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Sample records for adolescents young adults

  1. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  2. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  3. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  4. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  5. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  6. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  7. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Seibel, Nita L.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Stedman, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adults (AYAs) face challenges in having their cancers recognized, diagnosed, treated, and monitored. Monitoring AYA cancer survival is of interest because of the lack of improvement in outcome previously documented for these patients as compared with younger and older patient outcomes. AYA patients 15–39 years old, diagnosed during 2000–2008 with malignant cancers were selected from the SEER 17 registries data. Selected cancers were analyzed for incidence and five-year relative survival by histology, stage, and receptor subtypes. Hazard ratios were estimated for cancer death risk among younger and older ages relative to the AYA group. AYA survival was worse for female breast cancer (regardless of estrogen receptor status), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AYA survival for AML was lowest for a subtype associated with a mutation of the nucleophosmin 1 gene (NPM1). AYA survival for breast cancer and leukemia remain poor as compared with younger and older survivors. Research is needed to address disparities and improve survival in this age group. PMID:25417236

  8. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  9. The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Barr, Ronald; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Thomas, David; Ellis, Chad; Anderson, Barry

    2008-04-01

    One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and young adults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer clues to this distinctiveness in most of the common cancers of adolescents and young adults. Translational and clinical research should not assume that the biology of cancers and patients is the same as in other age groups, and treatment strategies should be tailored to the differences.

  10. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  11. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  12. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  13. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  14. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  15. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  16. Transitioning adolescents and young adults with a chronic health condition to adult healthcare - an exemplar program.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann Rauen, Karen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Bartelt, Tera; Waring, William P; Orr, Merle; Corey O'Connor, R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric specialists have successfully improved the longevity and quality of life of many children with chronic health conditions. As these children reach adolescence and young adulthood, the scope of their concomitant medical problems often include those typically seen in older patients. As a result, these individuals need continuing quality health care in focused adult healthcare facilities. This article describes the effective partnership between pediatric and adult healthcare providers to create and implement an exemplar Spina Bifida Transition Program. The processes, strategies and tools discussed are likely to be useful to other healthcare professionals interested in developing pediatric to adult transition programs for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

  17. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  18. Registration and classification of adolescent and young adult cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brad H; Birch, Jillian M

    2008-05-01

    Cancer registries are an important research resource that facilitate the study of etiology, tumor biology, patterns of delayed diagnosis and health planning needs. When outcome data are included, registries can track secular changes in survival related to improvements in early detection or treatment. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry has been used to identify major gaps in survival for older adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients compared with younger children and older adults. In order to determine the reasons for this gap, the complete registration and accurate classification of AYA malignancies is necessary. There are inconsistencies in defining the age limits for AYAs although the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group proposed a definition of ages 15 through 39 years. The central registration and classification issues for AYAs are case-finding, defining common data elements (CDE) collected across different registries and the diagnostic classification of these malignancies. Goals to achieve by 2010 include extending and validating current diagnostic classification schemes and expanding the CDE to support AYA oncology research, including the collection of tracking information to assess long-term outcomes. These efforts will advance preventive, etiologic, therapeutic, and health services-related research for this understudied age group.

  19. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  20. Family Planning Services for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, William L.; Weiss, Robert C.; Lowther, Laura; Shonick, Helen; Heidbreder, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    If we are to influence the numerical trends of venereal disease and of unwanted pregnancies in the young, family planning services should be made easily available to them. To encourage the widest possible and most effective use of such services requires that health professionals openly endorse their ready availability. They must foster non-judgmental attitudes, however unorthodox patient life styles may be, and provide the young with opportunities to explore their own sexual behavior. The Youth Clinics of the Department of Community Health Services in Los Angeles are designed to meet both the immediate therapeutic and preventive health needs of our patients. Contraceptive services, abortion counseling and referrals as well as individual, group and community education are the primary pillars of our program. There is an enormous task for all of us who are concerned with adolescents to press for sex education programs, in or out of the school system, that will include adults as well as our children. PMID:4813794

  1. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  2. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  3. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  4. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  5. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Eliza M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group.

  6. Dysphoric Adolescents as Young Adults: A Prospective Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Depressed Mood in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…

  7. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  8. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  9. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  10. Young Adults With Headaches: The Transition From Adolescents to Adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Hope L; Cohen, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common condition that for many begins in childhood and may progress over the course of one's life. The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for those who suffer from migraine and can be marked by a variety of important considerations for the patient and practitioner. Medication choices may be a challenge during adolescent years as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are few and many more studies are needed to understand the benefits and risks of use of these agents in adolescents. However, as patients transition to adulthood, FDA approved options and the level of evidence improve significantly. Late adolescents may also struggle with a variety of psychiatric comorbidities that may simultaneously create challenges in determining treatment but also open opportunities to manage multiple comorbidities and address underlying depression, anxiety, and behavioral issues. For late adolescent girls, the beginning of sexual activity, onset of gynecologic conditions, or presence of irregular or painful menses may raise questions regarding the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Given data on the risks of these medications in women with migraine, especially those with aura or those who smoke, important conversations between physicians and their migraine patients can help risk stratify and determine the risk/benefit profile for the potential use of these agents. Much more data are needed to fully understand the transition from adolescence to adulthood for those suffering with migraine and this article seeks to shed light on the limited understanding currently available in established literature. PMID:26518150

  11. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Results Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Conclusions Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. PMID:25361744

  12. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  13. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  14. Communication approaches to parent-child conflict: young adolescence to young adult.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Susan K; Jackson, Norma M; Chanchong, Weena

    2003-08-01

    As trusted and accessible health care providers, pediatric nurses are asked frequently for advice on the rearing of children and adolescents, particularly during developmental transitions. The parent-adolescent relationship has been characterized as a continuing renegotiation of relational qualities. Aspects of communication, such as conflicts and approaches to them, expose the re-negotiation process. The purpose of this study was to examine how communication approaches and topics of conflict in a parent child relationship evolved over 10 years. Thirty-three families with young adults as children between the ages of 22 and 26 years old responded to a survey about conflict and conflict resolution. Parents and young adults, as respondents, were asked to describe two incidents of conflict. The first incident was a conflict from the past, when the young adult was 11 to 14, and the second incident was a conflict they recently experienced. Inductive analyses were used to substantiate themes from the data. Regarding past topics of conflict, parents and young adults had no difficulty recalling incidents. The approaches to solving the past conflicts were seldom effective. Both parent and teenager were reactive, negative, confrontational, or avoidant. Occasionally, incidents that reflected thinking, planning ahead, and caring were reported. Descriptions of more recent experiences indicated less conflict and more direct and healthy communication approaches; although manipulative, negative, and intimidating tactics were present. PMID:12923735

  15. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  16. Relations between Teaching Behaviors and Maternal Beliefs in Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily

    This study examined teaching interactions of single adolescent and young adult mothers during a structured teaching task with their infants. A total of 25 adolescent and 25 adult single mothers were videotaped during 4-minute teaching sessions with their 4-month-old infants in their homes. Investigators rated maternal teaching strategies and the…

  17. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  18. Adolescent and young adult medicine is a special and specific area of medical practice.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Kate; Towns, Susan; Bennett, David

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult medicine is a concept that has gained traction in the last decade or so. The medical literature has come primarily from oncology. Advances in neuroscience that document continuing brain development into the third decade, and research that shows risk behaviours associated with adolescence both remain and may increase in the third decade, have been two of the drivers in the conversation around linking these two age groups together as a medical practice group. A third driver of importance is transition care in chronic illness, where older adolescents and young adults continue to have difficulties making effective linkages with adult care. The case for specific training in adolescent and young adult medicine, including the developmental concepts behind it, the benefits of the delineation and the particular challenges in the Australian health-care system, are discussed. On balance, there is a strong case for managing the health issues of adolescents and young adults together. This scenario does not fit easily with the age demarcations that are in place in acute care facilities. However, this is less the case in community services and can work in focused private practice. Such a situation suggests that both paediatric and adult physicians might be interested in adolescent and young adult medicine training and practice.

  19. Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It

  20. Epidemiology of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors. The relative improvement in the survival rate in AYAs has not kept pace with that achieved in younger children, especially for acute leukemia, non-HLs, Ewing tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. Etiological factors are under-researched and remain largely hypothetical. In this unique group of illnesses, improving AYA cancer management involves bridging interfaces. Since this has begun, outcomes have also begun to improve. The local nature of these interfaces determines the age group considered as AYA. Specific skills are necessary in the clinical, biological and psychosocial domains. Services need support from policy, clinical and administrative professionals. National policy and supranational groups such as SIOPE and ESMO are in constructive collaboration to develop this further. PMID:27595352

  1. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  2. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  3. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  4. Narrative Development in Adolescents and Young Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Bell, Yolanda D.; Abbeduto, Leonard D.

    2007-01-01

    The narratives of 18 adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome were compared to those of 23 adolescents with Down syndrome and 21 typically developing children matched for nonverbal MA. Narratives were elicited using a wordless picture book and analyzed for use of narrative evaluation, linguistic productivity, and complexity. Results…

  5. Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Controlled Memory Judgment: fMRI Evidence from Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Antonio; Selmeczy, Diana; O'Connor, Akira R.; Diaz, Michael; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13-15 y.o.) and young adults (20-22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence…

  6. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  7. Attitudinal and Normative Predictors of Alcohol Use by Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…

  8. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  9. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities.

  10. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  11. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

  12. Estimating The Health And Economic Burden Of Cancer Among Those Diagnosed As Adolescents And Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Yabroff, K. Robin; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dowling, Emily C.; Rechis, Ruth; Nutt, Stephanie; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors—those who were ages 15–39 at their first cancer diagnosis—have important health limitations. These survivors are at risk for higher health care expenditures and lost productivity, compared to adults without a history of cancer. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we present nationally representative estimates of the economic burden among people who were diagnosed with cancer in adolescence or young adulthood. Our findings demonstrate that surviving cancer at this age is associated with a substantial economic burden. Compared to adults without a history of cancer, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had excess annual medical expenditures of $3,170 per person and excess annual productivity losses of $2,250 per person. Multifaceted prevention strategies, including education and sustained intervention programs to ensure access to lifelong risk-based follow-up care, may be effective ways to improve the economic outcomes associated with cancer survivorship in this population. PMID:24889952

  13. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  14. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects.

  15. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  16. Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

  17. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  18. Prefrontal cortex contributions to controlled memory judgment: fMRI evidence from adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Antonio; Selmeczy, Diana; O’Connor, Akira R.; Diaz, Michael; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13–15 y.o.) and young adults (20–22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence was associated with quicker responding in the presence of invalid cues compared to young adulthood. FMRI data demonstrated that while both groups increasingly activated posterior dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), midline, and lateral parietal regions for invalidly compared to validly cued trials, this differential invalid cueing response ended sooner in adolescents, consistent with their generally quicker responding on cued trials. Critically, dlPFC also demonstrated reversed brain-behavior associations across the groups. Increased mean dlPFC activation during invalid cueing was linked to improved performance in young adults, whereas increases within adolescents were linked to impaired performance. Resting state connectivity analysis revealed greater connectivity between dlPFC and episodic retrieval linked regions in young adults relative to adolescents. These data demonstrate that the functional interpretation of dlPFC activation hinges on its physical maturation and suggest that the pattern of behavioral and neural response in adolescents reflects different functional integration of cognitive control and memory systems. PMID:23127796

  19. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  20. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  1. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  2. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings.

  3. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings. PMID:22423462

  4. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  5. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579

  6. Psychometric properties of the Herth Hope Index in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen Kae; Monahan, Patrick O; Azzouz, Faouzi

    2007-01-01

    The Herth Hope Index (HHIndex), originally developed for adults, was examined for appropriateness in two studies of adolescents and young adults with cancer-those at various stages of treatment (N = 127) and those newly diagnosed (N = 74). The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of the index was .84 and .78, respectively, in the two samples. Construct validity was supported by discriminant correlations in the moderate to low range between the HHIndex and measures of uncertainty in illness and symptom distress, and by moderate convergent correlations with measures of resilience (self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-transcendence) and quality of life (index of well-being). A four-step factor analysis procedure was done, and confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a one-factor solution best fit the data in this population. Findings indicate that the HHIndex is a reliable measure of hope in adolescents and young adults with cancer. Evidence of discriminant and convergent validity in measuring hope in adolescents and young adults with cancer was also generated. Further exploration of the HHIndex factor structure in adolescents and young adults is needed.

  7. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  8. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  9. Evidence-Based Family Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2016-01-01

    An individual can develop bipolar disorder at any age, but emergence during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to a number of problematic behaviors and outcomes. Several drugs are available as first-line treatments, but even optimal pharmacotherapy rarely leads to complete remission and recovery. When added to pharmacologic treatment, certain targeted psychosocial treatments can improve outcomes for young patients with bipolar disorder. Because bipolar disorder affects family members as well as patients, and because adolescents and young adults often live with and are dependent on their parents, the patient's family should usually be included in treatment. Family-focused treatment and dialectical behavior therapy are promising methods of conducting family intervention. With effective treatment and the support of their families, young patients with bipolar disorder can learn to manage their disorder and become independent and healthy adults. PMID:27570931

  10. The Family's Influence on Adolescent and Young Adult Career Development: Theory, Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cathy; Thomas, Trang

    2003-01-01

    A research review identified a range of family process variables associated with enhanced career development for adolescents and young adults. Findings were consistent with the theories of Roe (personality development and career choice) and Super (life-span, life-space) regarding the influence of family processes on career development. (Contains…

  11. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  12. Assessing the Transition Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf through Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Research, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes a programmatic line of research to develop and standardize a test battery of transition skills (employment and independent living skills) for adolescents and young adults (ages 14 to 25) who are deaf. The newsletter first discusses the importance of assessment data to the transition process for persons who are deaf.…

  13. Fiction for Adolescent and Young Adult Readers from Longacre Press, New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Helen; Comber, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Explores fiction for adolescents and young adults published by Longacre Press, New Zealand, a small independent publishing house founded in 1994. Notes teenage fiction is a specialist area of this publisher although they also publish general nonfiction, historical, and art books. Discusses works published in the themes of clashes and coping,…

  14. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  15. SoundScape: An Interdisciplinary Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greher, Gena R.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Dougherty, Margaret; Poto, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Service provision for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is lacking, particularly post high school. We report on a music intervention program, outline our program model, and report some initial pilot data evaluating the program outcomes. We also discuss implications for undergraduate and graduate students who were…

  16. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  17. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  18. A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; And Others

    The author argues for an epidemiology data base (which looks at cognitive, aptitude, family condition, school condition, and personal characteristic variables) as a strategy for research with learning disabled (LD) adolescents and young adults. An operational definition, advantages, and problems of this type of research strategy are outlined. A…

  19. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  20. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  1. Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Current Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnquist, Bruce Eric

    This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…

  2. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  3. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  4. Educational Issues for the Head-Injured Adolescent and Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses secondary education for head-injured adolescents with recommendations for their reentry into secondary schools and; postsecondary education for head-injured young adults with recommendations for entry into postsecondary institutions. Three case studies illustrate applications of such recommendations as staff training…

  5. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  6. Conceptions of Work among Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Gifsh, Limor

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 Israeli adolescents and young adults with mild mental retardation to examine their perceptions of the world of work. A consensual qualitative strategy of analysis (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997) yielded 4 domains (Definitions of Work, Reasons for Working, Self-Awareness,…

  7. Examination of the Double-Deficit Hypothesis with Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, "Journal of Educational Psychology", 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range?=?16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and…

  8. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  9. What Art Educators Can Learn from the Fan-Based Artmaking of Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2009-01-01

    The explanations of 101 adolescents and young adults, who are fans of popular culture narratives and make art inspired by these phenomena, provide insight into why these youth were drawn to create fan-based artworks, how they learned to make these art forms, and what the creative activities mean to them. Emergent themes highlight (a) the…

  10. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  11. Self-Presentation and Interaction in Blogs of Adolescents and Young Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Kozarian, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed 124 blogs, chronological, journal-type entries published on public hosting Web sites, as new and popular places for adolescents and emerging adults aged 15 to 19 to play openly with their self-presentation, an important aspect of identity exploration. Findings indicate that most young persons write emotionally toned entries;…

  12. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and young adults with FXS, and 21 younger children with typical development (TD). Narrative samples were assessed at the macrostructural level using the Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS; Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Three group comparisons were made using: (a) the full sample matched on nonverbal mental age, (b) a subset of the participants individually matched on nonverbal mental age, and (c) a subset of participants individually matched on mean length of utterance. Results Study analyses revealed that the DS and FXS groups significantly outperformed the TD group on a limited number of NSS measures. No significant differences emerged between the DS and FXS groups. Conclusions Study results suggest that some aspects of macrostructural narrative language may be relative strengths for adolescents and young adults with DS and those with FXS. These results can be used to create a more nuanced and informed approach to assessment and intervention for these populations. PMID:22049405

  13. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  14. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  15. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity.

  16. Universal Family-Focused Intervention with Young Adolescents: Effects on Health-Risking Sexual Behaviors and STDs Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns=238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6 % to 46 % for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  17. Defining abstract entities: development in pre-adolescents, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nippold, M A; Hegel, S L; Sohlberg, M M

    1999-04-01

    Students ages 12, 15, 18, and 23 (n = 60 per group) wrote definitions for 16 abstract nouns (e.g., pride, courage, realization). Responses were analyzed for the Aristotelian style, a type of definition that mentions both the superordinate category term and one or more characteristics of the word (e.g., "Pride is a sense of delight about a possession or accomplishment"). This response type was of interest because it is a sophisticated and literate defining style that is modeled in classrooms, textbooks, and dictionaries-a style that is informative, concise, and efficient. The results indicated that a number of important changes occur in the ability to provide Aristotelian definitions for abstract nouns during the developmental period from late childhood to early adulthood. Specifically, there was an increasing tendency for students to mention the appropriate category to which a word belongs, core features of the word, and subtle aspects of meaning. The study contributes to the knowledge base concerning the nature of language development in pre-adolescents, adolescents, and young adults.

  18. Impulsive-aggressive traits and suicidal adolescents and young adults with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Oquendo, Maria A; Giner, Lucas; Zalsman, Gil; Roche, Ansley M; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use disorders among adolescents and young adults are serious public health problems. In the study of suicidal behavior among young people with alcoholism, it has been shown that aggression and impulsivity are higher among those who attempted suicide. Impulsivity has been related to suicidal and self-destructive behaviors within different psychiatric conditions, i.e. alcohol and substance use disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorder, impulse control disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. The term impulsivity has been used to define different constructs such as (1) personality trait or cognitive style in which disinhibition is the core characteristic, (2) a tendency to act immediately in response to external or internal stimuli, and (3) a group of psychiatric disorders with behavioral dyscontrol. Among adolescents suicidal behavior is transmitted in families independently of psychiatric conditions, but not independently of impulsivity/aggression. Two causal links between impulsiveness and alcoholism have been proposed: (1) adolescents who develop alcoholism possess higher premorbid levels of impulsiveness than those who do not develop alcoholism, and (2) levels of impulsiveness differentiate both populations only after the development of alcoholism, with higher levels of impulsiveness among those adolescents who developed alcoholism. Cognitive behavioral techniques have shown promising results in the treatment of adolescents with alcohol and substance use disorder and suicidality. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents and young adults suffering from alcoholism and its subsequent devastating effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies.

  19. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images. PMID:22046997

  20. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images.

  1. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  2. Six-year longitudinal predictors of posttraumatic growth in parentally bereaved adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn Y; Sandler, Irwin N; Ayers, Tim S

    Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, we examined posttraumatic growth in a sample of 50 adolescents and young adults who had experienced parental death in childhood or adolescence. Longitudinal relations were examined between baseline measures of contextual and intraindividual factors and scores on the posttraumatic growth subscales (i.e., New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strengths, Spiritual Changes, and Appreciation of Life) six years later. Controlling for time since death, threat appraisals, active coping, avoidant coping, seeking support from parents or guardians, seeking support from other adults, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems were significant predictors of posttraumatic growth. The implications of these findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19227001

  3. Adaptation of an HIV Medication Adherence Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Idia B.; Bogart, Laura M.; Wachman, Madeline; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Skeer, Margie R.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adolescents and young adults underscore the importance of interventions for this population. While the morbidity and mortality of HIV has greatly decreased over the years, maintaining high rates of adherence is necessary to receive optimal medication effects. Few studies have developed interventions for adolescents and young adults and none have specifically been developed for sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual; LGB) youth. Guided by an evidence-based adult intervention and adolescent qualitative interviews, we developed a multicomponent, technology-enhanced, customizable adherence intervention for adolescents and young adults for use in a clinical setting. The two cases presented in this paper illustrate the use of the five-session positive strategies to enhance problem solving (Positive STEPS) intervention, based on cognitive-behavioral techniques and motivational interviewing. We present a perinatally infected heterosexual woman and a behaviorally infected gay man to demonstrate the unique challenges faced by these youth and showcase how the intervention can be customized. Future directions include varying the number of intervention sessions based on mode of HIV infection and incorporating booster sessions. PMID:25452680

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter H; Reed, Damon R; Yeager, Nicholas; Zebrack, Bradley; Castellino, Sharon M; Bleyer, Archie

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals.

  5. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  6. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  7. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models. PMID:26492583

  8. Using Young Adult Literature Featuring LGBTQ Adolescents with Intellectual and/or Physical Disabilities to Strengthen Classroom Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Lisa A.; Sweeney, William J.; Reins, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is chaotic for all individuals, but LGBTQ adolescents with intellectual and/or physical disabilities struggle with what it means to be furthest from the majority. These teens experience varying exclusions and harassments from peers, educators, and family members. Contemporary young adult literature can assist these adolescents through…

  9. How Do Adults Use Repetition? A Comparison of Conversations with Young Children and with Multiply-Handicapped Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocerean, Christine; Canut, Emmanuelle; Musiol, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to compare the types and functions of repetitions in two different corpora, one constituted of verbal interactions between adults and multiply-handicapped adolescents, the other between adults and young children of the same mental age as the adolescents. Our overall aim is to observe whether the communicative…

  10. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R

    2003-01-01

    Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940

  11. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  12. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  13. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  14. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  15. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults.

  16. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  17. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults. PMID:26187261

  18. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  19. Estimating the health and economic burden of cancer among those diagnosed as adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Guy, Gery P; Yabroff, K Robin; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dowling, Emily C; Rechis, Ruth; Nutt, Stephanie; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-those who were ages 15-39 at their first cancer diagnosis-have important health limitations. These survivors are at risk for higher health care expenditures and lost productivity, compared to adults without a history of cancer. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we present nationally representative estimates of the economic burden among people who were diagnosed with cancer in adolescence or young adulthood. Our findings demonstrate that surviving cancer at this age is associated with a substantial economic burden. Compared to adults without a history of cancer, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had excess annual medical expenditures of $3,170 per person and excess annual productivity losses of $2,250 per person. Multifaceted prevention strategies, including education and sustained intervention programs to ensure access to lifelong risk-based follow-up care, may be effective ways to improve the economic outcomes associated with cancer survivorship in this population. PMID:24889952

  20. [Adolescents and young adults with cancer between adaptation and addiction: state of the question].

