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Sample records for adolescents showed greater

  1. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  2. Not lesser but Greater fractional anisotropy in adolescents with alcohol use disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Valerie A.; Greenstein, David; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Ferrett, Helen; Cuzen, Natalie; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a sample of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and no psychiatric or substance co-morbidity. Methods Fifty adolescents with AUD and fifty non-alcohol abusing controls matched on gender and age were studied with DTI, neurocognitive testing, and a clinical assessment that included measures of alcohol use and childhood trauma. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were computed, registered to a common template, and voxel-wise statistical analysis used to assess group differences. Associations between regions of altered WM microstructure and clinical or neurocognitive measures were also assessed. Results Compared with controls, adolescent drinkers without co-morbid substance abuse or externalizing disorder, showed 1) no regions of significantly lower FA, 2) increased FA in WM tracts of the limbic system; 3) no MD differences; and 4) within the region of higher FA in AUD, there were no associations between FA and alcohol use, cognition, or trauma. Discussion The most important observation of this study is our failure to observe significantly smaller FA in this relatively large alcohol abuse/dependent adolescent sample. Greater FA in the limbic regions observed in this study may index a risk for adolescent AUD instead of a consequence of drinking. Drinking behavior may be reinforced in those with higher FA and perhaps greater myelination in these brain regions involved in reward and reinforcement. PMID:24179831

  3. Are Mexican American Adolescents at Greater Risk of Suicidal Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-01-01

    A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…

  4. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  5. Are Mexican American adolescents at greater risk of suicidal behaviors?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-02-01

    A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios, adjusting for covariates, indicate no differences between European and Mexican Americans on past year thoughts, plans, or attempts or lifetime attempts. Although some studies have reported Mexican American youths are at increased risk, we did not find any differences. Possible explanations for disparate results across studies are discussed, in particular methods effects. PMID:17397276

  6. Identification of a dietary pattern associated with greater cardiometabolic risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Appannah, G.; Pot, G.K.; Huang, R.C.; Oddy, W.H.; Beilin, L.J.; Mori, T.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Ambrosini, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an ‘energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre’ dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. Methods and results Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study. At 14 and 17 y, dietary intake, anthropometric and biochemical data were measured and z-scores for an ‘energy dense, high fat and low fibre’ DP were estimated using reduced rank regression (RRR). Associations between DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using regression models. Tracking of DP z-scores was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A 1 SD unit increase in DP z-score between 14 and 17 y was associated with a 20% greater odds of high metabolic risk (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) and a 0.04 mmol/L higher fasting glucose in boys (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08); a 28% greater odds of a high-waist circumference (95% CI: 1.00, 1.63) in girls. An increase of 3% and 4% was observed for insulin and HOMA (95% CI: 1%, 7%), respectively, in boys and girls, for every 1 SD increase in DP z-score and independently of BMI. The DP showed moderate tracking between 14 and 17 y of age (r = 0.51 for boys, r = 0.45 for girls). Conclusion An ‘energy dense, high fat, low fibre’ DP is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and tends to persist throughout adolescence. PMID:26026208

  7. Frequent Marijuana Use is Associated with Greater Nicotine Addiction in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Rait, Michelle A.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marijuana and tobacco are the substances used most commonly by adolescents and co-occurring use is common. Use of one substance may potentiate the addictive properties of the other. The current study examined the severity of nicotine addiction among teen smokers as a function of co-occurring marijuana use. METHODS Participants were 165 adolescents (13–17 years old) who reported smoking at least 1 cigarette per day (CPD) in the past 30 days. General linear models examined the association of marijuana use with multiple measures of nicotine addiction including the Modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ), Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), ICD-10, and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). RESULTS The adolescent sample (mean age=16.1 years, SD=0.95) averaged 3.0 CPD (SD=3.0) for 1.98 years (SD=1.5). Most (79.5%) also smoked marijuana in the past 30 days. In models controlling for age, daily smoking status, and years of tobacco smoking, frequency of marijuana use accounted for 25–44% of the variance for all four measures of adolescent nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS Marijuana use was associated with greater reported nicotine addiction among adolescent smokers. The findings suggest a role of marijuana in potentiating nicotine addiction and underscore the need for treatments that address both smoked substances. PMID:24928480

  8. Show and Tell: Photo-Interviews with Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Ellison, Katherine L.; Sequenzia, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, we used photo-interviews as a method to investigate the hopes and fears of urban adolescent girls who actively participated in their community organization. The photo-interviews were featured in a collaborative, creative arts program involving urban adolescent girls from a community organization and college students enrolled in a…

  9. Happier People Show Greater Neural Connectivity during Negative Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Joo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Sang Woo; Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Joohan; Dolan, Raymond J.; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Life satisfaction is an essential component of subjective well-being and provides a fundamental resource for optimal everyday functioning. The goal of the present study was to examine how life satisfaction influences self-referential processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. Nineteen individuals with high life satisfaction (HLS) and 21 individuals with low life satisfaction (LLS) were scanned using functional MRI while performing a face-word relevance rating task, which consisted of 3 types of face stimuli (self, public other, and unfamiliar other) and 3 types of word stimuli (positive, negative, and neutral). We found a significant group x word valence interaction effect, most strikingly in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In the positive word condition dorsal medial prefrontal cortex activity was significantly higher in the LLS group, whereas in the negative word condition it was significantly higher in the HLS group. The two groups showed distinct functional connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex with emotional processing-related regions. The findings suggest that, in response to emotional stimuli, individuals with HLS may successfully recruit emotion regulation-related regions in contrast to individuals with LLS. The difference in functional connectivity during self-referential processing may lead to an influence of life satisfaction on responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. PMID:26900857

  10. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance. PMID:26773738

  11. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  12. Greater number of group identifications is associated with healthier behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between group identification (with the family, school, and friendship groups) and adolescent health behaviour (smoking, binge drinking, and cannabis use). 1,111 students from 4 Scottish secondary (high) schools completed a questionnaire which included measures of group identification, group contact, health behaviours, and demographic variables. We found that identification with the family and school groups predicted reduced odds of substance use, whereas identification with the friend group predicted increased odds of substance use. Furthermore, the greater the number of social groups with which the participant strongly identified, the lower the odds that he/she participated in negative health behaviours. In contrast, merely having contact (rather than identifying strongly) with these groups increased the odds of participation in these behaviours. We suggest that group identification influences behaviour to the extent that it encourages adherence to group norms. PMID:26947262

  13. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  14. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development. PMID:26592311

  15. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  16. During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Clough, Peter J; Lemola, Sakari; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between mental toughness, subjective sleep, physical activity, and quality of life during early and mid-adolescence. A total of 1475 participants (mean age = 13.4 years; range: 11-16 years) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires related to mental toughness, physical activity, subjective sleep, and quality of life. Greater mental toughness was related to more favorable quality of life and increased subjective sleep. Mental toughness was not related to physical activity. Increased mental toughness, favorable quality of life, and sleep are related during early and mid-adolescence. Against our expectations, mental toughness was not related to physical activity. PMID:25060987

  17. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  18. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  19. Gratitude is Associated with Greater Levels of Protective Factors and Lower Levels of Risks in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L.; Sly, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests gratitude is associated with positive youth development. The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and protective/risk factors among African American youth. Adolescents (N = 389; 50.4% males) ages 12 – 14 completed measures of gratitude (moral affect and life-orientation), protective factors (e.g., academic and activity engagement, family relationship), and high-risk behaviors (e.g., sexual attitudes and behaviors, drug/alcohol use). Results indicated greater moral affect gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with greater academic interest, better academic performance, and more extra-curricular activity engagement. Greater moral affect and life-orientation gratitude both significantly correlated with positive family relationship. Greater life-orientation gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with abstinence from sexual intimacy, sexual intercourse, likelihood of engaging in sex during primary school, and abstinence from drug/alcohol use. The findings suggest that moral affect gratitude may enhance protective factors while life-orientation gratitude may buffer against high-risk behaviors among African American youth. PMID:24011114

  20. Gratitude is associated with greater levels of protective factors and lower levels of risks in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Sly, Kaye

    2013-10-01

    The literature suggests gratitude is associated with positive youth development. The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and protective/risk factors among African American youth. Adolescents (N = 389; 50.4% males) ages 12-14 completed measures of gratitude (moral affect and life-orientation), protective factors (e.g., academic and activity engagement, family relationship), and high-risk behaviors (e.g., sexual attitudes and behaviors, drug/alcohol use). Results indicated greater moral affect gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with greater academic interest, better academic performance, and more extra-curricular activity engagement. Greater moral affect and life-orientation gratitude both significantly correlated with positive family relationship. Greater life-orientation gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with abstinence from sexual intimacy, sexual intercourse, likelihood of engaging in sex during primary school, and abstinence from drug/alcohol use. The findings suggest that moral affect gratitude may enhance protective factors while life-orientation gratitude may buffer against high-risk behaviors among African American youth. PMID:24011114

  1. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Raugi, Dana N.; Wu, Vincent H.; Leong, Sally S.; Parker, Kate M.; Oakes, Mariah K.; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4′-ethynyl stavudine, or 4′-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  2. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  3. In-migration and Living Conditions of Young Adolescents in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.; Swart, Tanya M.; Ginsburg, Carren

    2007-01-01

    While migration in South Africa has been studied on a broad canvas, there have been few accounts of children's migration and the effects on living conditions and wellbeing. This article compares the access to services, housing and household amenities, and family characteristics of children born in the Greater Johannesburg metropolis with those of in-migrant children. The article also examines other indicators of child wellbeing related to parental care and schooling. In-migrant children, particularly children who have lived previously in rural areas and/or have recently migrated into the city, are significantly disadvantaged in comparison to long-term resident children in terms of parental education and occupation, housing type and ownership, access to electricity, refuse removal, water and sanitation. In-migrant children also live in households that are less likely to have amenities such as a refrigerator, television, washing machine, telephone and motor vehicle. In terms of child indicators, in-migrant children enjoy less frequent parental contact and are twice as likely to start school later than resident children. Whilst urbanisation to South Africa's metropolitan centres is generally associated with several widely recognised benefits, for children, these benefits may be tempered by the disadvantages of in-migrant families known to be associated with child wellbeing. PMID:18273401

  4. In-migration and Living Conditions of Young Adolescents in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A; Swart, Tanya M; Ginsburg, Carren

    2006-01-01

    While migration in South Africa has been studied on a broad canvas, there have been few accounts of children's migration and the effects on living conditions and wellbeing. This article compares the access to services, housing and household amenities, and family characteristics of children born in the Greater Johannesburg metropolis with those of in-migrant children. The article also examines other indicators of child wellbeing related to parental care and schooling. In-migrant children, particularly children who have lived previously in rural areas and/or have recently migrated into the city, are significantly disadvantaged in comparison to long-term resident children in terms of parental education and occupation, housing type and ownership, access to electricity, refuse removal, water and sanitation. In-migrant children also live in households that are less likely to have amenities such as a refrigerator, television, washing machine, telephone and motor vehicle. In terms of child indicators, in-migrant children enjoy less frequent parental contact and are twice as likely to start school later than resident children. Whilst urbanisation to South Africa's metropolitan centres is generally associated with several widely recognised benefits, for children, these benefits may be tempered by the disadvantages of in-migrant families known to be associated with child wellbeing. PMID:18273401

  5. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  6. Family and Individual Factors Associated with Substance Involvement and PTS Symptoms among Adolescents in Greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; La Greca, Annette M.; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and…

  7. Very Preterm Adolescents Show Gender-Dependent Alteration of the Structural Brain Correlates of Spelling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona E.; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P.; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and…

  8. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  9. Fast Food Art, Talk Show Therapy: The Impact of Mass Media on Adolescent Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Jordan S.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic media provides rapid delivery and unlimited access to pictures, sounds, and information. The ubiquitous presence of techno-digital culture in the lives of today's adolescents may influence or contaminate the art therapy process. This article presents two case studies that illustrate how cyberspace entered into art therapy sessions and…

  10. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep.

    PubMed

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children's and adolescents' sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10-16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1-4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25-9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  11. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Aepli, Andrina; Kurth, Salome; Tesler, Noemi; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children’s and adolescents’ sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in children and adolescents (10–16 years). While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4) and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1), morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1–4.5 Hz) at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects). Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25–9.75 Hz). These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development. PMID:26501326

  12. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  13. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  14. Long-range orbitofrontal and amygdala axons show divergent patterns of maturation in the frontal cortex across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carolyn M; Loucks, F Alexandra; Peckler, Hannah; Thomas, A Wren; Janak, Patricia H; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The adolescent transition from juvenile to adult is marked by anatomical and functional remodeling of brain networks. Currently, the cellular and synaptic level changes underlying the adolescent transition are only coarsely understood. Here, we use two-photon imaging to make time-lapse observations of long-range axons that innervate the frontal cortex in the living brain. We labeled cells in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and imaged their axonal afferents to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We also imaged the apical dendrites of dmPFC pyramidal neurons. Images were taken daily in separate cohorts of juvenile (P24-P28) and young adult mice (P64-P68), ages where we have previously discovered differences in dmPFC dependent decision-making. Dendritic spines were pruned across this peri-adolescent period, while BLA and OFC afferents followed alternate developmental trajectories. OFC boutons showed no decrease in density, but did show a decrease in daily bouton gain and loss with age. BLA axons showed an increase in both bouton density and daily bouton gain at the later age, suggesting a delayed window of enhanced plasticity. Our findings reveal projection specific maturation of synaptic structures within a single frontal region and suggest that stabilization is a more general characteristic of maturation than pruning. PMID:26896859

  15. Early adolescents show sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by emotional distractors.

    PubMed

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year-old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analysed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events. PMID:23098096

  16. Early Adolescents Show Sustained Susceptibility to Cognitive Interference by Emotional Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analyzed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events. PMID:23098096

  17. What Are Adolescents Showing the World About Their Health Risk Behaviors on MySpace?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Parks, Malcolm; Richardson, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    Context MySpace is a popular social networking Web site where users create individual Web profiles. Little data are available about what types of health risk behaviors adolescents display on MySpace profiles. There are potential risks and intervention opportunities associated with posting such information on a public Web site. Objective To examine publicly available 16- and 17-year-old MySpace Web profiles and determine the prevalence of personal risk behavior descriptions and identifiable information. Design Cross-sectional observational study using content analysis of Web profiles. Setting www.MySpace.com Patients In order to target frequently visited adolescent Web profiles, we sequentially selected 142 publicly available Web profiles of 16 and 17 year olds from the class of 2008 MySpace group. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Prevalence of displayed health risk behaviors pertaining to substance use or sexual behavior, prevalence of personally identifying information, date of last log-in to Web profile. Results Of Web profiles, 47% contained risk behavior information: Twenty-one percent described sexual activity; 25% described alcohol use; 9% described cigarette use; and 6% described drug use. 97.2% Contained personally identifying information: Seventy-four percent included an identifiable picture; 75% included subjects' first names or surnames; and 78% included subjects' hometowns. Eighty-six percent of users had visited their own profiles within 24 hours. Conclusions Most 16- and 17-year-old MySpace profiles include identifiable information, are frequently accessed by owners, and half include personal risk behavior information. Further study is needed to assess the risks associated with displaying personal information and to evaluate the use of social networking sites for health behavior interventions targeting at-risk teens. PMID:18311359

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of natural polysaccharides assessed in human whole blood culture and THP-1 cells show greater sensitivity of whole blood culture.

    PubMed

    Gill, Satbir Kaur; Islam, Nahidul; Shaw, Iain; Ribeiro, Andreia; Bradley, Benjamin; Brien, Timothy O'; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Ceredig, Rhodri; Joshi, Lokesh

    2016-07-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs are available to maintain immune homeostasis but some have undesirable side effects. Six oligo- and poly-saccharides were assessed for their pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in two in vitro model systems, the monocytic THP-1 cell line and human whole blood cultures (HWBC). The compounds were first characterised for their molecular mass and physical properties. Following incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the compounds, cytokine and chemokine secretion was assayed in both models and intracellular TNF-α was measured by flow cytometry in HWBC cell sub-populations. LPS, inulin, galacturonan, heteroglycan and fucoidan demonstrated pro-inflammatory properties and intracellular TNF-α expression was increased in the monocytes of HWBC. Mannan and xyloglucan did not elicit any significant responses. Inulin induced maximum cytokine secretion and heteroglycan induced maximum chemokine secretion in HWBC. This study emphasises the potential of inulin and heteroglycan as potential immunomodulatory therapeutics and that HWBC had a greater and more varied response in comparison to THP-1 cells. PMID:27218669

  19. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  20. Background Synaptic Activity in Rat Entorhinal Cortex Shows a Progressively Greater Dominance of Inhibition over Excitation from Deep to Superficial Layers

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Stuart David; Chamberlain, Sophie Elizabeth Lyn; Lench, Alex; Massey, Peter Vernon; Yuill, Kathryn Heather; Woodhall, Gavin Lawrence; Jones, Roland Spencer Gwynne

    2014-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2) and V (L5). Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3). Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest) of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles. PMID:24454801

  1. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  2. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity. PMID:27274107

  3. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity. PMID:27274107

  4. Human Serum from Urban and Rural Adolescents and Their Mothers Shows Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Not Found in Commercial Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wen Xin; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls are no longer sold as commercial mixtures, they are still being produced through modern manufacturing processes. We have previously shown that non-Aroclor PCB 11 is prevalent in indoor and outdoor air and sediment and detected in human serum. Here we report the prevalence of non-Aroclor PCB congeners (≤0.20 wt % in Aroclor) in human serum collected from urban and rural adolescents and their mothers. We hypothesized that additional non-Aroclor congeners are present in serum. Sera were extracted and detected for 209 PCBs using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of 70 non-Aroclor PCB congeners was determined by measurement of original Aroclors. PCB 11, 14, 35, and 209 are the major dominating and most frequently detected congeners. PCB 14 and 35 have not been previously reported for environmental matrices. Adolescents have significantly lower total non-Aroclor PCB concentrations than mothers in East Chicago (p < 0.001) and Columbus Junction (p = 0.008). There are significant differences in non-Aroclor PCBs between East Chicago community and Columbus Junction community (p < 0.001). Non-Aroclor PCBs represent an average of 10% (and up to 50%) of total PCBs measured in serum. An average of 50% (and up to 100%) of these concentrations may be attributed to aryl azo and phthalocyanine paint pigments. PMID:26053216

  5. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. PMID:26733385

  6. Do adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show risk seeking? Disentangling probabilistic decision making by equalizing the favorability of alternatives.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yehuda; Oz, Adi; Neventsal, Oded; Rabi, Orit; Kitrossky, Leah; Maeir, Adina

    2016-04-01

    The clinical literature provides evidence for increased risk taking by individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most of the experimental tasks used to measure risk taking, confounded risky and disadvantageous alternatives, and therefore did not disentangle increased risk seeking from suboptimal decision making. The aim of the study was to examine whether adolescents with ADHD show risk seeking by equalizing the expected value of both certain and risky alternatives. In 3 different samples, adolescents with and without ADHD performed gambling tasks, in which they had to choose between certain and risky alternatives. Notably, the expected values of both alternatives were equal. Various personal and contextual intervening factors were controlled for. The rate of risky choices was compared across groups. In addition, participants reported on risk taking in real-life. We found that adolescents with ADHD did not choose the risky alternative more often than controls, but reported higher engagement in real-life risky behavior. These findings suggest that risky behavior shown by people with ADHD in daily life and on some experimental tasks may not be accounted for by increased risk seeking, but rather may reflect suboptimal decision making. PMID:26766388

  7. Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence shows frequent loss of INK4A and gain of KIT.

