adolescent vaccine receipt

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Lisa M; Underwood, Natasha L; Sales, Jessica M; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2012, only 34% of 13–17 years olds in the United States (US) received seasonal influenza vaccine. Little is known about the link between parents' sources of health information, their vaccine-related attitudes, and vaccination of their adolescent against influenza. This study seeks to determine the relationship between number of sources of information on influenza vaccine, parental attitudes toward influenza vaccine, and influenza vaccine uptake in adolescents. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among US parents of students enrolled in 6 middle and 5 high schools in Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between the number of information sources about influenza vaccine and vaccine receipt and whether parent vaccine-related attitudes act as a mediator. The most commonly reported sources of information were: a physician/medical professional (95.0%), a family member or friend (80.6%), and television (77.2%). Parents who had higher attitude scores toward influenza vaccine were 5 times as likely to report their adolescent had ever received influenza vaccine compared to parents who had lower attitude scores (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.1–8.4; P < 0.01). Parent vaccine-related attitudes were a significant mediator of the relationship between sources of information and vaccine receipt. In light of the low response rate and participation in an adolescent vaccination intervention, findings may not be generalizable to other populations. This study shows the importance of multiple sources of information in influencing parental decision-making about influenza vaccine for adolescents. Harnessing the power of mass media and family members and friends as health advocates for influenza vaccination can potentially help increase vaccination coverage of adolescents. PMID:25996686

  17. Influence of sources of information about influenza vaccine on parental attitudes and adolescent vaccine receipt.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Lisa M; Underwood, Natasha L; Sales, Jessica M; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011-2012, only 34% of 13-17 years olds in the United States (US) received seasonal influenza vaccine. Little is known about the link between parents' sources of health information, their vaccine-related attitudes, and vaccination of their adolescent against influenza. This study seeks to determine the relationship between number of sources of information on influenza vaccine, parental attitudes toward influenza vaccine, and influenza vaccine uptake in adolescents. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among US parents of students enrolled in 6 middle and 5 high schools in Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between the number of information sources about influenza vaccine and vaccine receipt and whether parent vaccine-related attitudes act as a mediator. The most commonly reported sources of information were: a physician/medical professional (95.0%), a family member or friend (80.6%), and television (77.2%). Parents who had higher attitude scores toward influenza vaccine were 5 times as likely to report their adolescent had ever received influenza vaccine compared to parents who had lower attitude scores (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.1-8.4; P < 0.01). Parent vaccine-related attitudes were a significant mediator of the relationship between sources of information and vaccine receipt. In light of the low response rate and participation in an adolescent vaccination intervention, findings may not be generalizable to other populations. This study shows the importance of multiple sources of information in influencing parental decision-making about influenza vaccine for adolescents. Harnessing the power of mass media and family members and friends as health advocates for influenza vaccination can potentially help increase vaccination coverage of adolescents. PMID:25996686

  18. Adolescent girls' understanding of tetanus infection and prevention: implications for the disease control in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Adepoju, Akinlolu Adedayo; Akinyinka, Olusegun Olusina

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nigeria is aiming to eliminate tetanus by maintaining coverage of routine vaccinations for infants and pregnant women, but little attention is given to the adolescents' needs. This study assessed the understanding of adolescent girls about tetanus infection and prevention in order to provide information that may foster better policy. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 851 female adolescents were selected from eight secondary schools in Ibadan, south-west of Nigeria using a three-stage random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, history of tetanus vaccination, and adolescents' knowledge of tetanus infection. Mean age of respondents was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Only 3.1% had received tetanus toxoid injection 1 year prior to the study, most frequently following a "wound or injury" (65.4%). Though 344 (40.4%) respondents claimed that they knew about tetanus as a "serious neurological disease," only 46.5% correctly defined tetanus. Overall, the mean knowledge score was 4.8 ± 3.1 and 64.7% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Academic class was significantly associated with knowledge; higher mean score among the senior (5.3 ± 5.3) than junior classes (4.4 ± 3.2); p < 0.001. Over half (56.2%) of the adolescents disagreed with the statement that "tetanus immunization can be given to students in the school premises." There is the need to improve immunization campaigns against tetanus among adolescent girls and consider the introduction of school-based immunization programs if the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus is to be achieved. PMID:24724076

  19. Adolescent girls' understanding of tetanus infection and prevention: implications for the disease control in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Adepoju, Akinlolu Adedayo; Akinyinka, Olusegun Olusina

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nigeria is aiming to eliminate tetanus by maintaining coverage of routine vaccinations for infants and pregnant women, but little attention is given to the adolescents' needs. This study assessed the understanding of adolescent girls about tetanus infection and prevention in order to provide information that may foster better policy. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 851 female adolescents were selected from eight secondary schools in Ibadan, south-west of Nigeria using a three-stage random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, history of tetanus vaccination, and adolescents' knowledge of tetanus infection. Mean age of respondents was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Only 3.1% had received tetanus toxoid injection 1 year prior to the study, most frequently following a "wound or injury" (65.4%). Though 344 (40.4%) respondents claimed that they knew about tetanus as a "serious neurological disease," only 46.5% correctly defined tetanus. Overall, the mean knowledge score was 4.8 ± 3.1 and 64.7% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Academic class was significantly associated with knowledge; higher mean score among the senior (5.3 ± 5.3) than junior classes (4.4 ± 3.2); p < 0.001. Over half (56.2%) of the adolescents disagreed with the statement that "tetanus immunization can be given to students in the school premises." There is the need to improve immunization campaigns against tetanus among adolescent girls and consider the introduction of school-based immunization programs if the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus is to be achieved.