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Solène; Flahault, Cécile; Laurence, Valérie; Levy, Dominique; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to make a point on the state of health of adolescents and young adults (15-25 years) suffering from cancer. The adaptation strategies and the impact of the announcement of cancer will be discussed. In addition, we are going to consider the characteristics of teenagers and young adults, given the fact that development is still in progress. This period is especially punctuated by various experiments and the emergence of some clinical signs. Also, we have identified various studies concerning the use of licit and illicit substances. Furthermore, we have taken interest in behavioral addictions, particularly cyber addiction. While trying to cross these variables with a population of teenagers and young adults in the context of somatic diseases, it occurred that this population was not well known and studied. The interest of this synthesis is to underline the importance to make future researches in these perspectives.

  1. Young Adult Literature and Adolescent Identity across Cultures and Classrooms: Contexts for the Literary Lives of Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsup, Janet, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young…

  2. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed.

  3. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  4. The current age of youthful melancholia. Evidence for increase in depression among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Klerman, G L

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of a rise in rates of depression among adolescents and young adults was first reported in the 1970s. Particular note was taken of the emergence of childhood depression and the increase in suicide attempts and death among adolescents and young adults. Data from large-sample family studies and community epidemiological surveys have been reviewed and reanalysed, using life-table statistical methodology. Evidence for secular trends are presented, and the problems of disentangling period and cohort effect are discussed. It appears that the 'baby boomers' - those born in the years after World War II - have had increased rates of depression and other related illnesses, including drug abuse and alcoholism. The theoretical aspects of this are discussed, particularly for gene-environment interactions.

  5. Universal Intervention Effects on Substance Use Among Young Adults Mediated by Delayed Adolescent Substance Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Guyll, Max; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at 7 time points for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY), and control groups through young adulthood. Five young adult substance frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, illicit drugs, and polysubstance use) were modeled as distal outcomes affected by the average level and rate of increase in substance initiation across the adolescent years in latent growth curve analyses. Results show that the models fit the data and that they were robust across outcomes and interventions, with more robust effects found for ISFP. The addition of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes was not supported, suggesting long-term effects were primarily indirect. Relative reduction rates were calculated to quantify intervention-control differences on the estimated proportion of young adults indicating problematic substance use; they ranged from 19% to 31% for ISFP and from 9% to 16% for PDFY. PMID:19634956

  6. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  8. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Lawrence M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. Objective: We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100–119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Main Outcomes: Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Results: Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P < .05). Arterial thickness and stiffness, cardiac structure, and diastolic function were also significantly worse in youth with severe obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P < .05). Regression modeling showed that severe obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P < .05). Conclusions: Adolescents and young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes. PMID:25974736

  9. Enhancing oral and written language for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager

    2015-02-01

    Oral and written language development for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (Ds) are particularly challenging. Yet, research supports a syndrome-specific profile highlighting strengths and particular areas of difficulty for this group of individuals. For example, adolescents and young adults with Ds tend to understand more than they produce. In terms of oral language development, the domains of semantics and pragmatics are relative strengths whereas morphosyntax is particularly difficult. Much less is known about written language development because most adolescents and young adults with Ds are at the emergent literacy or word identification (i.e., ability to recognize and name single words) stages; however, relative strengths emerge in the area of word identification. The purpose of this article is to explore the research findings on oral and written language strengths and weaknesses and intervention strategies and techniques that facilitate development in these two interrelated domains. In addition, a case study example is provided to further enhance the clinical skills of speech-language pathologists who work with this population. PMID:25633144

  10. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  11. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  12. The complexities of adolescent dating and sexual relationships: fluidity, meaning(s), and implications for young adults' well-being.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being.

  13. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  14. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  15. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386

  16. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p < 0.001). Bad breath was also seen to be a more important issue to women who took more measures against it (p < 0.001). Education and customer contact both had an influence on the perceived importance of halitosis, as well as on the knowledge of possible measures against it (p < 0.001). However, the age of those surveyed and the size of their respective communities did not seem to have an impact (p > 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis. PMID:27142236

  17. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p < 0.001). Bad breath was also seen to be a more important issue to women who took more measures against it (p < 0.001). Education and customer contact both had an influence on the perceived importance of halitosis, as well as on the knowledge of possible measures against it (p < 0.001). However, the age of those surveyed and the size of their respective communities did not seem to have an impact (p > 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis.

  18. Self-Surveillance by Adolescents and Young Adults Transitioning to Self-Management of a Chronic Genetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Pyeritz, Reed E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS) use information from self-surveillance to manage their disorder. Thirty-seven male and female adolescents with MFS aged 14 to 21 years were interviewed. They identified 58 distinct self-surveillance behaviors that fell into four categories and multiple subcategories (SCs): tracking phenotype…

  19. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping out of High School in Urban Adolescents/Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential…

  20. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  1. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  2. The Relation between Gray Matter Morphology and Divergent Thinking in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15–17 and 20 young adults aged 25–30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted. PMID:25514366

  3. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  4. Relationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Catale, Corinne; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering-the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated-corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one's attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures.

  5. Deaths among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miodrag, Nancy; Silverberg, Sophie E.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although life expectancies in Down syndrome (DS) have doubled over the past 3-4 decades, there continue to be many early deaths. Yet, most research focuses on infant mortality or later adult deaths. Materials and Methods: In this US study, hospital discharge and death records from the state of Tennessee were linked to examine 2046…

  6. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  7. Qualitative Approach to Attempted Suicide by Adolescents and Young Adults: The (Neglected) Role of Revenge

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Paduanello, Matteo; Lachal, Jonathan; Falissard, Bruno; Sibeoni, Jordan; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide by adolescents and young adults is a major public health concern, and repetition of self-harm is an important risk factor for future suicide attempts. Objective Our purpose is to explore the perspective of adolescents directly involved in suicidal acts. Methods Qualitative study involving 16 purposively selected adolescents (sex ratio1∶1) from 3 different centers. Half had been involved in repeated suicidal acts, and the other half only one. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results We found five main themes, organized in two superordinate themes. The first theme (individual dimensions of the suicide attempt) describes the issues and explanations that the adolescents saw as related to themselves; it includes the subthemes: (1) negative emotions toward the self and individual impasse, and (2) the need for some control over their lives. The second main theme (relational dimensions of attempted suicide) describes issues that adolescents mentioned that were related to others and includes three subthemes: (3) perceived impasse in interpersonal relationships, (4) communication, and (5) revenge. Conclusions Adolescents involved in suicidal behavior are stuck in both an individual and a relational impasse from which there is no exit and no apparent way to reach the other. Revenge can bridge this gap and thus transforms personal distress into a relational matter. This powerful emotion has been neglected by both clinicians and researchers. PMID:24802777

  8. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  9. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  10. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes.

  11. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  12. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  13. Abacavir Pharmacokinetics During Chronic Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sleasman, JW; Robbins, BL; Cross, SJ; Lindsey, JC; Kraimer, JM; Heckman, BE; Sprenger, HL; Tustin, NB; Rose, CH; Poston, PA; Neal, EF; Pakes, GE; Nikanjam, M; Capparelli, EV

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of abacavir and its metabolites were investigated in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents and young adults 13-25 years of age, equally divided into two groups: <18 years of age and ≥18 years of age. All the subjects received the recommended adult dose of 300 mg twice daily. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and half-life of abacavir did not differ significantly between the age groups or by gender or race, and there were only modest associations of age with apparent abacavir clearance and with volume of distribution. There were no significant correlations of carboxylate or glucuronide metabolite levels with age or gender, although glucuronide AUC was higher in Hispanic subjects than in African-American subjects. Zidovudine and lamivudine concentration profiles were also similar in the two age groups. A novel aspect of the study included an assessment of intracellular carbovir, zidovudine, and lamivudine triphosphate levels, and these were found to be similar in the two age-based groups. Overall, these findings suggest that current recommendations relating to adult dosages are appropriate for adolescents and young adults. PMID:19118380

  14. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  15. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  16. Adolescent school experiences and dropout, adolescent pregnancy, and young adult deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S

    1998-01-01

    Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention. PMID:12348538

  17. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Keiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Masuko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations. Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome. PMID:22888254

  18. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  19. Long-term prognosis of transient lone bilateral blindness in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, S; Dennis, M; Warlow, C; Jordan, N; Sagar, H

    1994-01-01

    We describe a group of 14 patients aged 8-38 years at presentation who had one or more sudden transient attacks of bilateral blindness. Eight patients described bilateral blindness as their only symptom whereas six others experienced some mild associated symptoms. Visual loss always developed within seconds and attacks were often precipitated by exercise, stress, or postural change. Of 13 patients available for review, none suffered a major vascular event during a mean follow up of 10 years. When adolescents and young adults present with transient bilateral blindness, investigations are unlikely to reveal a cause and the long-term prognosis appears benign. PMID:8006656

  20. Fusobacterium necrophorum tonsillitis: an important cause of tonsillitis in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Hansen, T M; Bank, S; Kristensen, L H; Prag, J

    2015-03-01

    The role of Fusobacterium necrophorum in tonsillitis in adolescents and young adults was retrospectively investigated by culture examination. We compared the prevalence of F. necrophorum in 212 subjects with confirmed clinical tonsillitis and in 176 subjects with confirmed no clinical tonsillitis. The prevalence of F. necrophorum was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in subjects with clinical tonsillitis (27%) compared to subjects with no clinical tonsillitis (6%). These results clearly demonstrate the role of F. necrophorum in tonsillitis. By diagnosing and treating F. necrophorum tonsillitis with, for example, penicillin, metronidazole, or both, we might prevent some cases of Lemierre syndrome.

  1. Trends and differentials in adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G K; Yu, S M

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, this study examined mortality trends and differentials from 1950 through 1993 among US adolescents and young adults according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, marital status, and cause of dealth. No appreciable reduction in youth mortality has occurred, especially among men. Declines in youth mortality from accidents have been nearly ofset by increases in death rates from homicide, suicide, and firearm injuries. American Indians, Blacks, males, and those with least education and income were at increased risk of both overall and injury-specific youth mortality. PMID:8604791

  2. Trends and differentials in adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993.

    PubMed

    Singh, G K; Yu, S M

    1996-04-01

    Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, this study examined mortality trends and differentials from 1950 through 1993 among US adolescents and young adults according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, marital status, and cause of dealth. No appreciable reduction in youth mortality has occurred, especially among men. Declines in youth mortality from accidents have been nearly ofset by increases in death rates from homicide, suicide, and firearm injuries. American Indians, Blacks, males, and those with least education and income were at increased risk of both overall and injury-specific youth mortality.

  3. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  4. A Preliminary Study of Self-Reported Food Selectivity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Orionzi, Bako; Simmons, W. Kyle; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that picky eating is a common feature of early development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), far less is known about food selectivity during adolescence and adulthood. Using portions of the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, food selectivity self-ratings were obtained from 65 high-functioning adolescents/young adults with ASD and compared to those of 59 typically developing controls matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Individuals with ASD reported preferring familiar foods (food neophobia) and disliking foods with particular textures and strong flavors. Providing linkage to everyday behavior, parent ratings of daily living skills were lower among individuals with ASD and food neophobia than among those without food neophobia. Food selectivity continues to be an important issue for adolescents/young adults with ASD. PMID:26309446

  5. IF THEY GROW UP: EXPLORING THE NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT SURVIVAL EXPECTATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Warner, Tara D.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this paper examines individual and neighborhood predictors of adolescent and young adult survival expectations — their confidence of surviving to age 35. Analyses revealed that within-person increases in depression and violent perpetration decreased the odds of expecting to survive. Individuals who rated themselves in good health and received routine physical care had greater survival expectations. Consistent with documented health disparities, Black and Hispanic youth had lower survival expectations than did their White peers. Neighborhood poverty was linked to diminished survival expectations both within and between persons, with the between person association remaining significant controlling for mental and physical health, exposure to violence, own violence, and a wide range of socio-demographic factors. PMID:24273393

  6. Staying Young at Heart: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Richard J.; Touloumtzis, Currie

    2016-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT Approaches to the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are often too narrow in scope and initiated too late. While the majority of adolescents are free of CVD, far fewer are free of CVD risk factors, especially lifestyle factors such as poor exercise and dietary habits. Most clinicians are familiar with behavioral and pharmacologic strategies for modifying these and other traditional CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. In this review, we highlight those strategies most applicable to teens and also propose a fundamental reframing that recognizes the importance of early choices and life experiences to achieving cardiovascular health. Population- and individual-level approaches that support the establishment of positive health behaviors early in life are the foundation of preserving ideal cardiovascular health and promoting positive cardiovascular outcomes. The Positive Youth Development movement supports a frame shift away from seeing young people as merely the sum of their risk factors and instead as developmentally dynamic youth capable of making healthy choices. Informed by the Positive Youth Development framework, our approach to cardiovascular prevention among adolescents is both broad-based and proactive, paying heed as early as possible to social, familial, and developmental factors that underlie health behaviors, and employing evidence- based behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments when needed. PMID:26511137

  7. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  8. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults - a population based study.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Bergier, Barbara; Diatczyk, Julia; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Biliński, Przemysław; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.

  9. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  10. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  11. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population.

  14. Gender modulates the development of Theta Event Related Oscillations in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  15. Evaluating measurement error in readings of blood pressure for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn; Bollen, Kenneth A; Adair, Linda S

    2015-04-01

    Readings of blood pressure are known to be subject to measurement error, but the optimal method for combining multiple readings is unknown. This study assesses different sources of measurement error in blood pressure readings and assesses methods for combining multiple readings using data from a sample of adolescents/young adults who were part of a longitudinal epidemiological study based in Cebu, Philippines. Three sets of blood pressure readings were collected at 2-year intervals for 2127 adolescents and young adults as part of the Cebu National Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Study. Multi-trait, multi-method (MTMM) structural equation models in different groups were used to decompose measurement error in the blood pressure readings into systematic and random components and to examine patterns in the measurement across males and females and over time. The results reveal differences in the measurement properties of blood pressure readings by sex and over time that suggest the combination of multiple readings should be handled separately for these groups at different time points. The results indicate that an average (mean) of the blood pressure readings has high validity relative to a more complicated factor-score-based linear combination of the readings. PMID:25548966

  16. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  17. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions.

  18. Condylar subchondral formation of cortical bone in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jie; Liu, Mu-Qing; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Fu, Kai-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated subchondral formation of cortical bone in the condyles of adolescents and young adults, and looked for age-related and sex-related differences in bony formation with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography data in 1438 subjects aged between 10 and 30 years. The scans were part of the hospital's clinical protocol for patients seeking orthodontic or orthognathic treatment. No patient had signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Central images of the coronal and sagittal planes of the condyle were acquired and scored. Subchondral formation of cortical bone was seen as a high-density compact linear image, and subjects were classified into complete, partial, and no formation. Subchondral formation of cortical bone was first seen at the ages of 13-14 in boys and 12-13 in girls. Complete cortical bony formation was seen after the age of 22 years for men and 21 for women. We conclude that cortical bone begins to form around the periphery of the condyles during adolescence (12-14 years). A continuous, homogeneous, and compact cortical bony layer is established in young adults by the age of 21-22, indicating full development of the mandibular condyle. The condylar bone developed gradually and was generally fully developed a year earlier in women than men.

  19. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  20. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  1. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: Moving with the times.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abha A; Papadakos, Janet K; Jones, Jennifer M; Amin, Leila; Chang, Eugene K; Korenblum, Chana; Santa Mina, Daniel; McCabe, Lianne; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2016-04-01

    Literature regarding the development of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer programs has been dominantly informed by pediatric centers and practitioners. However, the majority of young adults are seen and treated at adult cancer centers, in which cancer volumes afford the development of innovative supportive care services. Although the supportive care services in adult cancer centers are helpful to AYAs, some of the most prominent and distinct issues faced by AYAs are not adequately addressed through these services alone. This article describes how the AYA Program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre has collaborated with existing supportive care services in addition to supplying its own unique services to meet the comprehensive needs of AYAs in the domains of: symptom management (sexuality and fatigue), behavior modification (return to work and exercise), and health services (advanced cancer and survivorship). These collaborations are augmented by patient education interventions and timely referrals. The objective of this article was to assist other centers in expanding existing services to address the needs of AYA patients with cancer.

  2. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  3. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  4. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  5. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  6. Iyengar Yoga for Adolescents and Young Adults With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Seidman, Laura C.; Sternlieb, Beth; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Tsao, Jennie C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, disabling condition that greatly compromises patient functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week twice per week Iyengar yoga (IY) program on IBS symptoms in adolescents and young adults (YA) with IBS compared with a usual-care waitlist control group. Methods Assessments of symptoms, global improvement, pain, health-related quality of life, psychological distress, functional disability, fatigue, and sleep were collected pre- and posttreatment. Weekly ratings of pain, IBS symptoms, and global improvement were also recorded until 2-month follow-up. A total of 51 participants completed the intervention (yoga = 29; usual-care waitlist = 22). Results Baseline attrition was 24%. On average, the yoga group attended 75% of classes. Analyses were divided by age group. Relative to controls, adolescents (14–17 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved physical functioning, whereas YA (18–26 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved IBS symptoms, global improvement, disability, psychological distress, sleep quality, and fatigue. Although abdominal pain intensity was statistically unchanged, 44% of adolescents and 46% of YA reported a minimally clinically significant reduction in pain following yoga, and one-third of YA reported clinically significant levels of global symptom improvement. Analysis of the uncontrolled effects and maintenance of treatment effects for adolescents revealed global improvement immediately post-yoga that was not maintained at follow-up. For YA, global improvement, worst pain, constipation, and nausea were significantly improved postyoga, but only global improvement, worst pain, and nausea maintained at the 2-month follow-up. Conclusions The findings suggest that a brief IY intervention is a feasible and safe adjunctive treatment for young people with IBS, leading to benefits in a number of IBS-specific and general functioning domains for

  7. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  8. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol. PMID:26079927

  9. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  10. Neurobiological and memory models of risky decision making in adolescents versus young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Estrada, Steven M; DeMarinis, Jessica A; Myers, Regina M; Stanisz, Janine M; Mills, Britain A

    2011-09-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences, sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions. As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, adolescents modulated risk taking according to risk and reward. Adults showed standard framing, reflecting greater emphasis on gist-based (qualitative) reasoning, but adolescents displayed reverse framing when potential gains for risk taking were high, reflecting greater emphasis on verbatim-based (quantitative) reasoning. Reverse framing signals a different way of thinking compared with standard framing (reverse framing also differs from simply choosing the risky option). Measures of verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, sensation seeking, behavioral activation, and inhibition were used to extract dimensions of risk proneness: Sensation seeking increased and then decreased, whereas inhibition increased from early adolescence to young adulthood, predicted by neurobiological theories. Two additional dimensions, verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, loaded separately and predicted unique variance in risk taking. Importantly, framing responses predicted real-life risk taking. Reasoning was the most consistent predictor of real-life risk taking: (a) Intentions to have sex, sexual behavior, and number of partners decreased when gist-based reasoning was triggered by retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk, whereas (b) intentions to have sex and number of partners increased when verbatim-based reasoning was triggered by different retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk.

  11. Survival improvements in adolescents and young adults after myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Lee, Stephanie J; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Ballen, Karen K; Buchbinder, David K; Dehn, Jason; Freytes, Cesar O; Lazarus, Hillard M; Lemaistre, Charles F; Mehta, Paulette; Szwajcer, David; Joffe, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, ages 15 to 40 years) with cancer have not experienced survival improvements to the same extent as younger and older patients. We compared changes in survival after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children (n = 981), AYAs (n = 1218), and older adults (n = 469) who underwent transplantation over 3 time periods: 1990 to 1995, 1996 to 2001, and 2002 to 2007. Five-year survival varied inversely with age group. Survival improved over time in AYAs and paralleled that seen in children; however, overall survival did not change over time for older adults. Survival improvements were primarily related to lower rates of early treatment-related mortality in the most recent era. For all cohorts, relapse rates did not change over time. A subset of 222 AYAs between the ages of 15 and 25 at 46 pediatric or 49 adult centers were also analyzed to describe differences by center type. In this subgroup, there were differences in transplantation practices among pediatric and adult centers, although HCT outcomes did not differ by center type. Survival for AYAs undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HCT for ALL improved at a similar rate as survival for children. PMID:24607554

  12. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  13. Longitudinal examination of the behavioral, language, and social changes in a population of adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ballaban-Gil, K; Rapin, I; Tuchman, R; Shinnar, S

    1996-10-01

    This follow-up study evaluates the behavioral, language, and social outcomes in a population of autistic patients initially examined in childhood. We evaluated 102 (63%) of the 163 eligible subjects, including 54 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 45 adults (> or = 18 years of age). Three patients had died in the interim. Behavior difficulties continued to be a problem in 69% of adolescents and adults. Thirty-five percent of adolescents and 49% of adults engaged in self-injurious behavior, and slightly more than 50% of adolescents and adults exhibited some stereotypic behaviors. Over 90% of both adolescents and adults had persisting social deficits. Language improved with age, although only 35% achieved normal or near-normal fluency. Comprehension also improved, although only 29% of subjects had achieved normal or near-normal comprehension of oral language. At the time of last follow-up, 28% of all patients and 53% of adults were living in residential placement. Only 11% of adults were employed on the open market, all in menial jobs; an additional 16% were employed in sheltered workshops. The social, behavioral, and language deficits identified in early life in autistic children tend to persist into adolescence and young adulthood.

  14. Predicting visceral adipose tissue by MRI using DXA and anthropometry in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laddu, Deepika R.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Sato, Tetsuya; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue, independent of total adiposity, is associated with development of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in children and adults. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for estimating visceral adiposity (VAT) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using anthropometric variables and measures of abdominal fat mass from DXA in adolescents and young adults. Methods Cross-sectional data was collected from a multiethnic population of seventy males and females, aged 12–25 years, with BMI ranging from 14.5–38.1 kg/m2. Android (AFM; android region as defined by manufacturers instruction) and lumbar L1-L4 regional fat masses were assessed using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy; GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA). Criterion measures of intra-abdominal visceral fat were obtained using single-slice MRI (General Electric Signa Model 5x 1.5T) and VAT area was analyzed at the level OF L4–L5. Image analysis was carried out using ZedView 3.1. Results DXA measures of AFM (r=0.76) and L1-L4 (r=0.71) were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with MRI-measured VAT. DXA AFM, together with gender and weight, explained 62% of the variance in VAT (SEE=10.06 cm2). DXA L1-L4 fat mass with gender explained 54% of the variance in VAT (SEE=11.08 cm2). Addition of the significant interaction, gender × DXA fat mass, improved prediction of VAT from AFM (Radj2=0.61, SEE=10.10cm2) and L1-L4 (Radj2=0.59, SEE=10.39cm2). Conclusion These results demonstrate that VAT is accurately estimated from regional fat masses measured by DXA in adolescents and young adults. PMID:26097436

  15. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  16. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  17. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  18. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Abramoff, Benjamin A; Lange, Hannah L H; Matson, Steven C; Cottrill, Casey B; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence.