    PubMed

    Daniotti, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Frigerio, Simona; Casieri, Paola; Miselli, Francesca; Zucca, Elisa; Collini, Paola; Della Torre, Gabriella; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Bono, Aldo; Santinami, Mario; Parmiani, Giorgio; Rivoltini, Licia; Pilotti, Silvana; Rodolfo, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Childhood cutaneous melanoma is a rare disease with increasing incidence. It is not clear whether it differs from adult melanoma in etiology and clinical evolution. To genetically characterize childhood melanoma, 21 pediatric patients were studied by germ-line analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, and MC1R genes. In addition, alterations in CDKN2A, c-Kit, BRAF, and NRAS genes were evaluated at the somatic level by direct gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and immunohistochemistry. As a control group of susceptible patients, we studied patients from 23 melanoma-prone families. At the germ-line level, CDKN2A and MC1R gene variants were detected in 2/21 and 12/21 pediatric patients and in 9/23 and 19/22 in familial patients. At the somatic level, most lesions (9/14) from pediatric patients showed CDKN2A locus homozygous deletions and a null p16 immunophenotype, whereas most lesions (5/8) from familial patients were disomic and immunoreactive. A c-Kit low-polysomy profile seems to parallel CDKN2A homozygous deletions in pediatric melanoma whereas the single activating mutation observed segregates with familial patients. Loss of KIT protein expression was frequent (7/14) in pediatric melanomas, where metastatic cases were prevalent. BRAF(V600E) mutation occurred at a similar rate (approximately 50%) in lesions from pediatric and familial patients, whereas no NRAS mutations were detected. PMID:19158841

  8. Common prefrontal cortical gene expression profiles between adolescent SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl rats which showed inattention behavior.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Bang, Minji; Lee, Jinhee; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Noh, Minsoo; Shin, Chan Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-09-15

    Factor analyses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms divide the behavioral symptoms of ADHD into two separate domains, one reflecting inattention and the other, a combination of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Identifying domain-specific genetic risk variants may aid in the discovery of specific biological risk factors for ADHD. In contrast with data available on genes involved in hyperactivity and impulsivity, there is limited information on the genetic influences of inattention. Transcriptional profiling analysis in animal models of disorders may provide an important tool to identify genetic involvement in behavioral phenotypes. To explore some of the potential genetic underpinnings of ADHD inattention, we examined common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex of SHR/NCrl, the most validated animal model of ADHD and WKY/NCrl, animal model of ADHD-inattentive type. In contrast with Wistar rats, strain representing the "normal" heterogeneous population, SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl showed inattention behavior in the Y-maze task. The common DEGs in the PFC of SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl vs. Wistar rats are those involved in transcription (e.g. Creg1, Thrsp, Zeb2), synaptic transmission (e.g. Atp2b2, Syt12, Chrna5), neurological system process (e.g. Atg7, Cacnb4, Grin3a), and immune response (e.g. Atg7, Ip6k2, Mx2). qRT-PCR analyses validated expression patterns of genes representing the major functional gene families among the DEGs (Grin3a, Thrsp, Vof-16 and Zeb2). Although further studies are warranted, the present findings indicate novel genes associated with known functional pathways of relevance to ADHD which are assumed to play important roles in the etiology of ADHD-inattentive subtype. PMID:26048425

  9. The adolescent. Athletics and development.

    PubMed

    Masland, R P

    1983-01-01

    An appreciation of adolescent growth and development is essential to the understanding of problems faced by the adolescent athlete. Early adolescence (ages 10-15 years) can be characterized as the body period. Physical growth is genetically determined and can be influenced by disease, injury, and nutrition. Early maturers are subject to adult expectations which may lead to either failure or excessive acclaim. Middle adolescence (ages 15-18 years) is the sexuality period, with special emphasis on gender identity. Friendships are critical, and athletics can be a focal point for showing love and affection without social fear. Late adolescence (ages 18-22 years) is the separation period. Young people with athletic skills leave home to face greater athletic and academic pressure and competition in college. Adjustment to this final adolescent period is achieved through learning to lose as well as win with grace and dignity. PMID:6833060

  10. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m−2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (−14.4% vs −26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (−14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs −4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least

  11. Animistic thinking in psychotic versus conduct-disordered hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J A; Miller, A L; Arsenio, W F

    1993-10-01

    25 adolescents showing a Psychotic-spectrum Disorder were compared with 24 adolescents showing Conduct Disorder on a task eliciting reasons for attributing life to an ambiguous pictorial stimulus (dough on a beach). Consistent with expectations from earlier research, the psychotic adolescents showed greater modes of animistic thinking (attributions of life to nonlife forms) than conduct-disordered youth, associated with theorized merging between self and the nonhuman environment. Implications are discussed. PMID:8234613

  12. The skin migratory stage of the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni has a surface showing greater permeability and activity in membrane internalisation than other forms of skin or mechanical schistosomula.

    PubMed

    DE Jesus Jeremias, Wander; DA Cunha Melo, Jose Renan; Baba, Elio Hideo; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Kusel, John Robert

    2015-08-01

    Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host. PMID:26028506

  13. Altered developmental trajectories for impulsivity and sensation seeking among adolescent substance users.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n=117) and did not (n=269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  14. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  15. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:24423135

  16. Parent-Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…

  17. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  18. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  19. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  20. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  1. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  2. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  3. Adolescents' behavior in the presence of interparental hostility: developmental and emotion regulatory influences.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marc S; Waldinger, Robert J; Hauser, Stuart T; Allen, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Within-family covariation between interparental hostility and adolescent behavior across three interactions over a 2-year period was explored in a sample that included 37 typical adolescents and 35 adolescents recently hospitalized for psychiatric difficulties. More interparental hostility across the three interactions was associated with more adolescent hostility and more positive engagement (at a trend level) regardless of psychiatric background. Parent-to-child hostility in each interaction mediated the link for adolescent hostility but not for positive adolescent engagement. Emotion regulation capacities and age were linked to variability in adolescents' behavior in the presence of interparental conflict. In interactions with more interparental hostility, adolescents with greater capacity to tolerate negative affect were more likely to show increased positive engagement, and adolescents who were better able to modulate their emotional expression were less likely to show increased hostility. Covariation between interparental and adolescent hostility across the three family interactions decreased as the adolescent aged. These findings are consistent with the theory that exposure to interparental hostility is emotionally disequilibrating, and that adolescent responses may reflect differences in emotion regulation and other developmentally based capacities. Gender and variations across families in overall levels of hostile parenting were also linked with adolescent behavior in the presence of interparental hostility. PMID:16761555

  4. Co-occurrence of problem behaviors in South Korean adolescents: findings from Korea Youth Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Diane; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2007-02-01

    Study findings showed problem behaviors can be observed in clusters in South Korean adolescents. Prevention programs targeting problem behavior clusters may have a greater impact on adolescents at risk for more than one problem behavior than programs targeting only a portion of the cluster. PMID:17259067

  5. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  6. Trends in Authoritarianism: A Study of Adolescents in West Germany and the United States Since 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Gerda

    1982-01-01

    Surveys carried out in the United States in 1966 and 1978 and in West Germany in 1945 and 1979 showed significant decreases in authoritarianism scale scores in adolescents over time. Although the degree of attitude change was greater in West Germany, American adolescents appear somewhat more authoritarian (in relation to school, family and…

  7. Adolescents' Implicit Theories Predict Desire for Vengeance after Peer Conflicts: Correlational and Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an…

  8. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Atwood, Katharine A; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-08-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents' substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13-14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents', but not parents', perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060

  9. [Human papillomavirus infection and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira

    2011-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination. PMID:21966809

  10. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends’ cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population. PMID:23641120

  11. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  12. EEG Power Spectra of Adolescent Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; McPherson, W. Brian; Oglesby, D. Michael; Dykman, Roscoe A.

    1998-01-01

    Electroencephalographic power spectra were studied in two poor-reading adolescent groups (n=38), dysphonetic and phonetic. Significant Group x Hemisphere effects were found in the alpha and beta bands, with the phonetic group showing right greater than left asymmetry. Results suggest more circumscribed and mature processing in the phonetically…

  13. Stonehenge's Greater Cursus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Paul; Mooers, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations have emphasized relationships between solar and lunar phenomena and architectural features of prehistoric sites located on the Stonehenge ritual landscape. However, no over-riding landscape design has been identified to explain the purpose of placing hundreds of Neolithic through Iron Age burial sites upon the landscape. Our research and analysis shows the mid-4th millennium BC (mid-Neolithic) landscape represents an 'above, so below' cosmo-geographical relationship. Type, shape, size and orientation of specific elements (such as long barrows, henges, cursus and topography) created a hierotopy representing the Winter Hexagon asterism, Milky Way, ecliptic and other stellar features. The resulting pattern of ritual sites represents translocation of the astronomical Otherworld - the Spirit World - onto the plain. Results of the analysis create a new paradigm of purpose for the built landscape circa 3500 BC, and identifies the reason why Stonehenge is located where it is with respect to other contemorary monuments.

  14. Development of Mastery during Adolescence: The Role of Family Problem Solving*

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137

  15. Flow-mediated dilatation, using time course data, shows maturation of the brachial artery from young children to mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anna; Pamula, Yvonne; Martin, James; Gent, Roger; Lushington, Kurt; Baumert, Mathias; Willoughby, Scott; Richardson, Malcolm; Couper, Jennifer; Kennedy, Declan

    2015-03-01

    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a tool widely used to measure arterial responsiveness to sheer stress. However, there is scant literature to show how the peripheral arterial response changes as the vascular system matures. One reason for this is that the feasibility of measuring FMD in younger children has not been established. The aim of the present study was to assess brachial artery function at rest and during the FMD response after 4 min ischaemia of the forearm in children aged 6-15 years. Time to reach maximum FMD (FMDmax ) was found to be correlated with age (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), resting brachial artery diameter (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), height (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI; r = 0.45, P < 0.05), body surface area (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and resting blood flow (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). However, there was no correlation between the traditional FMD response at 60 s or FMD maximal dilation and age, resting brachial artery diameter, height, weight, BMI, body surface area and resting blood flow. In conclusion, the time taken to reach the maximal dilation response is related to age, brachial artery luminal diameter and body habitus, but not the traditional measure of FMD response at 60 s or the maximal dilatation percentage. PMID:25491271

  16. Becoming an adolescent father: precursors and parenting.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Pears, K C; Capaldi, D M; Crosby, L; Leve, C S

    1998-11-01

    Precursors and outcomes of adolescent pregnancy receive considerable research attention; however, most studies deal with adolescent mothers. This study examined whether risk factors that are precursors to adolescent fatherhood would be consistent with the family coercion model (G. R. Patterson, 1976) of the development of antisocial behavior in childhood. Hypotheses were tested in the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) sample of 206 at-risk boys who were first seen at 9 or 10 years of age. At 18-20 years of age, the profiles for the 35 adolescent fathers included more arrests and substance use than the other OYS participants. At around 2 years of age, 40% of the children had no contact with their fathers. The children, compared with a normative control sample, had somewhat greater health risks. The at-risk parents, compared with a control sample, were observed to show higher levels of negative reactions when their children were working on a puzzle task. PMID:9823506

  17. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  18. Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

  19. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  20. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  1. Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886

  2. Adolescents' Enjoyment of Graphic Horror: Effects of Viewers' Attitudes and Portrayals of Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth

    1993-01-01

    Finds that more permissive sexual attitudes and lower levels of punitiveness were associated with adolescents' greater enjoyment of "slasher films." Shows that traditional attitudes toward females' sexuality were positively associated with gore-watching motivations and with greater enjoyment of previews featuring female victims. (SR)

  3. Relationships among Middle-School Adolescents' Vocational Skills, Motivational Approaches, and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia; Starkey, Michael T.; Landgraf, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in relationships among vocational skills, motivational approaches, and same-gender and cross-gender interests for urban adolescents. Results showed gender differences in interests, with males having greater Realistic interests and females having greater Artistic and Social interests, based on Holland's (1997)…

  4. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies. PMID:20479135

  5. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  6. Predictors of condom use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (beta = .67, p <.001), technical skills (beta = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (beta = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  7. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  8. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  9. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  10. Modulation of meso-limbic reward processing by motivational tendencies in young adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for the onset of substance use disorders and other psychopathology. Individual variability in motivational tendencies and temperament and significant changes in functional brain organization during adolescence are important factors to consider in the development of substance use and dependence. Recent conceptualizations suggest that sensitivity to reward is heightened in adolescence and that this motivation tendency may precipitate subsequent substance abuse. The present study examined the role of personality traits in mesolimbic neurobehavioral response on a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in young adolescents (11-14years) and emerging adults (18-25years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a group, adolescents were not more sensitive to gains than losses compared to adults during either anticipatory and feedback phases; instead, compared to adults they showed less sensitivity to incentive magnitude in mesolimbic circuitry during anticipation and feedback stages. However, personality modulated this response such that adolescents high in impulsivity or low in avoidance tendencies showed greater gain sensitivity and adolescents high in avoidance showed greater loss sensitivity during cue anticipation. In adults, mesolimbic response was modulated by the impulsivity construct such that high-impulsive adults showed reduced magnitude sensitivity during both anticipation and feedback compared to low impulsive adults. The present findings suggest that impulsive personality significantly modulates mesolimbic reward response during both adolescence and adulthood but avoidance and approach tendencies also modulate this response in adolescents. Moreover, personality modulated incentive valence in adolescents but incentive magnitude in adults. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesolimbic reward circuitry function is modulated by somewhat different parameters in adolescence than in adulthood. PMID:26690806

  11. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  12. The effects of audiobooks on the psychosocial adjustment of pre-adolescents and adolescents with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the audiobooks, while the control group continued to use normal books. After 5 months of experimental training, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in reading accuracy, with reduced unease and emotional-behavioural disorders, as well as an improvement in school performance and a greater motivation and involvement in school activities. PMID:19725019

  13. Trading Accountability for Greater Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Describes the plight of two risk-taking principals who drastically improved their schools' academic performance, only to be defeated by bureaucratic regulations and business-as-usual attitudes. Allowing schools greater flexibility in exchange for increased accountability will free talented teachers and principals to restructure schools and solve…

  14. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  15. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  16. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents towards action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggests possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  17. Adolescents and Pornography: A Review of 20 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents' use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents. PMID:27105446

  18. Colorectal cancer in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, A.; Renaut, A. J.; Whelan, J.; Taylor, I.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies among adults, is rare in adolescence. This low incidence coupled with non-specific symptoms and aggressive natural history leads to a poorer prognosis than in reported adult series. This article describes two cases of colorectal cancer in adolescents and reviews the literature regarding this rare condition. Earlier diagnosis and a greater understanding of the natural history may lead to improved treatment with concomitant improvements in survival. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364965

  19. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone else) during the procedure Playing hand-held video games Using guided imagery Trying other distractions, such as ... effects the test may cause. Older adolescents may benefit from videos that show adolescents of the same ...

  20. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394

  1. Attachment organization and patterns of conflict resolution in friendships predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms over time.

    PubMed

    Chango, Joanna M; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effects of observed conflict management styles with friends on the link between adolescents' preoccupied attachment organization and changing levels of depressive symptoms from age 13 to age 18 years. Adolescents and their close friends were observed during a revealed differences task, and friends' behaviors were coded for both conflict avoidance and overpersonalizing attacks. Results indicated that preoccupied adolescents showed greater relative increases in depressive symptoms when their friends demonstrated overpersonalizing behaviors, vs. greater relative decreases in depressive symptoms when their friends avoided conflict by deferring to them. Results suggest the exquisite sensitivity of preoccupied adolescents to qualities of peer relationships as predictors of future levels of psychological functioning. PMID:19603299

  2. Adolescence, stress, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Siddique, C M; D'Arcy, C

    1984-12-01

    The present study analyzes the mental-health consequences of stress in a sample of 1,038 adolescents (526 females and 512 males) from a Canadian prairie city. The study examined the relationship between perceived stress in family, school, and peer-group situations and four measures of psychological well-being, i.e., anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and anergia. The moderator effects of locus of control orientation (mastery) on stress-outcome relationships were also examined, as were the sex differences in health and the perception of stress. All three sources of stress were found to be related to the four measures of mental health, with family stress having the strongest negative health impact. The health-protective role of locus of control was limited for the large part to the stresses emanating from school and peer groups. Substantial sex differences were found in the perception of family- and peer-related stresses as well as in levels of psychological distress. A tentative explanation of these differences was examined with reference to prevailing structural conditions and differences in locus of control orientation, with female adolescents showing greater externality. Implications of the results are drawn for the long-standing debate on the relative impact of stress and its sources on adolescents' psychosocial development and for a current controversy in adolescent theory between proponents of "classical" and proponents of "empirical" conceptions of adolescence. PMID:24306949

  3. A comparison of delay discounting in adolescents and adults in treatment for cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    Delay discounting is associated with problematic substance use and poorer treatment outcomes in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders. Although some research has addressed delay discounting among individuals with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), results have been equivocal, and no study has examined whether discounting rates differ between adolescent and adult cannabis users. The aim of this study was to compare discounting rates between adolescents and adults in treatment for CUD to determine whether discounting at intake or changes in discounting across treatment differed between age groups. Participants were 165 adolescents and 104 adults enrolled in treatment for CUD. Participants completed a delay discounting task at intake and end of treatment for 2 commodities (money and cannabis) at 2 different magnitudes ($100 and $1,000). Repeated measures mixed models examined differences in discounting rates by commodity and magnitude across age groups at intake and changes in discounting across treatment. At intake, adolescents discounted money more than adults whereas adults showed greater discounting at $100 magnitude than $1,000. In addition, adults had greater decreases in discounting of cannabis over the course of treatment. Overall, adolescents appeared less sensitive to changes in magnitude of rewards, discounted money at higher rates, and showed less improvement in discounting over the course of treatment compared to adults. Comparing delay discounting in adolescents and adults with CUD can contribute to a better understanding of how development influences the effect of discounting on substance use to better inform treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:25643024

  4. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination

  5. Pet Bonding and Pet Bereavement among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brenda H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent-pet bonding and bereavement following pet loss (n=55). Hypothesized that highly-bonded adolescents experience more intense grief when a pet dies than do those less bonded; degree of bonding is greater for girls than for boys; and intensity of bereavement is greater for girls than for boys. Results supported the hypotheses. (RB)

  6. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  7. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  8. Family routines and parental monitoring as protective factors among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M; Payne, Diana L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among families with higher levels of parental monitoring, adolescents showed significant declines in anxiety and depression, conduct disorder, and binge drinking, along with increased self-concept. Mothers' level of illness was associated with parenting. Greater variability in parental monitoring resulted in higher levels of problem behaviors. PMID:19930345

  9. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  10. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  11. Self-Esteem in Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yachnik, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of self-esteem ratings of deaf adolescents (N=56) by adolescents and both parents (56 hearing and 56 deaf parents) on the Self Description Questionnaire III showed that adolescents with deaf parents generally rated themselves higher than did adolescents with hearing parents of global, same sex, and opposite sex self-esteem. (CB)

  12. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  13. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) that were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions. Mothers also completed questionnaires at the start of the study (T1) and five years later (T6) on adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Path analysis showed that more emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence was associated with higher levels of adolescent disclosure in early adolescence and with relative decreases in maternal control from early to late adolescence. More emotional variability of mother-adolescent dyads serves an important function in adaptively dealing with relational challenges that arise during adolescence. PMID:24331301

  14. Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, N A; Field, T

    1999-01-01

    EEG asymmetry, specifically greater relative right frontal activation, is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy (n = 14) or music therapy (n = 16). EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions. PMID:10658860

  15. Poorer Phonetic Perceivers Show Greater Benefit in Phonetic-Phonological Speech Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Barr, Allison M.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has demonstrated that native English speakers can learn lexical tones in word context (pitch-to-word learning), to an extent. However, learning success depends on learners' pre-training sensitivity to pitch patterns. The aim of this study was to determine whether lexical pitch-pattern training given before lexical…

  16. Map showing flood-prone areas, greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCain, J.F.; Hotchkiss, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado is causing intense competition for available land resources. One form of competition posing serious problems in indiscriminate development on flood plains along creeks and rivers. Flood plains are natural features of the landscape developed by streams in carry water in excess of channel capacity. Although not used as often by the stream, flood plains are as much a part of the stream system as is the channel. Whenever man competes with this natural function of the flood plain he must inevitably pay the price through property damage and varying degrees of human suffering Flood damages in the United States have been estimated to average about \\$1 billion annually (American Public Works Association, 1966.) This tremendous waste of national resources is borne not only by those citizens in direct contact with floods but also to a lesser degree by all citizens through increased cost of public services. Thus, floods are of concern to the entire community, and solutions to existing or potential problems should be a community effort.

  17. Adolescents are more vulnerable to cocaine addiction: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Chong; Ford, Kerstin A; Pagels, Nicole E; McCutcheon, James E; Marinelli, Michela

    2013-03-13

    In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. It is unknown whether this is attributable to greater access and exposure to cocaine at this age, or whether the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the addictive properties of cocaine. Here, we subjected male adolescent (P42) and adult (∼P88) rats to a wide range of cocaine self-administration procedures. In addition, to determine whether behavioral differences are associated with developmental differences in dopaminergic activity, we examined and manipulated the activity of dopamine neurons. Relative to adults, adolescent rats took cocaine more readily, were more sensitive to lower doses, showed greater escalation of cocaine intake, and were less susceptible to increases in price (i.e., were more "inelastic"). In parallel, adolescents also showed elevated activity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, a feature known to be associated with increased self-administration behavior. Pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D2 receptor function with quinpirole (agonist) or eticlopride (antagonist), to alter dopamine neuron activity, eliminated age differences in cocaine self-administration. These data suggest a causal relationship between behavioral and electrophysiological determinants of cocaine addiction liability. In conclusion, adolescents show behavioral and electrophysiological traits of heightened addiction liability. PMID:23486962

  18. Adolescents Are More Vulnerable to Cocaine Addiction: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai Chong; Ford, Kerstin A.; Pagels, Nicole E.; McCutcheon, James E.; Marinelli, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. It is unknown whether this is attributable to greater access and exposure to cocaine at this age, or whether the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the addictive properties of cocaine. Here, we subjected male adolescent (P42) and adult (~P88) rats to a wide range of cocaine self-administration procedures. In addition, to determine whether behavioral differences are associated with developmental differences in dopaminergic activity, we examined and manipulated the activity of dopamine neurons. Relative to adults, adolescent rats took cocaine more readily, were more sensitive to lower doses, showed greater escalation of cocaine intake, and were less susceptible to increases in price (i.e., were more “inelastic”). In parallel, adolescents also showed elevated activity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, a feature known to be associated with increased self-administration behavior. Pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D2 receptor function with quinpirole (agonist) or eticlopride (antagonist), to alter dopamine neuron activity, eliminated age differences in cocaine self-administration. These data suggest a causal relationship between behavioral and electrophysiological determinants of cocaine addiction liability. In conclusion, adolescents show behavioral and electrophysiological traits of heightened addiction liability. PMID:23486962

  19. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  20. Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketroser, Heidi

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the fifth annual Dr. Curtis C. Melnick Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference sponsored by the Greater Chicago (Illinois) Regional Office of the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith. The day-long conference addressed issues of prejudice and allowed students and staff from various high schools to explore their concerns with…

  1. Myopes experience greater contrast adaptation during reading.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Colm; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina; Engel, Stephen A; Mallen, Edward A H; Allen, Peter M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether reading influences contrast adaptation differently in young adult emmetropic and myopic participants at the spatial frequencies created by text rows and character strokes. Pre-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured for test gratings with spatial frequencies of 1cdeg(-1) and 4cdeg(-1), presented horizontally and vertically. Participants then adapted to reading text corresponding to the horizontal "row frequency" of text (1cdeg(-1)), and vertical "stroke frequency" of the characters (4cdeg(-1)) for 180s. Following this, post-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured. Twenty young adults (10 myopes, 10 emmetropes) optimally corrected for the viewing distance participated. There was a significant reduction in logCS post-text adaptation (relative to pre-adaptation logCS) at the row frequency (1cdeg(-1) horizontal) but not at the stroke frequency (4cdeg(-1) vertical). logCS changes due to adaptation at 1cdeg(-1) horizontal were significant in both emmetropes and myopes. Comparing the two refractive groups, myopic participants showed significantly greater adaptation compared to emmetropic participants. Reading text on a screen induces contrast adaptation in young adult observers. Myopic participants were found to exhibit greater contrast adaptation than emmetropes at the spatial frequency corresponding to the text row frequency. No contrast adaptation was observed at the text stroke frequency in either participant group. The greater contrast adaptation experienced by myopes after reading warrants further investigation to better understand the relationship between near work and myopia development. PMID:26804636

  2. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  3. Adolescent girls' life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Malhotra, A; Mehta, M

    2001-05-01

    The study described in this paper takes a participatory and positive approach to improving adolescent reproductive health in a rural and urban community in Nepal. It shows that adolescent girls in these communities have dreams and aspirations for a better future and that adults acknowledge and support these ideals. However, social norms and institutions are restrictive, especially for girls, who are often unable to realise their hopes for continuing education, finding better-paid work or delaying marriage and childbearing, and this directly impacts reproductive outcomes. Insight into the broader context of adolescent girls' lives provides a valuable framework for designing positive programmatic actions which take as their entry point the disjuncture between girls' aspirations and realities. Interventions begun in these communities include youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes; training of peer educators to teach life-skills, including for married adolescents; forums for parents, teachers and health service providers to discuss their own concerns and those of adolescents; and work with the community to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents. PMID:11468851

  4. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look. PMID:23866210

  5. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  6. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-08-11

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  7. Marital conflict and adolescent distress: the role of adolescent awareness.

    PubMed

    Harold, G T; Conger, R D

    1997-04-01

    The present longitudinal study (1989-1991) of seventh-grade adolescents (173 boys, 197 girls; M age = 12.7 in 1989) living in the rural Midwest examined the influence of children's awareness of marital conflict and reported level of parental hostility on symptoms of adolescent distress. The theoretical model guiding the research indirectly linked marital conflict to adolescent perceptions of parents' hostility through the mediating effects of parents' and observers' report of hostility toward the adolescent and through adolescent awareness of the frequency of interparental conflict. Controlling for earlier levels of psychological distress, we hypothesized a direct path between adolescent report of parent hostility and adolescent maladjustment. Maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model showed that marital conflict was significantly related to parents' and observers' reports of parent hostility toward the adolescent and to adolescent awareness of conflict frequency. Both parent hostility and adolescent awareness of the frequency of marital conflicts were significantly related to adolescent perceptions of parent hostility. When controlled for earlier distress, adolescent report of parent hostility significantly predicted the later internalizing and externalizing symptoms of these teenagers. The model predicted externalizing problems for boys but not girls. Otherwise, there were no gender differences in the postulated causal processes. PMID:9180005

  8. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  9. Efficacy of Brief Strategic Family Therapy in Modifying Hispanic Adolescent Behavior Problems and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problem adolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample. PMID:12666468

  10. Sex Role Strain Among Kibbutz Adolescents and Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    It was hypothesized that adolescent females experience greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members. Loevinger's ego development test was administered to 40 kibbutz members. The findings supported the hypothesis and showed that adult women are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior. (JAZ)

  11. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Communicate about Sex: Its Role in Condom Attitudes, Commitment, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether and how self-efficacy to communicate with parents and peers about sex relate to sexually experienced adolescent males' and females' (N = 144, 112) condom attitudes, intentions, and use. Results showed that males who reported greater self-efficacy to communicate with parents used condoms more frequently; and both males…

  12. Polydrug-Using Adolescent Mothers and Their Infants Receiving Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany N.; Scafidi, Frank; Pickens, Jeffrey; Prodromidis, Margarita; Pelaez-Nogueras, Martha; Torquati, Julia; Wilcox, Holly; Malphurs, Julie; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of an intervention program involving educational, vocational, and parenting classes; social and drug rehabilitation; and infant day care on polydrug-using adolescent mothers. Results show that mothers' and infants' interactions improved, mothers demonstrated a lower incidence of drug use and pregnancy, and a greater number…

  13. [Family dynamics around the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Gérard

    2005-05-31

    Family dynamics around the adolescent Adolescence modifies the family dynamics around the adolescent because adolescence comprises an unavoidable process of psychological separation between the subject and the parents of his childhood. On the adolescent side, the relations with his parents show a newer claim of recognition. On the parents' side, the mourning deals with several topics. The outcome of the crisis depends on the inner family control of anxiety and on the degree of differentiation of its members. Parents, grandparents and siblings have an important role to play in those transformations. PMID:16097251

  14. The association of psychosocial and familial factors with adolescent suicidal ideation: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Ahn, Joon-ho; Bhang, Soo-young

    2010-05-30

    We aimed to compare the influence of various parental factors on adolescent suicidal ideas from a population-based sample of 2965 adolescents between 15 to 18 years-old, and their parents. Among the subject variables, gender, satisfaction with one's health, having an illness, and satisfaction with family; and among parental variables, fathers' satisfaction with health; mothers' insufficient sleep; parents' history of suicidal ideation, and satisfaction with family were significantly different in adolescents who reported suicidal ideation compared to those who reported none. Odds ratios indicated increased risk of adolescent suicidal ideation was associated with the subject factors female gender, insufficient sleep, dissatisfaction with one's health, dissatisfaction with family, and with maternal data showing insufficient sleep and a positive history of suicidal impulse. A path analysis model (comparative fit index (CFI)=0.907; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.047), indicated psychosocial factors (beta=0.232) had a greater influence on adolescent suicidal ideation than did genetic factors (beta=0.120). These results show psychosocial factors have an almost two-fold greater influence on adolescent suicidal ideation than genetic factors. Assessment and modification of these factors would greatly assist future interventions. PMID:20381165

  15. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Filipin, Douglas; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Meyer, Carolina; Louzada, Fernando Mazilli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days) was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50) greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep. PMID:26559604

  16. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. PMID:25810453

  17. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  18. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  19. Facial attractiveness and self-esteem in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mares, Suzanne H W; de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has been associated with many (social) advantages in life, like greater popularity, acceptance, and social competence. Because social evaluations and acceptance are important factors contributing to self-esteem (SE), we hypothesized that high levels of attractiveness would be related to increased levels of SE. To test this assumption, 230 adolescents from two age groups (13 and 15 years) were surveyed annually for 5 years. A latent growth curve model was used to model the influence of facial attractiveness on the development of SE over time. Results showed that younger adolescents with higher levels of attractiveness had lower levels of SE at baseline. Attractiveness was not found to be a significant predictor in explaining the development of SE over time. These findings indicate that attractive children are more likely to have lower levels of SE when they enter early adolescence compared to their less attractive counterparts. PMID:20706916

  20. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  1. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  2. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  3. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P.; Coan, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress. PMID:25349459

  4. Sexually transmitted infections and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451

  5. Show Me the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lane B.

    2005-01-01

    Since the inception of the No Child Left Behind legislation, school districts have been faced with a growing need to gather, analyze and monitor more data than ever before in the management of school performance. Accountability mandates also have placed a greater emphasis on gleaning the most granular types of information from these large sources…

  6. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural

  7. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  8. Television's Cultivation of American Adolescents' Beliefs about Alcohol and the Moderating Role of Trait Reactance.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. PMID:24678341

  9. Television's Cultivation of American Adolescents' Beliefs about Alcohol and the Moderating Role of Trait Reactance

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. PMID:24678341

  10. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  11. Adolescents' Intimacy with Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' perceived levels of intimacy as a function of demographic, family and school, and psychological variables. Students with same-sex friends and greater interest in school reported greater intimacy with mother. Students with higher self-esteem, lower depression, and lower risk-taking scores revealed greater intimacy with both…

  12. Psychological dysregulation, white matter disorganization and substance use disorders in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Long, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) have difficulties with cognitive, behavioral and affective regulation. White matter (WM) disorganization has been observed in adolescents with SUD and may be related to psychological dysregulation. This study compared adolescents with SUD and control adolescents to investigate relationships among psychological dysregulation, WM disorganization, and SUD symptoms. Design Cross-sectional observation. Setting Adolescents with SUD were recruited from SUD treatment programs. Controls were recruited from the community. Participants The 55 participants were ages 14–19; 35 with SUD, 20 controls without SUD. Measurements Psychological dysregulation was characterized by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. WM disorganization was measured by diffusion tensor imaging, and fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were examined within cortical regions of interest. Findings Compared to controls, SUD adolescents showed significantly greater psychological dysregulation and prefrontal and parietal WM disorganization. WM disorganization was positively correlated with psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms. In multivariate mediation models, the results were consistent with both the Neurodevelopmental Immaturity model, in which WM disorganization leads to psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms, and with the Substance Effects Model, in which cannabis-related symptoms lead to WM disorganization and psychological dysregulation. Conclusions In adolescents, substance use disorder and psychological dysregulation appear to be associated with reduced frontoparietal network white matter maturation. PMID:21752141

  13. Stress Response and the Adolescent Transition: Performance versus Peer Rejection Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D.; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n=39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n=43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP, and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multi-system approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology. PMID:19144222

  14. Brain reward region responsivity of adolescents with and without parental substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-09-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (n = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from 2 smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively, results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model. PMID:24128289

  15. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another's emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another's mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11-39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  16. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another’s emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another’s mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11–39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  17. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  18. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  19. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  20. Assessment of Acute Pain and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents by Self-Reports, Observer Reports, and a Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, Samuel; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    1984-01-01

    Compared a checklist of distress behaviors to patient (N=67) and observer ratings of pain and anxiety. Results indicated that children showed greater evidence of behavioral distress than adolescents only during the actual medical procedure; however, additional behaviors were observed that suggested that the checklist was age biased. (LLL)

  1. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12-17 year-olds and 25-37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  2. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12–17 year-olds and 25–37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  3. Sleep restriction worsens mood and emotion regulation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally-induced chronic sleep restriction on adolescents’ mood and mood regulation. Methods Fifty healthy adolescents, ages 14 to 17, completed a three-week sleep manipulation protocol involving a baseline week, followed by a sleep restriction (SR) condition (6.5 hours in bed per night for five nights) and healthy sleep duration (HS) condition (10 hours in bed per night for five nights). The study used a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over experimental design. Participants’ sleep was monitored at home via self-report and actigraphy. At the end of each condition, participants and their parents completed questionnaires of mood and mood regulation. To assess for expectancy effects, we also analyzed parent and teen ratings of hyperactivity/impulsivity, which prior research suggests is not sensitive to SR in adolescents. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests compared questionnaire outcomes across the two conditions. Results Participants averaged 2.5 more hours of sleep per night during HS relative to SR. Compared to HS, adolescents rated themselves as significantly more tense/anxious, angry/hostile, confused, and fatigued, and as less vigorous (p = .001–.01) during SR. Parents and adolescents also reported greater oppositionality/irritability and poorer emotional regulation during SR compared to HS (p < .05). There were no cross condition differences in depression or hyperactivity/impulsivity (p > .05). Conclusions Findings complement prior correlational study results to show that after only a few days of shortened sleep, at a level of severity that is experienced regularly by millions of adolescents on school nights, adolescents have worsened mood and decreased ability to

  4. Implicit Motivational Processes Underlying Smoking in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (including inhibition skills, working memory, and risk taking) on daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67) and non-smokers (n = 58) between 13 and 18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking approach–avoidance task, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief implicit associations task, balloon analog risk task, the self-ordering pointing task, and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers) and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers). No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias toward both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills, and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach–avoidance bias should be considered in future research. PMID:24904435

  5. Adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the internet: deindividuation and impression management.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of anonymity on adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the Internet and the impact of topic intimacy on their reply intent for sexual disclosure by conducting a survey with 1,347 adolescents. It was found that male participants were more likely than females to engage in sexual self-disclosure and to correspondingly respond to cyber partners' sexual disclosure. Results showed that the greater the anonymity, the greater the intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited greater reply intent when cyber partners self-disclosed sexual topics with greater intimacy, and the effect of topic intimacy was more pronounced in male participants. The findings suggest that male adolescents tend to adopt a reciprocal strategy in responding to partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet, whereas females tend to employ a conservative strategy. It was concluded that male and female adolescents revealed differential self-presentation and impression management for their sexual self-disclosing and responding on the Internet. PMID:17225667

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  7. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives. PMID:18647579

  8. Corpus Callosum Size and Diffusion Tensor Anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Balevich, Emily C.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E.; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Hazlett, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant’s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness. PMID:25637358

  9. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  10. Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, S.; Jerman, O.; Dal Pont, E.; Alberti, A.; Vianello, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether…

  11. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  12. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models. PMID:24815316

  13. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  14. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  15. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  16. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

  17. Continuity, Stability, and Change in Daily Emotional Experience across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…

  18. Maturation of coordinated immediate early gene expression by cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Caster, J M; Kuhn, C M

    2009-04-21

    Adolescence may be a critical period for drug addiction. Young adolescent male rats have greater locomotor responses than adults after acute low dose cocaine administration. Further, repeated cocaine administration produces as much or more conditioned place preference but reduced locomotor sensitization in adolescents compared to adults. Acute activation of neurons by cocaine induces long-term changes in behavior by activating transcriptional complexes. The purpose of the present study was to correlate cocaine-induced locomotor activity with neuronal activation in subregions of the striatum and cortex by acute cocaine in young adolescent (postnatal (PN) 28) and adult (PN 65) male rats by measuring the induction of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and zif268 using in situ hybridization. Animals were treated with saline, low (10 mg/kg), or high (40 mg/kg) dose cocaine in locomotor activity chambers and killed 30 min later. Low dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity and striatal c-fos expression in adolescents than adults whereas high dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity, striatal c-fos, and striatal zif268 expression in adults. Locomotor activity correlated with the expression of both genes in adults but correlated with striatal c-fos only in adolescents. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the expression of c-fos and zif268 in the adult striatum but not in adolescents. Our results suggest that the coordinated expression of transcription factors by cocaine continues to develop during adolescence. The immature regulation of transcription factors by cocaine could explain why adolescents show unique sensitivity to specific long-term behavioral alterations following cocaine treatment. PMID:19245875

  19. Visual attentional bias for food in adolescents with binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. PMID:27267318

  20. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  1. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  2. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart disease tends to develop earlier than ... About one in nine men will suffer a cardiac arrest before the age of 70, compared to about ...

  3. Parental resolution and the adolescent's health and adjustment: The case of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alon; Wiseman, Hadas

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the association between parents' resolution of their adolescent child's diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and the health and mental adjustment of the adolescents themselves. Parents of 75 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were interviewed using the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires regarding the child's physical health, self-management of the disease, and behavioral and emotional problems. Physicians reported adolescents' HbA1c levels. Results showed that adolescents whose fathers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited better diabetes self-management and adolescents whose mothers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlight the different role of mothers and fathers in the treatment of adolescents with diabetes and provide a basis for clinical intervention that focuses not only on adolescent health, but also on parental state of mind regarding the resolution with the disease. PMID:26684497

  4. Biological substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescence during an emotional go-nogo task

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Todd A.; Tottenham, Nim; Galvan, Adriana; Voss, Henning U.; Glover, Gary H.; Casey, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood that is often characterized by emotional instability. This period is also a time of increased incidence of anxiety and depression underscoring the importance of understanding biological substrates of behavioral and emotion regulation during adolescence. Developmental changes in the brain in concert with individual predispositions for anxiety may underlie the increased risk for poor outcomes reported during adolescence. We tested the hypothesis that difficulties in regulating behavior in emotional contexts in adolescents may be due to competition between heightened activity in subcortical emotional processing systems and immature top-down prefrontal systems. Individual differences in emotional reactivity may put some teens at greater risk during this sensitive transition in development. Methods We examined the association between emotion regulation, and frontoamygdala circuitry in 60 children, adolescents, and adults using an emotional go/nogo paradigm. We went beyond examining the magnitude of neural activity and focused on neural adaptation within this circuitry across time using fMRI. Results Adolescents showed exaggerated amygdala activity relative to children and adults. This age-related difference decreased with repeated exposures to the stimuli, and individual differences in self-ratings of anxiety predicted the extent of adaptation or habituation in amygdala. Individuals with higher trait anxiety showed less habituation over repeated exposures. This failure to habituate was associated with less functional connectivity between ventral prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Conclusions These findings suggest that exaggerated emotional reactivity during adolescence may increase the need for top-down control and put individuals with less control at greater risk for poor outcomes. PMID:18452757

  5. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  6. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  7. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  8. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  9. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  10. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults. PMID:20167542

  11. Selective alterations within executive functions in adolescents with excess weight.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Pérez-Expósito, Manuel; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Fernández-Serrano, Maria J; Cruz, Francisco; Pérez-García, Miguel; López-Belmonte, Gemma; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Martín-Lagos, Jose A; Marcos, Ascension; Campoy, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    Increasing evidence underscores overlapping neurobiological pathways to addiction and obesity. In both conditions, reward processing of preferred stimuli is enhanced, whereas the executive control system that would normally regulate reward-driven responses is altered. This abnormal interaction can be greater in adolescence, a period characterized by relative immaturity of executive control systems coupled with the relative maturity of reward processing systems. The aim of this study is to explore neuropsychological performance of adolescents with excess weight (n = 27, BMI range 24-51 kg/m(2)) vs. normal-weight adolescents (n = 34, BMI range 17-24 kg/m(2)) on a comprehensive battery of executive functioning tests, including measures of working memory (letter-number sequencing), reasoning (similarities), planning (zoo map), response inhibition (five-digit test (FDT)-interference and Stroop), flexibility (FDT-switching and trail-making test (TMT)), self-regulation (revised-strategy application test (R-SAT)), and decision-making (Iowa gambling task (IGT)). We also aimed to explore personality traits of impulsivity and sensitivity to reward. Independent sample t- and Z Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests showed significant differences between groups on indexes of inhibition, flexibility, and decision-making (excess-weight participants performed poorer than controls), but not on tests of working memory, planning, and reasoning, nor on personality measures. Moreover, regression models showed a significant association between BMI and flexibility performance. These results are indicative of selective alterations of particular components of executive functions in overweight adolescents. PMID:20057376

  12. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  13. Loneliness, Coping Strategies and Cognitive Styles of the Gifted Rural Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John C.; Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    1990-01-01

    Investigated loneliness, coping, and cognitive styles of 52 gifted rural adolescents. Found that field independent (FI) adolescents were more lonely in a crowd, whereas field dependent (FD) adolescents were more lonely when not with others. FI adolescents showed more autonomy and self-reliance, while FD adolescents relied more on external sources…

  14. Daily Shame and Hostile Irritability in Adolescent Girls with Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulty regulating both shame and anger, and that these emotions may be functionally related in clinically relevant ways (e.g., Schoenleber & Berenbaum, 2012b). The covariation of shame with anger-related emotions has important clinical implications for interventions targeting shame and uncontrolled anger in BPD. However, no studies have examined shame, anger, and their covariation in adolescents who may be at risk for developing BPD. Therefore, this study focuses on associations between BPD symptoms and patterns of covariation between daily experiences of shame and anger-related affects (i.e., hostile irritability) in a community sample of adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel models revealed that girls with greater BPD symptoms who reported greater mean levels of shame across the week also tended to report more hostile irritability, even after controlling for guilt. Additionally, examination of within-person variability showed that girls with greater BPD symptoms reported more hostile irritability on occasions when they also reported greater concurrent shame, but this was only the case in girls of average socioeconomic status (i.e., those not receiving public assistance). Unlike shame, guilt was not associated with hostile irritability in girls with greater BPD symptoms. Results suggest that shame may be a key clinical target in the treatment of anger-related difficulties among adolescent girls with BPD symptoms. PMID:25580673

  15. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  16. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  17. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents. PMID:24652856

  18. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  19. The effect of constant threat of terror on Israeli Jewish and Arab adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miri; Eid, Jawdat

    2007-03-01

    The effect on Israeli Jewish and Arab adolescents of living under constant threat of terrorist attacks was assessed in a sample of 346 adolescents. The study probed their direct and indirect exposure to terrorist attacks, avoidance of public centers, sharing feelings with significant others, and stress reaction symptoms. The adolescents showed mild to low levels of stress symptoms in reaction to terrorist attacks in Israel, with no significant differences between Jews and Arabs. The Jewish adolescents reported knowing more people involved in terror attacks and being more informed by their parents about them. Demographic and exposure variables explained 39% of the variance of stress reaction symptoms. Being female, knowing someone injured, having parents who discuss terrorist attacks or forbid going out, and more sharing of feelings were significantly related to higher stress symptoms. For Jewish adolescents, greater levels of sharing of feelings were related to higher distress. Jewish and Arab adolescents proved to be similarly affected by the threat of terror but were also resilient even in highly unusual circumstances. PMID:17999214

  20. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescents showed elevated rates of alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drug use (a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the child’s adolescence (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the child’s adolescence (distal effects). We tested these effects in a high-risk sample of 451 adolescents assessed over three waves beginning at ages 11–15 from 1988 to 1991 (53 % male, 71 % non-Hispanic Caucasian, 54 % children of alcoholic parents and 46 % matched controls). Strong and consistent distal effects of parent alcoholism on adolescent’s substance use were found, though no additional risk was associated with proximal effects. Limited time-varying effects were also found. The importance of differentiating the timing effects of parent alcoholism in identifying underlying mechanisms of risk for adolescent substance use is discussed. PMID:22886384

  1. Social Milieu and Future Orientation: The Case of Kibbutz vs. Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of one social milieu factor (Israeli kibbutz vs. urban lifestyle) on adolescents' future orientation. Analysis of questionnaires from 114 kibbutz and 112 urban adolescents shows that kibbutz adolescents express fewer hopes for the future. (SKC)

  2. Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special issue on adolescence in the Israeli kibbutz contains a series of seven papers that seek to advance thought and research regarding the relationship between a communal way of life and individual developmental processes in adolescence and early adulthood. The articles represent a transitional era as the kibbutz evolves. (SLD)

  3. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  4. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  5. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  8. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  9. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  10. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  11. Sex differences in monoamines following amphetamine and social reward in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Virginia G; Hofford, Rebecca S; Yates, Justin R; Jennings, Faith C; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with social peers may increase rates of drug self-administration, but a recent study from our laboratory showed that social interaction may serve as a type of alternative reward that competes with drug taking in adolescent male rats. Based on those previous results, the current study examined sex differences in preference for social interaction compared to amphetamine (AMPH) in adolescent rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Similar to previous results with males, females showed AMPH CPP regardless whether they were individual- or pair-housed. In contrast to males, however, females failed to show social CPP, and they did not prefer a peer-associated compartment over an AMPH-associated compartment in a free-choice test. In separate experiments, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) metabolite levels were measured in adolescent males and females that were exposed acutely to peer interaction, no peer interaction, AMPH, or saline. In amygdala, levels of the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were altered more in response to peer interaction in males than females; in contrast, there was a greater amygdala DOPAC response to AMPH in females. Furthermore, there were greater changes in the 5-HT metabolite 5-HIAA in females than in males following social interaction. These results indicate that the ability of peer interactions to reduce drug reward is greater in adolescent males than females, perhaps due to a greater ability of social cues to activate limbic reward mechanisms in males or a greater ability of AMPH cues to activate limbic reward mechanisms in females. PMID:26237317

  12. Sex differences in monoamines following amphetamine and social reward in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Virginia G; Hofford, Rebecca S; Yates, Justin R; Jennings, Faith C; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    Interaction with social peers may increase rates of drug self-administration, but a recent study from our laboratory showed that social interaction may serve as a type of alternative reward that competes with drug taking in adolescent male rats. Based on those previous results, the current study examined sex differences in preference for social interaction compared with amphetamine (AMPH) in adolescent rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Similar to previous results with males, females showed AMPH CPP regardless of whether they were individual- or pair-housed. In contrast to males, however, females failed to show social CPP, and they did not prefer a peer-associated compartment over an AMPH-associated compartment in a free-choice test. In separate experiments, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) metabolite levels were measured in adolescent males and females that were exposed acutely to peer interaction, no peer interaction, AMPH, or saline. In amygdala, levels of the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were altered more in response to peer interaction in males than females; in contrast, there was a greater amygdala DOPAC response to AMPH in females. Furthermore, there were greater changes in the 5-HT metabolite hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in females than in males following social interaction. These results indicate that the ability of peer interactions to reduce drug reward is greater in adolescent males than females, perhaps due to a greater ability of social cues to activate limbic reward mechanisms in males or a greater ability of AMPH cues to activate limbic reward mechanisms in females. PMID:26237317

  13. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  14. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  15. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  16. Signal phase switches offer greater dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit, placed in the signal path of a closed-loop receiver to modulate telemetered data in the 10-MHz spectrum, improves signal-to-noise ratio by 3 db in a communication receiver. The switch enables bandwidth reduction which reduces noise overload on the following stages, giving the system greater dynamic range.

  17. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Banz, Barbara C; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  18. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banz, Barbara C.; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  19. A Psychometric Study of Adolescent Risk Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benthin, Alida; And Others

    1993-01-01

    High school students (n=41) evaluated 30 activities (smoking, drinking, drug use, sex) on perceived risk and benefit. Adolescents who participated in activity perceived risks to be smaller, better known, and more controllable than did nonparticipants. Participants perceived greater benefits relative to risks, greater peer pressure to participate,…

  20. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  1. Pregnancy-Prevention Groups for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of group training in decision making and interpersonal skills to prevent unwanted adolescent pregnancy. Evaluation of the program suggests that group intervention is an effective social work approach. Participants reported greater commitment to postponing pregnancy and greater reliance on birth control methods. (JAC)

  2. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  3. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  4. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  5. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904

  6. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Leite, Carina Raffs; Rebelatto, Cleber Fernando; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Beltrame, Thais Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality) and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status) were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population. PMID:26298657

  7. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  8. Delay discounting predicts adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D; Jones, Bryan A; Bickel, Warren K; Budney, Alan J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (mean age = 15.8 years; standard deviation = 1.3 years) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (socioeconomic status, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  9. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  10. Early adolescent nicotine exposure affects later-life cocaine reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Alajaji, Mai; Lazenka, Matthew F; Kota, Dena; Wise, Laura E; Younis, Rabha M; Carroll, F Ivy; Levine, Amir; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Damaj, M Imad

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence represents a unique developmental period associated with increased risk-taking behavior and experimentation with drugs of abuse, in particular nicotine. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine during early adolescence might increase the risk for drug reward in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, male ICR mice were treated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine or saline during adolescence, and their preference for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine was examined using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in adulthood. Long-term behavioral changes induced by nicotine suggested a possible role of altered gene transcription. Thus, immunoblot for ΔFosB, a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, was conducted in the nucleus accumbens of these mice. Mice treated with nicotine during early but not late adolescence showed an increase in CPP for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine later in adulthood. This effect was not seen in mice pretreated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine as adults, suggesting that exposure to nicotine specifically during early adolescence increases the rewarding effects of other drugs in adulthood. However, adolescent nicotine exposure did not alter highly palatable food conditioning in mice. The enhancement of cocaine CPP by nicotine was strain-dependent and was blocked by pretreatment with nicotinic antagonists. In addition, nicotine exposure during early adolescence induced ΔFosB expression to a greater extent than identical nicotine exposure in adulthood, and enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization later in adulthood. These results suggest that nicotine exposure during early adolescence increases drug-induced reward in adulthood through mechanisms that may involve the induction of ΔFosB. PMID:26808314

  11. Greater sadness reactivity in late life

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Benjamin H.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Whalen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age. PMID:20650943

  12. First- and second-born adolescents' decision-making autonomy throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Short, Stephen D; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Drotar, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    First- and second-born adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of adolescents' decision-making autonomy were compared from ages 12 to 19 in a longitudinal sample of 145 predominantly White, middle class families. Utilizing a multivariate, multilevel modeling approach, differences in perceptions of adolescents' autonomy between parents and each adolescent, as well as by social-cognitive domain were examined. The present study found that when comparing parents' perceptions of their children at the same age, second-borns were granted more autonomy regarding conventional issues than first-borns during early adolescence, but by later adolescence first-borns were granted more autonomy regarding prudential issues than second-borns. However, comparisons between adolescents' and siblings' perceptions showed no differences. Potential reasons for, and implications of, differences in perceptions of adolescent autonomy are discussed. PMID:26519875

  13. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  14. Unpacking Unpacking: Greater Detail Can Reduce Perceived Likelihood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Joseph P.; Frederick, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that a categorical event is perceived to be more likely if its subcases are explicitly delineated or "unpacked." In 6 studies, we find that unpacking can often make an event seem less likely, especially when the details being unpacked are already highly accessible. Process evidence shows that the provision of greater detail…

  15. Genomic landscape of the Greater Middle East.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Tayfun; Onat, Onur Emre

    2016-08-30

    Study of the Greater Middle East (GME), home to approximately 10% of the world's population, has made invaluable contributions to the characterization of rare genetic disease, especially recessive conditions arising from the tradition of consanguinity and large families with multiple children. A new study now reports 1,111 unrelated exomes from the GME and provides a comprehensive view of genetic variation for enhanced discovery of disease-associated genes. PMID:27573686

  16. Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-07-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents. PMID:21604865

  17. Text-Messaging-Enhanced HIV Intervention for African American Adolescents: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907

  18. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  19. Adolescent substance use: The role of demographic marginalization and socioemotional distress

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the links between race/ethnic marginalization (i.e., having few same-race/ethnic peers at school) and adolescents’ socioemotional distress and subsequent substance use (alcohol and marijuana) initiation and use. Data from 7,731 adolescents (52% females; 55% White, 21% African American, 16% Latino, 8% Asian American) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). In our path analysis model, we found that adolescents who were racial/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., who had less than 15% same-ethnic peers) reported poorer school attachment, which was linked to greater depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of subsequent marijuana and alcohol use. These relationships showed some variation by students’ gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Findings suggest that the influence of school demographics extends beyond the academic domain into the health and well-being of young people. PMID:26075631

  20. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services and Illness Perceptions Among Adolescents with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Floersch, Jerry E.; Townsend, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were recruited from the greater Cleveland area. Structured interviews were conducted utilizing standardized instruments. Results show that adolescents with MD have fairly positive attitudes, with Caucasian youth reporting more positive attitudes than their nonwhite ounterparts. Illness perceptions were related to psychological openness and indifference to stigma. Implications are discussed. PMID:19834581

  1. Adolescent parents and their children: a multifaceted approach to prevention of adverse childhood experiences (ACE).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lynn Milgram; Thursby, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood experiences can have long-term effects. Research shows that children who undergo adverse childhood experiences (ACE) often have negative health and mental health outcomes later in life. Children of adolescent parents with high ACE Scores are at greater risk of ACE. As such, an intergenerational approach to preventing ACE is proposed in this article, addressing the needs of both the adolescent parent and their children. A review of the literature indicates that a public health perspective can guide the development of a prevention model aimed at reducing the effects of ACE. The current article proposes a universal, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary prevention science model that has two targets: adolescent parents and their children. Schools and early childhood programs can be mobilized to offer community prevention strategies across realms to include the individual, community, provider, coalitions/networks, organizational practices, and policy/legislation. PMID:22970783

  2. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  3. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  4. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  5. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  6. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2016-08-01

    Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss occur in the brains of patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) and improve again upon weight restoration. Adolescence is an important time period for AN to begin. However, little is known about the differences between brain changes in adolescents vs adults. We used a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all MRI studies regarding acute structural brain volume changes and their recovery in adolescents and adults with AN. 29 studies with 473 acute, 121 short-term weight-recovered and 255 long-term recovered patients with AN were included in the meta-analysis. In acute AN, GM and WM were reduced compared to healthy controls. Acute adolescent patients showed a significantly greater GM reduction than adults (-8.4 vs -3.1 %), the difference in WM (-4.0 vs -2.1 %) did not reach significance. Short-term weight-recovered patients showed a remaining GM deficit of 3.6 % and a non-significant WM reduction of 0.9 % with no age differences. Following 1.5-8 years of remission, GM and WM were no longer significantly reduced in adults (GM -0.4 %, WM -0.7 %); long-term studies for adolescents were scarce. The qualitative review showed that GM volume loss was correlated with cognitive deficits and three studies found GM regions, cerebellar deficits and WM to be predictive of outcome. GM and WM are strongly reduced in acute AN and even more pronounced in adolescence. Long-term recovery appears to be complete for adults while no conclusions can be drawn for adolescents, thus caution remains. PMID:27188331

  7. Perceptions of diabetes obtained through drawing in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pera, Pilar Isla; Lois, María Palacin; Matheu, Carmen López; Pérez, María Honrubia; Rodriguez, Ana María Gómez; Camps, Eulalia Armengol; Villalba, Carmen Sanchez; Soria, Roser Insa; Cuadra, Assumpta Rigol; Marre, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether drawing is useful in the detection of problems of psychosocial adaptation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in improving communication with health professionals. Methods We performed an exploratory descriptive study in 199 children and adolescents with T1D aged 4–13 years. The participants were asked to render a drawing on a suggested topic. The variables analyzed were related to the drawing and to clinical and sociodemographic data. Results Most participants showed evidence of having a well-balanced personality, but there were also signs of affective or psychosocial difficulties. Conclusion Drawing is a useful technique by which to identify children’s and adolescents’ feelings and possible problems in adapting to T1D, as well as to gain information directly from the children themselves. Future studies should delimit the possibilities of this technique in clinical practice in greater detail. PMID:23814467

  8. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  9. Adolescent Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Bernie; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the conditions which lead to teenagers' becoming prostitutes, including alienation, abuse, lack of education and employment, and family problems. Discusses the role of the justice system and institutions and the need for improving adolescents' self-image. (JAC)

  10. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  11. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

  12. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight. PMID:10721926

  13. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  14. Predicting resilience in sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933

  15. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  16. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  17. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  18. Potential effects of reward and loss avoidance in overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Sussanne; Peirano, Patricio; Luna, Beatriz; Lozoff, Betsy; Algarín, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Reward system and inhibitory control are brain functions that exert an influence on eating behavior regulation. We studied the differences in inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward and loss avoidance between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents. Methods We assessed 51 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight 15-y-old Chilean adolescents. The groups were similar regarding sex and intelligence quotient. Using Antisaccade and Incentive tasks, we evaluated inhibitory control and the effect of incentive trials (neutral, loss avoidance, and reward) on generating correct and incorrect responses (latency and error rate). Results Compared to normal-weight group participants, overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect antisaccade responses (186.0 (95% CI: 176.8–195.2) vs. 201.3 ms (95% CI: 191.2–211.5), P < 0.05) and better performance reflected by lower error rate in incentive trials (43.6 (95% CI: 37.8–49.4) vs. 53.4% (95% CI: 46.8–60.0), P < 0.05). Overweight/obese adolescents were more accurate on loss avoidance (40.9 (95% CI: 33.5–47.7) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) and reward (41.0 (95% CI: 34.5–47.5) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) compared to neutral trials. Conclusion Overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect responses and greater accuracy in reward and loss avoidance trials. These findings could suggest that an imbalance of inhibition and reward systems influence their eating behavior. PMID:25927543

  19. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  20. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  1. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  2. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício T L de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  3. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  4. Emerging population issues among adolescents and youth.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T; Wilson, P

    1998-02-01

    The authors "examine the emerging population issues of adolescents and youth [in Sri Lanka]. The demographic pressures have resulted in the expansion of the numbers in this age category which in turn has caused problems of employment creation. The educational expansion has brought about changes in the age at marriage and life styles, which in turn has created the need for greater attention on reproductive health issues among adolescents and youth." PMID:12294270

  5. Critical Thinking about Fables: Examining Language Production and Comprehension in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Cramond, Paige M.; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed primarily to determine if a critical-thinking task involving fables would elicit greater syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents. Another purpose was to determine how well adolescents understand critical-thinking questions about fables. Method: Forty adolescents (N = 20 boys and 20 girls;…

  6. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Experiencing Parents' Marital Disruption during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from 9,252 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study finds that among children who experience parents' marital disruption during late adolescence, European, Asian, and African American adolescents exhibit wider and greater maladjustment both before and after the disruption than their Hispanic American…

  7. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  8. Cardiac and respiratory responses to exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shneerson, J M

    1980-01-01

    Twenty girls, aged 11-15 years, with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were studied before spinal fusion was performed. Each underwent a range of lung function tests and a standardised progressive exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. The resting lung function tests showed reduced peak flow rates, lung volumes, and maximum voluntary ventilation. The maximum oxygen uptake was slightly diminished but maximum exercise ventilation was normal. The latter was achieved by using a greater than normal fraction of the vital capacity in tidal breathing while exercising. Mild hyperventilation during submaximal exercise and a trend towards an exercise tachycardia with increasing body weight were observed. PMID:7434284

  9. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. PMID:26509925

  10. [Adolescence: viewpoints from adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bürgin, D; von Klitzing, K

    1994-05-01

    Adolescence is a phase of human development which is marked by a high vulnerability due to the ongoing psycho-physiological transformations. The regulation of the self-esteem is especially in danger in youngsters who went into adolescence with a marked burden of conflicts or who lived in families with disturbed intrafamilial dynamics. To be present as a partner and not to find the solutions for the adolescents' conflicts, to accept their questioning of what is established and to recognize their movements of reconciliation are the quite complex demands put on to the world of the adults. Adolescents urge us to a review of our own adolescence, to a balancing of hate and love, openness and rigidity, and to dialectic movements between disintegration and reintegration as well as between the generations. Any help, be it on the physical, the social or the psychic level, should be directed toward a restitution of the intrapsychic, intrafamilial or intergenerational balance; sociocultural factors have also always to be respected. The helpers--especially in a culture with rapid change--are often confronted with their own adolescence, which took place a generation before and mostly under totally different conditions. PMID:8016759

  11. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

  12. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  13. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, T. L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N. K.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Yu, C.

    The preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (CGD) of low-level radioactive waste is presented. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives.

  14. “I Want to be There When He Graduates:” Foster Parents Show Higher Levels of Commitment than Group Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Albert; Roben, Caroline K.P.; Maier, Collin; Fabian, Kim; Shauffer, Carole; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Group care is a frequent placement for adolescents placed in out of home care when their birth parents’ care is deemed unsafe. In the present study, we assessed whether foster parents show greater commitment to children than group care providers. Given that group care represents a number of living arrangements, we considered both shift care (where staff work shifts and do not live with the children) and cottage care (where staff live for extended periods of time with the children in a group living context). Commitment was assessed using the This Is My Child Interview (adapted for adolescents). Thirty-one foster parents, 18 shift workers, and 28 cottage care providers were interviewed. As predicted, foster parents showed higher levels of commitment than both shift care workers and cottage care providers, and the associations held when children’s externalizing behaviors and the number of children the caregivers had cared for were controlled. The results suggest that foster care promotes greater commitment among caregivers than other out of home placements, and add to other findings that favor foster care as the out of home placement of choice for adolescents. PMID:25937687

  15. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  16. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  17. Sex education for emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schoenholtz, S W; Horowitz, H A; Shtarkshall, R

    1989-02-01

    Under investigation were effects of a course in sex education on a population of emotionally disturbed adolescents who were enrolled as day patients in a school program that is part of the Adolescent Treatment Program of the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital. Subjects included 7 females, and 8 males, aged 15-18, with severe socio-emotional and educational problems. Pre-and posttesting were used to measure changes. Measures included a short form questionnaire assessing sexual knowledge and attitudes, the Draw-a-Person test, and behavioral observations by teachers, faculty, and Adolescent Treatment Program staff. The results of the study indicated that patients responded age appropriately and gained knowledge and an increased openness about sexuality issues. On the knowledge section of the questionnaire areas addressed in class, such as contraception, were the areas that students showed improvement in student response. The attitudes section revealed an increase in uncertainty about their own values, or conversely, an increase in establishing their values more firmly. In the Draw-a-Person test there was a greater degree of openness and less defensiveness in the posttest drawings. Most postcourse drawings also included more sexual signs and showed nudity. Behavioral changes were noted in the student's increased class contributions and participation, as well as in a more frequent focus of issues relating to sexuality and maturation. In addition, there was no regression or dysfunction as a result of the materials presented, and therapeutic and educational processes were not disrupted by the patient's involvement in the course. It was concluded that a sex education course is clinically and educationally useful on many levels within a therapeutic setting. PMID:12342338

  18. Teen Options for Change (TOC): An Intervention for Adolescent Emergency Patients who Screen Positive for Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous research has documented the feasibility of adolescent suicide risk screening in emergency departments. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Method Participants were 49 adolescents, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for non-psychiatric chief complaints who screened positive for suicide risk due to recent suicidal ideation/attempt and/or depression plus alcohol abuse. They were randomly assigned to TOC or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two-month follow-up. Results Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d = 1.07; large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly) with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusions TOC is a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services who are at risk for suicide. PMID:25321886

  19. Altered cortical maturation in adolescent cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Katherine A; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2015-03-01

    During late adolescence, progressive cortical thinning occurs in heteromodal association cortex (HASC) that is thought to subserve cognitive development. However, the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) upon cortical gray matter development in both healthy adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is unclear. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 79 adolescents at baseline and after an 18-month follow-up: 17 with EOS, 17 with CUD, 11 with EOS+CUD, and 34 healthy controls (HC). Mean age at baseline was 16.4years (CUD+) and 17.0years (CUD-). Using FreeSurfer, measures of cortical thickness for ROIs within HASC were obtained. A 2 (EOS versus no EOS)×2 (CUD versus no CUD) multivariate analysis of covariance was applied to change scores from baseline to follow-up to test for main effects of EOS and CUD and an interaction effect. After adjusting for covariates, a significant main effect of CUD was observed. Adolescents with CUD showed an attenuated loss of cortical thickness in the left and right supramarginal, left and right inferior parietal, right pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left superior frontal, and left superior temporal regions compared to non-using subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that greater cumulative cannabis exposure predicted greater cortical thickness in both the left (p=.008) and right (p=.04) superior frontal gyri at study endpoint after adjusting for baseline cortical thickness for the entire sample. These preliminary longitudinal data demonstrate an atypical pattern of cortical development in HASC in adolescents with CUD relative to non-using subjects, across diagnostic groups. Additional studies are needed to replicate these data and to clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:25600549

  20. Predicting Desire for a Child among Low-Income Urban Adolescent Girls: Interpersonal Processes in the Context of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn; Grace, Pamela; Trujillo, Jaime; Halpert, Jane; Kessler-Cordeiro, Anna; Razzino, Brian; Davis, Trina

    2002-01-01

    Interpersonal influences on the desire to have a child were examined in a sample of pregnant low-income urban adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescent girls who report poorer relationships with their parents would report greater emotional reliance on their boyfriends and greater reliance on boyfriends would predict greater desire for a…

  1. Social categorization, self-esteem, and the estimated musical preferences of male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, M; North, A C; Hargreaves, D J

    2001-10-01

    The authors investigated the intergroup processes of male adolescents within the context of social identity theory (SIT; H. Tajfel, 1978; H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1979). The participants were English male adolescents (age = 14-15 years). They estimated in-group and out-group musical preferences and evaluated the in-group and out-group along a series of scales. The results showed in-group favoritism effects along the musical preference and evaluative dimensions. The participants reported greater liking for the in-group. Compared with the out-group, they associated the in-group more with positively stereotyped music and less with negatively stereotyped music. Compared with the out-group, they rated the in-group as more fun, more masculine, more sporty, less boring, less snobbish, and less weird. The participants with lower levels of self-esteem showed greater differentiation between groups and greater derogation of the out-group. The results supported the predictions of SIT and demonstrated the applicability of SIT for the study of adolescent behavior. PMID:11758036

  2. Early Childhood Television Viewing and Adolescent Behavior: The Recontact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…

  3. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  4. Pace: A Residential Community Oriented Behavior Modification Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Bernard R.; Breitmeyer, Rudolf G.

    1975-01-01

    After briefly citing the wide scope and diversity of token programs, and reviewing some of these programs for adolescents in greater detail, the authors describe the structure and operation of a residential behavior modification program for emotionally disturbed, pre-delinquent, and mentally retarded adolescents. (Author)

  5. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  6. Gender differences in delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female adolescents were much less involved in antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic delinquent behavior compared to male adolescents. Moreover, compared to female delinquent adolescents, male delinquent adolescents were found to have greater tendencies towards antisocial personality, sociability, being sexually abused, and alcohol and drug use. In contrast, female delinquent adolescents had a greater tendency toward depression than male delinquent adolescents. No gender differences were found in the association between family dynamics and delinquent behaviors. Age and antisocial personality had the most significant total effects on male delinquent behavior. In contrast, alcohol and drug abuse was the strongest contributing factors in female delinquent behavior, although the level of alcohol and drug abuse was much higher among male adolescents than among female adolescents. PMID:15886868

  7. Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents from different geographic settings use different ethnic labels, with youth from NC preferring heritage and panethnic labels and youth from LA preferring hyphenated American labels. Second generation youth were more likely than first generation youth to use hyphenated American labels, and less likely to use heritage or panethnic labels. Greater ethnic centrality increased the odds of heritage label use, and greater English proficiency increased the odds of heritage-American label use. These associations significantly mediated the initial effects of setting. Further results examine ethnic differences as well as links between labels and self-esteem. The discussion highlights implications of ethnic labeling and context. PMID:21049283

  8. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm. PMID:25845416

  9. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844

  10. Subtyping adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eunice Y; Le Grange, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Cluster analyses of eating disorder patients have yielded a "dietary-depressive" subtype, typified by greater negative affect, and a "dietary" subtype, typified by dietary restraint. This study aimed to replicate these findings in an adolescent sample with bulimia nervosa (BN) from a randomized controlled trial and to examine the validity and reliability of this methodology. In the sample of BN adolescents (N=80), cluster analysis revealed a "dietary-depressive" subtype (37.5%) and a "dietary" subtype (62.5%) using the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Eating Disorder Examination Restraint subscale. The "dietary-depressive" subtype compared to the "dietary" subtype was significantly more likely to: (1) report co-occurring disorders, (2) greater eating and weight concerns, and (3) less vomiting abstinence at post-treatment (all p's<.05). The cluster analysis based on "dietary" and "dietary-depressive" subtypes appeared to have concurrent validity, yielding more distinct groups than subtyping by vomiting frequency. In order to assess the reliability of the subtyping scheme, a larger sample of adolescents with mixed eating and weight disorders in an outpatient eating disorder clinic (N=149) was subtyped, yielding similar subtypes. These results support the validity and reliability of the subtyping strategy in two adolescent samples. PMID:17949682

  11. Aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding measurements show much greater area of the Dufek intrusion, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Drewry, D.J.; Jankowski, E.; Grim, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A combined aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding survey made in 1978 in Antarctica over the Dufek layered mafic intrusion suggests a minimum area of the intrusion of about 50,000 square kilometers, making it comparable in size with the Bushveld Complex of Africa. Comparisons of the magnetic and subglacial topographic profiles illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in studying bedrock geology beneath ice-covered areas. Magnetic anomalies range in peak-to-trough amplitude from about 50 nanoteslas over the lowermost exposed portion of the section in the Dufek Massif to about 3600 nanoteslas over the uppermost part of the section in the Forrestal Range. Theoretical magnetic anomalies, computed from a model based on the subice topography fitted to the highest amplitude observed magnetic anomalies, required normal and reversed magnetizations ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 electromagnetic units per cubic centimeter. This result is interpreted as indicating that the Dufek intrusion cooled through the Curie isotherm during one or more reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

  12. Pap to Protein? Two Generations of Adolescent Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Dwight L.

    1980-01-01

    The dissolving of most of the taboos of content and the rigidities of technique has given adolescent literature a maturity that provides a greater potential for a rich experience for young adult readers. (CJ)

  13. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  14. Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

  15. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  16. Sleepiness and Cognitive Performance among Younger and Older Adolescents across a 28-Hour Forced Desynchrony Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lora J.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Quantify the homeostatic and circadian effects on sleepiness and performance of adolescents. Examine age-related changes in homeostatic and circadian regulation of sleepiness and performance by comparing younger and older adolescent groups. Design: Three-week laboratory study including 12 cycles of a 28-h forced desynchrony protocol. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment with individual sleep and performance testing rooms and shared common areas. Participants: Twenty-seven healthy adolescents including 16 females. Ages ranged from 9.6–15.2 years and participants were split into younger (n = 14 ages 9–12) and older (n = 13 ages 13–15) groups based on median age split of 13.0 years. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Testing occurred every 2 h during scheduled wake periods. Measures included sleep latency during repeated nap opportunities and scores from a computerized neurobehavioral assessment battery including a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task, a digit symbol substitution task, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Significant main effects of circadian and homeostatic factors were observed, as well as several circadian and homeostatic interaction effects. Age group did not have a significant main effect on sleep and performance data. A significant interaction of circadian phase and age group was found for sleep latency, with younger adolescents showing greater circadian modulation than older teens during the circadian night. Conclusions: Adolescents demonstrated a similar pattern of response to forced desynchrony as reported for adults. Sleepiness and performance were affected by homeostatic and circadian factors, and age group did not interact with homoeostatic and circadian factors for subjective sleepiness and most performance metrics. Younger adolescents had a shorter latency to sleep onset than older during the circadian bin spanning 4 to 8 h after the onset of melatonin secretion. Citation: Wu LJ, Acebo C, Seifer R

  17. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  18. Adolescent, but not adult, rats exhibit ethanol-mediated appetitive second-order conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent rats are less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than older animals. They also seem to perceive the reinforcing properties of ethanol. However, unlike neonates or infants, ethanol-mediated appetitive behavior has yet to be clearly shown in adolescents. Appetitive ethanol reinforcement was assessed in adolescent (postnatal day 33, P33) and adult rats (P71) through second-order conditioning (SOC). Methods On P32 or P70 animals were intragastrically administered ethanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (CS1, first-order conditioning phase). CS1 delivery took place either 5-20 (Early pairing) or 30-45 (Late pairing) min following ethanol. CS1 exposure and ethanol administration were separated by 240 min in unpaired controls. On P33 or P71, animals were presented the CS1 (second-order conditioning phase) while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). Then, they were tested for CS2 preference. Results Early and late paired adolescents, but not adults, had greater preference for the CS2 than controls, a result indicative of ontogenetic variation in ethanol-mediated reinforcement. During the CS1 - CS2 associative phase, paired adolescents given 2.0 g/kg ethanol wall-climbed more than controls. Blood and brain ethanol levels associated with the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg doses at the onset of each conditioning phase did not differ substantially across age, with mean BECs of 38 and 112 mg %. Conclusions These data indicate age-related differences between adolescent and adult rats in terms of sensitivity to ethanol’s motivational effects. Adolescents exhibit high sensitivity for ethanol’s appetitive effects. These animals also showed EtOH-mediated behavioral activation during the second-order conditioning phase. The SOC preparation provides a valuable conditioning model for assessing ethanol’s motivational effects across ontogeny. PMID:18782343

  19. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  20. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the

  1. Peer involvement in adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed. PMID:23239788

  2. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Muhammad Naghman; Ahmad, Zafar; Verma, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis refers to deviation of spine greater than 10 degrees in the coronal plane. Idiopathic Scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity that develops in otherwise healthy children. The sub types of scoliosis are based on the age of the child at presentation. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by definition occurs in children over the age of 10 years until skeletal maturity. Objective: The objective of this review is to outline the features of AIS to allow the physician to recognise this condition and commence early treatment, thereby optimizing patient outcome. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases, including Pubmed and Embase, to cover important research published covering AIS. Conclusion: AIS results in higher incidence of back pain and discontent with body image. Curves greater than 50 degrees in thoracic region and greater than 30 degrees in lumbar region progress at a rate of 0.5 to 1 degree per year into adulthood. Curves greater than 60 degrees can lead to pulmonary functional deficit. Therefore once the disease is recognized, effective treatment should be instituted to address the deformity and prevention of its long-term sequelae. PMID:27347243

  3. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. PMID:27345593

  4. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  5. Does Welfare Affect Family Processes and Adolescent Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated parenting behavior, parent/adolescent relationship, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Results showed minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behavior, although mothers receiving welfare reported fewer effective parent-management…

  6. Linkages over Time between Adolescents' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study examines linkages over time between adolescents' perceptions of relationships with parents and friends with respect to support, negative interaction, and power. A total of 575 early adolescents (54.1% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Path analyses mainly showed bidirectional associations…

  7. Brief Report: Reduced Temporal-Central EEG Alpha Coherence During Joint Attention Perception in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Mark; McMahon, Camilla M; Davidson, Bridget C; Newell, Lisa C; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    Although prior studies have demonstrated reduced resting state EEG coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have explored the nature of EEG coherence during joint attention. We examined the EEG coherence of the joint attention network in adolescents with and without ASD during congruent and incongruent joint attention perception and an eyes-open resting condition. Across conditions, adolescents with ASD showed reduced right hemisphere temporal-central alpha coherence compared to typically developing adolescents. Greater right temporal-central alpha coherence during joint attention was positively associated with social cognitive performance in typical development but not in ASD. These results suggest that, in addition to a resting state, EEG coherence during joint attention perception is reduced in ASD. PMID:26659813

  8. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  9. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  10. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  11. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  12. Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)

  13. Unmotivated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jill; Diller, Howard

    This book examines the characteristics and educational needs of unmotivated adolescents. It suggests that many of these students suffer from low self-esteem and are learning disabled and/or have an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. It offers a definition of learning disabilities that emphasizes the presence of significant differences…

  14. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  15. A Role For The Prefrontal Cortex In Heroin-Seeking After Forced Abstinence By Adult Male Rats But Not Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir+ and Fos-ir− neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir+ neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  16. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  17. American adolescents touch each other less and are more aggressive toward their peers as compared with French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Field, T

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Paris and Miami to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more aggressive verbal and physical behavior. PMID:10730699

  18. American Adolescents Touch Each Other Less and Are More Aggressive toward Their Peers as Compared with French Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Miami and Paris to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more…

  19. Patterns of parenting during adolescence: perceptions of adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Paulson, S E; Sputa, C L

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to explore differences in maternal and paternal parenting style and parental involvement, (2) to examine the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement, and (3) to explore the changes in parenting style and parental involvement between the adolescents' ninth and twelfth grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders recruited from several school districts in the Southeast and Midwest. Thirty-one subjects participated in a small longitudinal study three years later when they were in the twelfth grade. Measures of maternal and parental demandingness, responsiveness, values toward achievement, involvement in schoolwork, and involvement in school functions, designed for this program of research, were obtained from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that both adolescents and parents perceived mothers to be more involved in parenting than were fathers during both ninth and twelfth grades. Mothers and fathers were not found to be different regarding their values toward achievement. Additionally, both mothers and fathers perceived themselves to be higher on all aspects of parenting than their adolescents perceived them to be during both ninth and twelfth grades. In the longitudinal study, both adolescents and parents perceived levels of parenting to drop between ninth and twelfth grades, except values toward achievement which did not change. Implications for interpretation of existing research and for considerations of future research are discussed. PMID:8726896

  20. Adolescent gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Lara-Torre, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    Given new developments in the field of adolescent reproductive health, this review focuses on highlighting new guidelines and practice patterns in evaluation and management of adolescent gynecologic problems. First, understanding the proper techniques for the initial examination is key to establishing a long-term relationship with this age group. Reservations about the first gynecologic examination are common, and the practitioner's goal is foremost to make the patient as comfortable as possible. Preventive health in this patient population is key, and practitioners should become comfortable with providing education about topics as diverse as sexuality, eating disorders, and dating violence. Furthermore, the frequency with which teenagers report sexual activity and the high unintended pregnancy rate in this age group makes counseling regarding effective contraception essential. Additionally, practitioners are encouraged to take the opportunity to discuss the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with adolescents. In 2007, adolescents were designated as a special population, given the frequency with which they acquire and clear mild HPV-related cervical dysplasia. More conservative treatment in this population is generally favored. During their transition through puberty, disorders of menstruation become the most common complaint requiring the attention of the gynecologist. Most commonly, anovulation serves as the cause behind such abnormal bleeding. Polycystic ovarian syndrome can develop in early puberty and carry its consequences into adulthood. Infertility, diabetes, and hirsutism mark the most important components of the syndrome and require age-appropriate management. Finally, the consequences of endometriosis on the future fertility of adolescents have brought early intervention to light. Recognition and prompt treatment are advocated to prevent the future implications of this disease. PMID:19305342

  1. Alcohol advertising and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2002-04-01

    Considerable research now exists that the media may exert a powerful influence on adolescents' drug-taking behavior. Teens view an average of 2,000 beer and wine ads per year in the US. In addition, television shows, movies, and music videos contain considerable amounts of alcohol use. This article will discuss the available research and offers suggestions to make the media healthier for teenagers. PMID:11993288

  2. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour

  3. Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…

  4. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  5. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  6. Meeting Drug Information Needs of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    Drugs are an important life concern of adolescents, yet statistics show alarming and disturbing increases internationally in drug abuse. This paper reports on research that examines how adolescents cognitively process information about drugs. Four 17-year-old girls at a Catholic college in Sydney, Australia participated in a two-phase experiment…

  7. Play Therapy with Emotionally Damaged Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate; Ryan, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that non-directive play therapy offers an approach that is well suited to addressing adolescent concerns. The argument is illustrated by two accounts of therapy that show how a more traditional non-directive counseling approach was combined with play therapy by the adolescents themselves, allowing exploration of emotional…

  8. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  9. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior. PMID:26521948

  11. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  12. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in adolescent violin players.