  20. The Relationship of Caffeine Intake with Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Sleep in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mi-Joo; Ko, Hae-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Min; Kim, A-Sol; Moon, Ha-Na; Jung, Seung-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background In various studies in adults, caffeine may increase wakefulness and relieve pain, but caffeine overdose can cause many adverse serious effects on health. Caffeine intake has recently been increasing in adolescents. In spite of importance of caffeine effects on Korean adolescents, there are lack of scientific and systematic studies. The purpose of our study was to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects on adolescents. Methods We performed study on 234 middle school students at one middle school in Daegu using a self-report questionnaire. We divided students to quartiles according to amount of caffeine intake. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate the degree of depression and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to evaluate the degree of anxiety. We also used Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI) to evaluate the degree of insomnia and Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) to evaluate the stress in students. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects. Results Higher caffeine intake was associated with higher weight, height, lower academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS (P for trend <0.005). Higher caffeine intake quartile was associated with greater odds of having significant depression (BDI ≥10, P for trend=0.011), and insomnia (ISI ≥8, P for trend=0.015) after adjustment for factors that can affect the psychological status. Conclusion We found that caffeine intake is associated weight, height, academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS. Caffeine intake was positively associated with the severity of depression and the severity of insomnia among adolescents in Korean. PMID:27073610

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  2. Stress, sense of coherence and emotional symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A; Haugan, Gørill

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the association between the domains of stress, sense of coherence (SOC) and emotional symptoms (depression and anxiety) in adolescents, as well as the potential moderating role of SOC on the relationship between stress and emotional symptoms. The study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 1183 adolescents aged 13-18 who attend public elementary and secondary schools in Mid-Norway. The results showed that girls scored higher than boys on stress related to peer pressure, home life, school performance, school/leisure conflict and emotional symptoms. Conversely, boys reported higher SOC than girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that for boys, stress related to school performance was positively associated with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, whereas stress from peer pressure was associated with depressive symptoms. For girls, stress from peer pressure, romantic relationships and school was associated with more depressive symptoms. SOC was strongly and inversely associated with emotional symptoms, especially anxiety in girls. SOC also moderated the association between stress related to peer pressure and depressive symptoms in both genders. The study provides evidence of the association of SOC with stress and emotional symptoms during adolescence.

  3. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  4. Beyond Primary Prevention of Alcohol Use: A Culturally Specific Secondary Prevention Program for Mexican Heritage Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants’ use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  5. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  6. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  7. Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score and its relation take of nutrients and the number of servings from each food group consumed by adolescents residing in district 13 of Tehran. This study, conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), was a part of a dietary intake assessment carried out in 443 families, including 465 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, according to the Food Guide Pyramid and dietary guidelines on individuals residing in district 13 of Tehran. In this study, dietary intake was assessed with two-day 24-hour recalls. HEI was calculated based on nine components. The score range of each component was 0 to 10, the sum score of this index therefore being 90. The HEI score was categorized into three groups: less than 45 (poor diet), between 45-72 (needs improvement) and more than 72 (good diet). The mean score of HEI was 64.9 +/- 9.6 in boys and 64.8 +/- 9.4 in girls. The results showed that the number of servings of food groups in those with good diet was significantly higher than the two other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast the percent of saturated fat intake and cholesterol consumption in those with HEI > or = 72 was lower than the other groups (p < 0.05). The approximate number of food items consumed and the total nutrient intake by adolescents with HEI score > or = 72 was significantly higher than the others (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of servings of grains group (r = 0.1), vegetables (r = 0.4), fruits (r = 0.4), dairy (r = 0.3), meat (r = 0.1), and HEI (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between fat intake (r = -0.2, p < 0.001), percent of saturated fatty acids (r = -0.2, p < 0.05), cholesterol consumption (r = -0.4, p < 0.05), and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (P/S) in diet (r = 0.2, p < 0.05), and HEI score. Seventy-four, 23, and 3% of diets were categorized into "needs improvement

  8. How Schools Use Talent Search Scores for Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the talent search program from the perspectives of local school officials who enroll their students in the program, a topic on which little research currently exists. Specifically, the authors were interested in the following issues and questions: (1) How do local schools learn about talent search and how do they encourage…

  9. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  10. Associations of family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics with longitudinal adiposity patterns in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Catherine M.; Wang, May C.; Seto, Edmund; Mare, Robert; Gee, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the relationship of adiposity with neighborhood socioeconomic context in adults, few studies have investigated this relationship during adolescence. Using 10-year annual measurements of body mass index, expressed as z-scores (BMIz), obtained from 775 Black and White participants of the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of girls from pre- to post-adolescence, we used multilevel modeling to investigate whether family socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (measured by census tract median family income) explain variation in BMIz trajectory parameters. Analyses controlled for pubertal maturation. We found that lower SES was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz for both White and Black girls. Additionally, lower SES Black girls had a more sustained increase in BMIz during early adolescence and reached a higher peak compared to higher SES Black girls and to White girls. Neighborhood income was associated with BMIz trajectory for Black girls only. Unexpectedly, among Black girls, living in higher income neighborhoods was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz, controlling for SES. Our findings suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics may affect adolescent BMIz trajectory differently in different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25879263

  11. Disclosure and Monitoring as Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Agreement in Reports of Early Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome.

  12. Self-esteem and the evaluation of ethnic identity among Turkish and Dutch adolescents in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, M

    1990-06-01

    A nationwide sample of Turkish and Dutch adolescents was used to answer two questions. Do Turkish youths in the Netherlands demonstrate negative effects of minority status on global self-esteem or specific components of self-esteem? What is the meaning of ethnic identity for the self-concept of these youngsters? The results showed that Turkish adolescents had a lower score for global self-esteem and a higher score for three components--academic ability, sports achievements, and evaluation of one's ethnic identity. However, in terms of the percentage of variance explained, the differences were very small. The results also showed that ethnic identity was a more salient and more important aspect of self-concept for the Turkish subjects than for the Dutch. It was not, however, a dominant component of their self-concept: The other components had a greater impact on global self-esteem. Body image was the most important component in this respect.