  19. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  20. Polygenic risk for externalizing disorders: Gene-by-development and gene-by-environment effects in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Bucholz, Kathleen; Agrawal, Arpana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Hesselbrock, Michie; Bauer, Lance; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kramer, John; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we aimed to bring large-scale gene identification findings into a developmental psychopathology framework. Using a family-based sample, we tested whether polygenic scores for externalizing disorders—based on single nucleotide polymorphism weights derived from genome-wide association study results in adults (n = 1,249)—predicted externalizing disorders, subclinical externalizing behavior, and impulsivity-related traits adolescents (n = 248) and young adults (n = 207), and whether parenting and peer factors in adolescence moderated polygenic risk to predict externalizing disorders. Polygenic scores predicted externalizing disorders in adolescents and young adults, even after controlling for parental externalizing disorder history. Polygenic scores also predicted subclinical externalizing behavior and impulsivity traits in the adolescents and young adults. Adolescent parental monitoring and peer substance use moderated polygenic scores to predict externalizing disorders. This illustrates how state of the science genetics can be integrated with psychological science to identify how genetic risk contributes to the development of psychopathology. PMID:25821660

  1. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  2. From Death Metal to R&B? Consistency of Music Preferences among Dutch Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sikkema, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The structure of music preferences has been investigated extensively. However, development of music preferences in terms of consistency of music taste is as yet understudied. In this study, intra-individual consistency of music taste was assessed among Dutch adolescents and young adults over three points in time in a 21-month period. An…

  3. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Vocational Skills to Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Renes, Diana; Bowen, Scott L.; Burke, Ray V.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a collaborative project between a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities and a local private business, we examined the effects of video modeling to teach vocational skills to four adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Video modeling was used to teach the participants to wear a WalkAround[R]…

  4. Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the expressive language abilities of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) for evidence of syndrome-related differences. FXS gender differences were also examined in an exploratory fashion. Method: The authors…

  5. An Event-Related Potential Study of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Judgments of Moral and Social Conventional Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahat, Ayelet; Helwig, Charles C.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2013-01-01

    The neurocognitive development of moral and conventional judgments was examined. Event-related potentials were recorded while 24 adolescents (13 years) and 30 young adults (20 years) read scenarios with 1 of 3 endings: moral violations, conventional violations, or neutral acts. Participants judged whether the act was acceptable or unacceptable…

  6. Involved site radiation therapy for the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Portlock, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy technology has permitted the development of new treatment planning techniques. Involved field, involved node, and involved site radiotherapy fields are discussed and compared. Indications for and implications of combined modality therapy are examined, particularly as pertinent to the adolescent and young adult population. PMID:26767184

  7. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  8. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  9. Psychological Well-Being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…

  10. Music Exposure and Hearing Health Education: A Review of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Fei; French, David; Manchaiah, Vinaya K.C.; Liang, Maojin; Price, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents and young adults have been shown to be the age group most at risk of music-induced hearing loss (MIHL), which is already evident and increasing among this group. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide further insight into the effectiveness of education programmes on attitude and behaviour towards loud music…

  11. Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Ellis, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and explore the association between sleep disturbances, diabetes management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 159, mean age = 16.4, 43% female, 69% white, mean A1C = 9.3%) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quantity and quality and sleep disturbances. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (meter downloads) was used as a measure of diabetes management. Results Average sleep duration was 7.4 hours, below the recommended duration for this age. Adolescents using insulin pumps reported fewer sleep disturbances and longer sleep duration than those on injections, and older adolescents reported less sleep than younger adolescents. Poorer sleep duration was related to poorer diabetes management and better self-reported sleep quality was associated with better glycemic control for males but not for females. Conclusions Assessing for and treating sleep disturbances in adolescents may improve diabetes management. PMID:27081578

  12. Risk factors for opioid misuse in adolescents and young adults with focus on oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Peck, Kelly R; Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Anghelescu, Doralina L

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid use has increased in recent decades. Although opioids provide effective pain control, their use may be associated with the risk of misuse. Opioid misuse (OM) is prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Opioids are necessary to treat cancer-related pain; however, oncology patients are not immune to medication misuse. Research examining OM among AYAs with cancer is scarce. This article examines the risk factors described in the general adult and adolescent medication abuse literature and aims to provide recommendations for practice in the AYA oncology population. The following risk factors should be examined in AYA oncology patients to determine their relevance: age, sex, behavioral and academic problems, psychological conditions, and a history of illicit drug use/abuse. To maintain the delicate balance of providing adequate pain relief while protecting patients from the risk of OM, clinicians must consider potential risk factors, motivating factors, and individual behaviors. Placing these challenges in perspective, this review provides clinical considerations, recommendations, and intervention strategies for OM prevention in AYA oncology patients. PMID:27435441

  13. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  14. Psychodynamic psychotherapy with adolescents and young adults: Outcome in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Nemirovski Edlund, Julia; Carlberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study examined the outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy with 218 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years. Analysis of variance showed significant improvement of general functioning on Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and decreased symptom severity on Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90) upon completion of psychotherapy, as well as a clinically significant improvement in a large percentage of cases. Effect sizes were equivalent to those evident in a clinical comparison group and larger than in prior research. The main limitation of this study was the lack of a control group, partially compensated for through the use of comparison groups and high external validity. The study seeks to fill a gap in an important yet overlooked field of research.

  15. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  16. Consistency and cost of dual-task gait balance measure in healthy adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2016-09-01

    Matched control data are commonly used to examine recovery from concussion. Limited data exist, however, examining dual-task gait data consistency collected over time in healthy individuals. The study purposes were to: 1) assess the consistency of single-task and dual-task gait balance control measures, 2) determine the minimal detectable change (MDC) of gait balance control measures, and 3) examine the extent to which age and task complexity affect dual-task walking costs in healthy adolescents and young adults. Twenty-four adolescent (mean age=15.5±1.1years) and 21 young adult (mean age=21.2±4.5years) healthy participants completed 5 testing sessions across a two-month period, which involved analyses of gait balance control and temporal-distance variables during single-task and dual-task walking conditions in a motion analysis laboratory. Cronbach's α and MDCs were used to determine the consistency of the gait balance control variables and the smallest amount of change required to distinguish true performance from change due to the performance/measurement variability, respectively. Dual-task costs were evaluated to determine the effect of task complexity and age across time using 3-way ANOVAs. Good to excellent test-retest consistency was found for all single-task and dual-task walking (Cronbach's α range: 0.764-0.970), with a center-of-mass medial-lateral displacement MDC range of 0.835-0.948cm. Greater frontal plane dual-task costs were observed during more complex secondary tasks (p<0.001). The results revealed good-excellent consistency across testing sessions for all variables and indicated dual-task costs are affected by task complexity. Thus, healthy controls can be effective comparators when assessing injured subjects.

  17. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Adolescents and Young Adults and Risk of Early Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Saydah, Sharon; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of mortality associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a national sample of adolescents and young adults. METHODS Prospective study of participants in the third NHANES (1988–1994), aged 12 to 39 years at the time of the survey (n = 9245). Risk factors included 3 measures of adiposity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, self-reported smoking status, and cotinine level. Death before age 55 (n = 298) was determined by linkage to the National Death Index through 2006. Proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to determine the risk of death before age 55 years after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and presence of comorbid conditions. RESULTS After adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, results of categorical analyses showed that current smokers were at 86% greater risk for early death than those classified as never smokers; that those with a waist-to-height ratio >0.65 were at 139% greater risk than those with a WHR <0.5; and that those with an HbA1c level >6.5% were at 281% greater risk than those with an HbA1c level <5.7%. Neither high-density lipoprotein nor non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol measures were associated with risk for early death. CONCLUSIONS Our finding that risk for death before age 55 among US adolescents and young adults was associated with central obesity, smoking, and hyperglycemia supports reducing the prevalence of these risk factors among younger US residents. PMID:23420920

  18. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  19. Splitting and the psychodynamics of adolescent and young adult suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Chabrol, H; Sztulman, H

    1997-12-01

    The authors point to a link between the contradictory meanings and functions of adolescent and young adult suicide attempts and splitting mechanisms that may explain the normal coexistence of opposite tendencies. They argue that suicide attempts of young people reveal a deadlock in development, in which individuation and the need for dependence are equally intolerable because of the arousal of anxiety linked to persecution or abandonment. The sexualisation of the body and of intimate relationships engenders a risk of psychic decompensation, which is temporarily set aside through the reinforcement of splitting and denial; the suicide attempt, however, is precipitated by conditions that provoke a traumatic return of that which has been split-off and denied. Suicide attempts thus represent an act of compromise, the object of which is to avoid psychic disorganisation through the re-establishment of a precarious equilibrium between antithetical tendencies that splitting can simultaneously address. In particular, suicide may represent an attempt at individuation and flight from incest while at that same time satisfying fusion needs and the realisation of oedipal fantasies. Clinical examples are presented to illustrate the manifestation and the function of splitting in young people's suicide attempts.

  20. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. Objective To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. Methods A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. Results 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables. PMID:24263778

  1. Breastfeeding Intentions Among Pregnant Adolescents and Young Adults and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Hansen, Nathan; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of breastfeeding remain disproportionately low among young mothers in the United States. Although breastfeeding behavior may be most directly related to breastfeeding intention, little is known about breastfeeding intentions among young women who are expecting a baby. Subjects and Methods Pregnant adolescents and young adults (14–21 years old) and their male partners were recruited for participation. Females were asked if they intended to breastfeed, and their partners were asked if they wanted their partners to breastfeed; participants indicated reasons for their responses. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between breastfeeding intentions and sociodemographic characteristics, relationship characteristics, and partner's intention to breastfeed. Results Approximately 73% of females reported intending to breastfeed, and 80% of males reported wanting his partner to breastfeed, most commonly because it is “healthier for the baby” and “a more natural way to feed the baby.” Sociodemographic and relationship characteristics explained a small amount of variance of breastfeeding intention (15% and 4% among females, respectively, and 8% and 4% among males, respectively). Partner intention explained an additional 23% and 24% of the variance in individual intention for females and males, respectively. Females who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) from their current partner had lower odds of intending to breastfeed (odds ratio=0.37; 95% confidence interval=0.16, 0.84). Race/ethnicity modified associations among both genders. Conclusions These findings emphasize the importance of dyadic approaches and suggest strategies for improving breastfeeding intentions and behavior among young couples expecting a baby. These results are also among the first to document the relationship between IPV and breastfeeding intentions among young women. PMID:23611330

  2. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  3. Are Adolescent Substance Users Less Satisfied with Life as Young Adults and if so, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Laura M.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether adolescent cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use predicts life satisfaction in young adulthood. Survey data were used from a longitudinal cohort of 2376 adolescents at ages 18 and 29, originally recruited from California and Oregon middle schools at age 13. Results of multivariate models indicated…

  4. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  5. Temporal association between obesity and hyperinsulinemia in children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    1999-07-01

    Obesity is generally associated with hyperinsulinemia. However, whether obesity precedes or follows hyperinsulinemia is not clear. The present study examined the temporal nature of the association between obesity and hyperinsulinemia in a biracial (black-white) community-based population enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Three longitudinal cohorts of children (n = 427; baseline age, 5 to 7 years), adolescents (n = 674; baseline age, 12 to 14 years), and young adults (n = 396; baseline age, 20 to 24 years) were selected retrospectively, with a follow-up period of approximately 3 years. In general, longitudinal changes in the mean body mass index (kilograms per meter squared), an indicator of adiposity, and fasting insulin level did not parallel each other. In a bivariate analysis, baseline insulin levels correlated significantly with the follow-up body mass index in adolescents and adults, but not in children. On the other hand, the baseline body mass index correlated significantly with follow-up insulin levels in all cases. Logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of subjects who developed obesity (body mass index > 75th percentile, specific for age, race, gender, and survey year) at follow-up study increased significantly across baseline quintiles (specific for age, race, gender, and survey year) of insulin only among adolescents, irrespective of race and gender. This relationship disappeared after adjusting for the baseline body mass index. By contrast, a significant positive trend between baseline quintiles of the body mass index and incidence of hyperinsulinemia (> 75th percentile) at follow-up study was noted among all age groups independent of race, gender, and baseline insulin levels. Further, in a multiple stepwise regression model, the best predictor of the follow-up insulin level was the baseline body mass index in children and adults and the baseline insulin in adolescents. The baseline body mass index was the best predictor of the

  6. Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer: a milieu of unique features.

    PubMed

    Sender, Leonard; Zabokrtsky, Keri B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer are a unique category of patients who, depending on age at time of diagnosis, might receive treatment from oncologists specializing either in the treatment of children or adults. In the USA, AYA oncology generally encompasses patients 15-39 years of age. AYA patients with cancer typically present with diseases that span the spectrum from 'paediatric' cancers (such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia [ALL] and brain tumours) to 'adult' tumours (such as breast cancer and melanoma), as well as cancers that are largely unique to their age group (such as testicular cancer and bone tumours). Research indicates that outcomes of AYA patients with cancer are influenced not only by the treatment provided, but also by factors related to 'host' biology. In addition to the potential biological and cancer-specific differences between AYAs and other patients with cancer, AYA patients also often have disparate access to clinical trials and suffer from a lack of age-appropriate psychosocial support services and health services, which might influence survival as well as overall quality of life. In this Review, these issues are discussed, with a focus on two types of AYA cancer--ALL and melanoma--highlighting findings arising from the use of emerging technologies, such as whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26011488

  7. Adolescents and young adults with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: slipping between the cracks.

    PubMed

    Wolach, Ofir; Ram, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have inferior survival as compared to children. The reasons for this survival gap are multifactorial and related to psychosocial aspects, patient- and disease-related biological characteristics as well as to therapeutic approaches within this age span. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) comprises approximately 7% of cancer among AYAs, and patient allocation and therapy vary between health systems. In this systematic review we focus on the current biological and clinical knowledge relevant to AYAs with NHL applying these data to the clinical approach and practice. Data are insufficient to recommend a pediatric or an adult approach for AYAs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Dose-adjusted EPOCH-R seems to be a promising, radiation-free approach for AYAs with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Limitations in data interpretation include the lack of interventional trials tailored specifically for the AYA population and the lack of uniform criteria for staging and response assessment in pediatric and adult trials. PMID:25228553

  8. Best Practices in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Focus on Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Boissel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of asparaginase in chemotherapy regimens to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has had a positive impact on survival in pediatric patients. Historically, asparaginase has been excluded from most treatment protocols for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients because of perceived toxicity in this population, and this is believed to have contributed to poorer outcomes in these patients. However, retrospective analyses over the past 12 years have shown that 2-, 5-, and 7-year overall survival of AYA patients is significantly improved with pediatric versus adult protocols. The addition of asparaginase to adult protocols yielded high rates of first remission and improved survival. However, long-term survival remains lower compared with what has been seen in pediatrics. The notion that asparaginase is poorly tolerated by AYA patients has been challenged in multiple studies. In some, but not all, studies, the incidences of hepatic and pancreatic toxicities were higher in AYA patients, whereas the rates of hypersensitivity reactions did not appear to differ with age. There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, and management with anti-coagulation therapy is recommended. Overall, the risk of therapy-related mortality is low. Together, this suggests that high-intensity pediatric protocols offer an effective and tolerable approach to treating ALL in the AYA population. PMID:26421220

  9. Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Bray, Bethany C; Cottler, Linda B

    2007-11-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that increase the probability of many serious illnesses and death. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnostic configurations of inhalant-related criteria. Participants were 162 community sample adolescents or young adults (mean age=20.3 years, S.D.=2.4). Two-thirds of the sample was male and 83.3% was Caucasian. Kappas and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed to estimate test-retest reliabilities. Results suggested (a) abuse was more common than dependence (34.6% versus 12.3%), (b) reliabilities of abuse criteria and diagnosis were good to excellent across subtypes, and (c) reliabilities of dependence criteria and diagnoses were poor to good across subtypes. Alternative configurations of DSM-IV criteria that were consistent with previous research on adolescents provided excellent reliabilities across subtypes of inhalants. Moreover, 11.1% of participants experienced inhalants withdrawal.

  10. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  11. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  12. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713

  13. Change in ambulatory ability of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Day, Steven M; Wu, Yvonne W; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; Reynolds, Robert J

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the probability that a child with cerebral palsy (CP) will lose or gain ambulatory ability through adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed retrospectively data from 1987 to 2002 on Californians with CP initially aged 10 years (SD 0.9y; n=7550 [4304 males, 3246 females]) and 25 years (SD 0.8y; n=5721 [3261 males, 2460 females]) who had varying levels of ambulatory ability (initial Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-IV). We used the Aalen-Johansen estimator to estimate probabilities of transition to other levels of ambulatory ability in the future. Those who walked and climbed stairs without difficulty at age 10 had only a 23% chance of decline (to requiring a handrail to manage stairs, or worse) 15 years later. Those who ambulated with some difficulty but did not use a wheelchair had a significant chance (33%) of improvement (to being able to walk unsteadily alone at least 3m or better) and only a small chance (11%) of becoming non-ambulatory. Those who used a wheelchair were more likely to lose ambulatory ability (34%) or die (6%). Those who walked and climbed stairs well at age 25 were likely to maintain that ability 15 years later (76%), while those needing support to climb stairs were more likely to lose ability. Improvement in ambulation after age 25 was unlikely. Children and young adults with CP are likely to maintain their ambulatory ability during their next 15 years. Some who ambulate with difficulty at age 10 may improve through adolescence, but those who use a wheelchair are more likely to decline. By age 25 improvement in ambulation is unlikely and decline more likely. Most, however, will not change over the next 15 years. PMID:17718819

  14. Reproductive Health Decision-Making in Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Zadeh, Sima; Albright, Jamie; Mellins, Claude Ann; Mancilla, Michael; Tepper, Vicki; Trexler, Connie; Purdy, Julia; Osherow, Janet; Lovelace, Susan; Kapetanovic, Suad

    2013-01-01

    With widespread access to antiretroviral therapy in the United States, many perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, becoming sexually active and making decisions about their reproductive health. The literature focusing on the reproductive decisions of individuals behaviorally infected with HIV can serve as a springboard for understanding the decision-making process of PHIV+ youth. Yet, there are many differences that critically distinguish reproductive health and related decision-making of PHIV+ youth. Given the potential public health implications of their reproductive decisions, better understanding of factors influencing the decision-making process is needed to help inform the development of salient treatment and prevention interventions. To begin addressing this understudied area, a “think tank” session, comprised of clinicians, medical providers, and researchers with expertise in the area of adolescent HIV, was held in Bethesda, MD, on September 21, 2011. The focus was to explore what is known about factors that influence the reproductive decision-making of PHIV+ adolescents and young adults, determine what important data are needed in order to develop appropriate intervention for PHIV+ youth having children, and to recommend future directions for the field in terms of designing and carrying out collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the findings from this meeting. The paper is organized around the key themes that emerged, including utilizing a developmental perspective to create an operational definition of reproductive decision-making, integration of psychosocial services with medical management, and how to design future research studies. Case examples are presented and model program components proposed. PMID:22736033

  15. Reproductive health decision-making in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fair, Cynthia; Wiener, Lori; Zadeh, Sima; Albright, Jamie; Mellins, Claude Ann; Mancilla, Michael; Tepper, Vicki; Trexler, Connie; Purdy, Julia; Osherow, Janet; Lovelace, Susan; Kapetanovic, Suad

    2013-07-01

    With widespread access to antiretroviral therapy in the United States, many perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, becoming sexually active and making decisions about their reproductive health. The literature focusing on the reproductive decisions of individuals behaviorally infected with HIV can serve as a springboard for understanding the decision-making process of PHIV+ youth. Yet, there are many differences that critically distinguish reproductive health and related decision-making of PHIV+ youth. Given the potential public health implications of their reproductive decisions, better understanding of factors influencing the decision-making process is needed to help inform the development of salient treatment and prevention interventions. To begin addressing this understudied area, a "think tank" session, comprised of clinicians, medical providers, and researchers with expertise in the area of adolescent HIV, was held in Bethesda, MD, on September 21, 2011. The focus was to explore what is known about factors that influence the reproductive decision-making of PHIV+ adolescents and young adults, determine what important data are needed in order to develop appropriate intervention for PHIV+ youth having children, and to recommend future directions for the field in terms of designing and carrying out collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the findings from this meeting. The paper is organized around the key themes that emerged, including utilizing a developmental perspective to create an operational definition of reproductive decision-making, integration of psychosocial services with medical management, and how to design future research studies. Case examples are presented and model program components proposed.

  16. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions.

  17. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  18. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  19. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  20. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.

  1. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942381

  2. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  3. Young and Uninsured: Insurance Patterns of Recently Diagnosed Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors in the AYA HOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen; Schmidt, Susanne; Harlan, Linda; Kent, Erin; Lynch, Charles; Smith, Ashley; Keegan, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Young adults have historically been the least likely to have health insurance in the United States. Previous studies of childhood cancer survivors found lower rates of insurance and less access to medical care compared to siblings; however, no studies have examined continuity of insurance after cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Methods Using the AYA Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study, a cohort of 465 15-39 year-olds from participating Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated changes in and sponsors of health insurance coverage after diagnosis, coverage of doctor-recommended tests, and factors associated with lack of insurance post-diagnosis using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results Over 25% (n=118) of AYA cancer survivors experienced some period without insurance up to 35 months post-diagnosis. Insurance rates were high in the initial year after diagnosis (6-14 months; 93.3%) but decreased substantially at follow-up (15-35 months; 85.2%). The most common sponsor of health insurance was employer/school-coverage (43.7%). Multivariable analysis indicated that older survivors (25-39 vs. 15-19; Odds Ratio (OR): 3.35, p<0.01) and those with less education (high school or less vs. college graduate; OR: 2.80, p<0.01) were more likely to experience a period without insurance after diagnosis. Furthermore, >20% of survivors indicated there were doctor-recommended tests/treatments not covered by insurance, but >80% received them regardless of coverage. Discussion Insurance rates decrease with time since diagnosis in AYA cancer survivors. Future studies should examine how new policies under the Affordable Care Act extend access and insurance coverage beyond initial treatment. PMID:24899580

  4. Major depressive disorder and bone mass in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calarge, Chadi A; Butcher, Brandon D; Burns, Trudy L; Coryell, William H; Schlechte, Janet A; Zemel, Babette S

    2014-10-01

    Depression has been associated with reduced bone mass in adults, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In addition, little is known about the association between depression and bone health during growth and development. To address this knowledge gap, we examined bone density and structure in 222 adolescents and young adults (69% females, mean ± SD age: 19.0 ± 1.5 years), enrolled within 1 month of starting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or unmedicated. Psychiatric functioning was assessed with self-report and researcher-administered instruments, including the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation for Adolescents (A-LIFE). Anthropometric and laboratory measures included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Linear multivariable regression analysis tested the association between depression and bone mass, after accounting for relevant confounders. The presence of current depression was associated with a significant reduction in age-sex-height-race-specific bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of total body less head and lumbar spine. The findings varied by assessment method with self-report scales, capturing symptom severity over the prior week or two, yielding the weakest associations. Depression was also associated with reduced cortical thickness and a trend for increased endosteal circumference. In contrast, generalized anxiety disorder was not associated with bone deficits. In sum, depressive illness is associated with significantly lower bone mass in youths. Future investigations must examine whether bone recovery is possible following depression remission or whether remedial interventions are warranted to optimize bone mass in order to minimize the long-term risk of osteoporosis.

  5. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods. PMID:25234582

  6. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.