    PubMed

    Kovero, O; Könönen, M

    1996-08-01

    Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the frequency of radiologically observed abnormalities in the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of adolescent violin players (VP group) were investigated in a group of 31 music students and in their age- and sex-matched controls (C group). All subjects underwent a routine clinical stomatognathic examination, a standardized interview, and radiography of the condyles. The VP group reported a higher frequency of the subjective symptoms: pain in the TMJ when chewing, a feeling of stiffness in the TMJ, and clenching of the teeth. Clinically, the VP group showed a greater range of maximal protrusion and of maximal laterotrusion to the right, and a greater frequency of deviation to the right on opening. They also showed more palpatory tenderness in the masticatory muscles and pain in the TMJ on maximal opening. The number of playing years and the number of weekly playing hours correlated with several signs and symptoms of TMDs. In terms of radiologic findings in the condyles of the TMJs there was no difference between the groups. It is concluded that intense violin playing may have a predisposing role in the etiology of TMDs in adolescence. PMID:8876740

  13. Adolescent gambling on the internet: a review.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Parke, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Internet gambling is a relatively under-researched area. While our current knowledge remains in its infancy and the prevalence rates are relatively low, researchers and clinicians are predicting greater involvement among youth. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was undertaken. The resulting relevant literature was classified into four areas. These were (a) the empirical studies on adolescent internet gambling, (b) online gambling-like experiences in adolescence, (c) adolescent gambling via social networking sites, and (d) adolescent gambling via online penny auction sites. Age verification in relation to prevention and regulation is also examined. It is concluded that young people appear to be very proficient in using and accessing new media and are likely to be increasingly exposed to remote gambling opportunities. These young people will therefore require education and guidance to enable them to cope with the challenges of convenience gambling in all its guises. PMID:20491418

  14. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  15. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  16. Telehealth application on the rehabilitation of children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Maria Tereza N.; Moura, Sarah Costa D. O.; Gomes, Ludmila Mourão X.; Lima, Ana Henriques; Moreira, Rafaela Silva; Silva, Caroline Duarte; Guimarães, Eliane Marina P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature on the telehealth initiatives in telerehabilitation practices in children and adolescents from zero to 18 years old. Data sources: Randomized and controlled clinical trials published in the past ten years (January 2002 to February 2012) in Medline/PubMed, Medline/BVS, PEDro and Cochrane Library databases. The descriptors "telemedicine", "rehabilitation" and "telehealth" were used in three different languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish). Data synthesis: From the 20 studies found in the literature, nine were included in this review. Most of the studies showed that telerehabilitation is able to produce better results in the treatment when compared to the traditional methods, providing less frequency of symptoms, better disease control, better quality of life and greater adherence to treatment. Conclusions: Telerehabilitation is a viable and effective strategy in the treatment of common diseases in children and adolescents. However, there are few studies on the subject in this age group. Although telehealth is already consolidated worldwide, there are no studies in Brazil that used the telerehabilitation in children and adolescents, which reinforces the need for more research and investments. PMID:24676201

  17. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Baker, Laura A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy. PMID:25676553

  18. Assessment of Adolescent Neurotoxicity: Rationale and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2007-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue of Neurotoxicology and Teratology on “Risk of neurobehavioral toxicity in adolescence” begins by broadly considering the ontogeny and phylogeny of adolescence, and the potential value of animal models of adolescence. Major findings from the emerging neuroscience of adolescence are then highlighted to establish the importance of studies of adolescent neurotoxicity. A variety of methodological issues that are of particular relevance to adolescent exposures are then discussed. These include consideration of pharmacokinetic factors, inclusion of other-aged comparison group(s), and issues involving timing, route of administration, and exposure-induced alterations in growth rate. Despite such methodological challenges, research to determine whether adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability (or greater resiliency) to specific drugs and environmental toxicants is progressing rapidly, as exemplified by the work presented in the articles of this special issue. PMID:17222532

  19. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. PMID:25766233

  20. Qualities of adolescent mothers' parenting.

    PubMed

    East, P L; Matthews, K L; Felice, M E

    1994-03-01

    This study examined the interrelations among adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes, parenting confidence, and parenting stress and the potential differences in these dimensions by mothers' age, race, and parity, and age and sex of child. Subjects were 119 former adolescent mothers (mean age = 20.2 years) from predominantly poor, minority backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 27% African American, 17% non-Hispanic White). All subjects completed questionnaires about their parenting qualities twice an average of 10 weeks apart. All children were at least 1 year of age (mean age = 37.2 months; range 12-50 months). Subjects' parenting attitudes were assessed by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, a 32-item questionnaire. The Maternal Self-Report inventory was used to assess the mothers' self-esteem or their confidence in the mothering role. To assess the stress experienced with parenting, the Parenting Daily Hassles scale was used. Results indicated that for some mothers there exists a triple jeopardy of low parenting confidence, high parenting stress, and inappropriate parenting values. Mothers who reported feeling high parenting stress had low confidence in themselves as mothers, low empathy to their children's needs, and low acceptance of their children. Mothers who were older at the time of the study placed greater value on physical punishment and had less confidence in their caretaking abilities. Young maternal age at delivery and young maternal age at the time of this study were associated with low child acceptance. Non-Hispanic White mothers had significantly more favorable parenting values (greater empathy to child's needs and less value of physical punishment) than did African-American and Hispanic mothers, and African-American mothers reported significantly greater caretaking confidence than did Hispanic mothers. No parity or sex of child effects were found. These results suggest the presence of meaningful patterns of convergence and within-group variation for

  1. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Method Demographically matched adolescents (16.0–18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 hours). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group × time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. Results The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group × time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. Conclusions In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in

  2. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  3. The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ [greater than or…

  4. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  5. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Eva Henje; Connolly, Colm G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P.; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad- happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Methods Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. Results The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Limitations Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Conclusions Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25827506

  6. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INDUCED MOTOR IMPAIRMENT FOLLOWING ACUTE ETHANOL: ASSESSMENT VIA THE NEGATIVE GEOTAXIS REFLEX IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Spear, Linda Patia

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent rats have been observed to be less sensitive than adults to a number of ethanol effects that may serve as feedback cues to reduce further ethanol intake. Among these findings are a few reports of attenuated sensitivities of adolescents to ethanol-induced motor impairment. The purpose of the present study was to further explore potential age-related differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment in both male and female adolescent (postnatal day [P]28–32), and adult (P68-72) Sprague-Dawley rats using an inclined plane assessment of the negative geotaxis reflex. Adult males displayed significant motor impairment at 1.5 g/kg, whereas adolescent males required higher doses, showing significant motor impairment only at doses of 2.25 g/kg ethanol or greater. Intoxicated practice did not significantly influence level of motor impairment at either age. When female rats of both ages were separately analyzed in terms of their response to ethanol, a dose of 1.5 g/kg ethanol was found to significantly impair adults, whereas adolescent females showed significant motor impairment when challenged with 2.25 g/kg but not 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Yet when the 1.5 g/kg data of females at the two ages were directly compared, no significant age difference was seen at this dose. These data document an attenuated sensitivity of adolescent relative to adult rats to the motor impairing effects of ethanol using a stationary inclined plane test, an effect particularly robust in male animals, and demonstrates the utility of this test for assessment of motor coordination in adolescent and adult rats. PMID:20138187

  7. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    PubMed

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications. PMID:26759131

  8. Versatility and addiction in gaming: the number of video-game genres played is associated with pathological gaming in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Ammannato, Giulio; Primi, Caterina

    2015-02-01

    This study tested the predictive power of gaming versatility (i.e., the number of video game genres engaged in) on game addiction in male adolescents, controlling for time spent on gaming. Participants were 701 male adolescents attending high school (Mage=15.6 years). Analyses showed that pathological gaming was predicted not only by higher time spent on gaming, but also by participation in a greater number of video game genres. Specifically, the wider the array of video game genres played, the higher were the negative consequences caused by gaming. Findings show that versatility can be considered as one of the behavioral risk factors related to gaming addiction, which may be characterized by a composite and diversified experience with video games. This study suggests that educational efforts designed to prevent gaming addiction among youth may also be focused on adolescents' engagement in different video games. PMID:25684613

  9. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug’s unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. PMID:25473324

  10. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

  11. Two Models of Adolescent Self-Mutilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    Hostility and anxiety reduction models were simultaneously tested in order to determine whether self-mutilation (SM) in adolescence was characterized by greater feelings of anxiety and hostility. Students who SM reported significantly more anxiety and more intropunitive and extrapunitive hostility. Prior to SM feelings of both hostility and…

  12. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  13. Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…

  14. Adolescents' Behavior and Attitudes toward AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Saeed; And Others

    The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…

  15. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  16. The Embeddedness of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kenneth A.; Muller, Chandra; Mueller, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Although research on social embeddedness and social capital con-firms the value of friendship networks, little has been written about how social relations form and are structured by social institutions. Using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors show that the odds of a new friendship nomination were 1.77 times greater within clusters of high school students taking courses together than between them. The estimated effect cannot be attributed to exposure to peers in similar grade levels, indirect friendship links, or pair-level course overlap, and the finding is robust to alternative model specifications. The authors also show how tendencies associated with status hierarchy inhering in triadic friendship nominations are neutralized within the clusters. These results have implications for the production and distribution of social capital within social systems such as schools, giving the clusters social salience as “local positions.” PMID:25364011

  17. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  18. Adolescent Binge Drinking Linked to Abnormal Spatial Working Memory Brain Activation: Differential Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Methods 40 binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males) ages 16 to 19, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and a spatial working memory task (SWM) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Significant binge drinking status x gender interactions were found (p<.05) in 8 brain regions spanning bilateral frontal, anterior cingulate, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. In all regions, female binge drinkers showed less SWM activation than female controls, while male bingers exhibited greater SWM response than male controls. For female binge drinkers, less activation was associated with poorer sustained attention and working memory performances (ps<.025). For male binge drinkers, greater activation was linked to better spatial performance (p<.025). Conclusion Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during a SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that BOLD activation is both affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive

  19. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barreira, Tiago V.; Kang, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females). Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5) for female adolescents only. Conclusions The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB. PMID:26477996

  20. Adolescent Attitudes about Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershner, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)

  1. Counsellors' Perceptions of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions Israeli secondary-school counselors have of adolescence. Results reveal that, in general, counselors have a favorable view of adolescents and do not perceive adolescence as a "difficult stage." Counselors also believe that they are perceived positively by their adolescent students. Identifies five types of adolescents…

  2. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  3. Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimation of body composition in Black, White and Hispanic adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Going, S; Nichols, J; Loftin, M; Stewart, D; Lohman, T; Tuuri, G; Ring, K; Pickrel, J; Blew, R; J Stevens

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Equations for estimating % fat mass (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that work in adolescent girls from different racial/ethnic backgrounds are not available. We investigated whether race/ethnicity influences estimation of body composition in adolescent girls. PRINCIPAL PROCEDURES: Prediction equations were developed for estimating FFM and %BF from BIA in 166 girls, 10-15 years old, consisting of 51 Black (B), 45 non-Black Hispanic (H), 55 non-Hispanic White (W) and 15 mixed (M) race/ethnicity girls, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion method. FINDINGS: Black girls had similar %BF compared to other groups, yet were heavier per unit of height according to body mass index (BMI: kg.m(-2)) due to significantly greater FFM. BIA resistance index, age, weight and race/ethnicity were all significant predictors of FFM (R(2) = 0.92, SEE = 1.81 kg). Standardized regression coefficients showed resistance index (0.63) and weight (0.34) were the most important predictors of FFM. Errors in %BF (~2%) and FFM (~1.0 kg) were greater when race/ethnicity was not included in the equation, particularly in Black girls. We conclude the BIA-composition relationship in adolescent girls is influenced by race, and consequently have developed new BIA equations for adolescent girls for predicting FFM and %BF. PMID:17848976

  4. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance. PMID:25326012

  5. Spinal Kinematics of Adolescent Male Rowers with Back Pain in Comparison with Matched Controls During Ergometer Rowing.

    PubMed

    Ng, Leo; Campbell, Amity; Burnett, Angus; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent male rowers. In this study, regional lumbar spinal kinematics and self-reported LBP intensity were compared between 10 adolescent rowers with moderate levels of LBP relating to rowing with 10 reporting no history of LBP during a 15-minute ergometer trial using an electromagnetic tracking system. Adolescent male rowers with LBP reported increasing pain intensity during ergometer rowing. No significant differences were detected in mean upper or lower lumbar angles between rowers with and without LBP. However, compared with rowers without pain, rowers with pain: (1) had relatively less excursion of the upper lumbar spine into extension over the drive phase, (2) had relatively less excursion of the lower lumbar spine into extension over time, (3) had greater variability in upper and lower lumbar angles over the 15-minute ergometer trial, (4) positioned their upper lumbar spine closer to end range flexion for a greater proportion of the drive phase, and (5) showed increased time in sustained flexion loading in the upper lumbar spine. Differences in regional lumbar kinematics exist between adolescent male rowers with and without LBP, which may have injury implication and intervention strategies. PMID:26252195

  6. Development of the Tendency to Use Emotion Regulation Strategies and Their Relation to Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Luo, Sichen; Ward, Anne; Sang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The process model of emotion regulation posits that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., greater positive emotion) while the tendency to use expressive suppression is associated with adverse outcomes (e.g., greater negative emotion). Many studies using adult samples support this theory. However, the development of the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression and how these tendencies relate to depressive symptoms in adolescents remain unclear. To address these questions, 639 Chinese adolescents aged 12-18 years old were asked to report their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression as well as their depressive symptoms. General linear model multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant age effect for the tendency to use emotion regulation strategies. Further analysis found that these adolescents reported using less expressive suppression as age increased, while there was no age effect for the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal. Moreover, linear regression analysis revealed that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal in daily life negatively influenced depressive symptoms, while the tendency to use expressive suppression in daily life positively influenced depressive symptoms. These findings provide evidence that support the development of emotion regulation strategies in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27597834

  7. Development of the Tendency to Use Emotion Regulation Strategies and Their Relation to Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Liyang; Luo, Sichen; Ward, Anne; Sang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The process model of emotion regulation posits that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., greater positive emotion) while the tendency to use expressive suppression is associated with adverse outcomes (e.g., greater negative emotion). Many studies using adult samples support this theory. However, the development of the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression and how these tendencies relate to depressive symptoms in adolescents remain unclear. To address these questions, 639 Chinese adolescents aged 12–18 years old were asked to report their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression as well as their depressive symptoms. General linear model multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant age effect for the tendency to use emotion regulation strategies. Further analysis found that these adolescents reported using less expressive suppression as age increased, while there was no age effect for the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal. Moreover, linear regression analysis revealed that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal in daily life negatively influenced depressive symptoms, while the tendency to use expressive suppression in daily life positively influenced depressive symptoms. These findings provide evidence that support the development of emotion regulation strategies in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27597834

  8. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence. PMID:27247125

  9. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    PubMed Central

    Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. Results When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. Conclusion The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction. PMID:27110145

  10. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  11. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this

  12. Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P < 0·001; Sternberg: P = 0·050; Flanker: P = 0·014) trials. Following the low-GI breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P < 0·001) than following the high-GI breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

  13. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A. P.; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  14. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A P; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  15. Primary-Process Thinking in Thematic Fantasies of Creative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Charles E.

    1971-01-01

    Thematic fantasies of highly creative adolescents were rated by clinical psychologists as exhibiting greater primary-process thinking than the thematic reports of matched controls; they also included a greater proportion of unlikely combinations, fluid transformations, visual representations, magic occurrences, and contradictions. (Author)

  16. Adolescent-onset of cocaine use is associated with heightened stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Chong; Marinelli, Michela

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent rats take cocaine more readily than adults, are more sensitive to lower doses of the drug and work harder for it. It remains unknown if adolescent-onset of cocaine use has long-term consequences on adult relapse liability. Therefore, we tested if self-administering cocaine during adolescence impacts subsequent stress-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking and taking, after a prolonged drug-free period. Adolescent (~P42) or adult (P88) rats self-administered cocaine (0.6 or 1.2 mg/kg/infusion) for 7 or 10 days. Then, they underwent a prolonged drug-free period (21-40 days), after which they were tested for reinstatement of cocaine-seeking (i.e. responding in the absence of cocaine) induced by the stress hormone corticosterone, the pharmacological stressor yohimbine or electric footshock. Studies employed either single extinction session (within-session extinction/reinstatement) or repeated extinction prior to reinstatement (between-session extinction/reinstatement). Finally, in a separate set of experiments, rats underwent a prolonged drug-free period (~40 days) and were then allowed to self-administer cocaine again, using progressive-ratio procedures that appraise the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine. Rats with adolescent-onset of cocaine use showed greater stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking than rats with adult-onset of cocaine use. This was observed across conditions, providing external validity to these results. Groups did not differ on drug taking in progressive-ratio tests. Our studies indicate that experiencing cocaine during adolescence renders subjects particularly responsive to the subsequent effects of stress on drug seeking. This heightened propensity for reinstatement puts adolescent-onset drug users at heightened risk for relapse. PMID:26202521

  17. The role of the experience and expression of anger and anxiety in elevated blood pressure among black and white adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between black and white adolescents in the experience and expression of anger and anxiety, traditional risk factors for hypertension, and blood pressure were examined among adolescents enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Relationships between blood pressure and anger/anxiety and traditional risk factors were also examined. Black adolescents of both genders experienced feelings of anxiety more frequently and with greater intensity than did their white counterparts. Although black and white adolescents did not differ in their ability to experience anger, blacks experienced more intense reactions in situations involving unfair criticism and time pressure. More importantly, black males and females suppressed the expression of their anger more often than did their white counterparts. The blood pressure of black adolescent males and females was found to be significantly higher than their white counterparts. Blacks were also more likely to have a family history of hypertension, but were less likely to smoke cigarettes. Racial differences on other risk factors were found only among black females who were heavier and consumed more salty junk foods than white females. Although a number of the personality and risk factor measures were significantly correlated with blood pressure, measures of suppressed anger were more strongly correlated with blood pressure for both black and white adolescents. Findings from the multiple regression analyses showed that suppressed anger was the best independent predictor of blood pressure for all groups except white females. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that adolescents with elevated blood pressure can be identified by emotional/psychological factors, which are predictive of high blood pressure for both blacks and whites. PMID:2746680

  18. Exposure to violence in adolescence and precocious role exits.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Dana L; Petts, Richard J; Maimon, David; Piquero, Alex R

    2009-03-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious public health concern that compromises adolescents by affecting their behavior and psychological well-being. The current study advances knowledge about the consequences of exposure to violence in adolescence by applying a life course perspective to evaluate the developmental implications of adolescents' exposure to violence. In particular, drawing on a sample of 11,949 school-aged adolescents in the U.S., we examine whether exposure to violence in adolescence is associated with precocious role exits that some adolescents experience. Exposure to violence is conceptualized as including both direct (i.e., experiencing physical victimization) and indirect exposure (i.e., witnessing others' victimization). Three types of direct exposure to violence are examined: street, intimate partner, and family victimization, as well as four types of indirect exposure including: street, peer, and school violence as well as exposure to family/friend suicide. Using three waves of longitudinal data from the Add Health Study, we find that exposure to violence is associated with greater risks of running away from home, dropping out of high school, having a child, attempting suicide, and coming into contact with the criminal justice system in later adolescence. In addition, risks depend upon the relational context in which the exposure to violence occurred, risks increase with greater exposure to violence, and risks are, for the most part, highest for those youth exposed to both indirect and direct violence in adolescence. PMID:19636744

  19. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  20. Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese dogs.

    PubMed

    Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Bergman, Richard N

    2009-04-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here, we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy (OM), on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and beta-cell function in nonobese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in this research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either OM (n = 7), or sham-surgery (SHAM) (n = 6). OM failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P = 0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P = 0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 +/- 6.4%; P = 0.29); although primary analysis showed a trend for OM to increase S(I) when compared to sham operated animals (P = 0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting S(I) of the periphery (+67.7 +/- 35.2%; P = 0.03), as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (presurgery 6.82 +/- 1.4 vs. postsurgery: 6.7 +/- 1.2 pmol/l/mg/dl, P = 0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater OM procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

  1. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  2. Mathematically gifted adolescents use more extensive and more bilateral areas of the fronto-parietal network than controls during executive functioning and fluid reasoning tasks.

    PubMed

    Desco, Manuel; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J; Sanchez-González, Javier; Reig, Santiago; Robles, Olalla; Franco, Carolina; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; García-Barreno, Pedro; Arango, Celso

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of fluid reasoning and visuospatial working memory in adolescents with precocious mathematical ability. The study population comprised two groups of adolescents: 13 math-gifted adolescents and 14 controls with average mathematical skills. Patterns of activation specific to reasoning tasks in math-gifted subjects were examined using functional magnetic resonance images acquired while the subjects were performing Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and the Tower of London (TOL) tasks. During the tasks, both groups showed significant activations in the frontoparietal network. In the math-gifted group, clusters of activation were always bilateral and more regions were recruited, especially in the right hemisphere. In the TOL task, math-gifted adolescents showed significant hyper-activations relative to controls in the precuneus, superior occipital lobe (BA 19), and medial temporal lobe (BA 39). The maximum differences between the groups were detected during RAPM tasks at the highest level of difficulty, where math-gifted subjects showed significant activations relative to controls in the right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 32), and frontal (BA 9, and BA 6) areas. Our results support the hypothesis that greater ability for complex mathematical reasoning may be related to more bilateral patterns of activation and that increased activation in the parietal and frontal regions of math-gifted adolescents is associated with enhanced skills in visuospatial processing and logical reasoning. PMID:21463696

  3. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  4. Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2011-11-01

    Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097

  5. A causal model of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Brage, D; Meredith, W

    1994-07-01

    We examined how family strengths, parent-adolescent communication, self-esteem, loneliness, age, and gender interrelate, and how this interaction influences depression in adolescents. The data were collected on a written questionnaire completed by 156 adolescents who were attending public schools in four communities in the midwestern United States. We developed a causal model to explicate the relationships among the variables hypothesized to affect adolescent depression and analyzed the data using path analysis via the LISREL VII program. Results showed a good fit of the model to the data. Loneliness and self-esteem had a direct effect on adolescent depression. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on depression through loneliness. Age directly and indirectly influenced depression through loneliness. Gender was significantly related to depression through self-esteem. Family strengths indirectly affected depression through self-esteem. PMID:7932297

  6. Assessment of Major and Daily Stressful Events During Adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted four studies to develop Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (APES), measure of major and daily stressful events during adolescence. Describes test construction, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of APES. Summarizes subsequent research showing APES to be significantly related to behavior problems and psychological…

  7. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. PMID:27194666

  9. Challenges in the Detection of Working Memory and Attention Decrements Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Manning, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Methods Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile < vs. >=85) and continuous (triceps skinfold thickness) measures of adiposity. Results The results revealed a significant association between excess adiposity and performance errors during the working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. Conclusions The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to diet education efforts and treatment response. PMID:26812684

  10. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220

  11. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228

  12. Does "Tiger Parenting" Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    "Tiger parenting," as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228

  13. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors and their association with the treatment of adolescents with substance use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Latimer, William W.; Stone, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the treatment outcome research literature for adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse has shown recent advances (R. J. Williams, S. Y. Chang, & Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group, 2000), significant knowledge gaps remain. A. E. Kazdin (2001) recently observed that one of the key questions for the field is to identify if client characteristics meaningfully mediate or moderate treatment outcome. There is support from the adolescent clinical literature that internalizing and externalizing personality subtypes are related to the onset and course of youth substance use disorders (D. B. Clark & O. G. Bukstein, 1998). The study extends this literature by examining the association of drug use behaviors outcome and subtyped adolescents (internalizers and externalizers; n = 141) who sought treatment at a 12-Step program. The analysis also includes a community-based control group (n = 94). Specifically, we examined the association of subtype and treatment retention and short-term (Year 1) and long-term (Year 4 and Year 5.5) drug involvement outcomes. Externalizers consistently showed poorer outcomes, including poorer treatment retention and greater drug use and drug disorder symptoms at each follow-up point. The treatment implications of the study are discussed. PMID:18328664

  14. Daily family assistance and inflammation among adolescents from Latin American and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Telzer, Eva H; Bower, Julienne; Irwin, Michael R; Kiang, Lisa; Cole, Steve W

    2009-08-01

    To assess the biological impact of time spent helping the family during the teenage years, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 64 adolescents (M(age)=17.79 years) from Latin American and European backgrounds. Analyses of nightly diary checklists over 14 days showed that the amount of time spent helping the family in a variety of ways, such as cooking, cleaning, and sibling care, was associated with long-term elevations of sIL-6r and CRP, even after controlling for ethnicity, parental education, BMI, substance use, distress, and frequency of daily family assistance 2 years earlier. However, adolescents who derived a greater sense of role fulfillment from helping the family on a daily basis had lower levels of sIL-6r and CRP as compared to their peers who engaged in the same amount of family assistance. Additional work should explore the family context that drives high levels of assistance among adolescents, as well as the variety of ways adolescents may derive meaning from this activity. PMID:19275931

  15. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.; Kamon, Jody L.; Thostensen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    An initial efficacy test of an innovative behavioral outpatient treatment model for adolescents with problematic use of marijuana enrolled 69 adolescents, aged 14–18, and randomly assigned them to one of two treatment conditions. Both conditions received individualized Motivational Enhancement and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MET/CBT) and a twice-weekly drug-testing program. The experimental contingency management condition involved a clinic delivered, abstinence-based incentive program, and weekly behavioral parent training sessions that included a parent-delivered, abstinence-based, substance monitoring contract. The comparison condition included an attendance-based incentive program, and weekly psychoeducational parent sessions. Follow-up assessments were performed at 3, 6, 9 months post-treatment. The experimental condition showed greater marijuana abstinence during treatment, e.g., 7.6 vs. 5.1 continuous weeks and 50% vs. 18% achieved ≥ 10 weeks of abstinence. Improvements were found in parenting and youth psychopathology across treatment conditions, and improvements in negative parenting uniquely predicted post treatment abstinence. The outcomes observed in the experimental condition are consistent with adult substance dependence treatment literature, and suggest that integrating CM abstinence-based approaches with other empirically-based outpatient interventions provides an alternative and efficacious treatment model for adolescent substance abuse/dependence. Replication and continued development of more potent interventions remain needed to further advance the development of effective substance abuse treatments for adolescents. PMID:19717250

  16. Incidence of distal femoral and distal tibial deformities in infantile and adolescent blount disease.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas G; Fishman, Michael K; McCarthy, James J; Davidson, Richard S; Gaughan, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess distal femoral and tibial deformity in patients with infantile and adolescent Blount disease. This was a retrospective review of patients at the authors' institution diagnosed with Blount disease. Thirty-eight patients (21 in the infantile group and 17 in the adolescent group) met the study criteria. Measurements of the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), and tibiofemoral angle (TFA) were made from long-leg radiographs. The results of the infantile and adolescent measurements were compared with each other and to a normal database. Intraobserver and interobserver error was determined. The adolescent aLDFA measurements were significantly greater (more varus) than for the infantile group and normal database. The aLDTA (ankle) measurements were not statistically different between the two groups, or from the normal database. Analysis of both intraobserver and interobserver error for the aLDFA and aLDTA showed good reliability. PMID:15718905

  17. Parent-adolescent relationships and social adjustment: the case of a collectivistic culture.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Wiseman, Hadas; Farah, Faten

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how parent-adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in the distant and mixed groups reported midway levels of loneliness, and those in the warm group showed the lowest degree of loneliness and the lowest levels of interpersonal problems. Overall, boys reported higher levels of peer-related loneliness and lower levels of affinity for aloneness than girls. Gender interacted significantly with parenting group, with girls in the harsh parenting group exhibiting greater parent-related loneliness and affinity for loneliness, while boys exhibited more peer-related loneliness. The important role that parents play in their children's social adjustment is discussed in relation to gender and culture. PMID:22044231

  18. Experiences of adolescents seropositive for HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Thomé Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Explore the meanings attributed by young individuals about "living as an adolescent with HIV" in a group of patients that acquired the infection at birth and the elements involved with the adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Qualitative study, involving 20 subjects (aged 13-20 years), followed at services specialized in the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were carried out of which script consisted of questions about their personal histories, experiences and difficulties they must face while living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Being "normal" and "different" were central issues voiced by the participants. However, a normal life situation is guaranteed by being responsible with one's health, the condition that the diagnosis be kept secret and concerns about HIV transmission and dissemination to a sexual partner. The answers about treatment show that adherence is a dynamic process and involves moments of greater or lesser interest in relation to care for one's health. The adolescents have plans and projects and although HIV is considered a stressor, positive perspectives for the future prevailed. Conclusions: To live as an adolescent with HIV involves subtle dimensions that need to be recognized and legitimized by professionals who follow the trajectory of these young individuals. It is necessary to allow a space in which the adolescents can reflect and find support regarding issues related to the construction of their sexuality and care of one's own body. PMID:26611887

  19. Group trauma-informed treatment for adolescent psychiatric inpatients: a preliminary uncontrolled trial.

    PubMed

    Gudiño, Omar G; Weis, J Rebecca; Havens, Jennifer F; Biggs, Emily A; Diamond, Ursula N; Marr, Mollie; Jackson, Christie; Cloitre, Marylene

    2014-08-01

    Despite high rates of trauma exposure (46%-96%) and significant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 21%-29%) symptoms in adolescent psychiatric inpatients, there is a dearth of research on effective interventions delivered in inpatient settings. The current report describes the development of Brief STAIR-A, a repeatable 3-module version of skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation (STAIR) developed for adolescents in inpatient care. An uncontrolled design was used to conduct a preliminary examination of the group intervention's effectiveness. Adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 38; ages 12 years-17 years) admitted to a public hospital participated in Brief STAIR-A and attended a median of 6 sessions (range 3-36). They completed measures of PTSD and depressive symptom severity, coping skill use, and coping efficacy upon admission and again prior to discharge. Participants reported significant reductions in symptom severity (d = 0.65-0.67), no change in the absolute level of coping skills used (d = 0.16), but greater coping efficacy when discharged from care (d = 0.75). Results from this pilot study suggest that this brief group treatment shows promise for treating adolescents' trauma-related difficulties in inpatient psychiatry settings, but additional research examining its effectiveness is essential. PMID:25070927

  20. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  1. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S.; Postacchini, F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks. PMID:18256834

  2. Re-training Automatic Action Tendencies to Approach Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Larsen, Helle; Cavallo, Dana; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Salemink, Elske; D'Escury-Koenigs, Annemat L. Collot; Morean, Meghan; Wiers, Reinout; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Background This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli, (1) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (2) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Methods Sixty adolescent smokers received four weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, with CBM (90% avoidance/10% approach for smoking stimuli and 10% avoidance/90% approach for neutral stimuli) or sham (50% avoidance/50% approach for smoking and neutral stimuli) training in the Netherlands (n = 42) and the United States (n = 18). Results While we did not observe changes in action tendencies related to CBM, adolescents with higher smoking approach biases at baseline had greater decreases in approach biases at follow up, compared to adolescents with smoking avoidance biases, regardless of treatment condition (p = 0.01). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed that CBM, when compared with sham trended toward higher end-of-treatment, biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point prevalence abstinence, (17.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.071). ITT analysis also showed that regardless of treatment condition, cotinine level (p = 0.045) and average number of cigarette smoked (p ≤ 0.001) significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggests that re-training approach biases toward cigarettes shows promise for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. Future research should utilize larger samples and increased distinction between CBM and sham conditions, and examine mechanisms underlying the CBM approach. PMID:26186485

  3. Substance use and sexual risk taking among black adolescents and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F

    1994-05-01

    Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860

  4. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  5. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  6. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  7. Migraine in affectively ill Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DILSAVER, STEVEN C.; BENAZZI, FRANCO; OEDEGAARD, KETIL J.; FASMER, OLE B.; AKISKAL, KAREEN K.; AKISKAL, HAGOP S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of migraine headache among depressed Latino adolescents of Mexican American origin. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study of the prevalence of migraine among depressed adolescents of any ethnic/racial background. In a mental health clinic for the indigent, 132 consecutive Latino adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode were compared with a sample of adolescents with other mental disorders. Logistic regression was used to test for associations and control for confounding effects. The prevalence of migraine headache among depressed adolescents was 6 times greater than that of the comparison patients (OR = 5.98, z = 2.35, p = 0.019). This finding is consistent with previously published reports involving adult samples, in which the prevalence of migraine was found to exceed that in the general population. However, contrary to what we previously found in Latino adults, the prevalence of migraine was not higher in bipolar than in unipolar adolescents. PMID:20157635

  8. Help-seeking atititudes among Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tishby, O; Turel, M; Gumpel, O; Pinus, U; Lavy, S B; Winokour, M; Sznajderman, S

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Nearly fifteen hundred students in grades 7-12 participated in a comprehensive survey of attitudes, health status, and concerns, and the data were analyzed. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help-seeking attitudes. Females reported a higher level of distress and greater willingness to seek help than did males. Younger adolescents tended to state that they would turn to parents for help, whereas older adolescents increasingly preferred peers. In general, the adolescents preferred to seek help from family and peers for emotional and social problems, rather than turning to professionals. Adolescents in grades 9-10 reported the highest level of distress and were least willing to seek help for interpersonal problems and depressed mood. Overall, level of distress was not directly related to willingness to seek help. In subgroups of depressed and suicidal adolescents, an inverse relationship was found between willingness to seek help and levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Recommendations for health care services and counseling programs are discussed. PMID:11572304

  9. Adolescents' Fright Reactions to Television and Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne; Reilly, Sandra

    1982-01-01

    Results demonstrate that adolescents experience enduring fright reactions from scary television shows and films, yet their mothers are often unaware of their responses. Concludes that family communication about how and when a child is frightened is poor. (PD)

  10. Preserved hippocampal function during learning in the context of risk in adolescent suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lisa; Segreti, Annamaria; Almeida, Jorge; Jollant, Fabrice; Lawrence, Natalia; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-02-28

    Impairment in decision-making is frequently observed in suicide attempters. Little is known, however, about neural circuitry underlying decision-making in adolescent attempters. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess decision-making and learning-related neural activity during Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance in adolescents with depression and suicide attempt (ATT, n=15), non-attempters with depression (NAT, n=14), and healthy controls (HC, n=13). ATT performed best on the IGT. A three group by two condition (high-risk versus low-risk) by three IGT block (each of 20 cards) whole-brain analysis (p<0.05, corrected) interaction was found in the left hippocampal, frontal and temporal cortical, striatal and thalamic regions. Post-hoc analyses revealed that during low-risk decisions in blocks 2 and 3, NAT, but not ATT, showed greater left hippocampal activation versus HC (p=0.0004, p=0.003); in block 2, during low-risk decisions NAT showed greater left middle temporal gyral activation versus HC (p=0.003); in block 3, during high-risk decisions ATT showed less activation in the right thalamus versus NAT (p=0.001) and during low risk decisions ATT showed greater activation than HC in the left caudate (p=0.002). NAT, but not ATT are differentiated from HC during performance of the IGT. Functional abnormalities in neural circuitry implicated in learning in the context of risk may underlie risk for MDD, but not risk for suicide attempt, in adolescence. PMID:23158778

  11. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    PubMed

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations. PMID:9104652

  12. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

    1990-01-01

    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541

  13. Isolation and normlessness: attitudinal comparisons of adolescent sex offenders, juvenile offenders, and nondelinquents.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Munns, Rosemary

    2005-10-01

    The authors explored attitudinal differences among adolescent male sex offenders, juvenile delinquents, and nondelinquent youth based on three variables drawn from integrated delinquency theory: conventional attitudes, normlessness, and social isolation. Consistent with previous juvenile delinquency studies, the results indicate no differences among the three groups on conventional attitudes. With respect to normlessness, both the sex offenders and juvenile delinquent groups demonstrated more school normlessness than did nondelinquent youths, and adolescent sex offenders showed greater peer normlessness than did either nondelinquent youths or juvenile delinquents. Examination of perceived social isolation among the three groups indicates that sex offenders consistently perceived themselves as more isolated than other youths with their families, in their school, and among their peers. These results suggest that interpersonal factors, in addition to a lack of social controls and normlessness, are associated with sexually inappropriate behavior. PMID:16260479

  14. Daily Cybervictimization Among Latino Adolescents: Links with Emotional, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how Latino adolescents’ daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents. PMID:27307652

  15. Single-leg postural stability deficits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R; Micheli, Lyle J; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postural stability of pediatric and adolescent athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injury with those who underwent anterior cruciate reconstruction (ACLR). Postural stability ratings derived from a video-force plate system during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System were collected from pediatric and adolescent athletes who underwent ACLR (N=24; mean 1.2 years after surgery) and from uninjured controls (N=479). The postural control rating was calculated as the mean of the displacement and variance of the torso and center of pressure data, normalized on a scale from 0 to 100. A higher rating indicates greater postural stability. Participants who underwent ACLR showed lower postural stability ratings during single-leg stance compared with uninjured controls (40.0 vs. 48.7; P=0.037). ACLR is associated with deficits in postural stability. PMID:26863483

  16. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124

  17. Ecosystem management: A comparison of greater yellowstone and georges bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, Richard H.; Clark, Tim W.

    1995-09-01

    Ecosystem management links human activities with the functioning of natural environments over large spatial and temporal scales. Our examination of Greater Yellowstone and Georges Bank shows similarities exist between human uses, administrative characteristics, and some biophysical features. Each region faces growing pressures to replace traditional extractive uses with more sustainable extractive or noncommodity uses coupled with concern about endangered species. Ecosystem management as a set of practical guidelines for making decisions under evolving expectations is far from complete, and it embodies new demands on individuals and institutions. In each system these challenges are considered relative to: the public's symbolic understanding of the management challenge, ecosystem management ambiguities, information availability, information use, administrative setting, and learning capabilities of governance organizations Progress in making ecosystem management operational may occur as refinements in content and approach make it an increasingly attractive option for resource users, the public, and government officials.