  13. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  14. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  15. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  16. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  17. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  18. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  19. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  20. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  1. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  2. A longitudinal investigation into the progression of dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sinéad; Boreham, Colin; Doherty, Cailbhe; Wang, Dana; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent female athletes have a higher incidence of certain non-contact lower limb injuries compared to their male counterparts. Decreased postural stability is an established risk factor for lower limb injuries; however developmental-related sex differences in postural stability during adolescence have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to longitudinally examine changes over time, and potential sex differences in dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents. One hundred and eighty four adolescent athletes participated (mean age=13±0.34 years). Participants were assessed, using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) at baseline (T1) and at 6 (T2), 12 (T3), 18 (T4) and 24 (T5) months. At each time-point, participants performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-lateral directions of the SEBT on each limb. Reach distance for each direction was averaged across the 3 trials normalised to leg length. General linear mixed model analyses were carried out on each of the dependant variables (reach directions) with sex and time as the categorical independent variables. There was a significant sex×time interaction for the posterior-lateral reach distance scores. There were no significant sex×time interactions for any of the other reach directions. Males increased performance on the posterior-lateral reach direction from T1 to T5, while females only increased performance until T3. Young males and females demonstrate diverging postural stability profiles during adolescence. PMID:27285476

  3. Does knowledge about sexuality prevent adolescents from developing rape-supportive beliefs?

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.

  4. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:15468343

  5. Cross-cultural invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: adolescent samples from Canada and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Klassen, Robert M; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S; Wong, Isabella Y F; Yeo, Lay See; Krawchuk, Lindsey L

    2009-10-01

    We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable across groups. This study also examined the cross-cultural validity of the AESI using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis across both the Canadian and Singaporean adolescent samples. The results suggested cross-cultural invariance of form, factor loadings, and factor variances and covariances of the AESI across both samples. Evidence of AESI's convergent and discriminant validity was also reported. Findings from t-tests revealed that Singaporean adolescents reported a significantly higher level of academic stress arising from self expectations, other expectations, and overall academic stress, compared to Canadian adolescents. Also, a larger cross-cultural effect was associated with academic stress arising from other expectations compared with academic stress arising from self expectations.

  6. A Hierarchical Factor Model of Executive Functions in Adolescents: Evidence of Gene-Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Li, James J.; Chung, Tammy A.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Wood, D. Scott; Ferrell, Robert; Clark, Duncan B.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are a complex set of neurodevelopmental, higher-ordered processes that are especially salient during adolescence. Disruptions to these processes are predictive of psychiatric problems in later adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the latent structure of EF using bifactor analysis and to investigate the independent and interactive effects of genes and environments on EF during adolescence. Using a representative young adolescent sample, we tested the interaction of a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and parental supervision for EF through hierarchical linear regression. To account for the possibility of a hierarchical factor structure for EF, a bifactor analysis was conducted on the eight subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS). The bifactor analysis revealed the presence of a general EF construct and three EF subdomains (i.e., conceptual flexibility, inhibition, and fluency). A significant 5-HTTLPR by parental supervision interaction was found for conceptual flexibility, but not for general EF, fluency or inhibition. Specifically, youth with the L/L genotype had significantly lower conceptual flexibility scores compared to youth with S/S or S/L genotypes given low levels of parental supervision. Our findings indicate that adolescents with the L/L genotype were especially vulnerable to poor parental supervision on EF. This vulnerability may be amenable to preventive interventions. PMID:25499600

  7. Experiences of handwriting and using a computerized ATD in school: adolescents with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Ingrid; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents with Asperger's syndrome (AS), often have handwriting difficulties that affect their academic performance. The purpose of this descriptive multiple-case mixed-method study was to highlight how adolescents with AS experience writing in the school setting when writing by hand and when using a computerized Assistive Technology Device (ATD), for writing. A qualitative content analysis approach was used, including interviews with five adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. This was complemented by asking the adolescents to rate their perceived performance and satisfaction of writing with and without the ATD. All adolescents described handwriting difficulties, but a reduced ability to express oneself in writing was also common. Initiating and completing writing tasks was often so demanding that it caused resistance to the activity. Several advantages when using the ATD were described by the participants and the self-ratings showed higher scores for performance of and satisfaction with writing when the ATD was used. The results show that teachers' encouragement seemed to be important for the initiation and continuation of use of the ATD.

  8. A longitudinal investigation into the progression of dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sinéad; Boreham, Colin; Doherty, Cailbhe; Wang, Dana; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent female athletes have a higher incidence of certain non-contact lower limb injuries compared to their male counterparts. Decreased postural stability is an established risk factor for lower limb injuries; however developmental-related sex differences in postural stability during adolescence have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to longitudinally examine changes over time, and potential sex differences in dynamic postural stability performance in adolescents. One hundred and eighty four adolescent athletes participated (mean age=13±0.34 years). Participants were assessed, using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) at baseline (T1) and at 6 (T2), 12 (T3), 18 (T4) and 24 (T5) months. At each time-point, participants performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-lateral directions of the SEBT on each limb. Reach distance for each direction was averaged across the 3 trials normalised to leg length. General linear mixed model analyses were carried out on each of the dependant variables (reach directions) with sex and time as the categorical independent variables. There was a significant sex×time interaction for the posterior-lateral reach distance scores. There were no significant sex×time interactions for any of the other reach directions. Males increased performance on the posterior-lateral reach direction from T1 to T5, while females only increased performance until T3. Young males and females demonstrate diverging postural stability profiles during adolescence.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT PERCEPTION, GENDER, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG RURAL ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fertman, Carl; Ren, Dianxu

    2009-01-01

    Research findings indicate a relationship between weight perception and depression in adolescents. This study explored the relationship between weight perception, gender, and depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Among 623 rural adolescents who completed a health inventory and a depression scale, 75 participants (n = 62 females; n = 13 males) had depressive symptoms and were used in data analysis. A two-way ANOVA model was used to evaluate the effects of weight perception and gender on depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Although the 2-way ANOVA was not significant, there was a statistical significant finding for females who reported perceived weight problems and depression. The interaction between gender and weight perception was of marginal statistical significance (p = 0.07). Females who perceived a problem with their weight had higher depressive scores compared to females who did not perceive a problem with their weight (p = 0.0002), however no difference was observed for males. Implications are for rural nurses to screen adolescents for depressive symptoms and their weight perception during health care visits, with emphasis on females. PMID:20556226