  7. How I treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in older adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Emily

    2015-01-01

    At the intersection between children and older adults, the care of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) poses unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by other age groups. Although the survival of AYA patients is inferior to younger children, growing evidence suggests that AYA patients have improved outcomes, with disease-free survival rates of 60% to 70%, when treated with pediatric-based approaches. A holistic approach, incorporating a multidisciplinary team, is a key component of successful treatment of these AYA patients. With the appropriate support and management of toxicities during and following treatment, these regimens are well tolerated in the AYA population. Even with the significant progress that has been made during the last decade, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) during intensive therapy still have a poor prognosis. With new insights into disease pathogenesis in AYA ALL and the availability of disease-specific kinase inhibitors and novel targeted antibodies, future studies will focus on individualized therapy to eradicate MRD and result in further improvements in survival. This case-based review will discuss the biology, pharmacology, and psychosocial aspects of AYA patients with ALL, highlighting our current approach to the management of these unique patients. PMID:25805810

  8. Convergence and Non-convergence in the Quality of Adolescent Relationships and its Association with Adolescent Adjustment and Young Adult Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764

  9. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  10. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  11. Functions of non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents and young adults with Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Naomi; Londahl-Shaller, Esme A; Piatigorsky, Auran; Fordwood, Samantha; Stuart, Barbara K; McNiel, Dale E; Klonsky, E David; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Yaeger, Alison M

    2014-05-15

    Rates of deliberate non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) increase during adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in clinical samples, making these important developmental stages for understanding the functions of NSSI. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms also begin to emerge in adolescence, though little research has examined relationships between BPD symptoms and the functions of NSSI in youth, the primary goal of the present study. Adolescents and young adults recruited from an outpatient psychotherapy clinic (N=36) endorsed a range of NSSI functions on the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (Klonsky and Glenn, 2009). Participants engaged in NSSI to serve intrapersonal functions (e.g., regulate affect, punish oneself) more frequently than interpersonal functions (e.g., bond with peers, establish autonomy). As predicted, linear regression analyses indicated that BPD affective dysregulation symptoms were associated with the intrapersonal but not the interpersonal functions of NSSI. In contrast, BPD interpersonal dysfunction symptoms were differentially associated with the interpersonal rather than intrapersonal functions of NSSI. These preliminary data indicate that clusters of BPD symptoms show unique relationships with functions of NSSI in treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults, relationships that can be used to target specific functions of NSSI in treatment planning.

  12. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p < 0.03) and were more likely to smoke (p = 0.005), and had a lower healthy eating index (HEI) (p = 0.007) but similar alcohol consumption compared with controls. In obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  14. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  16. Examination of the double-deficit hypothesis with adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M

    2015-10-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range = 16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and phonological awareness (PA) constructs was superior to a one-factor model, supporting the assumption within the DDH that NS is a source of reading dysfunction separable from PA. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses resulted in findings that were only partially supportive of the DDH. NS was predictive of word reading, spelling, and reading fluency beyond PA and verbal intellectual ability, but not pseudoword reading and timed and untimed reading comprehension. Examination of DDH subtypes did not support the core assumption of the DDH that the double-deficit subtype would have more impaired reading skills than both of the single-deficit subtypes. The NS deficit subtype was found to be more prevalent than the double-deficit and PA deficit subtypes within the subgroup of dyslexics with impairment in reading fluency. Overall results provided mixed support for the DDH and pointed to the need for the inclusion of additional abilities within theories of the underlying mechanisms disrupted in dyslexia.

  17. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  18. A Prognostic Model Predicting Autologous Transplantation Outcomes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Satwani, Prakash; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Carreras, Jeanette; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Cashen, Amanda; Chen, Andy I.; Cohen, Jonathon B.; Costa, Luciano J.; Dandoy, Christopher; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, César O.; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Gale, Robert Peter; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Hertzberg, Mark S.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Kamble, Rummurti T.; Kanate, Abraham S.; Keating, Armand; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F.; Prestidge, Tim D.; Rolon, Juliana Martinez; Savani, Bipin N.; Vose, Julie M.; Wood, William A.; Inwards, David J.; Bachanova, Veronika; Smith, Sonali M.; Maloney, David G.; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AutoHCT) is a potentially curative treatment modality for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, no large studies have evaluated pre-transplant factors predictive of outcomes of AutoHCT in children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA, age <30 years). In a retrospective study, we analyzed 606 CAYA patients (median age 23 years) with relapsed/refractory HL who underwent AutoHCT between 1995–2010. The probabilities of progression free survival (PFS) at 1, 5 and 10 years were 66% (95% CI: 62–70), 52% (95% CI: 48–57) and 47% (95% CI: 42–51), respectively. Multivariate analysis for PFS demonstrated that at the time of AutoHCT patients with Karnofsky/Lansky score ≥90, no extranodal involvement and chemosensitive disease had significantly improved PFS. Patients with time from diagnosis to first relapse of <1 year had a significantly inferior PFS. A prognostic model for PFS was developed that stratified patients into low, intermediate and high-risk groups, predicting for 5-year PFS probabilities of 72% (95% CI: 64–80), 53% (95% CI: 47–59) and 23% (95% CI: 9–36), respectively. This large study identifies a group of CAYA patients with relapsed/refractory HL who are at high risk for progression after AutoHCT. Such patients should be targeted for novel therapeutic and/or maintenance approaches post-AutoHCT. PMID:26237164

  19. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  20. Assistive Technology Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kurt L.; Dudgeon, Brian; Kuehn, Carrie; Walker, William

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the use of assistive technology among a population of individuals with spina bifida. Methods. We performed a descriptive analysis of individuals aged 13 to 27 years diagnosed with myelomeningocele (n=348) using data obtained from an existing database at Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. We summarized disease characteristics, utilization of assistive technology, community and self-care independence, and other variables. Results. Eighty-four percent of the respondents lived with at least 1 of their natural parents. Fifty-seven percent used wheelchairs, 35% used braces, and 23% used walking aids. Independent self-care was a common skill, but 72% reported limited participation in structured activities. Half were aged 18 years or older; of those, only 50% had completed high school and 71% were unemployed. Those aged younger than 18 years were all still in school (100%). Conclusions. Adolescents and young adults with spina bifida rely on assistive technology and specialized care routines to maintain their health. Assistive technology use for mobility is common; little is known about secondary complications associated with use of these technologies or the use of assistive technology to address learning disabilities and other societal barriers. Underutilization of assistive technology could delay successful transitions to independent living and community participation. PMID:17194874

  1. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  2. Recurrent DUX4 fusions in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Takahiko; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Kawazu, Masahito; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Kojima, Shinya; Ueno, Toshihide; Imoto, Naoto; Kohsaka, Shinji; Kunita, Akiko; Doi, Koichiro; Sakura, Toru; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Kondo, Eisei; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Ueda, Yasunori; Aoyama, Yasutaka; Ohtake, Shigeki; Takita, Junko; Sai, Eirin; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Morishita, Shinichi; Fukayama, Masashi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    The oncogenic mechanisms underlying acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA; 15-39 years old) remain largely elusive. Here we have searched for new oncogenes in AYA-ALL by performing RNA-seq analysis of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative AYA-ALL specimens (n = 73) with the use of a next-generation sequencer. Interestingly, insertion of D4Z4 repeats containing the DUX4 gene into the IGH locus was frequently identified in B cell AYA-ALL, leading to a high level of expression of DUX4 protein with an aberrant C terminus. A transplantation assay in mice demonstrated that expression of DUX4-IGH in pro-B cells was capable of generating B cell leukemia in vivo. DUX4 fusions were preferentially detected in the AYA generation. Our data thus show that DUX4 can become an oncogenic driver as a result of somatic chromosomal rearrangements and that AYA-ALL may be a clinical entity distinct from ALL at other ages. PMID:27019113

  3. Targeting childhood, adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma: therapeutic horizons.

    PubMed

    Galardy, Paul J; Bedekovics, Tibor; Hermiston, Michelle L

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the third most common malignancy in children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA). NHL is a diverse set of diseases that arise at key regulatory checkpoints during B or T cell development in the bone marrow, germinal centre or thymus. While advances in the use of conventional cytotoxic agents have led to dramatic improvements in survival, these cures are associated with significant acute and long-term toxicities. Moreover, the prognosis for CAYA patients with relapsed or refractory NHL remains dismal, with the vast majority dying of their disease. Thanks to a large number of candidate-based biological studies, together with large-scale sequencing efforts, there has been an explosion of knowledge regarding the molecular pathophysiology of B- and T-NHL. This has ushered development of a flurry of novel therapeutic approaches that may simultaneously provide new hope for relapsed patients and an opportunity to reduce the therapeutic burden in newly diagnosed CAYA. Here we review a selection of the most promising new therapeutic approaches to these diseases. While the vast majority of these agents are untested in children, on-going work from many cooperative groups will soon explore their use in paediatric disease, in hope of further improving outcomes while maximizing quality of life. PMID:27019108

  4. Measurement of Aortic Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Patricia H.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Blecha, M. Beth; Mastbergen, Rebecca K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood in the distal abdominal aorta and later involves the carotid arteries. Noninvasive screening to detect these lesions may allow early intervention. Ultrasound images of the distal 10 mm of the aorta were obtained after an 8-hour fast and were analyzed by an automated program to determine the mean far wall intimal-medial thickness (IMT). The results were compared to the mean carotid IMT obtained concurrently. The mean age of the 313 males and 322 females imaged was 20.4 years (SD 5.6) and 61 participants had a second study to assess reproducibility. The mean aortic IMT was 0.63 mm (SD 0.14) for males and 0.61 mm (SD 0.13) for females while the mean carotid IMT was 0.50 (SD 0.04) mm and 0.49 (SD 0.04) mm respectively. Images were analyzed in 95% of participants. Intra-subject reproducibility for the mean aortic IMT had a coefficient of variation of 18% with a mean absolute difference of 0.12 mm (SD 0.10). For cIMT, the results were 3% and 0.02 mm (SD 0.01), respectively. Aortic IMT can be measured in normal adolescents and young adults with low rates of missing data and reasonable reproducibility. Aortic IMT increased with age at a greater rate than carotid IMT. PMID:20350682

  5. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  6. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863

  7. ‘Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. Participants: A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI⩾99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th–97.9th centile). Measures: Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Results: Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. Conclusion: The popular image of

  8. [Homicides by adolescents and young adults from the viewpoint of the adolescent psychiatry expert].

    PubMed

    Strehlow, U; Piesiur-Strehlow, B; Müller-Küppers, M

    1988-06-01

    From 1966 to 1986, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Heidelberg gave expert opinions at the request of criminal courts in 37 cases involving homicide and 8 attempted homicide. Eighteen of the offenders were between 14 and 17 years old ("Jugendliche" under German law), 17 between 18 and 20 ("Heranwachsende") and 2 over 20. The largest group (N = 18) consisted of maladjusted male adolescents who had grown up in disadvantageous surroundings, had limited education and, not infrequently following the example of other members of their families, tended to show aggressive behaviour, intolerance to frustration, emotional instability and uncontrolled drinking. The questions the expert was asked by the court were mainly concerned with: liability for crime (section 3 JGG), applicability of juvenile law to offenders aged 18 to 20 years (section 105 JGG) penal responsibility (section 20 and 21 StBG or section 51, Section 1 and 2 StGB a.F.), and measures under section 63 StGB. The court took the expert's position in 28 of the 33 decisions which we were able to obtain for examination; 2 other proceedings were quashed. The juridical classification of the homicides was attempted or completed first-degree murder in 17 and attempted or completed second-degree murder in 6 cases.

  9. Adherence-related issues in adolescents and young adults with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Raanani, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medical recommendations is a widespread problem well documented in a multitude of clinical settings. Nonadherence may adversely affect clinical outcomes such as survival and quality of life and increase health-care-related costs. An understanding of the factors driving nonadherence is key to developing effective adherence-enhancing interventions (AEIs). There are ongoing attempts in contemporary adherence research to better define the various components of adherence, to find optimal measures of adherence and correlations with clinical outcomes, and to create a classification system for AEIs. Nonadherence is also widely prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic hematological diseases, affecting up to 50% of patients and increasing with age. Combined use of objective (i.e. electronic monitoring, EM) and subjective (i.e. self-report) measures of adherence may be the preferred approach to assess adherence. The unique physical, social and emotional aspects of the AYA life stage are closely related to intricate causes of nonadherence in AYAs such as problems in transition to adult care. Until proven otherwise, the empirical target in AYAs with hematological disorders should be perfect adherence. Multilevel AEIs, EM feedback and behavioral interventions are among the most effective types of AEIs. Despite the magnitude of the problem, only a handful of AEIs have been evaluated among AYAs with hematological disorders. Thus, this is a field with unmet needs warranting high-quality trials using standardized and well-specified assessment methods and interventions. This review discusses the prevalence, definition, causes and clinical implications of nonadherence among AYAs with hematological disorders, along with strategies to measure and improve adherence. PMID:25228561

  10. Adherence-related issues in adolescents and young adults with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Raanani, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medical recommendations is a widespread problem well documented in a multitude of clinical settings. Nonadherence may adversely affect clinical outcomes such as survival and quality of life and increase health-care-related costs. An understanding of the factors driving nonadherence is key to developing effective adherence-enhancing interventions (AEIs). There are ongoing attempts in contemporary adherence research to better define the various components of adherence, to find optimal measures of adherence and correlations with clinical outcomes, and to create a classification system for AEIs. Nonadherence is also widely prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic hematological diseases, affecting up to 50% of patients and increasing with age. Combined use of objective (i.e. electronic monitoring, EM) and subjective (i.e. self-report) measures of adherence may be the preferred approach to assess adherence. The unique physical, social and emotional aspects of the AYA life stage are closely related to intricate causes of nonadherence in AYAs such as problems in transition to adult care. Until proven otherwise, the empirical target in AYAs with hematological disorders should be perfect adherence. Multilevel AEIs, EM feedback and behavioral interventions are among the most effective types of AEIs. Despite the magnitude of the problem, only a handful of AEIs have been evaluated among AYAs with hematological disorders. Thus, this is a field with unmet needs warranting high-quality trials using standardized and well-specified assessment methods and interventions. This review discusses the prevalence, definition, causes and clinical implications of nonadherence among AYAs with hematological disorders, along with strategies to measure and improve adherence.

  11. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  12. Nursing care for adolescents and young adults with cancer: literature review.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Juliet; Schwartz-Attias, Irit

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients belonging to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group have unique and very specific needs, which require special attention from the caring staff. The difficulty in maintaining the personal and professional development at this age is both natural and normal. Adding to this, coping with a life-threatening disease turns this stage in life into a period with many dilemmas and challenges of quite a complex nature. AYA patients have to deal with issues above and beyond the disease itself, which create a very complex coping picture. On top of that, prognosis for this age group has not improved in recent years, unlike the situation in other age groups like children and adults. The literature on this subject is extensive and comprehensive. However, most of the papers on this subject are very specific and narrow in their approach, each dealing with a specific topic. In this article, we bring together many different papers which make a wide and comprehensive picture of the subject of AYAs coping with cancer, coupled with recommendations for the caring staff. In this review we focus on the various aspects of the disease and treatments in AYAs, based on the conceptual model of quality of life proposed by Ferrell and colleagues [Cancer Nurs 1992;15:153-160; Cancer Nurs 1992;15:247-253], including physical, social, emotional and spiritual aspects. From the psychological standpoint, most of the papers discuss the negative aspects; however, in this article we try to include some articles from the positive psychology school of thought. From our findings it is apparent that there is an opportunity and need to further explore research in this regard. It is apparent that taking a unique approach to AYA cancer patients is needed in order to deal with the unique needs of this age group. This article aims at putting a framework around this issue, with actionable recommendations for the caring staff.

  13. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in countries with limited resources.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Ian; Epelman, Sidnei

    2013-08-01

    Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYA) represents a higher fraction of all cancer in countries that are still undergoing a demographic transition. Such countries tend to have much younger populations, and therefore unless they have a particularly low incidence of cancer in this age group, will have a higher burden of cancer (absolute number of cases with cancer) in AYA. Cancers in AYA are comprised of the tail end of the incidence curve of cancers that have their peak incidence, or occur almost exclusively in childhood, the beginning of the incidence curve of cancers that primarily affect the elderly, and a third set of cancers that have their peak incidence (or are at least common) in the AYA age group (e.g., testicular cancer, sarcomas, melanoma, thyroid cancer). Many, but not all, of these cancers require radiation or cancer surgery, but the poorest countries do not have a sufficient number of radiation therapy units and surgical oncologists, or indeed medical and pediatric oncologists, to deal with the burden of cancer they face. The AYA age group is particularly important, both with regard to their contribution to the economy now and in the future (the majority are in the "working" age-group defined as 15-64 years), as well as their important role in caring for their families. Moreover, some of these cancers are eminently curable with chemotherapy alone, and more could be cured by simply improving the efficiency of existing health services and providing education and training to both the public as well as oncologists and other specialists required for the care of AYA (although such individuals will not necessarily be exclusively concerned with this age group). Of particular importance is the detection and diagnosis of cancer patients at the earliest possible time in the course of their disease. Avoiding delays in initiating therapy, which are partly due to the poverty and lack of education of the public as well as to a failure on the part of primary

  14. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  15. Trajectories of adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior and family climate: Longitudinal implications for young adult romantic relationship competence.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as key individual and family level factors that may forecast later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by a family systems framework, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of adolescent hostility and family climate, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the etiology of romantic relationship functioning. We drew on a large sample (N = 974) of young adults (mean age = 19.5) that were followed starting in the fall of 6th grade, and subsequently in spring of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades prior to the young adult assessment. Using a latent difference score cross-lag model (McArdle, 2009), our results indicated that a more positive family climate was associated with decreases in HAB, but HAB was not associated with changes in family climate. Further, the influence of the family climate on HAB was consistent across all time points. HAB and family climate had different predictions for young adult romantic relationships: Increasing HAB over adolescence predicted relationship violence, while maintenance in family climate was a key predictor of relationship problem-solving skills. The only predictor of love and connection in relationships was early family functioning. Implications for developmental theory and prevention science are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337516

  16. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  18. Neurobiological and Memory Models of Risky Decision Making in Adolescents versus Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Estrada, Steven M.; DeMarinis, Jessica A.; Myers, Regina M.; Stanisz, Janine M.; Mills, Britain A.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences,…

  19. A Key to Evaluation: The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Leonard, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Guiding deaf and hard of hearing students in making important decisions about their adult careers can be a difficult task. Twenty years after its inception, the TCB, as adapted for deaf and hard of hearing students, may help. The TCB is a unique assessment tool designed to measure the transition skills of deaf high school adolescents and young…

  20. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  1. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  2. Yoga as a Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Julia; McNamara, Sharon; Genatossio, Alan; Breuner, Cora; Weber, Tracy; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Yoga has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with asthma but has not been investigated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a prospective pilot study to evaluate the safety of a standardized yoga program among CF patients aged 12 to 25 years. Participants engaged in a 50-minute yoga session twice weekly for 8 weeks conducted by a certified yoga instructor using a standardized program designed to be safe for health-compromised individuals. Yoga sessions were individual to avoid transmission of infections. Primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life instrument (CFQ-R), lung function, Ease of Breathing Score (measure of exercise tolerance), and weight. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Adherence was very good; the mean (SD) number of sessions completed was 14.2 (1.3) out of 16 sessions. Eight patients reported 25 adverse events. The most common was cough, reported in 7. Two events were possibly related to study procedures: calf pain and headache. There were no significant changes in dyspnea or pain scales. The mean (SD) CFQ-R respiratory domain score increased from screening to end of study: 67.9 (11.4) to 82.1 (9.9), P=.04. There were no significant changes in the other outcome measures. Conclusions: In this pilot study, a standardized 8-week yoga program was safe and well tolerated among adolescent and young adult CF patients with mild to moderate lung disease. This study may be helpful to yoga instructors who are interested in working with CF patients. Larger controlled trials are warranted to determine further benefits. PMID:26665020

  3. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  4. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  5. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems.

  6. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  7. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation.

  8. Change in Ambulatory Ability of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Steven M.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Strauss, David J.; Shavelle, Robert M.; Reynolds, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the probability that a child with cerebral palsy (CP) will lose or gain ambulatory ability through adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed retrospectively data from 1987 to 2002 on Californians with CP initially aged 10 years (SD 0.9y; n=7550 [4304 males, 3246 females]) and 25 years (SD 0.8y; n=5721 [3261 males,…

  9. Educational and Skills-Based Interventions for Preventing Relationship and Dating Violence in Adolescents and Young Adults. A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013:14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellmeth, Gracia L. T.; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational and skills-based interventions are often used to prevent relationship and dating violence among young people. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions designed to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Search Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central…

  10. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  11. A trial of d-cycloserine to treat the social deficit in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are difficult for older adolescents and young adults as impaired social communication affects the transition to adult life. d-Cycloserine, a partial glycine agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor, was tested in a double-blind randomized trial in 20 older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders using two dosing strategies (50 mg daily versus 50 mg weekly) for 8 weeks with a 2-week follow-up after discontinuation. d-Cycloserine caused statistically and clinically significant improvement with no differentiation between dosing strategies on the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist before and after d-cycloserine administration.