  18. CTE's Role in Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Statistics show that American students' reading and writing skills are lagging at a time when literacy skills are needed more than ever. Efforts to address low adolescent literacy levels meet numerous challenges, chief among them is the fact that formal literacy instruction ends for most students after the elementary grades. Career and technical…

  19. Further Psychodrama with Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Patricia; Sandberg, Salek

    1985-01-01

    Adjusted delinquent adolescents (N=7) participated in a 12-session psychodramatic group therapy program which integrated behavioral-cognitive techniques. Participants and control subjects (N=10) completed pre- and post-tests measuring acting-out behavior and ego strength. Results showed that significant improvement occurred in the experimental…

  20. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  1. Subjective well-being in Finnish adolescents experiencing family violence.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija

    2012-05-01

    This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937

  2. Brief Report: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Support--Do They Differ for Pregnant/Parenting Adolescents and Nonpregnant, Nonparenting Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Hockaday, Cathy; McCarville, Pamela Cooper

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine perceptions of type, source, and amount of social support reported by pregnant and/or parenting (PP) and nonpregnant, nonparenting (NPNP) adolescents. Greater support generally was reported by NPNP than by PP adolescents. The groups did not differ with respect to their perceptions of types of support reported on…

  3. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  4. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  5. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  7. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Australasian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Day, A. S.; Lemberg, D. A.; Gearry, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Many reports indicate increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease, with data also showing changing patterns of this chronic disease in children and adolescents. This review focuses upon the available data of the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand (collectively termed Australasia). Recent data show high incidence of IBD (especially Crohn disease) in this area and indicate rising rates of IBD in children and adolescents. PMID:24799892

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease in australasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Day, A S; Lemberg, D A; Gearry, R B

    2014-01-01

    Many reports indicate increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease, with data also showing changing patterns of this chronic disease in children and adolescents. This review focuses upon the available data of the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand (collectively termed Australasia). Recent data show high incidence of IBD (especially Crohn disease) in this area and indicate rising rates of IBD in children and adolescents. PMID:24799892

  10. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  11. [Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Milos; Kocijancić, Radojka; Backović, Dusan; Ille, Tatjana; Paunović, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescents from Belgrade and 32 internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo. A specific questionnaire regarding habits, behaviour, and psychosomatic state was used, as well as the Cornell Medical Index and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo exhibited greater difficulties in adapting and had worse school records than adolescents from Belgrade, one year after the change in their location. Immediately after the NATO bombing, both groups reacted in the same way: they often talked about the events they had survived, they were afraid of the sounds of alarm sirens and of aeroplanes, and in addition had similar dreams (no statistical variation between the groups). Emotional disturbances, one year after the bombing, were not observed in 40.6% of adolescents from Kosovo, compared to the figure of 74.8% for adolescents from Belgrade. Adolescents from Belgrade consumed alcohol significantly more often: 75.7% compared to 56.3% for adolescents from Kosovo. In addition, 20.4% of adolescents from Belgrade consumed psychoactive substances compared to 6.3% of adolescents from Kosovo. There was no significant difference between the examined groups in the total scores on the scale for neuroticism. All in all, the girls from both examined groups displayed neurotic tendencies more frequently than the boys. PMID:16392285

  12. Do Caucasian and black adolescents differ at psychiatric intake?

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H; Ulrich, R; Mezzich, J E

    1993-03-01

    A large sample of adolescents brought for psychiatric evaluation to a public University based facility are the subjects of the study. Material incorporated in a DSM-III multiaxial formulation plus symptoms constituted the dependent variables. Analyses concentrated on ethnic differences, with variation associated with gender and social class controlled statistically. Caucasians showed comparatively greater clinical morbidity: higher number of Axis I definite diagnoses and level of symptoms. Eating disorder diagnoses were more common in Caucasians. There were no significant differences pertaining to level of stress or social impairment. Blacks showed higher levels of symptoms scored as "social aggression" and diagnosed as conduct disorders. The pattern of results raised the question of a possible referral bias, with blacks shunted to the psychiatric facility with lower levels of standard clinical psychopathology, but higher levels of social oppositional behavior. Further research is needed to verify if such a bias does exist. PMID:8444771

  13. Links of Adolescent- and Parent-Reported Eating in the Absence of Hunger with Observed Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Courville, Amber B.; Field, Sara E.; Matheson, Brittany E.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically is assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There are no validated self-report measures of EAH. We sought to examine the relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents’ measured intake in the absence of hunger. Design and Methods Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children’s EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Results Parents’ reports of children’s EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Conclusions Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents’ observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. PMID:23913735

  14. Executive Function and Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lantrip, Crystal; Isquith, Peter K; Koven, Nancy S; Welsh, Kathleen; Roth, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Development of emotion regulation strategy use involves a transition from reliance on suppression during childhood to greater use of reappraisal in adolescence and adulthood-a transition that parallels developmental changes in executive functions. We evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation strategy use and executive functioning in the everyday life of 70 typically developing adolescents who completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Youth and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report. Results indicated that greater reliance on reappraisal was associated with better executive functions, while reliance on suppression was related to poorer executive functions. Findings suggest that adolescents who rely on reappraisal may have more cognitive resources to help them remain attentive and well regulated in their daily lives. On the other hand, if better executive functions facilitate the use of reappraisal, adolescents' ability to regulate their emotions could potentially be enhanced via supports for executive functions. PMID:25650638

  15. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  16. Intention versus identification as determinants of adolescents' health behaviours: evidence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Rivis, Amanda; Sheeran, Paschal; Armitage, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    The present study used a within-participants design to (a) assess the predictive validity of prototype identification versus intention for adolescents' health behaviours and (b) examine whether control of health behaviour by intention relative to identification is associated with key individual difference variables. Participants were school children (N = 136) who completed measures of intention, perceived behavioural control and prototype identification for 14 health-related behaviours at Time 1, and reported their behaviour 2 weeks later (Time 2). A hierarchical regression showed that prototype identification and intention exhibited similar predictive validity in the prediction of adolescents' health behaviour. Importantly, identification contributed an additional 6% to the variance in behaviour, after controlling for intention and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour [TPB: Ajzen, I. ( 1991 ). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]. Additional analyses showed that greater social comparison tendencies, lower agreeableness, greater intellect and less emotional stability were all related to greater control of behaviour by prototype identification. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20204935

  17. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time. PMID:26595469

  18. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  19. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  20. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  1. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  2. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  3. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  4. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  5. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures. PMID:9831888

  6. Post-Adolescent Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  7. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  8. The effects of age, gender, hopelessness, and exposure to violence on sleep disorder symptoms and daytime sleepiness among adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, Anneliese C; Bolland, Kathleen A; Tomek, Sara; Bolland, John M

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep problems are associated with negative outcomes among adolescents, studies have not focused on sleep disorder symptoms among adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods and how sleep problems may be related to two factors common in those environments: hopelessness and exposure to violence. This study used data from the longitudinal Mobile Youth Survey (MYS; N = 11,838, 49% female, 93% African-American) to examine trajectories of sleep problems by age (10-18 years) among impoverished adolescents as a function of gender, feelings of hopelessness, and exposure to violence. The results indicate that sleep problems associated with traumatic stress decline with age, with four notable distinctions. First, the steepest decline occurs during the early adolescent years. Second, the rate of decline is steeper for males than for females. Third, exposure to violence impedes the rate of decline for all adolescents, but more dramatically for females than for males. Fourth, the rate of decline is smallest for adolescents with feelings of hopelessness who also had been exposed to violence. To explore the generalizability of these results to other types of sleep disorders, we analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a subsample of 14- and 15-year-old MYS participants (N = 263, 49% female, 100% African-American) who completed a sleep symptoms questionnaire. Four results from the cross-sectional analysis extend the findings of the longitudinal analysis. First, the cross-sectional results showed that symptoms of apnea, insomnia, nightmares, and restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (RLS/PLMD), as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as a function of hopelessness. Second, symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and nightmares, as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as function of exposure to violence. Third, symptoms of insomnia and RLS/PLMD are greater under conditions of combined hopelessness and exposure to violence than for either condition alone

  9. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  10. Relationship of blood pressures with hair mineral concentrations in South Carolina adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Borgman, R.F.

    1982-08-01

    The relationships of hair mineral concentrations to blood pressures in adolescents from the coastal portion of South Carolina are examined. Blood pressure was measured and hair samples were prepared for mineral analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that higher hair zinc concentrations were associated with lower pulse pressures. Higher hair copper concentrations were associated with higher systolic pressures. Higher hair nickel was associated with lower systolic and pulse pressures. Hair cadmium concentrations were related to lower systolic and diastolic pressures. Higher lead concentrations were associated with higher systolic pressures and slightly lower diastolic pressures. Higher copper to zinc ratios were associated with slightly greater systolic and pulse pressures. (JMT)

  11. Glycaemic control in adolescents with type I diabetes and parental expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, K; Sensky, T; Petty, R

    1991-01-01

    The parents of 34 adolescents with type I diabetes were interviewed using the Camberwell Family Interview, a well validated and reliable standardised interview which measures aspects of family interaction previously reported as important in the families of diabetics. Contrary to predictions from previous research, poor glycaemic control was not associated with parental apathy, criticism of the child with diabetes, or marital discord. Greater emotional involvement by parents was associated with good glycaemic control. Overall, there was close agreement between parents in their responses although mothers showed more accurate appraisal of their child's diabetes than did fathers. PMID:1891565

  12. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. PMID:25689410

  13. Medical and psychosocial associates of nonadherence in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Brumley, Lauren D; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined adherence to medication regimens among adolescents with cancer by applying the Pediatric Self-Management Model. Adolescents and their parents reported on adherence to medication, reasons for nonadherence, and patient-, family-, and community-level psychosocial variables. Adolescent- and parent-reported adherence were significantly correlated, with about half of the sample reporting perfect adherence. The majority reported "just forgot" as the most common reason for missed medication. Patient-, family-, and community-level variables were examined as predictors of adherence. With regard to individual factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported a greater proportion of future-orientated goals and spent fewer days in outpatient clinic visits. For family factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported greater social support from their family and were more likely to have a second caregiver who they perceived as overprotective. The community-level variable (social support from friends) tested did not emerge as a predictor of adherence. The results of this study provide direction for intervention efforts to target adolescent goals and family support in order to increase adolescent adherence to cancer treatment regimens. PMID:25366574

  14. Medical and Psychosocial Associates of Nonadherence in Adolescents With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined adherence to medication regimens among adolescents with cancer by applying the Pediatric Self-Management Model. Adolescents and their parents reported on adherence to medication, reasons for nonadherence, and patient-, family-, and community-level psychosocial variables. Adolescent- and parent-reported adherence were significantly correlated, with about half of the sample reporting perfect adherence. The majority reported “just forgot” as the most common reason for missed medication. Patient-, family-, and community-level variables were examined as predictors of adherence. With regard to individual factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported a greater proportion of future-orientated goals and spent fewer days in outpatient clinic visits. For family factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported greater social support from their family and were more likely to have a second caregiver who they perceived as overprotective. The community-level variable (social support from friends) tested did not emerge as a predictor of adherence. The results of this study provide direction for intervention efforts to target adolescent goals and family support in order to increase adolescent adherence to cancer treatment regimens. PMID:25366574

  15. Management of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Joshua; Bell, Cynthia; Samuel, Joyce; Swinford, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension in children and adolescents is becoming a greater problem in the developed world. Although traditionally thought of as usually secondary to renal, vascular, or endocrine causes, primary hypertension is becoming the most common form seen in childhood. This changing epidemiology is related to the recent obesity epidemic. The evaluation of high blood pressure in children is more involved than in adults and is aimed both at identifying secondary causes and to identify other co-morbidities of cardiovascular risk. Treatment of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. While there are a growing number of antihypertensive agents with FDA labeling for children, there remain far fewer options than for adults. This paper reviews the epidemiology, definitions, evaluations, and management of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents. PMID:26482750

  16. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  17. Cerebral white matter correlates of delay discounting in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Koeppel, Julie A; Barry, Amy B

    2016-05-15

    The adolescent brain undergoes extensive structural white matter (WM) changes. Adolescence is also a critical time period during which cognitive, emotional and social maturation occurs in transition into adulthood. Compared to adults, adolescents are generally more impulsive with increased risk-taking behaviors. The goal of this study is to examine whether adolescent impulsivity may be related to cerebral WM maturation. In 89 healthy adolescents, we assessed impulsivity using the delay discounting task, and MRI WM volumes in brain regions previously implicated in delay discounting behaviors. We found that smaller delay discounting AUC (area under the curve) was associated with larger WM volumes in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices (PFC) and motor cortex. There were no significant effects of AUC on WM volumes within somatosensory brain regions. In our sample, younger age was significantly associated with greater WM volumes in orbitofrontal and dorsolateral PFC subregions. Even after accounting for age-related effects, preference for immediate rewards (or greater impulsivity) still correlated with larger WM volumes in prefrontal regions known to mediate cognitive control. Our findings lend further support to the notion that reduced brain WM maturity may limit the ability in adolescents to forgo immediate rewards leading to greater impulsivity. PMID:26946275

  18. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. PMID:17176193

  19. Interparental Relationship Sensitivity Leads to Adolescent Internalizing Problems: Different Genotypes, Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Cleveland, H. H.; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have established that child interparental conflict evaluations link parent relationship functioning and adolescent adjustment. Using differential susceptibility theory and its vantage sensitivity complement as their framework, the authors examined differences between adolescents who vary in the DRD4 7 repeat genotype (i.e. 7+ vs. 7−) in how both interparental conflict and positivity affect adolescents’ evaluations of interparental conflict (i.e., threat appraisals) and how these evaluations affect internalizing problems. Results from longitudinal multiple-group path models using PROSPER data (N = 452) supported the hypothesis that threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents would be more affected by perceptions of interparental positivity compared to 7− adolescents; however, threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents were also less affected by interparental conflict. Among 7− adolescents, interparental conflict perceptions were associated with higher threat appraisals, and no association was found for perceptions of positivity. For adolescents of both genotypes, higher threat was associated with greater internalizing problems. PMID:25843974

  20. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  1. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only. PMID:25374034

  2. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  3. Maternal buffering of human amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during childhood but not during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Shapiro, Mor; Flannery, Jessica; Lumian, Daniel S; Fareri, Dominic S; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2014-11-01

    Mature amygdala-prefrontal circuitry regulates affect in adulthood but shows protracted development. In altricial and semialtricial species, caregivers provide potent affect regulation when mature neurocircuitry is absent. The present investigation examined a potential mechanism through which caregivers provide regulatory influences in childhood. Children, but not adolescents, showed evidence of maternal buffering, such that maternal stimuli suppressed amygdala reactivity. In the absence of maternal stimuli, children exhibited immature amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, in the presence of maternal stimuli, children's connectivity was more mature, resembling adolescents' connectivity. Children showed improved affect-related regulation in the presence of their mothers. Individual differences emerged, with greater maternal influence on amygdala-prefrontal circuitry associated with stronger mother-child relationships and maternal modulation of behavioral regulation. These findings suggest a neural mechanism through which caregivers modulate children's regulatory behavior by inducing more mature connectivity and buffering against heightened reactivity. Maternal buffering in childhood, but not adolescence, suggests that childhood may be a sensitive period for amygdala-prefrontal development. PMID:25280904

  4. Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giuca, Maria Rita; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients. PMID:25945093

  5. Adolescence and Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  6. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  7. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  8. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  9. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  10. Adolescents and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial Issues"…

  11. The Adolescent Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, William A., Jr.

    Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…

  12. Update on Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Rebecca; Halady, Tasia; Bishop, Nina; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Timely and complete adolescent vaccination remains an elusive public health goal. Three infections for which routine adolescent vaccination is recommended in the U.S. are pertussis, meningococcal disease and human papillomavirus (HPV). These infections and the Tdap, meningococcal and HPV vaccines recommended for adolescents are reviewed in this article. PMID:26999915

  13. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local findings with…

  14. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  15. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  16. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    PubMed

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance. PMID:10831143

  17. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development. PMID:9712373

  18. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  19. Styles of Parent-Child Interaction and Moral Reasoning in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Michael C.; Allen, Sandra G.

    1993-01-01

    Examined whether adolescents of authoritative parents exhibit a greater preference for postconventional moral reasoning than do adolescents of permissive or authoritarian parents. Subjects (75 high school and 67 undergraduate students) completed Rest's Defining Issues Test and Schaefer's Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Results…

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Childress, Ann C.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Squires, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Adolescents (13 through 17) with at least moderately symptomatic ADHD (ADHD Rating Scale IV: Clinician Version [ADHD-RS-IV] score greater than or equal to 28) were randomized to…

  1. Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Lamb, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the well-being of adolescents in cohabiting parent stepfamilies. Teens living with cohabiting stepparents often fare worse than teens living with two biological married parents. Adolescents living in cohabiting stepfamilies experience greater disadvantage than teens living in married stepfamilies. Most of these differences, however, are…

  2. Coping in Children and Adolescents: Project KICK--A Primary Prevention Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Rubin, Roberta I.; Shelby, Tracy L.; Holland-Gorman, Jennifer L.; Kourofsky, Heather R.; Arnold, Alannah; Laird, Nyamekye; Santorsola, Jennifer

    With the emergence of greater stress in the life of today's youth, much effort has gone into the investigation of effective coping methods for adolescents. By employing coping strategies, youth gain self-control and learn appropriate behavioral responses to many of life's stressors. Effective coping can assist adolescents in mastering cognitive,…

  3. Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…

  4. A Twin-Sibling Study of Observed Parent-Adolescent Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The mother, father, and adolescent siblings from 675 families were observed interacting in problem-solving sessions. Siblings were monozygotic twins, dyzygotic twins, or full siblings in nondivorced families and full, half, and unrelated siblings in stepfamilies. Results suggested a greater genetic component to adolescent behavior than to parent…

  5. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  6. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of Vietnamese Adolescent Identity Exploration within and outside an Ethnic Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T.; McHale, James P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and…

  8. The Interplay of Perceived Stress, Self-Determination and School Engagement in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Kittler, Frieder; Braun, Sarah R.; Lätsch, Alexander; Wilkinson, R. Poppy; Hoferichter, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many societies are placing a greater onus on academic achievement--resulting in higher levels of stress being observed among adolescent students. Stress can have detrimental repercussions on adolescents' health and is also associated with anxiety and depression. However, since less is known about how high stress levels affect…

  9. Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Effects of Stress among Adolescents: Rumination as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Reilly, Laura C.; Dickson, Kelsey S.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Updegraff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with greater psychological and physical health. However, the majority of this research has been conducted with adults; research is only beginning to examine the effects of mindfulness among adolescents. Further, research into adolescent mindfulness has typically…

  10. Working with Parents of Adolescents Identified as Emotionally or Behaviorally Disordered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Richard L.

    The paper considers the nature of support and counseling needed by parents of emotionally disturbed/behavior disordered adolescents. Seven potential areas of conflict for the adolescent are identified and explained with the intention of providing parents with greater understanding of their children's lives. Crises are explained to include conflict…

  11. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  12. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  13. The Role of School and Family in the Prevention of Adolescent Suicide. Presentation Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Jane A.; Siehl, Peterann M.

    How adolescents deal with the difficulties and disappointments in their lives determines whether or not they will be able to successfully adapt to life stress. As the stresses of living become greater in our society, the number of adolescents who kill themselves also continues to increase. This study supported the concept that continual failure…

  14. Daughter-Father Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning in Low-Income African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls. Analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not…

  15. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  16. Neurobiological and memory models of risky decision making in adolescents versus young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Estrada, Steven M; DeMarinis, Jessica A; Myers, Regina M; Stanisz, Janine M; Mills, Britain A

    2011-09-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences, sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions. As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, adolescents modulated risk taking according to risk and reward. Adults showed standard framing, reflecting greater emphasis on gist-based (qualitative) reasoning, but adolescents displayed reverse framing when potential gains for risk taking were high, reflecting greater emphasis on verbatim-based (quantitative) reasoning. Reverse framing signals a different way of thinking compared with standard framing (reverse framing also differs from simply choosing the risky option). Measures of verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, sensation seeking, behavioral activation, and inhibition were used to extract dimensions of risk proneness: Sensation seeking increased and then decreased, whereas inhibition increased from early adolescence to young adulthood, predicted by neurobiological theories. Two additional dimensions, verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, loaded separately and predicted unique variance in risk taking. Importantly, framing responses predicted real-life risk taking. Reasoning was the most consistent predictor of real-life risk taking: (a) Intentions to have sex, sexual behavior, and number of partners decreased when gist-based reasoning was triggered by retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk, whereas (b) intentions to have sex and number of partners increased when verbatim-based reasoning was triggered by different retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk. PMID:21707215

  17. Subjective psychological symptoms in outpatient asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, M D; Thompson, H C; Strunk, R C

    1981-12-01

    Outpatient adolescent asthmatics were studied using the Asthma Symptom Checklist (ASC) of Kinsman et al. The study showed that outpatient asthmatic adolescents are similar in many respects to older institutionalized asthmatics, except that in the former, psychological symptoms are more diffuse and recognition of respiratory symptoms is less severe. Further studies are needed to determine which psychological symptoms are most important in predicting prognosis in affected asthmatics or the development of "psychosomatic" asthma. PMID:7338897

  18. Grandmothers’ Familism Values, Adolescent Mothers’ Parenting Efficacy, and Children’s Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers’ third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers’ familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers’ parenting processes and, in turn, their child’s well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers’ familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers’ parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers’ parenting self-efficacy predicted children’s greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  19. Grandmothers' familism values, adolescent mothers' parenting efficacy, and children's well-being.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  20. False memory for trauma-related Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gail S; Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Larson, Rakel P; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d' scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to (a) non-CSA group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and (b) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687