  10. Effectiveness of sequential automatic-manual home respiratory polygraphy scoring.

    PubMed

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Pereira, Ricardo; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso-Fernandez, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco-José; Montserrat, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Automatic home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) scoring functions can potentially confirm the diagnosis of sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) (obviating technician scoring) in a substantial number of patients. The result would have important management and cost implications. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic cost-effectiveness of a sequential HRP scoring protocol (automatic and then manual for residual cases) compared with manual HRP scoring, and with in-hospital polysomnography. We included suspected SAHS patients in a multicentre study and assigned them to home and hospital protocols at random. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for manual and automatic scoring. Diagnostic agreement for several cut-off points was explored and costs for two equally effective alternatives were calculated. Of 366 randomised patients, 348 completed the protocol. Manual scoring produced better ROC curves than automatic scoring. There was no sensitive automatic or subsequent manual HRP apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) cut-off point. The specific cut-off points for automatic and subsequent manual HRP scorings (AHI >25 and >20, respectively) had a specificity of 93% for automatic and 94% for manual scorings. The costs of manual protocol were 9% higher than sequential HRP protocol; these were 69% and 64%, respectively, of the cost of the polysomnography. A sequential HRP scoring protocol is a cost-effective alternative to polysomnography, although with limited cost savings compared to HRP manual scoring.

  11. Cumulative Neighborhood Risk of Psychosocial Stress and Allostatic Load in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12–20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents. PMID:23035140

  12. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    PubMed

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  13. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents.

  14. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  15. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  16. Color Preference and MMPI Scores of Alcohol and Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernovsky, Zdenek

    1986-01-01

    Inpatients (n=67) treated for alcohol and drug abuse were administered the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) and Luescher Color Test (LCT). Patients showed more preference for brown than did normal adults and also obtained higher (i.e., presumably more pathological) scores on Luescher's total score scale and compensation scale.…

  17. Effects of Increased GED Score Requirements: The Wisconsin Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1995-01-01

    Wisconsin's General Educational Development score requirements are the highest in the United States. Data from 480 test takers before the raised standards and 480 after show the latter group studied more weeks, received significantly higher scores, and had more postsecondary education and employment opportunities. The failure rate increased by 50%…

  18. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour

  19. Effects of internal displacement and resettlement on the mental health of Turkish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Neşe; Şimşek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of internal displacement and resettlement within Turkey on the emotional and behavioral profile of children, age 5–18 after controlling for possible confounding and demographic variables. Method We conducted a national population survey using a self-weighted, equal probability sample. We compared the CBCL, TRF and YSR responses regarding children with (n = 1644) and without (n = 1855) experience of internal displacement. We examined the effects of gender, age, paternal employment, resettlement, urban residence and physical illness. Results The children and adolescents with internal displacement had significantly higher internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores on the CBCL and YSR, and higher internalizing scores on the TRF. The effect of displacement was related to higher internalizing problems when factors like physical illness, child age, child gender and urban residence were accounted. The overall effect was small explaining only 0.1–1.5% of the total variance by parent reports, and not evident by teacher reports. Discussion To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine Turkish children and adolescents with and without experience of internal displacement. The results are consistent with previous immigration studies: child age, gender, presence of physical illness and urban residence were more important predictors of internalization and externalization problem scores irrespective of informant source. PMID:15797700

  20. [Mental health in adolescents in Germany: A comparison with regard to migration background and country of origin].

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; Ellert, U

    2015-04-01

    Many children and adolescents in Germany grow up in families with a migration background. Different cultural, religious, and linguistic backgrounds have an influence on their behavior in various ways. Health status can be affected both negatively and positively by a migration background. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between migration background and self-reported psychological problems. In addition, it was tested whether country of origin had a differential effect on the associations found. Because of its migration-specific approach, the baseline survey (2003-2006) of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) offers a solid basis for migrant-specific analyses. Self-reported mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by 6,719 adolescents aged 11-17 years. Adolescents with a two-sided migration background (i.e., both parents) reported higher SDQ total difficulties scores compared with adolescents without a migration background (16.9 vs 11.5%) or those with a one-sided migration background (16.9 vs 11.3%). Adolescents with a Turkish background had higher odds (boys: OR 2.0; 95%CI 1.3-3.2; girls: OR 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4) of reporting mental health problems than adolescents without a migration background. Also, girls with a migration background from Western Europe, the USA or Canada had higher odds (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.6). In some cases, adjusting for socioeconomic status led to insignificant associations with regard to the country of origin. The findings underline the importance of migrant-specific and culture-sensitive prevention, which also takes the environment and culture-specific characteristics into account.

  1. [Mental health in adolescents in Germany: A comparison with regard to migration background and country of origin].

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; Ellert, U

    2015-04-01

    Many children and adolescents in Germany grow up in families with a migration background. Different cultural, religious, and linguistic backgrounds have an influence on their behavior in various ways. Health status can be affected both negatively and positively by a migration background. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between migration background and self-reported psychological problems. In addition, it was tested whether country of origin had a differential effect on the associations found. Because of its migration-specific approach, the baseline survey (2003-2006) of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) offers a solid basis for migrant-specific analyses. Self-reported mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by 6,719 adolescents aged 11-17 years. Adolescents with a two-sided migration background (i.e., both parents) reported higher SDQ total difficulties scores compared with adolescents without a migration background (16.9 vs 11.5%) or those with a one-sided migration background (16.9 vs 11.3%). Adolescents with a Turkish background had higher odds (boys: OR 2.0; 95%CI 1.3-3.2; girls: OR 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4) of reporting mental health problems than adolescents without a migration background. Also, girls with a migration background from Western Europe, the USA or Canada had higher odds (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.6). In some cases, adjusting for socioeconomic status led to insignificant associations with regard to the country of origin. The findings underline the importance of migrant-specific and culture-sensitive prevention, which also takes the environment and culture-specific characteristics into account. PMID:25691105

  2. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  3. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance.