  12. The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gross, James J.; Weber, Jochen; Robertson, Elaine R.; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Ray, Rebecca D.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal regions, one prediction is that reappraisal ability develops linearly. However, recent investigations into socio-emotional development suggest that there are non-linear patterns that uniquely affect adolescents. We compared older children (10–13), adolescents (14–17) and young adults (18–22) on a task that distinguishes negative emotional reactivity from reappraisal ability. Behaviorally, we observed no age differences in self-reported emotional reactivity, but linear and quadratic relationships between reappraisal ability and age. Neurally, we observed linear age-related increases in activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, previously identified in adult reappraisal. We observed a quadratic pattern of activation with age in regions associated with social cognitive processes like mental state attribution (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex). In these regions, we observed relatively lower reactivity-related activation in adolescents, but higher reappraisal-related activation. This suggests that (i) engagement of the cognitive control components of reappraisal increases linearly with age and (ii) adolescents may not normally recruit regions associated with mental state attribution, but (iii) this can be reversed with reappraisal instructions. PMID:22228751

  13. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  14. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  15. Long-Term Neurotoxicity of Chemotherapy in Adolescents and Young Adults Treated for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Sean; Latoufis, Christos; Eagle, Karen; Ash, Catherine M.; Fowler, Clare; Souhami, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To study the long-term neurotoxicity of chemotherapy in adolescents and young adults treated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods. Thirty-six adolescents and young adults (median age 17 years) were examined following chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Twenty-nine (29/36) had received cisplatin (median 400 mg/m2), 15/36 ifosfamide (median 20 g/m2), and 12/36 vincristine (median 16 mg). Neurotoxicity was assessed at a median of 8 months (range, 1–54 months) after completion of chemotherapy by clinical examination, nerve conduction studies, audiograms and autonomic function tests. The same nerve conduction studies were carried out in 20 normal volunteers to define normal ranges in this age group. Results. Sixteen patients (44%) had a significant reduction in deep tendon reflexes, and this clinical parameter correlated well with abnormalities detected in nerve conduction studies. Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was raised in 20/36 patients (55%) and this was the most sensitive single test in the assessment of neuropathy. There was a significant correlation between VPT and cumulative cisplatin dose received in mg/m-2 (r=0.607, p<0.01). Ten of 29 patients (35%) had abnormal nerve conduction studies with a pattern characteristic of sensory axonal neuropathy. No patient complained of auditory symptoms, but minor high tone hearing loss was detected by audiograms in 5/28 patients who had received cisplatin. No patients had symptoms of autonomic neuropathy, but autonomic function tests showed minor abnormalities in 4/22 patients tested, and all had received cisplatin. Conclusions. This study demonstrates significant, although asymptomatic, long-term neurotoxicity of cisplatin in adolescents and young adults receiving chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Follow-up studies are planned to assess whether these neurological deficits improve with time. PMID:18521240

  16. Decision-Making Style and Gender Moderation of the Self-efficacy–Condom Use Link Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the moderating effects of decision-making style and gender on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy (CUSE) and condom use behavior among sexually active adolescents and young adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Twenty-four continuation high schools in California. Participants Data were collected between February 2008 to June 2009 from a sample of 1304 sexually active adolescents and young adults. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 16.8 (0.9) years, 41% were female, and the ethnicity frequencies were Hispanic, 65%; mixed, 13%; white, 11%; black, 6%; and other, 5%. Main Exposures The tools used were CUSE, decision-making–self-confidence, and decision-making–approach. Main Outcome Measure Condom use during the most recent sexual intercourse (termed last sex). Results Forty-five percent of sexually active participants used condoms at last sex. Decision-making–self-confidence and decision-making–approach significantly moderated the effect of CUSE on condom use. The positive relationship between CUSE and condom use was relatively stronger for males and females reporting high vs low decision-making–self-confidence. Among females, the relationship between CUSE and condom use at last sex was weaker for those reporting high vs low decision-making–approach. Both of these effects were observed at high levels of CUSE. Conclusion Programs for sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus prevention including CUSE content may increase adolescent and young adult condom use by targeting interventions to decision-making style and gender. PMID:21464380

  17. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists. PMID:24877779

  18. The relationship between autistic symptomatology and independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic symptomatology. Results showed that higher levels of autistic symptomatology were associated with lower levels of competence in independent living skills in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. These data indicated that the relationship between autistic symptomatology and independent living skills was syndrome-specific. Early intervention strategies that address autistic symptomatology are sorely needed to improve functional outcomes in this population.

  19. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  20. A source of healthcare disparity: race, skin color, and injuries after rape among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baker, Rachel B; Fargo, Jamison D; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2010-01-01

    Differences in anogenital injury resulting from rape may occur because of racial or skin color differences in adult women. It is critical to determine if these differences also are associated with differences in injury prevalence and frequency in adolescents and young adults. In a retrospective review of medical records, we examined whether Black adolescent/young adult females had different anogenital injuries as compared to White females following rape. Next, we examined whether skin color differences explained a significant amount of the racial difference in injuries. We reviewed charts of 234 female victims of rape ages 14 to 29. Overall injury prevalence was 62.8%. Race was significantly associated with frequency of injuries in several anatomical locations, with White victims having a higher frequency of injuries than Black victims. Skin color was significantly associated with injury frequency in many anatomical locations, with victims with light skin sustaining more injuries than victims with dark skin. Even when skin color was included in the relationship, race remained a statistically significant factor, suggesting that the relationship between race and injuries may be more complicated than merely a skin color difference that has been mislabeled a racial difference.

  1. Violence among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Maine: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta.

    Teens and young adults in Maine are at greatest risk for being either the offender or the victim of violence. At present, prevention activities in Maine are limited and fragmented. This document marks the beginning of a study of incidence and impact of violence among Maine youth. The process involved in conducting this was significantly hampered…

  2. Biology and treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Advani, Anjali S

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of young adults (16 to 39 years of age) with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has been a focus of clinical research over the past decade. This review will focus on the biology, optimal treatment, treatment-related toxicities, and psychosocial issues in this patient population.

  3. Transition Strategies for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Use AAC. AAC Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, David B., Ed.; Beukelman, David R., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    To make a smooth transition to a fulfilling, self-determined adult life, young people who use Augmentative-Alternative Communication (AAC) need effective services that meet their individual needs and make the most of advances in technology. Professionals will provide these critical supports with the help of this book, the first complete guide to…

  4. Problem-Solving in Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings of a Group Psychotherapy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyder, Dietrich W.; And Others

    To compare differences in skills and self concept among mentally handicapped young adults, and to show the significance of the admission age and quality of special educational opportunities, a study was made involving 27 persons who had attended regular and/or special education classes. The educational experiences of the groups were organized in…

  5. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  6. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  7. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  8. International note: temperament and character's relationship to subjective well-being in Salvadorian adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean = 21.88 sd. = 4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents.

  9. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, “What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?” and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  10. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  11. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  12. Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and

  13. The experience of Japanese adolescents and young adults after losing siblings to childhood cancer: three types of narratives.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. PMID:25413258

  14. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences.

    PubMed

    Pousette Lundgren, Gunilla; Wickström, Anette; Hasselblad, Tove; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life. PMID:27359125

  15. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Adolescents and Young Adults: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; Folaranmi, Temitope; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey W

    2015-10-23

    At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines). Both MenB vaccines were licensed based on statutory regulations for accelerated approval, which enabled FDA to approve the MenB vaccines for serious or life-threatening diseases based on safety and demonstration that vaccine effectiveness, as measured by bactericidal antibody responses with assays using several MenB test strains that were representative of prevalent strains in the United States, is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a requirement for accelerated approval, confirmatory studies in the postmarketing period will be conducted to verify and further describe the effectiveness of the vaccines against an extended number of MenB strains that represent a broader diversity of endemic disease. Additional postlicensure safety data are also needed and will be reviewed by ACIP as they become available.

  16. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children. PMID:26190204

  17. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Anette; Hasselblad, Tove; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life. PMID:27359125

  18. Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the expressive language abilities of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) for evidence of syndrome-related differences. FXS gender differences were also examined in an exploratory fashion. Method: We evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 17 of those with FXS, and 21 children with typical development (TD), with the groups matched on nonverbal mental age. Language ability was examined using the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS; Carrow-Woolfolk, 1995) and Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS; Lee, 1974) scores derived from an oral narrative language sample. Results: Study analyses revealed the following group differences: the FXS group outperformed the DS and TD groups on the OWLS measure; the TD group outperformed both other groups on some of the DSS measures; the FXS group outperformed the DS group on the DSS Sentence Point measure; and females with FXS outperformed males with FXS on several measures. Conclusions: The study results contribute to the ongoing construction of the language phenotypes of individuals with DS and individuals with FXS and support the conclusion that there are quantitative rather than qualitative differences in their expressive language profiles. PMID:20643789

  19. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  20. Long-acting Reversible Contraception for Adolescents and Young Adults: Patient and Provider Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Frohwirth, Lori; Jerman, Jenna; Popkin, Ronna; Ethier, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Study objective To describe and explore provider- and patient-level perspectives regarding long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for teens and young adults (ages 16-24). Methods Data collection occurred between June – December 2011. We first conducted telephone interviews with administrative directors at 20 publicly funded facilities that provide family planning services. At six of these sites, we conducted a total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) with facility staff and forty-eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facility clients ages 16-24. Results Staff in the FGDs did not generally equate being a teen with ineligibility for IUDs. In contrast to staff, one quarter of the young women did perceive young age as rendering them ineligible. Clients and staff agreed that the “forgettable” nature of the methods and their duration were some of LARC’s most significant advantages. They also agreed that fear of pain associated with both insertion and removal and negative side effects were disadvantages. Some aspects of IUDs and implants were perceived as advantages by some clients but disadvantages by others. Common challenges to providing LARC-specific services to younger patients included extra time required to counsel young patients about LARC methods, outdated clinic policies requiring multiple visits to obtain IUDs, and a perceived higher removal rate among young women. The most commonly cited strategy for addressing many of these challenges was securing supplementary funding to support the provision of these services to young patients. Conclusion Incorporating young women’s perspectives on LARC methods into publicly funded family planning facilities’ efforts to provide these methods to a younger population may increase their use among young women. PMID:23287602

  1. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  2. Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Wright, Natasha E.; Kirchner-Medina, Christopher; Maple, Kristin E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-six percent of high school seniors have used cannabis in the past year, and an alarming 6.5% smoked cannabis daily, up from 2.4% in 1993 (Johnston et al., 2013). Adolescents and emerging adults are undergoing significant neurodevelopment and animal studies suggest they may be particularly vulnerable to negative drug effects. In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies outlining the effects of regular (at least weekly) cannabis use on neurocognition, including studies outlining cognitive, structural and functional findings. We will also explore the public health impact of this research. PMID:25013751

  3. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  4. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  5. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention.

  6. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention. PMID:26361753

  7. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

  8. [Suicidal behavior and suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults--epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan

    2004-01-01

    According to WHO, every year, suicide is committed by at least 1 mln people in the world. In Europe, suicide is committed by about 43 thousand people a year, most frequently by middle-aged and elderly males, and attempted by 700 thousand people. In Poland, in 2002, 5100 people committed suicide. The number of suicide attempts is probably ten times higher. The aim of the study is to investigate the current state of knowledge concerning suicidal behaviour and attempted suicide in adolescents and young adults. The literature on the subject is analysed, and special attention is paid to the issue of suicide epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. Definitions of suicidal behaviour and presuicidal syndrome are debated. In the chapter concerning treatment, Bohme's model of crisis intervention in the case of suicidal patients is discussed, and detailed indications for treatment are presented. Suicide attempts are undertaken most frequently by young people, especially by teenage girls and young women. The ratio of suicide in this age group increased significantly in the last few years. Phenomena which are of special importance for the prevention of suicide among adolescents include suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide, and completed suicide. Multicentre study into suicidal behaviour conducted by WHO indicate that the highest average yearly European coefficients of suicide attempts have been detected in young females ranging in age from 15 to 24 years. Polish and foreign literature on the subject is dominated by publications regarding completed suicide. The issue of attempted suicide is treated rather marginally, which may be due to the scantiness of reliable data concerning large populations. The past few years, however, brought a significant advancement of the research into the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of suicidal behaviour in adolescents. It is difficult to establish linear correspondence between risk factors and suicidal behaviour. The cause is

  9. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  10. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  11. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Braams, Barbara R.; Peper, Jiska S.; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12–17 years old) and young adults (18–26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  12. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  13. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  14. Strategies to Facilitate Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adolescents or Young Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is…

  15. "Feeling Caught" as a Mediator of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Avoidance and Satisfaction with Their Parents in Divorced and Non-Divorced Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Schrodt, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Tests the degree to which adolescents and young adults felt caught between their parents as a mediator between divorce and children's avoidance and satisfaction with them. Reveals that divorce was largely associated with avoidance and satisfaction through children's feelings of being caught, which were a function of their parents' demand-withdraw…

  16. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  17. Gender and genetic contributions to weight identity among adolescents and young adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Wedow, Robbee; Briley, Daniel A; Short, Susan E; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research. PMID:27500942

  18. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  19. Which measure of adolescent psychiatric disorder—diagnosis, number of symptoms, or adaptive functioning—best predicts adverse young adult outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Vander, S; Weiss, N; McKnight, B; Beresford, S; Cohen, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To test the ability of psychiatric diagnosis, symptom count, and adaptive functioning in adolescence to predict failure to complete secondary school and criminal involvement in young adulthood. Design: Community-based cohort study. Setting: Two counties in upstate New York, USA Participants: 181 adolescents interviewed in 1983 and 1985–86 who were randomly selected in 1975 from a probability area sampling of representative families with 1–10 year old children Main results: Compared with adolescents without psychiatric disorders, adolescents with depressive, anxiety, disruptive, and substance abuse disorders were 2.86–9.21 times more likely to fail to complete secondary school. Compared with adolescents without disruptive disorders, adolescents with disruptive disorders were 4.04 (1.96–8.32) times more likely to get in trouble with police during young adulthood. The positive predictive value of each measure of adolescent psychiatric disorder for school non-completion was higher in the lowest SES stratum and for young adult criminal involvement was higher for boys. Combining knowledge of symptom counts, age, gender, and social class in a logistic regression model yielded 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity for predicting future school non-completion at the p ≥ 0.13 cut off. The optimal cut off value in a model incorporating knowledge of disruptive symptoms and demographic characteristics yielded 75% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting future criminal involvement. Conclusions: Screening children and adolescents for psychiatric disorders can identify those at high risk of adverse young adult outcomes. Future school and community adjustment can be predicted as easily and accurately on the basis of a simple count of psychiatric symptoms as by applying more complex diagnostic algorithms. Screening youth for psychiatric symptoms in neighbourhood, school, or primary care settings is a logical first step for early intervention to promote

  20. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured. PMID:20837400

  1. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to public health insurance enrollment in newly arrived immigrant adolescents and young adults in New York state.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Adelaide A; Ramirez, Julia M; Gany, Francesca M

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to enrollment in public health insurance programs in immigrant adolescents and young adults. Focus groups were held in English, Spanish and Mandarin to assess barriers and facilitators to insurance enrollment. Twenty-nine students participated in the focus groups, 11 Chinese speakers, 13 English speakers and 5 Spanish speakers. They were between the ages of 18 and 24. The major factors affecting failure to enroll were lack of correct information about enrollment process and qualifications, fear of being reported to immigration, and language barriers. In general, newly arrived students had less information and many more questions. Facilitators to enrollment included perceived need for health insurance, requiring help with medical care costs, and assistance with information gathering. To increase enrollment, we suggest school-based approaches to education and enrollment, increased presence of facilitated enrollers, and increased visibility of existing informational outlets. PMID:19967450

  3. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  4. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hooke, Mary C.; Friedman, Debra L.; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy. PMID:26421221

  5. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions.

  6. Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Psychosis: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; O’Brien, Mary P.; Schlosser, Danielle A.; Addington, Jean; Candan, Kristin A.; Marshall, Catherine; Domingues, Isabel; Walsh, Barbara C.; Zinberg, Jamie L.; De Silva, Sandra D.; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies have begun to clarify the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis. This 8-site randomized trial examined whether a 6-month program of family psychoeducation was effective in reducing the severity of attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms and enhancing functioning among individuals at high risk. Method Adolescents and young adults (mean 17.4±4.1 years) with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, brief and intermittent psychosis, or genetic risk with functional deterioration were randomly assigned to 18 sessions of family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk (FFT-CHR) in 6 months or 3 sessions of family psychoeducation (enhanced care, or EC). FFT-CHR included psychoeducation about early signs of psychosis, stress management, communication training, and problem-solving skills training, whereas EC focused on symptom prevention. Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline and 6 months on positive and negative symptoms and social-role functioning. Results Of 129 participants, 102 (79.1%) were followed at 6 months. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater improvements in attenuated positive symptoms over 6 months than participants in EC (F[1,97]=5.49, P=.02). Negative symptoms improved independently of psychosocial treatments. Changes in psychosocial functioning depended on age: participants over 19 years showed more role improvement in FFT-CHR, whereas participants between 16 and 19 years showed more role improvement in EC. The results were independent of concurrent pharmacotherapy. Conclusion Interventions that focus on improving family relationships may have prophylactic efficacy in individuals at high risk for psychosis. Future studies should examine the specificity of effects of family intervention compared to individual therapy of the same duration and frequency. PMID:25062592

  7. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  8. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA.

  9. A Trial of D-Cycloserine to Treat Stereotypies in Older Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Herndon, Amy; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have core impairments in social communication as well as the presence of repetitive, stereotypic behaviors and restricted interests. Older adolescents and young adults are particularly impacted by these deficits. Preclinical data implicate glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of ASDs. D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial glycineB agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor site, has been shown to improve sociability in mouse models and a small human study. The sensitivity of the obligatory glycineB co-agonist binding site may change with daily administration of DCS as a result of agonist-induced desensitization. The efficacy of a “pulsed” once-weekly administration versus “daily” administration of DCS was compared. Methods Males and females, ages 14 to 25 years, with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision diagnosis of an ASD were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized 10-week trial consisting of 8 weeks of active drug with either weekly or daily administration of 50 mg of DCS followed by a 2-week follow-up visit. Results For the purposes of this study, no statistical or clinical differences existed between the 2 dosage groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscale 3, which measures stereotypies/repetitive movements. When combining groups, a statistically significant decrease of 37% was found from baseline to week 8 when study drug was completed using a linear mixed effects model (P = 0.003). Conclusions D-Cycloserine was shown to be effective in improving stereotypic symptoms in older adolescents and young adults with ASDs measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscale 3. In addition, DCS was safe and well tolerated. PMID:24824660

  10. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. PMID:26068050

  11. Direct-to-Consumer Tobacco Marketing and Its Association with Tobacco Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Lee, Won; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (‘current’), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (‘established’) among adolescents and young adults. Methods We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15–23 year olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N=2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Results Overall, 12% of 15–17 year olds and 26% of 18–23 year olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority non-smoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than non-smoking Whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio[AOR]: 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI 1.1–6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Conclusions Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult non-smokers and is associated with smoking behavior. PMID:24661738

  12. Social Inequality and Substance Use and Problematic Gambling Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Epidemiological Surveys in Germany.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Dieter; Zemlin, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an overview of socioepidemiological research in Germany about the prevalence of addictive behaviours (smoking, binge and hazardous drinking, consumption of cannabis and other illegal drugs, the non-medical use of prescription drugs and problematic gambling) among adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years), also differentiating between different socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (attended school type, family affluence, parental occupational status, parental SES, employment status) and migration background. The authors evaluated data from ten national surveys and one regional survey conducted between 2002 and 2012, which included different samples. The trends over this time frame reveal that the proportion of adolescents who smoke tobacco, show problematic patterns of alcohol consumption, use cannabis or other illegal drugs has generally declined over the investigated time span in Germany. The results nevertheless suggest that some strong associations still exist between social inequalities and the prevalence of substance use. The detailed results are summarised in twelve tables. The main results are as follows: 1) Low SES (school type, employment status) was consistently associated with more cigarette smoking, and, where such data was available, this pattern was observed in both males and females. 2) With regard to family affluence, two surveys show that boys with low and middle FAS are significantly less likely to have binge drinking experience compared to boys with high FAS. There were no significant associations between problematic alcohol use and parental SES, and not all results of the surveys show that binge drinking is more prevalent among HS-students. Employment status was associated with gender differences; problematic patterns of alcohol consumption were significantly more prevalent among young unemployed males compared to GY-students (secondary high school/grammar school) of the same age. The opposite was true

  13. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  14. Reasons why adolescents and young adults have sex: associations with psychological characteristics and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Laura H; Shih, Mei-Chiung; de Moor, Carl; Shrier, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations of psychological characteristics and sexual behavior with types of reasons for episodes of sexual intercourse among youth. After completing a baseline assessment, 62 adolescents (47 female) used a handheld computer to report when they had sex as soon as possible after the event as well as in response to random signals. Youth indicated for each sex event the main reason, categorized as intimacy/desire, external, affect management, and other; analyses were restricted to sex with a main partner (234 events). Baseline sexual behavior was not related to reasons for sex. Higher anxiety was associated with external reasons for sex; younger age and lower self-esteem were associated with affect management reasons. Female youth with higher impulsiveness reported more external reasons and fewer intimacy/desire reasons. Among male youth, lower self-esteem was associated with intimacy/desire reasons, but lower depression was associated with affect management reasons. These findings may aid health care providers and researchers in understanding the differences in young people's motivations for sex.

  15. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  16. [Do vitamins from foods fortified exceed the allowed limits? Study carried out in population young adolescent and young adult of the metropolitan region of Chile].

    PubMed

    Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A.

  17. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WOMEN IN THE US

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Clum, Gretchen; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary; Perez, Lori; Xu, Jiahong; Cunningham, Shayna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study HIV health-related quality of life (HIV-HRQOL) is examined among 179 behaviorally infected adolescent and young adult women. Modifiable psychosocial variables including depression, stigma, social support, and illness acceptance, and the biological end-points of CD4 cell count and viral load were explored in relation to HIV-HRQOL. The three factors of the HIV-HRQOL measure include current life satisfaction, illness related anxiety and illness burden. Bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations for all psychosocial variables and HIV-HRQOL factors (p < .01), but not for biological end-points. In multivariate linear regression analysis significant associations remained between: depression (p = .006), illness acceptance (p < .001), social support (p = .001), and current life satisfaction, and depression (p = .012), illness acceptance (p = .015), and illness burden. A trend in association was noted for HIV stigma, with current life satisfaction and illness related anxiety but did not reach statistical significance (p = .097 and p = .109 respectively). Interventions that effectively decrease stigma and depression and increase social support and illness acceptance will likely improve the well-being and quality of life of HIV-infected adolescent women. PMID:21966746

  18. Validity of Partial Protocols to Assess the Prevalence of Periodontal Outcomes and Associated Sociodemographic and Behavior Factors in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco A.; Peres, Karen G.; Cascaes, Andreia M.; Correa, Marcos B.; Demarco, Flávio F.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Methods Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Results Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Conclusion Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood. PMID:21859320

  19. Hope, connectedness, and action: responses of adolescents and young adults to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fernald, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study undertook to assess the degree to which a person's sense of interconnectedness with others may have a mediating effect on whether one reacts to the consciousness of nuclear threat with feelings of despair (helplessness and hopelessness) or with a sense of empowerment (hope, efficacy, and action for change). Subjects included 119 public high school students and 14 Friends' school students, ranging from 12-18 years of age; 58 university students ranging from 18-25 years of age; and 24 parents of public school students, 10 adult Friends, and 38 members of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ranging from 20-83 years of age. A self-rating questionnaire was administered to assess subjects' conscious level of concern about nuclear issues, feelings of connectedness with others in general and about nuclear concerns, feelings of hope and efficacy in general and with regard to nuclear issues, and participation in activities reflecting concerns about nuclear threat. Correlational analyses (multiple regression, Spearman Rho, Kendall's Tau) showed that general feelings of hope, level of activity, and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns were the best predictors of hope about nuclear concerns. Conscious level of concern and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns, along with age and SES were the best predictors of an active response to nuclear threat; additionally, parents' level of concern about nuclear issues was predictive of their children's degree of activity in response to nuclear threat. Adolescents' level of concern and degree of connectedness with others was predicted by their parents' degree of connectedness.

  20. Contributions of the DAT1 and DRD2 genes to serious and violent delinquency among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E; Shih, Jean C

    2007-03-01

    As far as we know, this is the first national study that reports compelling evidence for the main effects of genetic variants on serious and violent delinquency among adolescents and young adults. This study investigated the association between the self-reported serious and violent delinquency and the TaqI polymorphism in the DRD2 gene and the 40-bp VNTR in the DAT1 gene. The study was based on a cohort of more than 2,500 adolescents and young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. The trajectories of serious delinquency for the DAT1*10R/10R and DAT1*10R/9R genotypes are about twice as high as that for the DAT1*9R/9R genotype (LR test, P = 0.018, 2 df). For DRD2, the trajectory of serious delinquency for the heterozygotes (A1/A2) is about 20% higher than the A2/A2 genotype and about twice as high as the A1/A1 genotype, a phenomenon sometimes described as heterosis (LR test, P = 0.005, 2 df). The findings on violent delinquency closely resemble those on serious delinquency. The trajectories of violent delinquency for the DAT1*10R/9R and DAT1*10R/10R genotype are again about twice as high as that for DAT1*9R/9R (LR test, P = 0.021, 2 df). The two homozygotes of DRD2*A1/A1 and DRD2*A2/A2 scored lower (LR test, P = 0.0016, 2 df) than the heterozygotes. The findings in the models that consider DAT1 and DRD2 jointly (serious delinquency P = 0.0016, 4 df; violent delinquency P = 0.0006, 4 df) are essentially the same as those in the single-gene models, suggesting the absence of a significant correlation between the two genetic variants. These results only apply to males. Neither variant is associated with delinquency among females.

  1. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Jenkins, Richard A.; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. Methods The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer–assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Results Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single

  2. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

  3. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  4. Options for assuring access to confidential care for adolescents and young adults in an explanation of benefits environment.

    PubMed

    Sedlander, Erica; Brindis, Claire D; Bausch, Sara H; Tebb, Kathleen P

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has expanded the enrollment of young people in insurance plans and aims to increase access to preventive health services. For adolescents and young adults to fully utilize these services, access to confidential care is critical, especially for sensitive services, like sexual and reproductive health care. With this expansion, the ACA inadvertently exposes more individuals (especially those with private insurance) to confidentiality breaches through routine communications in the form of Explanation of Benefits (EOBs) sent to policyholders (typically the parent). This commentary is based on a qualitative study of individual, semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 health care administrators, policy experts, clinicians, and health plan representatives. The study identified and examined five main policy options aimed at reconciling confidentiality protections and EOBs. While no one solution emerged, approaches that incorporate automatic system changes that do not require action from the patient or provider for protections to take effect were considered most effective for protecting confidentiality. The review of these policy options are designed to inform states and health care advocates confronting this issue. In addition, since many of these approaches are new, a better understanding of how they are operationalized and enforced is necessary to truly evaluate their effectiveness.

  5. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  6. Adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome presenting to a medical clinic with depression: co-morbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Aidikoff, Jenna M; Taylor, Kay; Rykiel, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) sometimes experience new-onset mood disorder and decline in adaptive skills. The clinical phenomenon is poorly characterized and its pathogenesis is not understood. The possible contribution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to this phenomenon has not been studied. Subjects were ascertained as a convenience sample through our clinic for persons with DS and medical or mental health concerns between 2004 and 2009. When mood symptoms were present an axis I diagnosis was made using DSM-IV-R criteria. Subjects without an axis I diagnosis served as controls. The Reiss scales for children's dual diagnosis and the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) were completed by caretakers. Twenty-eight cases meeting criteria for major depressive episode (MDE) and nine controls without psychopathology were referred for overnight polysomnography (PSG). Functional decline was reported in 19 (68%) of cases with MDE, but none of the controls. Twenty-four (86%) cases had OSAS compared with only 4 (44%) of controls. Moderate-severe OSAS was present in 15 (54%) of cases compared to only 1 (11%) of controls. Intermittent sleep-associated hypoxia and REM sleep deficits were also more frequent in cases. Across all subjects, prior tonsillectomy was not related to the presence or absence of OSAS. Our findings suggest that OSAS may be a common co-morbidity in adolescents and younger adults with DS and depression. Recognition of this association maybe critical to understanding the pathogenesis and management of mood-related disorders, and functional decline in affected individuals.

  7. Is overweight a risk factor for sports injuries in children, adolescents, and young adults?

    PubMed

    Kemler, E; Vriend, I; Paulis, W D; Schoots, W; van Middelkoop, M; Koes, B

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity and sports participation are promoted to counteract the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young adults. Both high body mass index and physical activity level have been associated with an increased risk of sports injuries. The objective is to determine the relationship between sports injuries and overweight in sports participants (4-24 years), taking physical activity into account. Data were obtained from the 2006-2011 "Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands" survey. Analyses were based on a representative sample of 3846 sports participants (4-24 years). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between sports injury and weight status. Of all the sports participants, 14.7% were overweight. Compared with normal-weight sports participants, the odds of sustaining a sports injury was 0.73 [confidence interval (CI): 0.53-1.00, P = 0.050] for overweight sports participants; the odds for underweight sports participants was 0.80 (CI: 0.56-1.15, P = 0.226). There is some evidence that overweight sports participants (4-24 years) do not have an increased injury risk compared with normal-weight sports participants, even when the level of physical activity is taken into account. Additional research is recommended regarding overweight people who start to participate in a physically active lifestyle.

  8. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  9. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  10. Psychotherapeutic Approach to Incest-Related Disturbances in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiselman, Karin C.

    In late adolescence and early adulthood, an ideally developing woman learns to cope with the world outside her family of origin and acquires a sense of identity that is stable and largely positive. Individuals with severe early trauma may have difficulty completing adolescence. Incest is one childhood trauma that can either be mastered in late…

  11. Heterosexual Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs and Attitudes about Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.

    2006-01-01

    Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…

  12. Predicted Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk Among Young Adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A.; Pencina, Michael; Williams, Ken; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the distribution of predicted long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among young adults in the United States. Methods. Our data were derived from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health participants (n = 14 333; average age: 28.9 years). We used a Framingham-derived risk prediction function to calculate 30-year risks of “hard” and “general” CVD by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Average 30-year risks for hard and general CVD were 10.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.1%, 10.7%) and 17.3% (95% CI = 17.0%, 17.7%) among men and 4.4% (95% CI = 4.3%, 4.6%) and 9.2% (95% CI = 8.9%, 9.5%) among women. Average age-adjusted risks of hard and general CVD were higher among Blacks and American Indians than among Whites and lower among Asian/Pacific Islander women than White women. American Indian men continued to have a higher risk of general CVD after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Four percent of women (95% CI = 3.6%, 5.0%) and 26.2% of men (95% CI = 24.7%, 27.8%) had a 20% or higher risk of general CVD. Racial differences were detected but were not significant after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions. Average CVD risk among young adults is high. Population-based prevention strategies and improved detection and treatment of high-risk individuals are needed to reduce the future burden of CVD. PMID:25322295

  13. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  14. Increased Abdominal Adiposity in Adolescents and Young Adults With Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ryabets-Lienhard, Anna; Dao-Tran, Anh; Mittelman, Steven D.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Schrager, Sheree M.; Geffner, Mitchell E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Childhood obesity rates in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exceed the high rates seen in normal children, potentially increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and CVD. However, it remains unknown whether VAT is increased in CAH. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether adolescents and young adults with classical CAH have more VAT and sc adipose tissue (SAT) than matched controls and whether VAT and SAT are associated with biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and hyperandrogenism in CAH. Design/Setting: This was a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. Participants: CAH subjects (n = 28; 15.6 ± 3.2 y; 15 females) were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index to healthy controls (n = 28; 16.7 ± 2.3 y; 15 females). Main Outcome Measures: VAT and SAT, using computed tomography imaging and serum biomarkers associated with CVD risk, were measured. Data are reported as mean ± SD. Results: Both VAT (43.8 ± 45.5 cm2) and SAT (288.1 ± 206.5 cm2) were higher in CAH subjects than controls (VAT 26.4 ± 29.6 cm2 and SAT 226.3 ± 157.5 cm2; both P < .001). The VAT to SAT ratio was also higher in CAH subjects (0.15 ± 0.07) than controls (0.12 ± 0.06; P < .05). Within CAH, measures of obesity (waist to height ratio, fat mass) and inflammation (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, leptin) correlated strongly with VAT and SAT. In addition, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and low-density lipoprotein correlated with abdominal adiposity. There were no sex differences for VAT or SAT in CAH subjects. Conclusions: CAH adolescents and young adults have increased abdominal adiposity, with a higher proportion of proinflammatory VAT than SAT. An improved understanding of the mechanism of obesity in CAH may lead to targeted prevention and

  15. Children Grow Up: Autism in Adolescents & Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Kathleen; Griesman, Brenda

    The booklet examines issues associated with autism in adolescents and adults. Teenagers with autism exhibit behaviors not unlike their nondisabled peers, and standard definitions of the syndrome may not be relevant at that age. Brief articles explore the range of emotions families may encounter with a young adult or adult who has autism, typical…

  16. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  17. [Childbirth and live newborns of adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição O; Santos, Carlos A T; Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes N; Freitas, Juliana O; Ferreira, Karine A S Leão; Silva, Melissa A; Paula, Priscila L B

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the literature indicate that adolescents may be overrepresented in the prevalence of maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications. This study focused on childbirth and live newborns among adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia, identifying risk factors for morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in the municipality in 1998, totaling 5,279 live births among adolescent (10 to 19 years) and young adult mothers (20 to 24 years). Variables were age, schooling, prenatal care, gestational care, form of delivery, and birthweight. The authors measured the association between maternal age and the child's birthweight, while controlling potential confounders. Some 21.6% of live births were to adolescent mothers, 51.2% of whom had not finished primary school; there was an association between the 10 to 16-year age bracket and incomplete primary schooling, lack of prenatal care, and low and insufficient birthweight as compared to the other age brackets; there was also a high rate of underrecording in the SINASC. The results suggest the need for specific measures focusing on the reproductive health of adolescents in the municipality.

  18. Identifying the Unique Aspects of Adolescent and Young Adult Palliative Care: A Case Study to Propel Programmatic Changes in Pediatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Lisa; Dell, Mary Lynn

    2015-09-01

    Using a case study, in this article we seek to highlight how the distinct developmental needs of adolescent and young adult patients facing a life-threatening condition require a different approach to patient care by pediatric health care workers. The case underscores pitfalls in using a pediatric construct of care in areas of pain management, social stressors, and advanced care planning, and suggests programs to implement for improvement, including partnership with psychiatry, substance abuse, and palliative care specialists.

  19. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Detects Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction among Adult Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anthony F.; Raikhelkar, Jayant; Zabor, Emily C.; Tonorezos, Emily S.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Adsuar, Roberto; Mara, Elton; Huie, Kevin; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Steingart, Richard M.; Liu, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) provides a sensitive measure of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and may aid in the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity. 2DSTE was performed in a cross-sectional study of 134 patients (mean age: 31.4 ± 8.8 years; 55% male; mean time since diagnosis: 15.4 ± 9.4 years) previously treated with anthracyclines (mean cumulative dose: 320 ± 124 mg/m2), with (n = 52) or without (n = 82) mediastinal radiotherapy. The prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction, defined as fractional shortening < 27%, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 55%, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≤ 16%, was 5.2%, 6.0%, and 23.1%, respectively. Abnormal GLS was observed in 24 (18%) patients despite a normal LVEF. Indices of LV systolic function were similar regardless of anthracycline dose. However, GLS was worse (18.0 versus 19.0, p = 0.003) and prevalence of abnormal GLS was higher (36.5% versus 14.6%, p = 0.004) in patients treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. Mediastinal radiotherapy was associated with reduced GLS (p = 0.040) after adjusting for sex, age, and cumulative anthracycline dose. In adult survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, 2DSTE frequently detects LV systolic dysfunction despite a normal LVEF and may be useful for the long-term cardiac surveillance of adult cancer survivors. PMID:26942202

  20. Large B-cell lymphomas in adolescents and young adults in comparison to adult patients: a matched-control analysis in 55 patients.

    PubMed

    Coso, Diane; Garciaz, Sylvain; Esterni, Benjamin; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Ivanov, Vadim; Aurran-Schleinitz, Thérèse; Schiano, Jean-Marc; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Chetaille, Bruno; Blaise, Didier; Vey, Norbert; Bouabdallah, Réda

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) should be considered as a clinocopathological entity, and to evaluate the prognostic value of age. Fifty-five patients aged > 15-30 years were fully matched to 365 adult patients aged 31-65 years. We found a high incidence of primary mediastinal thymic LBCL subtype (33% vs. 5%), while histological transformation was rare (2% vs. 14%). LBCL in AYA presented with a bulky mediastinal mass (51% vs. 21%), and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value was significantly higher (73% vs. 54%). The complete response rate to chemotherapy was similar in the two groups. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of AYA were 73% and 68%, respectively. The matched-control analysis showed no difference for either OS or EFS. LBCL in AYA presents with some critical features which differ from those of older adults. However, the outcome is equivalent to that observed in older patients.

  1. Assessing empathy in Salvadoran high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults: a Spanish validation of the basic empathy scale.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, René; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    Empathy is considered a key construct in the empirical study of high-risk adolescent and young adult delinquency, crime, and violence. This study examined the psychometric properties and criterion-related validity of a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which is an important measure designed to capture both affective and cognitive empathy that has been validated in multiple languages but not in Spanish. The study's sample consisted of 208 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults in the Greater San Salvador Metropolitan Area. The original BES was reduced from its 20-item design to a more culturally appropriate 7-item design. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity analysis indicate that the adapted BES is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of empathy for high-risk Salvadoran adolescents and young adults. Consistent with previous findings, females reported lower levels of empathy than males and delinquent/violent respondents reported lower levels of empathy than their nonoffender counterparts.

  2. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness.

  3. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. PMID:26460699

  4. Testing the Feasibility and Psychometric Properties of a Mobile Diary (myWHI) in Adolescents and Young Adults With Headaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Headaches are prevalent among teens and young adults. Self-monitoring is essential for managing headaches and can be accomplished with the help of electronic headache diaries. An increasing number of electronic headache diaries exist, yet the absence of quality standards compromises their use for research and clinical purposes. Objective Our goal was to develop and test the usability, feasibility, and psychometric properties of an electronic diary iPhone application for self-monitoring by adolescents and young adults with headaches. Methods We used an iterative participatory design to develop and test our electronic headache diary. Participants aged 14-28 years old with recurrent headaches were recruited internationally. Screening and consent were conducted online. Following completion of an online pre-questionnaire, participants downloaded the diary to use in their natural environment for 14 days. An online post-questionnaire was completed following testing. The diary’s usability and feasibility were tested first and determined to be complete when improvements to the diary did not result in a statistically significant impact on indicators of feasibility and adherence. Interviews were conducted with participants of usability and feasibility testing. The psychometric properties of the diary were then tested, and a case study analysis of one participant was completed. Results Three cycles to test the usability and feasibility were conducted. Each cycle included 11-19 unique participants ranging in age from 16 to 28 years. Following the testing period for each cycle, 15% to 25% of participants took part in the post-cycle interview. Participants perceived the final version of the diary as useful, easy to learn, and efficient to use. Psychometric properties were then tested with a sample of 65 participants (6 aged 14-17 years old; 59 aged 18-28 years old). All items in the diary had substantial between- and within-subjects variability (percent of variance

  5. Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980–2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups (ḡ = 0.11, 95% CI [0.04, 0.17]) but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use (ḡ = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.16]). Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  6. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care. PMID:26054052

  7. Ecstasy abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults: applicability and reliability of DSM-IV criteria.

    PubMed

    Cottler, Linda B.; Womack, Sharon B.; Compton, Wilson M.; Ben-Abdallah, Arbi

    2001-12-01

    As part of an ongoing National Institute on Drug Abuse study on the reliability of DSM substance use disorders, 173 adolescents and young adults have been interviewed to date with the CIDI-Substance Abuse Module (SAM) to determine use and abuse of and dependence on 'club drugs' and other substances. Respondents are recruited from a substance abuse program, high school ads, college dorm flyers, the internet and chain referral. Retest interviews after 5 days determined the reliability of responses. Ecstasy use was reported by 52 respondents (30%); of these users 52% were female and 23% were non-white. Nearly all users (94%) reported recent Ecstasy use. Among Ecstasy users, 'continuing to use despite knowledge of physical or psychological harm' was the most prevalent dependence criterion (63%), with excellent retest agreement (kappa = 0.66). Withdrawal (59%) and tolerance (35%) were also commonly reported dependence criteria. Hazardous use was the most commonly reported abuse symptom. Most surprising were the rates of Ecstasy use disorders: 43% met DSM-IV criteria for dependence; 34% met criteria for abuse; only 23% met neither. This is the first effort to assess the reliability of Ecstasy abuse and dependence, and the first to determine abuse and dependence using criteria specific to Ecstasy. The importance of additional studies and the relevance of such work to DSM-V are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Music Experiences and Attitudes Of A First Cohort of Prelingually-Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults CI Recipients.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Smith, Rachel See; Scheperle, Christina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the musical engagement (participation and attitude) of pediatric CI recipients who were implanted during early childhood and who have reached age 15 or older. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 31 prelingually deaf CI users who receive annual follow up services and assessment in a clinical research center. The questionnaire was used to examine involvement in and attitudes toward music in school, the community, and in the home; social affiliation (hearing, Deaf, both) and mode of communication (oral, manual, both) were also examined. Despite the technical limitations of cochlear implants in transmitting pitch, melody, and tone quality, over two thirds of this sample described music as being important or very important in their lives. A high level of past and present familial involvement in music was associated with higher levels of current involvement and importance of music in the lives of adolescent and young adult CI users. Comparisons were noted with data from prior studies of persons with hearing loss who were non-CI users. PMID:23565029

  9. When to Tell and Test for Genetic Carrier Status: Perspectives of Adolescents and Young Adults from Fragile X Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe, Ramsey M.; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.; Melvin, Elizabeth; Dawson, Deborah V.; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn

    2009-01-01

    We report here our findings from adolescent and young adult females (ages 14–25) with a family history of fragile X syndrome regarding their perceptions of the optimal ages for 1) learning fragile X is inherited, 2) learning one could be a carrier for fragile X, and 3) offering carrier testing for fragile X. Three groups were enrolled: those who knew they were carriers or noncarriers and those who knew only they were at-risk to be a carrier. Only two of the 53 participants felt that offering carrier testing should be delayed until the age of 18 years. Participants who knew only that they were at-risk to be a carrier provided older optimal ages for offering carrier testing than those who knew their actual carrier status. Participants did not express regret or negative emotions about the timing of the disclosure of genetic risk information regarding their own experiences. Participants’ reasoning behind reported ages for informing about genetic risk and offering carrier testing varied depending on what type of information was being disclosed, which carrier status group the participant belonged to, and the preferred age for learning the information. Study findings suggest that decisions regarding the timing to inform about genetic risk and offer testing should be tailored to the individual needs of the child and his/her family. PMID:19449413

  10. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care.

  11. The Music Experiences and Attitudes Of A First Cohort of Prelingually-Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults CI Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Smith, Rachel See; Scheperle, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the musical engagement (participation and attitude) of pediatric CI recipients who were implanted during early childhood and who have reached age 15 or older. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 31 prelingually deaf CI users who receive annual follow up services and assessment in a clinical research center. The questionnaire was used to examine involvement in and attitudes toward music in school, the community, and in the home; social affiliation (hearing, Deaf, both) and mode of communication (oral, manual, both) were also examined. Despite the technical limitations of cochlear implants in transmitting pitch, melody, and tone quality, over two thirds of this sample described music as being important or very important in their lives. A high level of past and present familial involvement in music was associated with higher levels of current involvement and importance of music in the lives of adolescent and young adult CI users. Comparisons were noted with data from prior studies of persons with hearing loss who were non-CI users. PMID:23565029

  12. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  13. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  14. Exploring psychosocial support online: a content analysis of messages in an adolescent and young adult cancer community.

    PubMed

    Love, Brad; Crook, Brittani; Thompson, Charee M; Zaitchik, Sarah; Knapp, Jessica; Lefebvre, Leah; Jones, Barbara; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Eargle, Emily; Rechis, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    The increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support has sparked numerous discussions about the role of online support in healthcare. However, little is known about the role of social-networking groups focused on supporting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) dealing with cancer. The current investigation report findings from a content analysis designed to explore how AYAs use an online support group to meet their psychosocial needs. Overall, members of the community focused on exchanging emotional and informational support, coping with difficult emotions through expression, describing experiences of being an AYA dealing with cancer through language (metaphors), enacting identity through evaluations of the new normal (life with and after cancer), and communicating membership as an AYA with cancer. This study highlights the unique needs of the AYA cancer community and offers a preliminary roadmap for practitioners, and network members, such as family and friends, to attempt to meet the needs of this unique community. PMID:22970826

  15. Assessment of voluntary exercise behavior and active video gaming among adolescent and young adult patients during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, Nicole C; Mingle, Lindsay; Smith, Janet; Morris, G Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study sought to examine the exercise behavior and preferences among adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Eighteen patients aged 19 to 25 years were recruited to engage in unsupervised exercise activities lasting at least 60 minutes/week during hospitalization for HSCT. Enrolled patients had access to standard exercise activities (walking, resistance training, and basketball) and active video gaming equipment. Physical function (6-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Up-and-Go test) and quality of life (Behavioral, Affective, and Somatic Experiences Scale) were assessed at different time points during admission. Participants exercised an average of 76% of the days during admission and spent an average of 36.5 minutes per day exercising. The Nintendo Wii was the preferred active video gaming equipment, but standard exercises accounted for 73% of all exercise time. Neither functional capacity nor quality of life improved. Results suggest that AYAs voluntarily exercise during HSCT admission, prefer to use standard exercise activities, and may require supervision in order to derive maximum benefits from their efforts. These results provide guidance for developing rehabilitation interventions for AYA HSCT recipients.