  4. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  5. The Self-Concept of the Learning Disabled Adolescent: Mainstreamed versus Self-Contained Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry

    To investigate self-concept, 50 learning disabled adolescents from a regular high school who were receiving resource room assistance were given the Situation Specific Subject Competence Test for self-concept. Their scores were compared with 50 learning disabled adolescents from a self-contained program. The adolescents from the self-contained…

  6. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. PMID:27672324

  7. Exceptional giftedness in early adolescence and intrafamilial divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Runco, M A; Albert, R S

    1986-08-01

    Two groups of boys and their parents (N=54) were given five divergent thinking tests as one part of a longitudinal investigation on exceptional giftedness in early adolescence. One groups of adolescents was selected because their IQs were above 150, and the other group, was selected because of their outstanding math-science abilities. Canonical and bivariate analyses indicated that there was a strong correlation between the adolescents' divergent thinking test scores and their parents' divergent thinking test scores (Rc=.55). Additionally, there was some indication that these correlations differed in the two exceptionally gifted groups, with the high-IQ group having divergent thinking test scores related to those of both parents, and the math-science group having divergent thinking test scores related only to those of their mothers. These findings are very consistent with earlier investigations on exceptionally gifted adolescents.

  8. Relationship between exercise capacity and quality of life in adolescents with asthma *

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Jamami, Mauricio; Labadessa, Ivana Gonçalves; Regueiro, Eloisa Maria Gatti; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Costa, Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the quality of life of adolescents with asthma correlates with parameters obtained prior to and after the six-minute step test (6MST); spirometric results after the 6MST; and level of physical activity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with asthma, ranging from 11-15 years of age, were assessed with spirometry, 6MST, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), and the 10-point Borg category-ratio scale. RESULTS: Sensation of dyspnea correlated negatively with the total PAQLQ score (r = −0.54) and with the scores of its activity limitation (AL) and symptoms domains (r = −0.64 and r = −0.63, respectively), leg fatigue also correlating negatively with those same domains (r = −0.49 and r = −0.56, respectively). The total IPAQ score correlated with the total PAQLQ score (r = 0.47) and with the PAQLQ AL domain (r = 0.51); IPAQ time spent walking correlated with the PAQLQ symptoms domain (r = 0.45); and IPAQ time spent in vigorous activity correlated with the AL domain (r = 0.50). In the regression analysis, only sensation of dyspnea remained significantly correlated with the total PAQLQ score and the PAQLQ AL domain; leg fatigue remained significantly correlated with the symptoms domain. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity indicate better quality of life, as do lower perception of dyspnea and less leg fatigue. The 6MST proved to be a viable option for evaluating exercise capacity in adolescents with asthma, because it reflects the discomfort that asthma causes during activities of daily living. PMID:23670496

  9. Ethnic Differences in the Food Intake Patterns and Its Associated Factors of Adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nurul-Fadhilah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the ethnic differences in dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: A population-based study of 454 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns and three dietary patterns were identified based on the principal component analysis method. Results: Malay adolescents had significantly higher scores for the Western-based food pattern and local-based food pattern, whereas Chinese adolescents showed higher scores for the healthy-based food pattern. Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were positively associated with healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p < 0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) (p = 0.014) and fast food (p = 0.041) were negatively associated. High weekly breakfast skipping (p < 0.001) and EatOut (p = 0.003) were positively associated with a Western-based pattern, whereas age (p < 0.001) and household income (p = 0.005) were negatively associated. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p = 0.013) was positively associated with local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p < 0.001), PA levels (p < 0.001) and maternal education level (p = 0.035) showed positive associations with the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut (p = 0.001) and fast food intakes (p = 0.001) were negatively associated. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p = 0.007), fast food (p = 0.023) and carbonated beverages (p = 0.023), and daily snacking practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with higher Western-based food pattern, whereas age (p = 0.004) was inversely associated. Conclusion: This study showed that there were significant differences in dietary patterns and its association factors between Malay and Chinese adolescents. More importantly, these findings suggest that

  10. [Acclimatization of relocated children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Moilanen, I; Myhrman, A

    1989-03-01

    The effects of return migration on emotional well-being were studied in those school-aged children and adolescents who had returned to northern Finland from Sweden during 1984 and 1985. Each of the 320 returning children and adolescents was assigned a control from the same class at school, matched for age and sex, who had not emigrated. According to a parent questionnaire, the returning boys were irritable more often than the control boys, and they also scored higher on the self-report scale "Children's Depression Inventory." In the teachers' evaluations (Rutter B2 Scale), the returning boys had psychiatric disorders more often than their controls. For both returning boys and girls, overall scholastic achievement was poorer than in the controls, but performance in foreign languages (mainly English) was better. If the father was absent from the family, this was reflected in the scholastic achievement and emotional well-being of both the returnees and the control subjects. How well the children coped with their return to Finland was also affected by what the language of instruction had been in Sweden, whether there had been a language change upon returning to Finland and how much mental preparation there had been for moving.

  11. Sexual Communication and Knowledge among Mexican Parents and their Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Esther C.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Gómez, Marco Vinicio; Onofre, Dora Julia; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the sexual knowledge and communication of Mexican parents and adolescents. Pre-intervention data was analyzed from 829 high school students (ages 14-17) and one of their parents. Differences were found between parents and adolescents in sexual knowledge (M = 16.16 vs. M = 14.92; t = 7.20; p < 0.001); specifically parents had higher knowledge related to STD’s, HIV/AIDs, and condom use. Parents perceived more general communication (t (787) = 6.33 p < .001), and less discomfort talking about sex (t (785) = 4.69, p < .001) than adolescents. Parents with higher education levels scored higher in HIV knowledge and general communication. Fathers had higher total sexual knowledge while mothers perceived higher sexual communication than fathers. There were no differences in knowledge and communication by parental socioeconomic level. Results suggest health care providers need to assist parents in developing specific knowledge and skills to support their adolescents’ sexual decision making. PMID:17403494

  12. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  13. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidality at 6-Month Follow-up in Adolescent Inpatients Who Attempted Suicide: An Exploratory Model

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Mirkovic, Bojan; Knafo, Alexandra; Mahé, Vincent; Laurent, Claudine; Renaud, Johanne; Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk and protective factors for suicidality at 6-month follow-up in adolescent inpatients after a suicide attempt. Methods: One hundred seven adolescents from 5 inpatient units who had a suicide attempt were seen at 6-month follow-up. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, mood and suicidality, dependence, borderline symptomatology, temperament and character inventory (TCI), reasons for living, spirituality, and coping scores. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 41 (38%) subjects relapsed from suicidal behaviours. Among them, 15 (14%) had repeated a suicide attempt. Higher depression and hopelessness scores, the occurrence of a new suicide attempt, or a new hospitalization belonged to the same factorial dimension (suicidality). Derived from the best-fit structural equation modelling for suicidality as an outcome measure at 6-month follow-up, risk factors among the baseline variables included: major depressive disorder, high depression scores, and high scores for TCI self-transcendence. Only one protective factor emerged: coping–hard work and achievement. Conclusion: In this very high-risk population, some established risk factors (for example, a history of suicide attempts) may not predict suicidality. Our results suggest that adolescents who retain high scores for depression or hopelessness, who remain depressed, or who express a low value for life or an abnormally high connection with the universe are at higher risk for suicidality and should be targeted for more intense intervention. Improving adolescent motivation in school and in work may be protective. Given the sample size, the model should be regarded as exploratory. PMID:25886668

  15. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  16. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  17. Learned Helplessness and Level of Underachievement among Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, William P.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a helplessness experience on the subsequent performance of deaf adolescents functioning at mildly underachieving or severely underachieving levels. Results indicate high post-test error scores among severely underachieving deaf adolescents experiencing an unsolvable pretreatment situation. Recommendations offer…

  18. Speed Reading Scores in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda Golembesky

    1975-01-01

    Cites the factors that influence reading rates and comprehension scores on timed speed reading tests, concluding that the reading speed achieved for any particular test or timed reading is the speed for that situation only. (RB)

  19. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  20. Emotional and familial determinants of elevated blood pressure in black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E H; Spielberger, C D; Worden, T J; Jacobs, G A

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between blood pressure and several personality and traditional risk factors were examined in a sample of black and white adolescent males who were enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Although a number of personality and traditional risk factors significantly predicted elevated blood pressure for both groups of adolescent males, suppressed anger and weight were the major independent predictors. Among black and white males, those who generally harbored grudges and suppressed their anger had higher systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure was higher only for the white males who frequently held in their angry feelings. Weight and excessive salt usage significantly predicted both elevated systolic and diastolic pressures for white males, while these variables significantly predicted systolic pressures for black males. Familial factors were found to be independent predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure only for the white adolescent males. A further examination of the relationship between the frequency that anger is suppressed shows that the shape of the curves relating anger-in scores to blood pressure appears to have a 'threshold'. These findings indicate that adolescent males who are at increased risk for elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure can be identified by how often angry feelings are held-in and suppressed.

  1. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  2. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  3. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  4. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    high educational level had lower scores on State anxiety compared to those whose father had a low educational level. Adolescents who reported the presence of somatic problems had a higher score in Trait anxiety. A significant negative correlation was found between sleep duration and both State (r=-0.14, p<0.001) and Trait anxiety (r=-0.10, p=0.008) scores. Stepwise linear regression analyses confirmed the association of gender and of father's educational level with both State and Trait subscale scores. The association of somatic problems with Trait anxiety was greater for girls compared to boys. The hypothesis that there is exam-related anxiety in our sample was not confirmed. There were no differences between school years and GE and TE schools. Also there was not an association of anxiety level with academic achievement and the number of parents the adolescent was living with. This study shows that girls, especially those reporting somatic problems, and adolescents coming from families with low parental education, are particularly prone to higher level of anxiety and that extracurricular activities are linked to lower level of anxiety. These findings could contribute to the planning of preventive measures for student's anxiety. PMID:23603266

  5. [Coronary risk assessment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. General population-based scores or specific scores?].

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Rubén; Choque, Lucía; Giménez, Margarita; Costa, Angels; Márquez, Juan I; Conget, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Coronary risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be calculated using population-based scores or diabetes-specific scores. Our objective was to compare the results with both scores in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the results for 101 patients aged 40 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular disease. Two scales were used, one based on the general population (Framingham function adapted from the REGICOR study), and the other based on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (UKPDS risk engine). The average 10-year likelihood of coronary events was 5.8 (2.5)% and 15.7 (8.4)% for the REGICOR risk score and the UKPDS risk score, respectively (P<.001), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.525 (P<.01). Risk was higher in men (19.2 [8.7]% based on the UKPDS score, and 5.6 [2.8]% based on the REGICOR score, P<.001). The figures for women were 11.3 [5.9]% and 5.9 [2.1]% with the UKPDS and REGICOR scores, respectively (P<.001). Our results suggest that substantially different findings are obtained when general population-based scores or specific scores are used to assess cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Self-reports versus parental perceptions of health-related quality of life among deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which was adapted to Spanish sign language for children, with a written version for parents. Respondents completed a self-administered paper questionnaire. Parents' and children's mean scores differences were not significant, except for the "Autonomy and Parents" and "Peers and Social Support" dimensions. Children aged 8-11 years scored higher in some domains of QoL compared to those aged 12-18 years. The level of agreement between children/adolescents' and parents/proxies' responses was acceptable, except for the dimension "Autonomy and Parents." Overall, deaf children/adolescents' self-ratings of HRQoL did not differ from their parents' proxy reports; however, differences were found in the dimensions that explored the quality of the interaction of children/adolescents and parents, the perceived level of autonomy, and social relations and support.

  7. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  8. The Relation between Stress and Alcohol Use among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Cervantes, Richard C.; Duan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relation between eight domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t-tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in five domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  9. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  10. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed.

  11. [Self-concept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, María C; García, José Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2011-02-01

    This study analyses the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and a broad set of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indicators. From the responses of 1,281 participants (53.7% females) aged 12 to 17 years ( M = 14.98 years, SD = 1.74 years), results indicated that higher self-concept scores corresponded to better psychological adjustment, good personal skills and fewer behavioral problems. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the adolescent's age and sex was controlled for. These results support the idea that the self-concept is a basic theoretical construct closely related to the psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Also this study helps explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (i.e., a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), by showing how the statistical control of a third variable effect (i.e., age) avoids reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships.

  12. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  13. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  14. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  15. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  16. Altered Default Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. Results There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (p<0.0001) and higher CIAS (p<0.0001) and BIS-11 (p = 0.01) scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with

  17. Fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior in Israeli adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Apter, Alan; King, Robert A; Bleich, Avi; Fluck, Avi; Kotler, Moshe; Kron, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is examine the similarities and differences between adolescent suicide completers, adolescents with non-fatal suicidal symptoms, and non-suicidal psychiatric controls in an epidemiologic sample. Using the central Israeli military medical registry, 214 18-21 year old males from the same national service cohort were identified, consisting of 43 consecutive completed suicides and 171 consecutive central psychiatric clinic outpatients presenting with near-fatal suicide attempts, serious suicide attempts, para-suicidal gestures, threats, ideation, or other non-suicidal complaints. Systematic pre-induction and service data were available for all subjects, with detailed postmortem inquest data for suicides. Systematic clinical data, including the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory were obtained on all clinic subjects. Major depression was present in half of completers, near-lethal attempters, and ideators, but absent in the other clinic groups, whose commonest diagnosis was adjustment disorder. Depression scores increased across groups with increasing intent; ideators also had high scores. Completers and near-lethal attempters had higher I.Q. and medical fitness ratings and were in more demanding assignments than other groups. Prior attempts were commonest in completers, near-lethal attempters, and gesturers. Disciplinary history, ethnicity, family intactness, immigrant status, and Eysenck Personality Inventory scores did not differentiate the groups. The findings may not be generalizable to female adolescents or to other countries or time periods. The findings thus point to contrasts, as well as similarities, between groups of adolescents with different types of suicidal symptoms.

  18. Patterns of Obesogenic Neighborhood Features and Adolescent Weight: A comparison of statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Larson, Nicole I.; Forsyth, Ann; Van Riper, David C.; Graham, Dan J.; Story, Mary T.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the potential influence of neighborhood characteristics on adolescent obesity risk and findings have been inconsistent. Purpose Identify patterns among neighborhood food, physical activity, street/transportation, and socioeconomic characteristics and examine their associations with adolescent weight status using three statistical approaches. Methods Anthropometric measures were taken on 2,682 adolescents (53% female, mean age=14.5) from 20 Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota schools in 2009–2010. Neighborhood environmental variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data and by survey. Gender-stratified regressions related BMI z-scores and obesity to 1) separate neighborhood variables 2) composites formed using factor analysis and 3) clusters identified using spatial latent class analysis in 2012. Results Regressions on separate neighborhood variables found low percentage of parks/recreation and low perceived safety were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys and girls. Factor analysis found five factors: away-from-home food and recreation accessibility, community disadvantage, green space, retail/transit density, and supermarket accessibility. The first two factors were associated with BMI z-score in girls but not in boys. Spatial latent class analysis identified six clusters with complex combinations of both positive and negative environmental influences. In boys, the cluster with highest obesity (29.8%) included low socioeconomics, parks/recreation, and safety; high restaurant and convenience store density; and nearby access to gyms, supermarkets, and many transit stops. Conclusions The mix of neighborhood-level barriers and facilitators of weight-related health behaviors leads to difficulties disentangling their associations with adolescent obesity; however, statistical approaches including factor and latent class analysis may provide useful means for addressing this complexity. PMID:22516505

  19. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease starting before adolescence.

    PubMed

    Donis, Karina Carvalho; Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Krum-Santos, Ana Carolina; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Mattos, Eduardo Preusser; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2016-04-01

    Onset of Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) before adolescence has been rarely reported. This study aims to describe a cohort of SCA3/MJD with onset before 12 years of age, comparing their disease progression with the progression observed in patients with usual disease onset. We identified all cases from our cohort whose onset was before adolescence. After consent, patients were examined with clinical scales Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Neurological Examination Score for Spinocerebellar Ataxia (NESSCA). Gender, age, age at onset, disease duration, CAG expanded repeats, transmitting parent, and anticipation of cases with infantile and adult onset were studied. Progression of NESSCA and SARA scores was estimated through a mixed model, and was compared with a historical group with onset after adolescence. Between 2000 and 2014, 461 symptomatic individuals from our region were diagnosed as SCA3/MJD. Onset of eight cases (2.2%), all heterozygotes, was before adolescence: seven were females (p = 0.054). CAG expanded repeats--75 ± 3 versus 84 ± 4--and anticipations--7 ± 9.7 versus 14.4 ± 7.2 years--were different between early childhood and adult onset groups (p < 0.03). The median survival of early childhood onset group was 23 years of age. The annual progression of SARA--2.3 and 0.6 points/year (p = 0.001)--and NESSCA--2.04 and 0.88 points/year (p = 0.043)--was faster in childhood than in adult onset group. Onset of SCA3/MJD before adolescence was related to larger expanded CAG repeats in heterozygosis; females seemed to be at higher risk. Disease progression was faster than in SCA3/MJD starting after 12 years.

  1. Sexual initiation and emotional/behavioral problems in Taiwanese adolescents: a multivariate response profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.

  2. Sexual initiation and emotional/behavioral problems in Taiwanese adolescents: a multivariate response profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females. PMID:24590627

  3. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  4. Calcium intake and body composition in African-American children and adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tylavsky, Frances A; Cowan, Patricia A; Terrell, Sarah; Hutson, Merschon; Velasquez-Mieyer, Pedro

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD) had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of <314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (<365 mg/day), those with the highest calcium intake of >701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  5. Racial differences in the built environment—body mass index relationship? A geospatial analysis of adolescents in urban neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Built environment features of neighborhoods may be related to obesity among adolescents and potentially related to obesity-related health disparities. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial relationships between various built environment features and body mass index (BMI) z-score among adolescents, and to investigate if race/ethnicity modifies these relationships. A secondary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of findings to the spatial scale of analysis (i.e. 400- and 800-meter street network buffers). Methods Data come from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a school-based sample of public high school students in Boston, MA. Analyses include data collected from students who had georeferenced residential information and complete and valid data to compute BMI z-score (n = 1,034). We built a spatial database using GIS with various features related to access to walking destinations and to community design. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables was calculated with the Global Moran’s I statistic. We fit conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and spatial simultaneous autoregressive error models that control for the spatial autocorrelation in the data as appropriate. Models were conducted using the total sample of adolescents as well as including an interaction term for race/ethnicity, adjusting for several potential individual- and neighborhood-level confounders and clustering of students within schools. Results We found significant positive spatial autocorrelation in the built environment features examined (Global Moran’s I most ≥ 0.60; all p = 0.001) but not in BMI z-score (Global Moran’s I = 0.07, p = 0.28). Because we found significant spatial autocorrelation in our OLS regression residuals, we fit spatial autoregressive models. Most built environment features were not associated with BMI z-score. Density of bus stops was associated with a higher BMI z-score among Whites (Coefficient: 0

  6. Consistency of Fear of Failure Score Meanings among 8- to 18-Year-Old Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, David E.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kaye, Miranda P.

    2007-01-01

    Fear of failure (FF) energizes individuals to avoid failure because of the learned aversive consequences of failing (e.g., shame). Although FF is socialized in childhood, little is known about the meaning of scores from FF measures used with children and adolescents. This study addresses that void by establishing a preliminary nomological network…

  7. The Predictive Ability of IQ and Working Memory Scores in Literacy in an Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gregory, David

    2013-01-01

    Literacy problems are highly prevalent and can persist into adulthood. Yet, the majority of research on the predictive nature of cognitive skills to literacy has primarily focused on development and adolescent populations. The aim of the present study was to extend existing research to investigate the roles of IQ scores and Working Memory…

  8. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  9. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  10. Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Arthur; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Rafael, Marianna da Silva; Pfeilsticker, Larissa; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders. Methods: Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old), 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4) and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9) between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2 and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m2. Results: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01) and z-score (p<0.01) than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04). Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community. PMID:26525687

  11. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  12. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  13. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    PubMed

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  14. EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST SCORES

    PubMed Central

    Pershad, Dwarka; Verma, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  15. Education and psychological test scores.

    PubMed

    Pershad, D; Verma, S K

    1980-04-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  16. Chronic mountain sickness score was related with health status score but not with hemoglobin levels at high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or lack of adaptation to live in high altitudes is related to environmental hypoxia and excessive erythrocytosis (EE) (Hemoglobin>21 and >19g/dl for men and women, respectively). Diagnosis of CMS (“Qinghai CMS Score”) is based on seven signs/symptoms (breathlessness and/or palpitations, sleep disturbance, cyanosis, dilatation of veins, paresthesia, headache, tinnitus) and the score for EE. The present study was designed to determine the association between hemoglobin, Qinghai CMS score, CMS clinical score (7 signs/symptoms) and Health Status using a health survey composed of 20 items. The rate of CMS (32.6%) was higher than the rate of EE (9.7%; P<0.002). A significant inverse relationship was observed between CMS clinical score and health status score (r=−0.56 for men, and r=−0.55 for women, P<0.01). However, CMS clinical score was not different in groups with different Hb levels. Health status score was significantly higher in subjects without CMS. In conclusion, elevated hemoglobin levels were not associated with elevated CMS clinical score. PMID:23770310

  17. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    PubMed

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  18. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  19. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  20. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; O'Mara, Roisin M.; Hayward, Charles N.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many adolescents who die by suicide have never obtained mental health services. In response to this, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention recommends screening for elevated suicide risk in emergency departments (EDs). This cross-sectional study was designed to examine 1) the concurrent validity and utility of an adolescent suicide risk screen for use in general medical EDs and 2) the prevalence of positive screens for adolescent males and females using two different sets of screening criteria. Methods Participants were 298 adolescents seeking pediatric or psychiatric emergency services (50% male; 83% white, 16% black or African American, 5.4% Hispanic). The inclusion criterion was age 13 to 17 years. Exclusion criteria were severe cognitive impairment, no parent or legal guardian present to provide consent, or abnormal vital signs. Parent or guardian consent and adolescent assent were obtained for 61% of consecutively eligible adolescents. Elevated risk was defined as 1) Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior [SIQ-JR] score of ≥31 or suicide attempt in the past 3 months or 2) alcohol abuse plus depression (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 [AUDIT-3] score of ≥3, Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 [RADS-2] score of ≥76). The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were used to ascertain concurrent validity. Results Sixteen percent (n = 48) of adolescents screened positive for elevated suicide risk. Within this group, 98% reported severe suicide ideation or a recent suicide attempt (46% attempt and ideation, 10% attempt only, 42% ideation only) and 27% reported alcohol abuse and depression. Nineteen percent of adolescents who screened positive presented for nonpsychiatric reasons. One-third of adolescents with positive screens were not receiving any mental health or substance use treatment. Demonstrating concurrent validity, the BHS scores of adolescents with positive screens