  16. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  17. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  18. End-of-Life Care Intensity among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients in Kaiser Permanente Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W.; Chen, Lie H.; Cannavale, Kimberley; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Cooper, Robert M.; Chao, Chun R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs), but little is known about the care that AYA patients with cancer receive at the end of life (EOL). Objective To evaluate the intensity of EOL care among AYA cancer patients. Design Cross-sectional study using cancer registry and electronic health record data. Setting Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KSPC), an integrated health care delivery system. Participants 663 AYA patients with either (1) stage I-III cancer and evidence of cancer recurrence or (2) stage IV cancer at diagnosis who received care in KPSC and died in the years 2001–2010. Patients were eligible if they were aged 15–39 at death. Main Outcome Measures Chemotherapy use in the last 14 days of life, intensive care unit (ICU) care in the last 30 days of life, more than one emergency room (ER) visit in the last 30 days of life, hospitalization in the last 30 days of life, and a composite measure of medically intensive EOL care comprising any of the aforementioned measures. Results 11% of patients (72/663) received chemotherapy within 14 days of death. In the last 30 days of life, 22% of patients (144/663) were admitted to the ICU; 22% (147/663) had >1 ER visit; and 62% (413/663) were hospitalized. Overall, 68% (449/663) of subjects received at least one medically intensive EOL care measure. Conclusions and Relevance Most AYA patients receive at least one form of medically intensive EOL care. These findings suggest the need to better understand EOL care preferences and decision-making in this young population. PMID:26181778

  19. Sleep Patterns and Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, S. E.; Malow, B. A.; Newman, K. D.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and may adversely affect daytime functioning. Children with Williams syndrome have been reported to have disturbed sleep; however, no studies have been performed to determine if these problems continue into adolescence and adulthood. Methods: This study…

  20. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  1. Persistence in High School: Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Stodel, Emma; Fullarton, Stephanie; Hagglund, Karras

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined persistence in high school among students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) from the perspective of the adolescents themselves. Tinto's (1975, 1997) Student Integration Model (SIM) provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model consists of three factors: background characteristics,…

  2. Psychosocial Predictors and Correlates of Dysphoria in Adolescent and Young Adult Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Thomas F.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Duclos, Alisa; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined how multiple ecodevelopmental domains influenced dysphoria in a community sample of Latina adolescents. Risk factors tested include childhood maltreatment, parental alcohol-related problems, and polysubstance problems. Protective factors include general self-efficacy, social conformity, and family connection. Female…

  3. Underachievement in Exceptionally Gifted Adolescents and Young Adults: A Psychiatrist's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Jerald

    2006-01-01

    A group of exceptionally gifted adolescents between the ages of 14 and 25 were each treated in individual psychotherapy over the course of a number of years. They were referred for symptoms of anxiety, depression, self-destructive behavior, and underachievement. Each phase of their gifted development was accompanied by particular anxieties and…

  4. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  5. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  6. Pseudoprogression in children, adolescents and young adults with non-brainstem high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Carceller, Fernando; Fowkes, Lucy A; Khabra, Komel; Moreno, Lucas; Saran, Frank; Burford, Anna; Mackay, Alan; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Marshall, Lynley V; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry; Jerome, Neil; Bridges, Leslie R; Laxton, Ross; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Pfister, Stefan M; Leach, Martin O; Pearson, Andrew D J; Jones, Chris; Koh, Dow-Mu; Zacharoulis, Stergios

    2016-08-01

    Pseudoprogression (PsP) is a treatment-related phenomenon which hinders response interpretation. Its prevalence and clinical impact have not been evaluated in children/adolescents. We assessed the characteristics, risk factors and prognosis of PsP in children/adolescents and young-adults diagnosed with non-brainstem high grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Patients aged 1-21 years diagnosed with HGG or DIPG between 1995 and 2012 who had completed radiotherapy were eligible. PsP was assessed according to study-specific criteria and correlated with first-line treatment, molecular biomarkers and survival. Ninety-one patients (47 HGG, 44 DIPG) were evaluable. Median age: 10 years (range, 2-20). Eleven episodes of PsP were observed in 10 patients (4 HGG, 6 DIPG). Rates of PsP: 8.5 % (HGG); 13.6 % (DIPG). Two episodes of PsP were based on clinical findings alone; nine episodes had concurrent radiological changes: increased size of lesions (n = 5), new focal enhancement (n = 4). Temozolomide, MGMT methylation or H3F3A mutations were not found to be associated with increased occurrence of PsP. For HGG, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 41.9 % no-PsP versus 100 % PsP (p = 0.041); differences in 1-year overall survival (OS) were not significant. For DIPG, differences in 1-year PFS and OS were not statistically significant. Hazard ratio (95 %CI) of PsP for OS was 0.551 (0.168-1.803; p = 0.325) in HGG; and 0.308 (0.107-0.882; p = 0.028) in DIPG. PsP occurred in both pediatric HGG and DIPG patients at a comparable rate to adult HGG. PsP was associated with improved 1-yr PFS in HGG patients. PsP had a protective effect upon OS in DIPG patients. PMID:27180091

  7. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  8. Does physical activity in adolescence have site-specific and sex-specific benefits on young adult bone size, content, and estimated strength?

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Johnston, James D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Cooper, David; Kontulainen, Saija

    2014-02-01

    The long-term benefits of habitual physical activity during adolescence on adult bone structure and strength are poorly understood. We investigated whether physically active adolescents had greater bone size, density, content, and estimated bone strength in young adulthood when compared to their peers who were inactive during adolescence. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure the tibia and radius of 122 (73 females) participants (age mean ± SD, 29.3 ± 2.3 years) of the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS). Total bone area (ToA), cortical density (CoD), cortical area (CoA), cortical content (CoC), and estimated bone strength in torsion (SSIp ) and muscle area (MuA) were measured at the diaphyses (66% tibia and 65% radius). Total density (ToD), trabecular density (TrD), trabecular content (TrC), and estimated bone strength in compression (BSIc ) were measured at the distal ends (4%). Participants were grouped by their adolescent physical activity (PA) levels (inactive, average, and active) based on mean PA Z-scores obtained from serial questionnaire assessments completed during adolescence. We compared adult bone outcomes across adolescent PA groups in each sex using analysis of covariance followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments. When adjusted for adult height, MuA, and PA, adult males who were more physically active than their peers in adolescence had 13% greater adjusted torsional bone strength (SSIp , p < 0.05) and 10% greater adjusted ToA (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis. Females who were more active in adolescence had 10% larger adjusted CoA (p < 0.05), 12% greater adjusted CoC (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis, and 3% greater adjusted TrC (p < 0.05) at the distal tibia when compared to their inactive peers. Benefits to tibia bone size, content, and strength in those who were more active during adolescence seemed to persist into young adulthood

  9. Associations between attempted suicide, violent life events, depressive symptoms, and resilience in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nrugham, Latha; Holen, Are; Sund, Anne Mari

    2010-02-01

    Were violent/nonviolent traumatic life events and victimization by/witnessing violence associates of attempted suicide among depressed adolescents who were also less resilient at early adulthood? The present study examined a subset of mainly depressed, age- and gender-matched, adolescents derived from a representative sample of 2464 students (T1, mean age = 13.7 years) followed up after 1 year (T2Q) and reassessed 5 years later (T3, n = 252, mean age = 20.0 years, 73% participation), with a questionnaire, including the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version psychiatric interviews, which also tapped traumatic life events. Logistic regression analyses revealed that attempters were victims, not witnesses of violence, more depressed, and less resilient than nonattempters, and that resilience was a moderator of lifetime violent events and attempted suicide, even in the presence of antecedent depression. PMID:20145488

  10. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  11. Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours.

  12. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  13. Offline and Online Civic Engagement among Adolescents and Young Adults from Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB),…

  14. Regulating Worry, Promoting Hope: How Do Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cope with Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to climate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves…

  15. Suicide among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-National Comparison of 34 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Krug, Etienne G.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on survey about suicide among 15- to 24-year-olds (N=15,555) in 34 of the wealthiest nations. Finland led in total and firearm-related suicides. An association was found between divorce rates and youth suicide rates, firearm-related suicide, and suicide rates among young males. An association was found between firearm availability and…

  16. "The uncertainty is what is driving me crazy": the tripartite model of uncertainty in the adolescent and young adult cancer context.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Erin E; Brown, Laura E; LeFebvre, Leah; Tardif, Sarah; Love, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Building on scholarship indicating that uncertainty is a fundamental component of the cancer experience, this study focuses on an understudied population: adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Because AYAs' health outcomes lag behind those of older and younger people with cancer, scholars have recommended that the subjective experiences of AYAs be better understood. Using the tripartite model of uncertainty sources as a guiding framework, we analyzed naturally occurring messages from an online discussion forum for AYA cancer survivors. The majority of messages communicating uncertainty expressed medical uncertainty regarding the complexities of understanding treatment options and sequelae. Results indicated that several overarching areas of AYA uncertainty correspond to themes reported by other cancer populations, but that some distinctive concerns arise amid the normative complexities of late adolescence and young adulthood.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course.

    PubMed

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hayes, Richard B; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M; Crout, Richard J; Marazita, Mary L; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D; Fox, Caroline S; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demerath, Ellen W; Dyer, Thomas D; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Zillikens, M Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I

    2013-09-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10⁻⁸) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10⁻²³), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10⁻¹⁷), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10⁻¹⁷), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10⁻¹¹), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10⁻⁹), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10⁻⁸) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10⁻⁸) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10⁻⁵ after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18-90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M.; Crout, Richard J.; Marazita, Mary L.; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D.; Fox, Caroline S.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10−8) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10−23), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10−17), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10−17), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10−11), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10−9), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10−8) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10−8) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10−5 after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18–90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages. PMID:23669352

  19. Cervical cancer screening, pelvic examinations, and contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Vinekar, Kavita S.; Vahratian, Anjel; Hall, Kelli Stidham; West, Brady T.; Caldwell, Amy; Bell, Jason D.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the association between pelvic examination and adolescent contraceptive method use in two time periods in the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Methods Using data from the 2006–2010 NSFG, we used descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models to examine the association between pelvic examination and/or Pap smear, and use of effective or highly effective contraceptive methods during 2 time periods. (2006–2008 and 2008–2010). We used the design characteristics of the NSFG to produce population estimates. Results More than half (57.3%) of our target population reported that they had a pelvic examination and/or Pap smear in the preceding 12 months. After considering health service use, pregnancy history and demographic characteristics, receipt of pelvic/Pap remained significantly associated with use of effective or highly effective methods of contraception. (aOR= 1.86, 95% CI; 1.17, 2.97). When we examined the relationship between pelvic/Pap and use of effective or highly effective methods within time periods, we found that the odds of effective contraception use was higher among adolescents who had received a Pap/pelvic exam in period 1 (June 2006–May 2008) but not in period 2 (June 2008–May 2010). (OR=3.05, 95% CI;1.53, 6.03 and OR=1.52, 95% CI; 0.88, 2.62, periods 1 and 2 respectively.) Conclusion This finding provides some reassurance that while indications for pelvic examination and Pap smear among adolescents have decreased, the previously documented association between pelvic examination and effective or highly effective contraception appears to have decreased. PMID:26026477

  20. A Prospective Study of Psychological Distress and Weight Status in Adolescents/Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262

  1. Lipids and lipoprotein ratios: The contribution to carotid intima media thickness in adolescents and young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amy S; Urbina, Elaine M; Khoury, Philip R; Kimball, Thomas R; Dolan, Lawrence M

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is common among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective To assess whether the lipoprotein ratios LDL/HDL or TG/HDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides/HDL) or non-HDL cholesterol are more useful than the traditional lipid panel to predict increased arterial thickness in adolescents and young adults T2D. . Methods We evaluated 244 T2D adolescents and young adults in a cross sectional study (mean age 18 years, 56% African American, 65% female). Demographics, anthropometrics, and laboratory data were collected. Arterial thickness was assessed using carotid intima media thickness (IMT). Bivariate correlations and general linear models were used to determine the independent contributions of the various lipid parameters to carotid IMT. Results Bivariate correlations revealed LDL/HDL ratio was the strongest predictor carotid IMT (p<0.02). After adjustment for potential covariates LDL/HDL was no longer significant. HDL cholesterol was the only lipid to independently (negatively) contribute to carotid IMT. Other risk factors that were independently associated with carotid IMT included age, race, sex and body mass index z score and hemoglobin A1C. Together these cardiovascular risk factors explained less than 20% of the variance in carotid IMT. Conclusions HDL cholesterol is the only lipid to independently associate with carotid IMT. Lipoprotein ratios and non-HDL did not provide additional information. The low variance in carotid IMT explained by traditional risk factors suggests nontraditional risk factors may be important to assess to better understand the contributors to early stage atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults with T2D. PMID:24079285

  2. Adolescent Conduct Disorder and Interpersonal Callousness as Predictors of Psychopathy in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2007-01-01

    Unfortunately, very little research has examined the link between antisocial personality traits in childhood and adult psychopathy. This study used data from a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys, assessed annually from recruitment (ages 7 to 12) through age 19. Parent and teacher ratings of interpersonal callousness (IC) were tested at predictors…

  3. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Lee, Young M.; Odom, Mitchell J.; Solomon, Gary S.; Forbes, Jonathan A.; Sills, Allen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sports-related concussions (SRC) among high school and collegiate athletes represent a significant public health concern. The Concussion in Sport Group (CIS) recommended greater caution regarding return to play with children and adolescents. We hypothesized that younger athletes would take longer to return to neurocognitive baseline than older athletes after a SRC. Methods: Two hundred adolescent and young adult athletes who suffered a SRC were included in our clinical research cohort. Of the total participants, 100 were assigned to the 13-16 year age group and 100 to the 18-22 year age group and were matched on the number of prior concussions. Each participant completed baseline and postconcussion neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery. Return to baseline was defined operationally as post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores being equivalent to baseline using reliable change index (RCI) criteria. For each group, the average number of days to return to cognitive and symptom baseline were calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the mean number of days to return to baseline. Results: Significant differences were found for days to return to baseline between 13-16 year olds and 18-22 year olds in three out of four neurocognitive measures and on the total symptom score. The average number of days to return to baseline was greater for 13-16 year olds than for 18-22 year olds on the following variables: Verbal memory (7.2 vs. 4.7, P = 0.001), visual memory (7.1 vs. 4.7, P = 0.002), reaction time (7.2 vs. 5.1 P = 0.01), and postconcussion symptom scale (8.1 vs. 6.1, P = 0.026). In both groups, greater than 90% of athletes returned to neurocognitive and symptom baseline within 1 month. Conclusions: Our results in this clinical research study show that in SRC, athletes 13-16 years old take longer to return to their neurocognitive and symptom baselines than

  4. Perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted gastric sleeve resection

    PubMed Central

    Joselyn, Anita; Bhalla, Tarun; McKee, Christopher; Pepper, Victoria; Diefenbach, Karen; Michalsky, Marc; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One of the major advantages for patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery as compared to an open surgical procedure is the improved recovery profile and decreased opioid requirements in the perioperative period. There are no definitive studies comparing the analgesic requirements in patients undergoing two different types of minimally invasive procedure. This study retrospectively compares the perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted, laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection. Materials and Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, the medication administration records of all severely obese patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative analgesic and adjuvant medications administered, postoperative analgesic requirements, and visual analog pain scores were compared between those undergoing a laparoscopic procedure versus a robotic-assisted procedure. Results: This study cohort included a total of 28 patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection surgery with 14 patients in the laparoscopic group and 14 patients in the robotic-assisted group. Intra-operative adjuvant administration of both intravenous acetaminophen and ketorolac was similar in both groups. Patients in the robotic-assisted group required significantly less opioid during the intra-operative period as compared to patients in the laparoscopic group (0.15 ± 0.08 mg/kg vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 mg/kg morphine, P = 0.024). Cumulative opioid requirements for the first 72 postoperative h were similar in both the groups (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.68 ± 0.27 mg/kg morphine, P = NS). No difference was noted in the postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: Although intraoperative opioid administration was lower in the robotic-assisted group, the postoperative opioid requirements, and the postoperative pain scores were similar in both groups. PMID:26543465

  5. A Matter of Time: The Influence of Recording Context on EEG Spectral Power in Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kitsune, Glenn L; Cheung, Celeste H M; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-07-01

    Elevated theta or theta/beta ratio is often reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the consistency across studies and the relation to hypoarousal are increasingly questioned. Reports of elevated delta related to maturational lag and of attenuated beta activity are less well replicated. Some critical inconsistencies could relate to differences in recording context. We examined if resting-state EEG power or global field synchronization (GFS) differed between recordings made at the beginning and end of a 1.5 h testing session in 76 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, and 85 controls. In addition, we aimed to examine the effect of IQ on any potential group differences. Both regional and midline electrodes yielded group main effects for delta, trends in theta, but no differences in alpha or theta/beta ratio. An additional group difference in beta was detected when using regions. Group by time interactions in delta and theta became significant when controlling for IQ. The ADHD group had higher delta and theta power at time-1, but not at time-2, whereas beta power was elevated only at time-2. GFS did not differ between groups or condition. We show some ADHD-control differences on EEG spectral power varied with recording time within a single recording session, with both IQ and electrode selection having a small but significant influence on observed differences. Our findings demonstrate the effect of recording context on resting-state EEG, and highlight the importance of accounting for these variables to ensure consistency of results in future studies.

  6. The Clinician's Toolbox: Assessing the Sexual Impacts of Cancer on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer (AYAC)

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Sylvie; Perez, Samara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents and young adults aged 15–39 years who have been diagnosed with cancer (AYAC) have unique medical and psychosocial needs. Following their cancer treatments, AYAC must learn to manage the sometimes irreversible general side effects of cancer treatments including side effects that impact their sexuality. These side effects include but are not limited to: infertility, altered body/physical appearance, and sexual dysfunction. Such effects may hinder AYAC efforts to date and experiment sexually, limiting sexual maturation and confidence, as well as the formation or maintenance of meaningful couple and sexual relationships. It is clear that we need to tailor our clinical approaches to ensure that we assess the unique needs and concerns faced by AYAC. Aims Based on consistent study findings substantiating the distinctive needs of AYAC, the main objective of this article is to present the core clinical components involved in assessing sexuality among AYAC. Methods The clinical recommendations are based on the authors and experts' clinical experiences coupled with a thorough examination of the literature related to AYAC sexuality. Main Outcome Measures This article first describes the three components (clinical interview, review of chart notes, and self-report questionnaires) of a sexuality assessment and the seven core domains that highlight target areas of focus. Results A detailed outline of each of the core domains of assessment (socio-demographics; medical history; fertility and sexually transmitted infection; sexual functioning; sexual coping style; body and self-image; and sexual history and dating/couple experience) is presented. A “toolbox” table containing useful resources for clinicians (e.g., questionnaires and red flags) and direct resources for AYAC patients are included. Conclusion Cancer can have a significant impact on numerous domains of AYAC sexuality. The assessment of and attention to the impact of sexuality on AYAC is

  7. A retrospective analysis of treatment-related hospitalization costs of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Korgenski, Ernest Kent; Ying, Jian; Ng, Christi F; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Nelson, Richard E; Andrews, Seth; Raetz, Elizabeth; Fluchel, Mark; Lemons, Richard; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children's Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL.

  8. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. PMID:26455729

  9. A retrospective analysis of treatment-related hospitalization costs of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Korgenski, Ernest Kent; Ying, Jian; Ng, Christi F; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Nelson, Richard E; Andrews, Seth; Raetz, Elizabeth; Fluchel, Mark; Lemons, Richard; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children's Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL. PMID:26714675

  10. Unmet adolescent and young adult cancer survivors information and service needs: A population-based cancer registry study

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Kato, Ikuko; Kent, Erin E.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; West, Michelle M.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Zebrack, Brad; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We described unmet information and service needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (15-39 years of age) and identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these unmet needs. Methods We studied 523 AYAs recruited from 7 population-based cancer registries, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, germ cell cancer or sarcoma in 2007-08. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months from diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between unmet (information and service) needs and sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results More than half of AYAs had unmet information needs relating to their cancer returning and cancer treatments. AYAs needing services, but not receiving them, ranged from 29% for in-home nursing to 75% for a support group. The majority of AYAs who needed a pain management expert, physical/occupational therapist, mental health worker or financial advice on paying for health care did not receive services. In multivariable analyses, older participants, men, participants of non-White race/ethnicity, and participants who reported less than excellent general health, or fair/poor quality of care were more likely to report unmet information needs. Factors associated with both unmet service and information needs included physical health or emotional problems interfering with social activities or having ≥ 3 physical treatment-related symptoms. Conclusions Recently diagnosed AYA cancer survivors have substantial unmet information needs varying by demographic and health-related factors. Implications for Cancer Survivors We identified subgroups of AYA cancer survivors with high unmet needs that can be targeted for interventions and referrals. PMID:22457219

  11. Guidelines for periodontal care and follow-up during orthodontic treatment in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    LEVIN, Liran; EINY, Shmuel; ZIGDON, Hadar; AIZENBUD, Dror; MACHTEI, Eli E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by non-contributory medical history, rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation of cases. Aggressive periodontitis (both localized and generalized) is usually diagnosed in a young population. This is frequently the age that an orthodontic care is provided to this population. The aim of the present paper is to draw guidelines for periodontal evaluation and monitoring prior to and during active orthodontic treatment. Strict adherence to these guidelines as a routine protocol for periodontal examination prior, during and following orthodontic treatment may dramatically decrease the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with aggressive periodontitis in orthodontic clinics. PMID:23032199

  12. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior.

  13. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, Elizabeth C; Sanchez, Victoria; Ford, Chandra L; Smurzynski, Marlene; Leone, Peter A; Fox, Kimberley K; Irwin, Kathleen; Miller, William C

    2004-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24) were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening. PMID:15189565

  14. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  15. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  16. "CAN Stop" - Implementation and evaluation of a secondary group prevention for adolescent and young adult cannabis users in various contexts - study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current research shows that overall numbers for cannabis use among adolescents and young adults dropped in recent years. However, this trend is much less pronounced in continuous cannabis use. With regard to the heightened risk for detrimental health- and development-related outcomes, adolescents and young adults with continuous cannabis use need special attention. The health services structure for adolescents and young adults with substance related problems in Germany, is multifaceted, because different communal, medical and judicial agencies are involved. This results in a rather decentralized organizational structure of the help system. This and further system-inherent characteristics make the threshold for young cannabis users rather high. Because of this, there is a need to establish evidence-based low-threshold help options for young cannabis users, which can be easily disseminated. Therefore, a training programme for young cannabis users (age 14-21) was developed in the "CAN Stop" project. Within the project, we seek to implement and evaluate the training programme within different institutions of the help system. The evaluation is sensitive to the different help systems and their specific prerequisites. Moreover, within this study, we also test the practicability of a training provision through laypersons. Methods/Design The CAN Stop study is a four-armed randomized wait-list controlled trial. The four arms are needed for the different help system settings, in which the CAN Stop training programme is evaluated: (a) the drug addiction aid and youth welfare system, (b) the out-patient medical system, (c) the in-patient medical system and (d) prisons for juvenile offenders. Data are collected at three points, before and after the training or a treatment as usual, and six months after the end of either intervention. Discussion The CAN Stop study is expected to provide an evidence-based programme for young cannabis users seeking to reduce or quit

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Thin-Ideal Internalization across Puberty and Pre-Adolescent, Adolescent, and Young Adult Development

    PubMed Central

    Suisman, Jessica L.; Thompson, J. Kevin; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the identification of specific types of risk factors during critical developmental periods. The present twin study examined genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across adolescent and pubertal development. Method Participants were 1,064 female twins (ages 8–25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Thin-ideal internalization and pubertal development were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models were used to examine if age and/or pubertal development moderate genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization. Results Phenotypic analyses indicated significant increases in thin-ideal internalization across age and pubertal development. Twin models suggested no significant differences in etiologic effects across development. Nonshared environmental influences were most important in the etiology of thin-ideal internalization, with genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental accounting for approximately 8%, 15%, and 72%, respectively, of the total variance. Discussion Despite mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization across development, the relative influence of genetic versus environmental risk did not differ significantly across age or pubertal groups. The majority of variance in thin-ideal internalization was accounted for by environmental factors, suggesting that mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization may reflect increases in the magnitude/strength of environmental risk across this period. Replication is needed, particularly with longitudinal designs that assess thin-ideal internalization across key

  18. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  19. The burden of traumatic brain injury among adolescent and young adult workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M.; Sears, Jeanne M.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study describes injury characteristics and costs of work-related traumatic brain injury (WRTBI) among 16–24 year olds in Washington State between 1998 and 2008. Methods WRTBIs were identified in the Washington Trauma Registry (WTR) and linked to workers’ compensation (WC) claims data. Medical and time-loss compensation costs were compared between workers with isolated TBI and TBI with other trauma. Results Of 273 WRTBI cases identified, most (61.5%) were TBI with other trauma. One-third of WRTBI did not link to a WC claim. Medical costs averaged $88,307 (median $16,426) for isolated TBI cases, compared to $73,669 (median $41,167) for TBI with other trauma. Conclusions Results highlight the financial impact of WRTBI among young workers. Multiple data sources provided a more comprehensive picture than a single data source alone. This linked-data approach holds great potential for future traumatic occupational injury research. PMID:23710080

  20. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F.; Porter, James N.; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    performance correlates of normative gray matter thinning during adolescence. PMID:24744452

  1. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  2. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  3. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  4. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  5. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences. PMID:22903193

  6. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  7. Hip Structural Analysis in Adolescent and Young Adult Oligoamenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Nonathletes

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Pierce, Lisa; Guereca, Gabriela; Slattery, Meghan; Lee, Hang; Goldstein, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures are common in endurance athletes. Whereas studies have described distal tibia bone structure in athletes, there are few data regarding hip geometric parameters. Hip structural analysis (HSA) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is a validated technique to assess hip bone structure. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare hip geometry in young oligoamenorrheic athletes (AAs), eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), and nonathletes using HSA. We hypothesized that AAs would have impaired bone structure compared with that of EAs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The setting was a clinical research center. Subjects: We enrolled 55 AAs, 24 EAs, and 23 nonathletes of normal weight who were 14 to 22 years old. Athletes ran ≥20 miles/wk or were engaged in weight-bearing sports for ≥4 hours/wk. Main Outcome Measures: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used for HSA and hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Results: Hip aBMD Z-scores were lower in AAs and in nonathletes than in EAs (P = .002). A larger proportion of AAs than EAs and nonathletes had hip Z-scores <−1 (30.9, 4.2, 17.4%, P = .01). At the narrow neck, trochanteric region, and femoral shaft, subperiosteal width, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and section modulus were higher in EAs than in nonathletes; values in AAs did not differ from those of nonathletes. Cross-sectional area was lower in AAs and in nonathletes than in EAs. Groups did not differ for cortical thickness or buckling ratio. Group differences were lost after adjustment for lean mass but not aBMD. Conclusions: In an eugonadal state, athletic activity confers benefits for hip structure independent of aBMD. This advantage is lost in AAs, who do not differ from nonathletes for most parameters and fare worse than EAs for cross-sectional area. PMID:23476076

  8. Efficacy and safety findings from naturalistic fluoxetine drug treatment in adolescent and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, R W; Czekalla, J; Hundemer, H P; Linden, M

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the efficacy and safety of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, in 213 patients (ages 11-23 years) treated by psychiatrists/neurologists (PN) or general practitioners/internists (GPI). Data were derived from naturalistic drug utilization observation (DUO) studies with fluoxetine (n = 18,759 patients). Data collection--at the start and the end of the observation period (< or =6 weeks)--included patient characteristics, diagnoses, medication, co-medication, efficacy, and adverse events (AEs). Nonparametric statistics and descriptive p values (two-tailed) were used. Analyses revealed various differences between PN (n = 56) and GPI (n = 157) samples as to patient and treatment characteristics (p < 0.001-0.08). Based on both Clinical Global Impression (CGI; all p < 0.001) and self-assessment (total n = 47; Zung SDS, all p < or = 0.003), both PN and GPI patients showed improvements in their symptomatology over time, including suicidality (all p < 0.001; there were no group differences). Overall AE rates were higher in PN patients (p < 0.01; 17.9% vs. 4.5%); the frequency and type of AEs in both subgroups were typical for fluoxetine and the total DUO samples. In fact, AE rates were lower compared to controlled trials. Findings suggest that PN patients were more severely ill at observation start and suffered a more complicated treatment course. However, clinical efficacy showed highly significant improvements in both subgroups; AE rates were low in both--although higher in PN patients. Thus, results support a positive benefit/risk ratio of fluoxetine use for this young patient population.

  9. Outcome analysis of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in adolescent and young adults with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saad; Rauf, Shahzad M; Elhassan, Tusneem A M; Maghfoor, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage many patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We are reporting the outcome of HDC auto-SCT and the impact of 21 prognostic factors in relapsed and refractory adolescent (14-21 years) and young adult (>21-30 years) (AYA) HL patients. We used Fine and Gray's competing risk analysis method and regression model for outcome analysis. From 1996 to 2013, 290 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HL underwent HDC auto-SCT for relapsed/refractory HL; 216 patients (74.5 %) were AYA at the time of auto-SCT. Male/female were equal, median age at auto-SCT was 22.4 years, and there were 94 adolescent (43.5 %) and 122 young adults (56.5 %). There was refractory disease in 121 (56 %) patients, relapsed in 95 (44 %). Median follow-up was 72.6 months. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated that 5-year overall survival is 62.7 % (adolescents (63.5 %), young adults (62 %)) and event-free survival was 51.3 %. Five-year cumulative incidence of disease-specific death (DS-death) is 33 % and that of DS-event is 45 %. For DS-death, the multivariate analysis identified complete remission (CR) duration of <12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 3.61, P = 0.0009), no CR after salvage (HR: 3.93, P = 0.0002), and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 3.3, P = 0.016) and positive B symptoms (HR 2, P = 0.028) as negative factors. For DS-event, CR duration of <12 months (HR 1.88, P = 0.02), no CR after salvage (HR 3.47, P = 0.000005) and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 1.88, P = 0.02) were found significant. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated overall survival (OS) at 36 months with 0-2:3:4 factors being 93.6:54:21 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Kaplan-Meier estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 36 months with 0-1:2:3 factors being 84.6:65:31 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Clinically, adolescents have similar outcomes as young adults. PMID:27376363

  10. Peer and romantic relationships among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood hematological cancer: a review of challenges and positive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca H; Stern, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on peer and romantic relationship experiences of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, highlighting those surviving leukemia or lymphoma. While most AYA survivors adjust well to life following a hematological cancer diagnosis and treatment, many unique experiences, both positive and challenging, have been documented with respect to successfully navigating developmentally normative social goals. Therefore, the social implications of surviving childhood leukemia or lymphoma are explored. Specifically, the development of peer and romantic relationships, perceptions of social acceptance, parental influences and attachment, perceived vulnerabilities and body image, and risks to fertility are discussed. PMID:25228563

  11. Improving Functional Communication Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Using Gentle Teaching and Positive Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…

  12. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  13. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  14. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  15. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12.

  16. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  17. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  18. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  19. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  20. Emerging Trends and Innovations in the Identification and Management of Drug Use among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Marsch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    One in four youths aged 12 to 17 years and more than half of young adults aged 18 to 25 years in the United States have used an illicit drug in their lifetime. A significant number progress to problematic use, and only 1 in 10 young people who meet criteria for dependence or abuse receive some form of treatment. Despite advances in the field, effectively intervening along the continuum of drug use involvement remains a challenge. In this article, we review the current epidemiology of illicit drug use by young people; describe recent advances in assessment, intervention and treatment; and highlight how technology can help overcome barriers to effective management of drug use among young people. PMID:22423469

  1. Effects of a major U.S. hurricane on mental health disorder symptoms among adolescent and young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effects of Hurricane Ike-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of friends and family on mental health symptoms among affected young women and adolescents. Methods Data from a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 2,536 young women aged 16-24 years affected by Hurricane Ike was examined. Poisson regression estimated the effect of types of hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of family or friends on depressive and hurricane-related post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results Nearly half (46.3%) of the respondents suffered damage, and 13% lost jobs as a result of Ike. Hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury to self, and injury to and mortality of friends or family were associated with increased Ike-related PTSD symptoms. Damage and job loss were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusion Accessible mental health services and plans to reduce job loss among adolescents and those they depend on for income are needed in areas affected by hurricanes to help mitigate psychological consequences among low-income young women. PMID:23562221

  2. Risk Bases in Childhood and Adolescence among HIV-negative Young Adult Gay and Bisexual Male Barebackers

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Siconolfi, Daniel; Fumerton, Megan; Barlup, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    We sought to consider the phenomenon of intentional unprotected intercourse, known colloquially as barebacking, with regard to identities that gay men develop as barebackers and the developmental bases which may predispose some men to this identity. As part of a larger study, we analyzed the life history interviews of 12 diverse HIV-negative men in early adulthood, using thematic coding procedures to identify events, conditions, and emotional states in childhood and adolescence that might help to explain why uninfected young men might place themselves at risk for HIV seroconversion. These analyses elicited various risk bases in childhood and adolescence, including early sexual experiences, pronounced experimentation with and abuse of drugs and alcohol, feelings of loneliness, a lack of love relationships despite sexual activity, and early experiences of loss. These findings suggest a complex interplay between emotional factors and life events, which may help to explain these men as sexual risk takers. PMID:19946573

  3. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  4. Adverse Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes following Treatment of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Pereira, Gavin; Preen, David; Holman, C. D'Arcy; Einarsdottir, Kristjana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and their offspring. Methods Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894) in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982–2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. Results Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51–2.74), gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08–3.57), pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04–1.87), post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92–4.67), cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22–3.04), and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72–5.58), but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21–2.08), low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23–2.12), fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45–4.56), and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7) at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28–3.56), need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27–2.19) or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13–1.78). Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth) were not increased among offspring of survivors. Conclusion Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention. PMID:25485774

  5. The effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes. PMID:24111627

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-09-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

  7. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  8. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  9. [Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].

    PubMed

    Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

    2005-01-01

    The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes.

  10. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  11. The effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes.

  12. The Relation Between Adolescent Social Competence and Young Adult Delinquency and Educational Attainment Among At-Risk Youth: The Mediating Role of Peer Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156

  13. Tweeting About Testing: Do Low-Income, Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults Use New Media Technologies to Communicate About Sexual Health?

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Zai; Divney, Anna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Context Little research exists about adolescents' and young adults' use of new media technologies to communicate about sexual health. Understanding how young people at high risk for STDs use these technologies can inform media-based interventions. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2011, a sample of 94 low-income, parenting adolescents and young adults recruited at clinics in Connecticut completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their use of media technologies, communication with friends about sexual health and willingness to use media technologies for such communication. Descriptive statistics were calculated; characteristics of those willing and those unwilling to communicate were compared in chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Ninety-three percent of participants had mobile phones; 71% used Facebook regularly. Participants discussed sexual health more often with close friends than with casual friends, and preferred to have such conversations in person (71% with close friends and 68% with casual friends), over the phone (52% and 45%) or via text message (30% and 28%), rather than through social networking sites (0–9% and 2–7%). Fewer than one-third reported being willing to share sexual health information with friends through a specific new media technology. Those who were willing were predominantly black (59%); of those who were unwilling, 51% were Latino. Condom self-efficacy, STD knowledge and number of Facebook friends were greater among those who were willing than among those who were unwilling. Conclusions For conversations about sexual health, young urban parents prefer private forms of communication; thus, social networking sites may not aid STD interventions. PMID:22958662

  14. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents and young adults with PTSD symptoms after physical and sexual abuse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is known to have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence on psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Equally sparse are data on moderators of treatment response on PTSD-related epigenetic changes, health care costs and loss of productivity, alterations in cognitive processing, and on how successful interventions affect all of these factors. Early treatment may prevent later (co)morbidity. In this paper, we present a study protocol for the evaluation of a newly developed psychotherapeutic manual for PTSD after CSA/CPA in adolescents and young adults – the Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT). Methods/design In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) D-CPT is compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 90 adolescent outpatients aged 14 to 21 years will be randomized to one of these conditions. Four assessments will be carried out at baseline, at end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after end of therapy. Each time, patients will be assessed via clinical interviews and a wide range of questionnaires. In addition to PTSD symptoms and comorbidities, we will evaluate moderators of treatment response, epigenetic profiles, direct and indirect costs of this disorder, and neurophysiological processing of threat cues in PTSD and their respective changes in the course of these two treatments (D-CPT and TAU). Discussion The study will provide new insights in the understudied field of PTSD in adolescents and young adults. A newly developed intervention will be evaluated in this therapeutically underserved population. Results will provide data on treatment efficacy, direct and indirect treatment costs, as well as on associations of treatment outcome and PTSD intensity both to epigenetic profiles and to the neurobiological processing of threat cues. Besides, they will

  15. Postformal Reasoning During Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Influence of Problem Relevancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebby, Rickard A.; Papini, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined postformal reasoning of young and older adolescents and young adults. Problems known to reflect issues relevant to adolescents, adults, and older adults were presented to 105 subjects. Three age groups differed with respect to perception of problem relevancy. Perceived relevancy appeared to disrupt postformal reasoning among youngest…

  16. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Christine L; Knowlden, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults. Methods The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1) primary or secondary interventions, 2) with any quantitative design, 3) published in the English language, 4) between January 2003 and March 2014, 5) that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6) which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7) utilized TPB or TRA. Results Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication. Conclusion Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors in adolescents should aim to incorporate multi-faceted, theory-based approaches. Future studies should consider

  17. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  18. A Comparison of Network-based Strategies for Screening At-Risk Hispanic/Latino Adolescents and Young Adults for Undiagnosed Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Cherrie B.; Robles-Schrader, Grisel M.; Li, Su X.; Miller, Robin L.; Korelitz, James; Price, Georgine N.; Rivera Torres, Carmen M.; Chutuape, Kate S.; Stines, Stephanie J.; Straub, Diane M.; Peralta, Ligia; Febo, Irma; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa; Gonin, René; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic/Latino adolescents and young adults are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; yet, little is known about the best strategies to increase HIV testing in this group. Network-based approaches are feasible and acceptable means for screening at-risk adults for HIV infection, but it is unknown whether these approaches are appropriate for at-risk young Hispanics/Latinos. Thus, we compared an alternative venue-based testing (AVT) strategy with a social and sexual network referral (SSNIT) strategy. Methods All participants were Hispanics/Latinos, aged 13–24 years with self-reported HIV risk; they were recruited from 11 cities in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview and underwent HIV screening. Results 1,596 participants (94.5% of those approached) were enrolled: 784 (49.1%) through AVT and 812 (50.9%) through SSNIT. HIV infection was identified in three SSNIT (0.37%) and four AVT (0.51%) participants (p=0.7213). Conclusions Despite high levels of HIV risk, a low prevalence of HIV infection was identified with no differences by recruitment strategy. We found overwhelming support for the acceptability and feasibility of AVT and SSNIT for engaging and screening at-risk young Hispanics/Latinos. Further research is needed to better understand how to strategically implement such strategies to improve identification of undiagnosed HIV infection. PMID:25223476

  19. Outcome and molecular characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma: a study of the Society of Austrian Neurooncology (SANO)

    PubMed Central

    Leibetseder, Annette; Ackerl, Michael; Flechl, Birgit; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Kreinecker, Sabine-Spiegl; Pichler, Josef; Hainfellner, Johannes; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Young age is a favorable prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We reviewed the outcomes and molecular tumor characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with GBM treated in 2 Austrian centers. Patients and Methods Data on patients with histologically proven primary GBM diagnosed from 18 through 40 years of age were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with standard first-line therapy. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). IDH1-R132H mutation status was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and MGMT promoter methylation was assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results We included 70 patients (36 men and 34 women) with a median age of 33 years. IDH1-R132H mutations were detected in 22 (39.3%) of 56 cases and MGMT promoter methylation in 33 (61.1%) of 54 cases with available tissue samples. In patients with wild-type IDH, median TTP was 8.2 months and median OS was 24 months, compared with 18 months and 44 months, respectively, observed in patients with mutated IDH. Neither IDH1 nor MGMT status showed a statistically significant association with TTP or OS. Of note, the social and economical situation of the young patients with GBM was alarming, because only 17% succeeded in staying employed after receiving the diagnosis. Conclusions We found a high frequency of IDH1 mutations and MGMT promoter methylation among young adult patients with primary GBM that may contribute to the generally favorable outcome associated with young age. The social and economic coverage of patients with glioma remains an unsolved socio-ethical problem. PMID:23223340

  20. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the PSI/PMSC Horizon Jeunes youth-targeted social marketing program for improving adolescent reproductive health in urban Cameroon. The program targeted adolescents through peer education, youth clubs, mass media promotion, and behavior change communications. After about 13 months of intervention, knowledge of the program was nearly universal, and the majority of youths had direct contact with the program. Program effectiveness is examined using a quasi-experimental research design with a preintervention and postintervention survey in an intervention and comparison site. The intervention had a significant effect on several determinants of preventive behavior, including awareness of sexual risks, knowledge of birth control methods, and discussion of sexuality and contraceptives. The intervention increased the proportion of female youths who reported using oral contraceptives and condoms for birth control. However, condom use is not yet consistent. Although the proportion of young men who reported using condoms for birth control also increased, this change could not be attributed to the intervention. Although this short intervention successfully increased the reported use of various birth control methods, including condoms, there is no evidence that the intervention increased use of condoms for STD prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  1. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  2. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  3. The health status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan.

  4. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p < 0.001. Among participants with infrequent cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  5. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  6. Informal Mentoring and Young Adult Employment

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men. PMID:19050736

  7. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  8. Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use and Personality Factors on Adult Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Sybille M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined stability of adolescent drug use into young adulthood and explored influence of personality on adolescent and adult drug use. Participants (n=640) in longitudinal study completed questionnaires assessing tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drug use. General drug use factor in adolescence significantly predicted young adult drug use.…

  9. Overcoming psychosocial and developmental barriers to blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in an adolescent/young adult (AYA) transgender patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khazal, Sajad; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Kapoor, Neena; Mahadeo, Kris M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents/young adults (AYAs) afflicted with cancer face unique barriers to potentially standard curative therapies, such as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). Transgender AYAs face additional barriers and there is a dearth of published literature regarding their oncology-related experience. We present the case of an AYA male-to-female (MTF) transgender patient on cross-sex hormone therapy, with a history of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and significant psychosocial barriers, which initially served as a barrier to BMT at two different centers; we modified our standard consent and education process and was able to successfully proceed with BMT and subsequently cure her CML. Despite unique challenges, AYA and transgender patients with significant psychosocial barriers may achieve successful outcomes with BMT. Research is needed regarding guidelines for cross-sex hormone therapy administration for patients undergoing BMT and other issues, which may be unique to the transgender experience.

  10. Strategies to facilitate exposure to internet-delivered health behavior change interventions aimed at adolescents or young adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K

    2011-02-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is therefore timely, because this knowledge is crucial to improve the use of such interventions and, subsequently, to increase behavioral change. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was conducted, resulting in 838 studies based on title selection, of which 26 studies met the eligibility criteria. The systematic review resulted in an overview of methods and strategies that have been used to facilitate exposure. Patterns of effective strategies could be observed, such as the combination of tailored communication and the use of reminders and incentives. Nevertheless, exposure-specific theories need to be developed and objective exposure measures should be tracked and reported in future studies.

  11. [Characteristics of adolescent and adult young women diagnosed with human papilloma virus infection at the Center for Research on Human Reproduction (CIRH)].

    PubMed

    Grajales, B; Flores, H; Mendoza, A; Martínez, L; De León, A; Andino, N; Ronner, Z; De León, R G; Guerra, A; Austin, K L

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed 239 charts of adolescents and young adults, who visited our clinic. The purpose was to know the incidence of the Human Papiloma Virus infection (HPVI), diagnosed by Pap's smears, and the relationship to a population with some gynecological and sociodemographic characteristics. The women age population was between 14-24 years old with a mean age of 19.9 years. Seventy (29.3%) were PIV positive and 169 (70.7%) negatives. About 75% among both groups (PIV + and -) began active sexual life between 15-19 years old. Among the women with 4 or more sexual partners, 55.6% were HPVI positive. About 60% of all women had never used any method before being admitted to the clinic. In this study there is no correlation between IVSA and HPVI. We do demonstrate that the greater the number of sexual partners, the highest the risk of a sexual acquired disease.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of HIV risk among adolescents and young adults reporting drug use: Data from an urban Emergency Department in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults who use substances are at particularly high risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location for HIV prevention for at-risk youth. To inform future interventions in the ED, this study identifies correlates of HIV risk behaviors among substance using youth seeking ED care. Among 600 14-24-year-olds with past 6-month drug use, bivariate correlates of HIV risk included: older age, female gender, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, marijuana use, other drug use, and dating, peer, and community violence. Regression analyses indicated that older age, marijuana use, and dating violence were positively related to HIV risk. Results suggest HIV prevention efforts for youth in the urban ED should address marijuana use and dating violence as well as sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25126024

  13. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent--young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents.

    PubMed

    Judge Santacroce, Sheila; Asmus, Kirsten; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central feature of long-term childhood cancer survivorship during which time it principally has to do with late effects. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to assess feasibility of a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered coping skills training (CST) intervention in terms of recruitment, retention, and timeline, as well as the performance of the study measures; and (b) to demonstrate trends in change on outcomes within the context of a small pilot study. The results of this pilot study suggest that HEROS PLUS CST has clinical relevance and that in-person long-term follow-up plus telephone-delivered psychosocial care is a practical way to deliver integrated care to adolescent-young adult childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

  14. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  15. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS.

  16. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  17. Pregnancy Test Taking Is a Correlate of Unsafe Sex, Contraceptive Nonadherence, Pregnancy, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescent and Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was conducted to examine the hypotheses that adolescent and young adult pregnancy test takers are at increased risk for unsafe sex, oral contraception (OC) nonadherence, and higher pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Methods We conducted secondary analyses using data collected for a study on OC adherence among 1155 women 16–24 years of age. Data collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months were used for the analyses. Results At baseline, 33% of women reported having undergone ≥1 pregnancy test at home or a clinic during the past 3 months. Pregnancy test takers were more likely to have ≥3 sexual partners (odds ratio [OR] 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–3.02) in the past year, report unprotected oral (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.28–1.72) or anal sex (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.32–2.39), be diagnosed with an STI (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.23–2.51), become pregnant (hazards ratio 1.52; 95% CI 1.10–2.10), or not use any birth control method (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.66–2.60). Moreover, they were less likely to continue using OC that was prescribed at baseline (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.31–0.47) and to report being ambivalent about pregnancy (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60–0.90) compared to non–test takers. Conclusions Pregnancy test taking is an important correlate of high-risk sexual behaviors, OC nonadherence, and risk of subsequent pregnancy and STIs among adolescent and young adult women. Future interventions should target these women to decrease the risk of unintended pregnancies and STIs. PMID:23531050

  18. Cost utility analysis of reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescence and young adult with severe thalassemia compared to hypertransfusion and iron chelation program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematopoieticic stem cell transplantation is the only therapeutic option that can cure thalassemia disease. Reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RI-HSCT) has demonstrated a high cure rate with minimal complications compared to other options. Because RI-HSCT is very costly, economic justification for its value is needed. This study aimed to estimate the cost-utility of RI-HSCT compared with blood transfusions combined with iron chelating therapy (BT-ICT) for adolescent and young adult with severe thalassemia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes over the patients’ lifetimes using a societal perspective. All future costs and outcomes were discounted at a rate of 3% per annum. The efficacy of RI-HSCT was based a clinical trial including a total of 18 thalassemia patients. Utility values were derived directly from all patients using EQ-5D and SF-6D. Primary outcomes of interest were lifetime costs, quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in US ($) per QALY gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were conducted to investigate the effect of parameter uncertainty. Results In base case analysis, the RI-HSCT group had a better clinical outcomes and higher lifetime costs. The incremental cost per QALY gained was US $ 3,236 per QALY. The acceptability curve showed that the probability of RI-HSCT being cost-effective was 71% at the willingness to pay of 1 time of Thai Gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita), approximately US $ 4,210 per QALY gained. The most sensitive parameter was utility of severe thalassemia patients without cardiac complication patients. Conclusion At a societal willingness to pay of 1 GDP per capita, RI-HSCT was a cost-effective treatment for adolescent and young adult with severe thalassemia in Thailand compared to BT-ICT. PMID:23379888

  19. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  20. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder.