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Sample records for adolescents young adults

  1. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  2. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  3. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  4. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  5. Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice

    2001-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

  6. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  7. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  8. Adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Jessica; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Abla, Oussama

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies accounting for a significant portion of cancers occurring in children, adolescents and young adults with an increasing incidence with age. The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population presents a specific set of characteristics and challenges. The most common diseases occurring in adolescents and young adults include Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. There is also a higher incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AYA patients. Cure rates largely depend on risk-stratification, and are generally superior to outcomes in comparison to older adult data but less than in younger children. Here, we review the unique clinical and biological characteristics of NHL occurring in the AYA population with a focus on how to achieve similar curative outcomes in AYA that have been established in younger cohorts. PMID:27071675

  9. Components of the Lonely Experience in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswick, Ruth Ann; And Others

    Research has identified high school and college students as the groups experiencing the greatest severity of loneliness. The manifestations of loneliness in adolescents and young adults were examined in a group of college (N=192) and high school (N=98) students. All subjects completed the Revised Loneliness Scale and a questionnaire about…

  10. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  11. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  12. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  13. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  14. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Aubin, S; Czaykowski, P; De Pauw, S; Johnson, A; McKillop, S; Szwajcer, D; Wilkins, K; Rogers, P

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas-medical, psychosocial, and research-and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  15. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  16. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  17. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David B.; Link, Daniel C.; Mason, Philip J.; Bessler, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  18. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  19. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  20. Resolution of Disagreements between Romantic Partners, among Adolescents, and Young Adults: Qualitative Analysis of Interaction Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Shulman, Shmuel

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to explore qualitatively developmental differences in disagreement negotiation and resolution skills between adolescent and young adult romantic partners. Twenty adolescent and 20 young adult couples participated in the study. The Knox inventory was used to measure the level of disagreement between partners on ten domains…

  1. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  2. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  3. Dysphoric Adolescents as Young Adults: A Prospective Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Depressed Mood in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…

  4. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  5. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  6. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan. PMID:26695739

  7. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  8. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  9. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Results Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Conclusions Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. PMID:25361744

  10. Young Adults With Headaches: The Transition From Adolescents to Adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Hope L; Cohen, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common condition that for many begins in childhood and may progress over the course of one's life. The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for those who suffer from migraine and can be marked by a variety of important considerations for the patient and practitioner. Medication choices may be a challenge during adolescent years as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are few and many more studies are needed to understand the benefits and risks of use of these agents in adolescents. However, as patients transition to adulthood, FDA approved options and the level of evidence improve significantly. Late adolescents may also struggle with a variety of psychiatric comorbidities that may simultaneously create challenges in determining treatment but also open opportunities to manage multiple comorbidities and address underlying depression, anxiety, and behavioral issues. For late adolescent girls, the beginning of sexual activity, onset of gynecologic conditions, or presence of irregular or painful menses may raise questions regarding the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Given data on the risks of these medications in women with migraine, especially those with aura or those who smoke, important conversations between physicians and their migraine patients can help risk stratify and determine the risk/benefit profile for the potential use of these agents. Much more data are needed to fully understand the transition from adolescence to adulthood for those suffering with migraine and this article seeks to shed light on the limited understanding currently available in established literature. PMID:26518150

  11. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  12. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  13. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  14. Relations between Teaching Behaviors and Maternal Beliefs in Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily

    This study examined teaching interactions of single adolescent and young adult mothers during a structured teaching task with their infants. A total of 25 adolescent and 25 adult single mothers were videotaped during 4-minute teaching sessions with their 4-month-old infants in their homes. Investigators rated maternal teaching strategies and the…

  15. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  16. Sexual Orientation and Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and young adults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322

  17. Epidemiology of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors. The relative improvement in the survival rate in AYAs has not kept pace with that achieved in younger children, especially for acute leukemia, non-HLs, Ewing tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. Etiological factors are under-researched and remain largely hypothetical. In this unique group of illnesses, improving AYA cancer management involves bridging interfaces. Since this has begun, outcomes have also begun to improve. The local nature of these interfaces determines the age group considered as AYA. Specific skills are necessary in the clinical, biological and psychosocial domains. Services need support from policy, clinical and administrative professionals. National policy and supranational groups such as SIOPE and ESMO are in constructive collaboration to develop this further. PMID:27595352

  18. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  19. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  20. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  1. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  2. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  3. Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Controlled Memory Judgment: fMRI Evidence from Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Antonio; Selmeczy, Diana; O'Connor, Akira R.; Diaz, Michael; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13-15 y.o.) and young adults (20-22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence…

  4. Narrative Development in Adolescents and Young Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Bell, Yolanda D.; Abbeduto, Leonard D.

    2007-01-01

    The narratives of 18 adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome were compared to those of 23 adolescents with Down syndrome and 21 typically developing children matched for nonverbal MA. Narratives were elicited using a wordless picture book and analyzed for use of narrative evaluation, linguistic productivity, and complexity. Results…

  5. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  6. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  7. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making. PMID:27086002

  8. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

  9. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  10. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  11. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  12. Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

  13. Prefrontal cortex contributions to controlled memory judgment: fMRI evidence from adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Antonio; Selmeczy, Diana; O’Connor, Akira R.; Diaz, Michael; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13–15 y.o.) and young adults (20–22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence was associated with quicker responding in the presence of invalid cues compared to young adulthood. FMRI data demonstrated that while both groups increasingly activated posterior dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), midline, and lateral parietal regions for invalidly compared to validly cued trials, this differential invalid cueing response ended sooner in adolescents, consistent with their generally quicker responding on cued trials. Critically, dlPFC also demonstrated reversed brain-behavior associations across the groups. Increased mean dlPFC activation during invalid cueing was linked to improved performance in young adults, whereas increases within adolescents were linked to impaired performance. Resting state connectivity analysis revealed greater connectivity between dlPFC and episodic retrieval linked regions in young adults relative to adolescents. These data demonstrate that the functional interpretation of dlPFC activation hinges on its physical maturation and suggest that the pattern of behavioral and neural response in adolescents reflects different functional integration of cognitive control and memory systems. PMID:23127796

  14. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  15. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  16. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  17. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  18. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings. PMID:22423462

  19. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579

  20. Modulation of meso-limbic reward processing by motivational tendencies in young adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for the onset of substance use disorders and other psychopathology. Individual variability in motivational tendencies and temperament and significant changes in functional brain organization during adolescence are important factors to consider in the development of substance use and dependence. Recent conceptualizations suggest that sensitivity to reward is heightened in adolescence and that this motivation tendency may precipitate subsequent substance abuse. The present study examined the role of personality traits in mesolimbic neurobehavioral response on a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in young adolescents (11-14years) and emerging adults (18-25years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a group, adolescents were not more sensitive to gains than losses compared to adults during either anticipatory and feedback phases; instead, compared to adults they showed less sensitivity to incentive magnitude in mesolimbic circuitry during anticipation and feedback stages. However, personality modulated this response such that adolescents high in impulsivity or low in avoidance tendencies showed greater gain sensitivity and adolescents high in avoidance showed greater loss sensitivity during cue anticipation. In adults, mesolimbic response was modulated by the impulsivity construct such that high-impulsive adults showed reduced magnitude sensitivity during both anticipation and feedback compared to low impulsive adults. The present findings suggest that impulsive personality significantly modulates mesolimbic reward response during both adolescence and adulthood but avoidance and approach tendencies also modulate this response in adolescents. Moreover, personality modulated incentive valence in adolescents but incentive magnitude in adults. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesolimbic reward circuitry function is modulated by somewhat different parameters in adolescence than in adulthood. PMID:26690806

  1. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  2. Evidence-Based Family Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2016-01-01

    An individual can develop bipolar disorder at any age, but emergence during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to a number of problematic behaviors and outcomes. Several drugs are available as first-line treatments, but even optimal pharmacotherapy rarely leads to complete remission and recovery. When added to pharmacologic treatment, certain targeted psychosocial treatments can improve outcomes for young patients with bipolar disorder. Because bipolar disorder affects family members as well as patients, and because adolescents and young adults often live with and are dependent on their parents, the patient's family should usually be included in treatment. Family-focused treatment and dialectical behavior therapy are promising methods of conducting family intervention. With effective treatment and the support of their families, young patients with bipolar disorder can learn to manage their disorder and become independent and healthy adults. PMID:27570931

  3. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  4. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  5. Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderValk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; de Goede, Matijn; Maas, Cora; Meeus, Wim

    2005-01-01

    In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12-24 at the 1st wave, it is examined whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring…

  6. Examination of the Double-Deficit Hypothesis with Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, "Journal of Educational Psychology", 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range?=?16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and…

  7. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  8. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  9. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  10. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  11. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  12. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  13. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  14. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  15. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  16. SoundScape: An Interdisciplinary Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greher, Gena R.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Dougherty, Margaret; Poto, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Service provision for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is lacking, particularly post high school. We report on a music intervention program, outline our program model, and report some initial pilot data evaluating the program outcomes. We also discuss implications for undergraduate and graduate students who were…

  17. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  18. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and young adults with FXS, and 21 younger children with typical development (TD). Narrative samples were assessed at the macrostructural level using the Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS; Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Three group comparisons were made using: (a) the full sample matched on nonverbal mental age, (b) a subset of the participants individually matched on nonverbal mental age, and (c) a subset of participants individually matched on mean length of utterance. Results Study analyses revealed that the DS and FXS groups significantly outperformed the TD group on a limited number of NSS measures. No significant differences emerged between the DS and FXS groups. Conclusions Study results suggest that some aspects of macrostructural narrative language may be relative strengths for adolescents and young adults with DS and those with FXS. These results can be used to create a more nuanced and informed approach to assessment and intervention for these populations. PMID:22049405

  19. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  20. Alcohol Use by Adolescents and Young Adults: A Rite of Passage to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Edward R.

    Alcohol use and abuse has received extensive attention, with recent concerns focused on the use and abuse of alcohol by adolescents and young adults. Alcohol use has become one of the major rituals in the rites of passage from childhood to adulthood. Anthropologists have documented the importance of rites of passage rituals for marking the…

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Egas-Bejar, Daniela; Huh, Winston W

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%–70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome. PMID

  2. Universal family-focused intervention with young adolescents: effects on health-risking sexual behaviors and STDs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  3. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images. PMID:22046997

  4. Adolescent and young adult medicine in Australia and New Zealand: towards specialist accreditation.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Farrant, Bridget; Hall, Anganette; Kennedy, Andrew; Payne, Donald; Steinbeck, Kate; Vogel, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    In Australia and New Zealand, a critical mass of academic and clinical leadership in Adolescent Medicine has helped advance models of clinical services, drive investments in teaching and training, and strengthen research capacity over the past 30 years. There is growing recognition of the importance of influencing the training of adult physicians as well as paediatricians. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is responsible for overseeing all aspects of specialist physician training across the two countries. Following advocacy from adolescent physicians, the RACP is advancing a three-tier strategy to build greater specialist capacity and sustain leadership in adolescent and young adult medicine (AYAM). The first tier of the strategy supports universal training in adolescent and young adult health and medicine for all basic trainees in paediatric and adult medicine through an online training resource. The second and third tiers support advanced training in AYAM for specialist practice, based on an advanced training curriculum that has been approved by the RACP. The second tier is dual training; advanced trainees can undertake 2 years training in AYAM and 2 years training in another area of specialist practice. The third tier consists of 3 years of advanced training in AYAM. The RACP is currently seeking formal recognition from the Australian Government to have AYAM accredited, a process that will be subsequently undertaken in New Zealand. The RACP is expectant that the accreditation of specialist AYAM physicians will promote sustained academic and clinical leadership in AYAM to the benefit of future generations of young Australasians. PMID:26115493

  5. Adaptation of an HIV Medication Adherence Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Idia B.; Bogart, Laura M.; Wachman, Madeline; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Skeer, Margie R.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adolescents and young adults underscore the importance of interventions for this population. While the morbidity and mortality of HIV has greatly decreased over the years, maintaining high rates of adherence is necessary to receive optimal medication effects. Few studies have developed interventions for adolescents and young adults and none have specifically been developed for sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual; LGB) youth. Guided by an evidence-based adult intervention and adolescent qualitative interviews, we developed a multicomponent, technology-enhanced, customizable adherence intervention for adolescents and young adults for use in a clinical setting. The two cases presented in this paper illustrate the use of the five-session positive strategies to enhance problem solving (Positive STEPS) intervention, based on cognitive-behavioral techniques and motivational interviewing. We present a perinatally infected heterosexual woman and a behaviorally infected gay man to demonstrate the unique challenges faced by these youth and showcase how the intervention can be customized. Future directions include varying the number of intervention sessions based on mode of HIV infection and incorporating booster sessions. PMID:25452680

  6. Using Young Adult Literature Featuring LGBTQ Adolescents with Intellectual and/or Physical Disabilities to Strengthen Classroom Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Lisa A.; Sweeney, William J.; Reins, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is chaotic for all individuals, but LGBTQ adolescents with intellectual and/or physical disabilities struggle with what it means to be furthest from the majority. These teens experience varying exclusions and harassments from peers, educators, and family members. Contemporary young adult literature can assist these adolescents through…

  7. Patient Perspectives on Peer Mentoring: Type 1 Diabetes Management in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Peters, Anne L.; Wood, Jamie R.; Kipke, Michele; Cohen, Marisa; Sequeira, Paola A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify attitudes and topics relevant to peer mentoring as an adherence-promoting intervention for adolescents and young adults (YAs) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Self-administered survey data were collected in two diabetes clinics from a convenience sample of adolescents as prospective mentees (ages 13–18) and YAs as prospective mentors (ages 19–25) with T1D. Survey topics included demographics, disease history, glycemic control, adherence, depression, barriers to disease management, social support, and interest in peer mentoring. Descriptive statistical analyses, thematic coding, and stepwise multivariate logistic regression were performed. Results A majority of the 54 adolescents and 46 YAs expressed interest in a peer mentoring program. Having supportive friends and living in a large household positively predicted adolescent interest in having a peer mentor. Approximately one third of all participants experienced social barriers to diabetes management. For adolescents, barriers included inflexible schedules, unfamiliar foods, and the embarrassment of checking blood glucose in front of others. Young adults reported barriers in tracking food consumption and remembering to check blood glucose. Various diabetes management skills were in high demand by adolescents, who especially desired to learn about managing T1D on their own and in college. Participants were open to multiple communication modes, including in-person meetings, phone, text messaging, and social media. Conclusions Many adolescents and young adults with T1D are interested in peer mentoring as a way to facilitate learning and sharing essential diabetes management skills and experiences. PMID:25394732

  8. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  9. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  10. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults. PMID:26187261

  11. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  12. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  13. Adolescent Maltreatment and Its Impact on Young Adult Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Thornberry P.

    2005-01-01

    Statement of problem: "Childhood" maltreatment is known to be a risk factor for a range of later problems, but much less is known about "adolescent" maltreatment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of adolescent maltreatment on antisocial behavior, while controlling for prior levels of problem behavior as well as sociodemographic…

  14. [Adolescents and young adults with cancer between adaptation and addiction: state of the question].

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Solène; Flahault, Cécile; Laurence, Valérie; Levy, Dominique; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to make a point on the state of health of adolescents and young adults (15-25 years) suffering from cancer. The adaptation strategies and the impact of the announcement of cancer will be discussed. In addition, we are going to consider the characteristics of teenagers and young adults, given the fact that development is still in progress. This period is especially punctuated by various experiments and the emergence of some clinical signs. Also, we have identified various studies concerning the use of licit and illicit substances. Furthermore, we have taken interest in behavioral addictions, particularly cyber addiction. While trying to cross these variables with a population of teenagers and young adults in the context of somatic diseases, it occurred that this population was not well known and studied. The interest of this synthesis is to underline the importance to make future researches in these perspectives. PMID:25953377

  15. Young Adult Literature and Adolescent Identity across Cultures and Classrooms: Contexts for the Literary Lives of Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsup, Janet, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young…

  16. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. PMID:25962561

  17. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  18. Childhood, adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Pinkerton, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The 5th International Symposium on Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult (CAYA) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) was held in Varese, Italy, from 21-25 October 2015. This review represents a summary of the scientific sessions of this international symposium including childhood, adolescent and young adult (AYA) NHL in countries with limited socio-economic resources, AYA NHL, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, B-cell NHL, lymphoblastic lymphoma, T/natural killer cell NHL and immunological therapies in NHL. Most importantly, the new International Paediatric NHL Staging System (IPNHLSS) and International Paediatric NHL Response Criteria (IPNHLRC) were introduced during the symposium. The symposium brought together a multinational and multidisciplinary group of clinicians and basic scientists focused in this field of haematological malignancies. PMID:27133800

  19. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  20. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among

  1. Associations between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Retinal Vessel Caliber in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Hickie, Ian B.; Lu, Yi; MacGregor, Stuart; Medland, Sarah E.; Sun, Cong; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Margie; Zhu, Gu; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mackey, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous longitudinal studies suggest that depression and anxiety are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether an association between depression and anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel caliber, an indicator of subclinical cardiovascular risk, is apparent as early as adolescence and young adulthood. Methods Participants were 865 adolescents and young adults who participated in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study and the Twin Eye Study in Tasmania. Participants completed the Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE), including assessments of depression/anxiety and somatic symptom subscales, when they were M=16.5 years, and they underwent retinal imaging M=2.5 years later (range=2 years before to 7 years after the depression/anxiety assessment). Retinal vessel caliber was assessed using computer software. Results: Depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with wider retinal arteriolar caliber in this sample of adolescents and young adults (β=0.09, p=.016), even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors (β=0.08, p=.025). Multiple regression analyses revealed that affective symptoms of depression/anxiety were associated with retinal vessel caliber independently of somatic symptoms. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with measurable signs in the retinal microvasculature in early life, suggesting that pathological microvascular mechanisms may be operative in the association between depression and anxiety with cardiovascular disease starting as early as adolescence. PMID:25373892

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  3. Melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: a clinical pathological study in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Paula C F; Noda, Aliene Y I; Franco, Dilcilea D G S; Lourenço, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Neto, Cyro F

    2014-08-01

    Malignant melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults is unusual, especially before puberty. In children (age, 0-14 years), most primary lesions are thick and atypical (amelanotic, simulating pyogenic granuloma). In the population of adolescents and young adults (age, 15-39 years), melanoma is the third most common cancer, only behind lymphoma and breast cancer. Our study investigated the records of 89 patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma at age 0-39 years at Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School, University of São Paulo between 1992 and 2002. They were divided into group A (0-14 years of age) and group B (15-39 years of age). The histopathology of all cases was reexamined. Statistical analysis of the data presented was performed, and the obtained data were compared with the literature. The frequency of melanoma in the group aged 15-39 years was higher in women, and the most affected site was the trunk. Additionally, melanomas were more frequent at an earlier age in patients with family history of melanoma (P = 0.014). Most cases were diagnosed, at histopathology, as superficial spreading melanoma. Thick nodular melanomas with Breslow values higher than 2 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults may present peculiar behavior and outcome, which might reflect the genetic and yet not fully unraveled pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25051040

  4. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  5. Reactive and proactive control in incarcerated and community adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n=44), male control adolescents (n=33), male incarcerated young adults (n=41), and male control young adults (n=35) using the AX-Continuous Performance Task. This task measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of goal-related information in preparation for a behavioral response) and reactive control (the ability to activate goal-related information in response to an external trigger). Incarcerated individuals had more difficulty implementing proactive control, whereas control individuals had more difficulty implementing reactive control. Adolescents had more difficulty with both reactive and proactive control compared to young adults, suggesting that both skills improve with age. Additional analyses indicated that the effect of age on proactive control was due to the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas the effect of age on reactive control appeared to be a natural developmental trend that could not be explained by other variables. These findings are considered in relation to the dual mechanisms of control theory (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). PMID:20161210

  6. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was compared to concurrent parent-report and to self-report one year later. Participants included 313 male probands and 209 demographically similar comparison individuals without ADHD. Results indicated that adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD were more likely than comparison participants to fail to report delinquent acts reported by a parent and to recant acts they endorsed one year earlier. This trend was most apparent for acts of mild to moderate severity. After controlling for several covariates, current ADHD symptom severity and parent-report of the participant’s tendency to lie predicted reporting fewer delinquent acts than one’s parent. Current ADHD symptom severity also predicted more recanting of previously endorsed acts. Based on these findings, several recommendations are made for the assessment of delinquency history in adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD. PMID:20309624

  7. Enhancing oral and written language for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager

    2015-02-01

    Oral and written language development for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (Ds) are particularly challenging. Yet, research supports a syndrome-specific profile highlighting strengths and particular areas of difficulty for this group of individuals. For example, adolescents and young adults with Ds tend to understand more than they produce. In terms of oral language development, the domains of semantics and pragmatics are relative strengths whereas morphosyntax is particularly difficult. Much less is known about written language development because most adolescents and young adults with Ds are at the emergent literacy or word identification (i.e., ability to recognize and name single words) stages; however, relative strengths emerge in the area of word identification. The purpose of this article is to explore the research findings on oral and written language strengths and weaknesses and intervention strategies and techniques that facilitate development in these two interrelated domains. In addition, a case study example is provided to further enhance the clinical skills of speech-language pathologists who work with this population. PMID:25633144

  8. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  9. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  10. The complexities of adolescent dating and sexual relationships: fluidity, meaning(s), and implications for young adults' well-being.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being. PMID:24962362

  11. Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: caring for adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sue; Davies, Simon; Palmer, Susan; Plaster, Meg

    2010-11-10

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are a distinct group whose needs have been poorly addressed within health care systems. This imbalance is being addressed in some countries, and this growing specialty is now receiving the recognition it requires in order to develop further. This article discusses some of the psychosocial issues of AYAs and, with reference to the phrase of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, highlights the various rites of passage that young people experience. It also discusses how services and professionals can work alongside AYAs, enabling them to feel a part of the process by providing age-appropriate environment and expertise. PMID:20498401

  12. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  13. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD. PMID:16737396

  14. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: Support for gender- and age-specific interventions

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G.; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    STI prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14–29 years old) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men. PMID:23403603

  15. Self-Surveillance by Adolescents and Young Adults Transitioning to Self-Management of a Chronic Genetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Pyeritz, Reed E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS) use information from self-surveillance to manage their disorder. Thirty-seven male and female adolescents with MFS aged 14 to 21 years were interviewed. They identified 58 distinct self-surveillance behaviors that fell into four categories and multiple subcategories (SCs): tracking phenotype…

  16. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping out of High School in Urban Adolescents/Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential…

  17. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  18. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p < 0.001). Bad breath was also seen to be a more important issue to women who took more measures against it (p < 0.001). Education and customer contact both had an influence on the perceived importance of halitosis, as well as on the knowledge of possible measures against it (p < 0.001). However, the age of those surveyed and the size of their respective communities did not seem to have an impact (p > 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis. PMID:27142236

  19. The Relation between Gray Matter Morphology and Divergent Thinking in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15–17 and 20 young adults aged 25–30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted. PMID:25514366

  20. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted. PMID:25514366

  1. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  2. Adolescent Girls’ ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. Method The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6–12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11–18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17–24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder. Results Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. Additionally, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Conclusions Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD. PMID:23330831

  3. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. PMID:26681427

  4. Qualitative Approach to Attempted Suicide by Adolescents and Young Adults: The (Neglected) Role of Revenge

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Paduanello, Matteo; Lachal, Jonathan; Falissard, Bruno; Sibeoni, Jordan; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide by adolescents and young adults is a major public health concern, and repetition of self-harm is an important risk factor for future suicide attempts. Objective Our purpose is to explore the perspective of adolescents directly involved in suicidal acts. Methods Qualitative study involving 16 purposively selected adolescents (sex ratio1∶1) from 3 different centers. Half had been involved in repeated suicidal acts, and the other half only one. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results We found five main themes, organized in two superordinate themes. The first theme (individual dimensions of the suicide attempt) describes the issues and explanations that the adolescents saw as related to themselves; it includes the subthemes: (1) negative emotions toward the self and individual impasse, and (2) the need for some control over their lives. The second main theme (relational dimensions of attempted suicide) describes issues that adolescents mentioned that were related to others and includes three subthemes: (3) perceived impasse in interpersonal relationships, (4) communication, and (5) revenge. Conclusions Adolescents involved in suicidal behavior are stuck in both an individual and a relational impasse from which there is no exit and no apparent way to reach the other. Revenge can bridge this gap and thus transforms personal distress into a relational matter. This powerful emotion has been neglected by both clinicians and researchers. PMID:24802777

  5. Deaths among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miodrag, Nancy; Silverberg, Sophie E.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although life expectancies in Down syndrome (DS) have doubled over the past 3-4 decades, there continue to be many early deaths. Yet, most research focuses on infant mortality or later adult deaths. Materials and Methods: In this US study, hospital discharge and death records from the state of Tennessee were linked to examine 2046…

  6. Career Development for Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John; Milson, Amy; Cocco, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Career development activities by professional school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized educational process for students with…

  7. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  8. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  9. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  10. Abacavir pharmacokinetics during chronic therapy in HIV-1-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sleasman, J W; Robbins, B L; Cross, S J; Lindsey, J C; Kraimer, J M; Heckman, B E; Sprenger, H L; Tustin, N B; Rose, C H; Poston, P A; Neal, E F; Pakes, G E; Nikanjam, M; Capparelli, E V

    2009-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of abacavir and its metabolites were investigated in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents and young adults 13-25 years of age, equally divided into two groups: <18 years of age and >or=18 years of age. All the subjects received the recommended adult dose of 300 mg twice daily. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and half-life of abacavir did not differ significantly between the age groups or by gender or race, and there were only modest associations of age with apparent abacavir clearance and with volume of distribution. There were no significant correlations of carboxylate or glucuronide metabolite levels with age or gender, although glucuronide AUC was higher in Hispanic subjects than in African-American subjects. Zidovudine and lamivudine concentration profiles were also similar in the two age groups. A novel aspect of the study included an assessment of intracellular carbovir, zidovudine, and lamivudine triphosphate levels, and these were found to be similar in the two age-based groups. Overall, these findings suggest that current recommendations relating to adult dosages are appropriate for adolescents and young adults. PMID:19118380

  11. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  12. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  13. Predicting Young Adult Degree Attainment by Late Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Kloska, Deborah D.; Patrick, Megan E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assess whether infrequent and frequent marijuana use at age 19/20 predicts receipt of educational degrees by the mid 20s, independent of confounding age 18 adolescent risk factors. Methods Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally-representative survey of high school seniors followed into adulthood. Thirteen cohorts (1990 to 2002) of high school seniors were followed longitudinally to their mid 20s (n=4,925; 54% female). We used logistic regression and propensity score matching with successive inclusion of age 18 risk factors and substance use to compare age 19/20 frequent marijuana users (6+ occasions in past 30 days) to non-users, frequent users to infrequent users (1 to 6 occasions), and infrequent users to non-users on their likelihood of degree attainment by the mid 20s. Results Frequent marijuana users were less likely than infrequent users and non-users to earn Bachelor’s degrees, even after controlling for a host of age 18 risk factors (e.g., family socioeconomic background, academic performance, educational expectations, truancy). However, these differences were reduced in magnitude to statistical non-significance when we controlled for age 18 substance use. Across analyses, the proportion reaching this educational milestone did not differ significantly between infrequent users and non-users. Conclusions Results support a growing body of work suggesting that frequent marijuana use predicts a lower likelihood of post-secondary educational attainment, and this difference may originate during secondary school. PMID:26206441

  14. [Anticipatory grief in adolescents and young adults coping with parental cancer].

    PubMed

    Gross, Juliane; Jantzer, Vanessa; Stute, Fridrike; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Willig, Katrin; Schuller-Roma, Bärbel; Keller, Monika; Herzog, Wolfgang; Romer, Georg; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    By the current state of research, it cannot be answered clearly how adolescents experience anticipatory grief and if and to which extent this process differs from anticipatory grief of adults. The present study will fill this gap by providing both a quantitative and a qualitative description of anticipatory grief processes. Therefore, 74 adolescents and young adults (11-21 years), whose parents have suffered from cancer, completed an adapted version of the "Trauerfragebogen" (Weiser u. Ochsmann, 2002). Additionally a subsample of n = 38 took part in a qualitative guided interview. Based on these interviews, 16 categories were formed, that were assigned to two types of stressors. Beside communication and prioritization of family, different symptoms of grief were the central category in the loss-oriented type, where fears of loss, compassion and concern were of crucial importance. Also categories of the restoration-oriented type were strongly present. Thus, it seems that young people generally manage to accept their new role in the stressful family situation and they have a series of coping mechanisms available to do so. This was also reflected in the quantitative data, were the subscale "Inner Strength" reached the highest value. In the counselling of adolescents with cancer-diseased parents, both loss-oriented and restoration-oriented processes should equally be recognized and encouraged. PMID:22950336

  15. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-01-01

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial).The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  16. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  17. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Keiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Masuko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations. Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome. PMID:22888254

  18. The Relation of Childhood Maltreatment to Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Depression.

    PubMed

    Holshausen, Katherine; Bowie, Christopher R; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and the presence of psychotic symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder. One hundred and twenty-nine depressed adolescents and young adults (M = 16.02 years, 77% female, 92% White) were recruited through community advertisement and clinician referral. Clinical diagnoses and psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions) were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using a contextual interview and standardized rating system. Logistic regression analyses examined the relation between childhood maltreatment and psychotic symptoms. As hypothesized, individuals with psychotic symptoms were significantly more likely to report a history of severe sexual maltreatment than those without psychotic symptoms (Wald = 5.44, odds ratio = 3.86, p = .020), 95% confidence interval [1.24, 12.01]. Further, those with psychotic symptoms were more likely to report being the victims of more than one type of maltreatment than those without, χ(2)(2) = 6.66, p = .036 (ϕ = .23; 40% vs. 16%). Results held upon adjusting for overall level of depression symptoms. A history of severe sexual maltreatment is related to a severe presentation of major depressive disorder even in the initial onset of the syndrome in adolescence and young adulthood. These findings underscore the importance of early assessment of both depression and maltreatment history to implement interventions that have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic psychopathology in young people at risk. PMID:25411823

  19. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  20. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored. PMID:25903254

  1. A Preliminary Study of Self-Reported Food Selectivity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Orionzi, Bako; Simmons, W. Kyle; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that picky eating is a common feature of early development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), far less is known about food selectivity during adolescence and adulthood. Using portions of the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, food selectivity self-ratings were obtained from 65 high-functioning adolescents/young adults with ASD and compared to those of 59 typically developing controls matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Individuals with ASD reported preferring familiar foods (food neophobia) and disliking foods with particular textures and strong flavors. Providing linkage to everyday behavior, parent ratings of daily living skills were lower among individuals with ASD and food neophobia than among those without food neophobia. Food selectivity continues to be an important issue for adolescents/young adults with ASD. PMID:26309446

  2. Six-Year Longitudinal Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth in Parentally Bereaved Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, we examined posttraumatic growth in a sample of 50 adolescents and young adults who had experienced parental death in childhood or adolescence. Prospective longitudinal relations over a six year period were examined between measures of demographics, youth’s intrusive grief-related thoughts, appraisals, intrapersonal coping processes, interpersonal coping processes, mental health problems and social adaptation outcomes, and the growth subscales (i.e., New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strengths, Spiritual Changes and Appreciation of Life). Controlling for youth age, time since death, and cause of death, the set of intrapersonal coping processes explained a medium amount of variance in New Possibilities and Personal Strength subscales. A medium amount of variance in New Possibilities, Personal Strength, and Relating to Others was explained by the set of interpersonal coping processes. PMID:19227001

  3. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  4. Staying Young at Heart: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Richard J.; Touloumtzis, Currie

    2016-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT Approaches to the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are often too narrow in scope and initiated too late. While the majority of adolescents are free of CVD, far fewer are free of CVD risk factors, especially lifestyle factors such as poor exercise and dietary habits. Most clinicians are familiar with behavioral and pharmacologic strategies for modifying these and other traditional CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. In this review, we highlight those strategies most applicable to teens and also propose a fundamental reframing that recognizes the importance of early choices and life experiences to achieving cardiovascular health. Population- and individual-level approaches that support the establishment of positive health behaviors early in life are the foundation of preserving ideal cardiovascular health and promoting positive cardiovascular outcomes. The Positive Youth Development movement supports a frame shift away from seeing young people as merely the sum of their risk factors and instead as developmentally dynamic youth capable of making healthy choices. Informed by the Positive Youth Development framework, our approach to cardiovascular prevention among adolescents is both broad-based and proactive, paying heed as early as possible to social, familial, and developmental factors that underlie health behaviors, and employing evidence- based behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments when needed. PMID:26511137

  5. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  6. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  7. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  8. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  9. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  10. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  11. Optimal use of visual information in adolescents and young adults with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Billington, Jac; Wann, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent reports offer contrasting views on whether or not the use of online visual control is impaired in individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study explored the optimal temporal basis for processing and using visual information in adolescents and young adults with DCD. Participants were 22 adolescents and young adults (12 males and 10 females; M = 19 years, SD = 3). Half had been diagnosed with DCD as children and still performed poorly on the movement assessment battery for children (DCD group; n = 11), and half reported typical development (TD group; n = 11) and were age- and gender-matched with the DCD group. We used performance on a steering task as a measure of information processing and examined the use of advance visual information. The conditions varied the duration of advance visual information: 125, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 ms. With increased duration of advance visual information, the TD group showed a pattern of linear improvement. For the DCD group, however, the pattern was best described by a U-curve where optimal performance occurred with about 750 ms of advance information. The results suggest that the DCD group has an underlying preference for immediate online processing of visual information. The exact timing for optimal online control may depend crucially on the task, but too much advance information is detrimental to performance. PMID:24838558

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  13. Energy needs and nutritional rehabilitation in undernourished adolescents and young adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Hill, R; Archibald, E; Levy, L; Newth, C

    1984-01-01

    The energy needs, nutritional status and body composition of 6 undernourished adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis (3 male and 3 female) were studied prior to and following a 12 day period of refeeding. Nutritional rehabilitation was attempted with continuous naso-gastric feeding of an elemental diet. The energy needs of the patients were shown to be 25-80% higher than in healthy individuals of the same age, sex and size. Lean body mass as judged by measurement of total body potassium and nitrogen was relatively well preserved, but there was significant wasting of adipose tissue. During the short period of refeeding, body weight, fat and potassium all increased significantly, while fat free body mass and total body nitrogen did not change. A model is proposed for the aetiology of undernutrition in the adolescent and young adult cystic with deteriorating lung function. Based on this model and the finding of the short-term N/G refeeding program described in this paper, we have embarked on a long-term supplementation study in malnourished CF patients who do not respond to dietary counselling and oral supplementation. PMID:6438297

  14. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: Moving with the times.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abha A; Papadakos, Janet K; Jones, Jennifer M; Amin, Leila; Chang, Eugene K; Korenblum, Chana; Mina, Daniel Santa; McCabe, Lianne; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2016-04-01

    Literature regarding the development of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer programs has been dominantly informed by pediatric centers and practitioners. However, the majority of young adults are seen and treated at adult cancer centers, in which cancer volumes afford the development of innovative supportive care services. Although the supportive care services in adult cancer centers are helpful to AYAs, some of the most prominent and distinct issues faced by AYAs are not adequately addressed through these services alone. This article describes how the AYA Program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre has collaborated with existing supportive care services in addition to supplying its own unique services to meet the comprehensive needs of AYAs in the domains of: symptom management (sexuality and fatigue), behavior modification (return to work and exercise), and health services (advanced cancer and survivorship). These collaborations are augmented by patient education interventions and timely referrals. The objective of this article was to assist other centers in expanding existing services to address the needs of AYA patients with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:1038-1046. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26848554

  15. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  16. Inflammatory Markers among Adolescents and Young Adults with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Lotrich, Francis; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Hower, Heather; Goldstein, Tina R.; Fan, Jieyu; Yen, Shirley; Diler, Rasim; Dickstein, Daniel; Strober, Michael; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; Keller, Martin B.; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite burgeoning literature in middle-aged adults, little is known regarding pro-inflammatory markers (PIMs) among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Similarly, few prior studies have considered potential confounds when examining the association between PIMs and bipolar disorder characteristics. We therefore examined these topics in the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study. Methods Subjects were 123 adolescents and young adults (20.4±3.8 years; range 13.4–28.3 years) in COBY, enrolled between October 2000 and July 2006. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-aged children (KSADS). Clinical characteristics over the preceding 6 months, including mood, comorbidity and treatment, were evaluated using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assayed. Primary analyses examined the association of PIMs with bipolar disorder characteristics over the preceding 6 months. Results Several lifetime clinical characteristics were significantly associated with PIMs in multivariable analyses, including longer illness duration (p=0.005 for IL-6; p=0.0004 for hsCRP), suicide attempts (p=0.01 for TNF-α), family history of suicide attempts or completion (p=0.01 for hsCRP), self-injurious behavior (p=0.005 for TNF-α), SUD (p<0.0001 for hsCRP) and family history of SUD (p=0.02 for TNF-α; p=0.01 for IL-6). The following bipolar disorder characteristics over the preceding 6 months remained significantly associated with PIMs in multivariable analyses that controlled for differences in comorbidity and treatment. For TNF-α: percentage of weeks with psychosis (χ2=5.7, p=0.02). For IL-6: percentage of weeks with subthreshold mood symptoms (χ2=8.3, p=0.004), and any suicide attempt (χ2=6.1, p=0.01). For hsCRP: maximum severity of depressive

  17. Growth, development, and physical fitness of Flemish vegetarian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hebbelinck, M; Clarys, P; De Malsche, A

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to assess average daily dietary intakes of energy in 82 vegetarian children (group A: 6- 9-y-old girls and 6-11-y-old boys), adolescents (group B: 10- 15-y-old girls and 12-17-y-old boys), and young adults (group C: 16-30-y-old females and 18-30-y-old males) and included determination of height and weight; triceps, suprailiac, and calf skinfold thicknesses; puberty ratings; and physical fitness. Dietary energy intake was lower than recommended values in all 3 groups. Height and weight did not differ significantly from the reference data except in group B, which had significantly lower heights and weights and lower body mass indexes (P<0.05). Triceps and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses were lower in all age groups, whereas the calf skinfold thickness was only significantly lower in the 10-15-y-old girls (P<0.05). The vegetarian children were as physically fit as the reference group. The vegetarian adolescent boys and girls and the young adults scored significantly lower on the standing long jump and 30-s sit-up (P<0.05). The vegetarian subjects of groups B and C recovered significantly faster from the step test (P<0.05). Puberty ratings plotted on percentile graphs showed that all vegetarian subjects, except for 1 girl, were within the normal developmental range. We conclude that, within the limits of this study, vegetarian subjects have lower relative body weights and skinfold thicknesses in adolescence than do nonvegetarians. They scored lower on the strength tests and better on the cardiorespiratory test when compared with reference values. The growth and maturation status of the vegetarian population were within the normal range. PMID:10479235

  18. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol. PMID:26079927

  19. Survival improvements in adolescents and young adults after myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Lee, Stephanie J; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Ballen, Karen K; Buchbinder, David K; Dehn, Jason; Freytes, Cesar O; Lazarus, Hillard M; Lemaistre, Charles F; Mehta, Paulette; Szwajcer, David; Joffe, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, ages 15 to 40 years) with cancer have not experienced survival improvements to the same extent as younger and older patients. We compared changes in survival after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children (n = 981), AYAs (n = 1218), and older adults (n = 469) who underwent transplantation over 3 time periods: 1990 to 1995, 1996 to 2001, and 2002 to 2007. Five-year survival varied inversely with age group. Survival improved over time in AYAs and paralleled that seen in children; however, overall survival did not change over time for older adults. Survival improvements were primarily related to lower rates of early treatment-related mortality in the most recent era. For all cohorts, relapse rates did not change over time. A subset of 222 AYAs between the ages of 15 and 25 at 46 pediatric or 49 adult centers were also analyzed to describe differences by center type. In this subgroup, there were differences in transplantation practices among pediatric and adult centers, although HCT outcomes did not differ by center type. Survival for AYAs undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HCT for ALL improved at a similar rate as survival for children. PMID:24607554

  20. Neurobiological and memory models of risky decision making in adolescents versus young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Estrada, Steven M; DeMarinis, Jessica A; Myers, Regina M; Stanisz, Janine M; Mills, Britain A

    2011-09-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences, sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions. As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, adolescents modulated risk taking according to risk and reward. Adults showed standard framing, reflecting greater emphasis on gist-based (qualitative) reasoning, but adolescents displayed reverse framing when potential gains for risk taking were high, reflecting greater emphasis on verbatim-based (quantitative) reasoning. Reverse framing signals a different way of thinking compared with standard framing (reverse framing also differs from simply choosing the risky option). Measures of verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, sensation seeking, behavioral activation, and inhibition were used to extract dimensions of risk proneness: Sensation seeking increased and then decreased, whereas inhibition increased from early adolescence to young adulthood, predicted by neurobiological theories. Two additional dimensions, verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, loaded separately and predicted unique variance in risk taking. Importantly, framing responses predicted real-life risk taking. Reasoning was the most consistent predictor of real-life risk taking: (a) Intentions to have sex, sexual behavior, and number of partners decreased when gist-based reasoning was triggered by retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk, whereas (b) intentions to have sex and number of partners increased when verbatim-based reasoning was triggered by different retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk. PMID:21707215

  1. Predicting visceral adipose tissue by MRI using DXA and anthropometry in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laddu, Deepika R.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Sato, Tetsuya; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue, independent of total adiposity, is associated with development of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in children and adults. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for estimating visceral adiposity (VAT) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using anthropometric variables and measures of abdominal fat mass from DXA in adolescents and young adults. Methods Cross-sectional data was collected from a multiethnic population of seventy males and females, aged 12–25 years, with BMI ranging from 14.5–38.1 kg/m2. Android (AFM; android region as defined by manufacturers instruction) and lumbar L1-L4 regional fat masses were assessed using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy; GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA). Criterion measures of intra-abdominal visceral fat were obtained using single-slice MRI (General Electric Signa Model 5x 1.5T) and VAT area was analyzed at the level OF L4–L5. Image analysis was carried out using ZedView 3.1. Results DXA measures of AFM (r=0.76) and L1-L4 (r=0.71) were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with MRI-measured VAT. DXA AFM, together with gender and weight, explained 62% of the variance in VAT (SEE=10.06 cm2). DXA L1-L4 fat mass with gender explained 54% of the variance in VAT (SEE=11.08 cm2). Addition of the significant interaction, gender × DXA fat mass, improved prediction of VAT from AFM (Radj2=0.61, SEE=10.10cm2) and L1-L4 (Radj2=0.59, SEE=10.39cm2). Conclusion These results demonstrate that VAT is accurately estimated from regional fat masses measured by DXA in adolescents and young adults. PMID:26097436

  2. Polygenic risk for externalizing disorders: Gene-by-development and gene-by-environment effects in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Bucholz, Kathleen; Agrawal, Arpana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Hesselbrock, Michie; Bauer, Lance; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kramer, John; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we aimed to bring large-scale gene identification findings into a developmental psychopathology framework. Using a family-based sample, we tested whether polygenic scores for externalizing disorders—based on single nucleotide polymorphism weights derived from genome-wide association study results in adults (n = 1,249)—predicted externalizing disorders, subclinical externalizing behavior, and impulsivity-related traits adolescents (n = 248) and young adults (n = 207), and whether parenting and peer factors in adolescence moderated polygenic risk to predict externalizing disorders. Polygenic scores predicted externalizing disorders in adolescents and young adults, even after controlling for parental externalizing disorder history. Polygenic scores also predicted subclinical externalizing behavior and impulsivity traits in the adolescents and young adults. Adolescent parental monitoring and peer substance use moderated polygenic scores to predict externalizing disorders. This illustrates how state of the science genetics can be integrated with psychological science to identify how genetic risk contributes to the development of psychopathology. PMID:25821660

  3. Cancer in adolescents and young adults psychosocial aspects. Long-term survivors.

    PubMed

    Zeltzer, L K

    1993-05-15

    Survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood have had to muster the resources to cope with cancer treatment while accomplishing the tasks unique to this developmental period, tasks such as the accomplishment of economic and emotional independence, capacity for intimacy, solidification of career goals, and formation of a comfortable identity. Studies of survivors of childhood cancer have not found major psychiatric disorders but have pointed out some adjustment difficulties, such as increased health concerns, worries about the development of second neoplasms, increased somatic complaints, and academic problems. Marriage may be delayed, and women, unlike men, worry about their fertility and the health of their future offspring. Survivors of both genders do not appear to be troubled by obvious-to-the-observer physical sequelae. Future studies should examine the quality of life issues pertinent to the successful accomplishment of adult tasks and should include assessment of the facilitators and impediments to carrying out these tasks, particularly during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. The ultimate goal of the above assessments is to permit not only survival but quality survival. PMID:8490896

  4. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  5. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  6. Music Exposure and Hearing Health Education: A Review of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Fei; French, David; Manchaiah, Vinaya K.C.; Liang, Maojin; Price, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents and young adults have been shown to be the age group most at risk of music-induced hearing loss (MIHL), which is already evident and increasing among this group. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide further insight into the effectiveness of education programmes on attitude and behaviour towards loud music…

  7. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  8. Public School-Based Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Catriona L.; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Moore, Dennis W.; Diamond, Neil T.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effectiveness of four categories of intervention when implemented in public schools with adolescents and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study's inclusionary criteria include a setting of public schools, participants aged between 12 and 22 years, and the investigation of an…

  9. Involved site radiation therapy for the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Portlock, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy technology has permitted the development of new treatment planning techniques. Involved field, involved node, and involved site radiotherapy fields are discussed and compared. Indications for and implications of combined modality therapy are examined, particularly as pertinent to the adolescent and young adult population. PMID:26767184

  10. An Event-Related Potential Study of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Judgments of Moral and Social Conventional Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahat, Ayelet; Helwig, Charles C.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2013-01-01

    The neurocognitive development of moral and conventional judgments was examined. Event-related potentials were recorded while 24 adolescents (13 years) and 30 young adults (20 years) read scenarios with 1 of 3 endings: moral violations, conventional violations, or neutral acts. Participants judged whether the act was acceptable or unacceptable…

  11. From Death Metal to R&B? Consistency of Music Preferences among Dutch Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sikkema, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The structure of music preferences has been investigated extensively. However, development of music preferences in terms of consistency of music taste is as yet understudied. In this study, intra-individual consistency of music taste was assessed among Dutch adolescents and young adults over three points in time in a 21-month period. An…

  12. Psychological Well-Being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…

  13. The Relationship between Autistic Symptomatology and Independent Living Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic…

  14. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  15. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Vocational Skills to Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Renes, Diana; Bowen, Scott L.; Burke, Ray V.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a collaborative project between a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities and a local private business, we examined the effects of video modeling to teach vocational skills to four adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Video modeling was used to teach the participants to wear a WalkAround[R]…

  16. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  17. Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the expressive language abilities of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) for evidence of syndrome-related differences. FXS gender differences were also examined in an exploratory fashion. Method: The authors…

  18. Caregiving History and Prenatal Depressive Symptoms in Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Women: Moderating and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Patrikios, Mary; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms have been linked to negative outcomes for mothers and children. Using attachment theory as a framework, this study examined developmental differences in the interpersonal context of prenatal depressive symptoms among adolescents (age 14 to 19 years; n= 352) and young adults (age 20 to 24 years; n= 348). Participants…

  19. Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Ellis, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and explore the association between sleep disturbances, diabetes management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 159, mean age = 16.4, 43% female, 69% white, mean A1C = 9.3%) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quantity and quality and sleep disturbances. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (meter downloads) was used as a measure of diabetes management. Results Average sleep duration was 7.4 hours, below the recommended duration for this age. Adolescents using insulin pumps reported fewer sleep disturbances and longer sleep duration than those on injections, and older adolescents reported less sleep than younger adolescents. Poorer sleep duration was related to poorer diabetes management and better self-reported sleep quality was associated with better glycemic control for males but not for females. Conclusions Assessing for and treating sleep disturbances in adolescents may improve diabetes management. PMID:27081578

  20. Risk factors for opioid misuse in adolescents and young adults with focus on oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Peck, Kelly R; Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Anghelescu, Doralina L

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid use has increased in recent decades. Although opioids provide effective pain control, their use may be associated with the risk of misuse. Opioid misuse (OM) is prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Opioids are necessary to treat cancer-related pain; however, oncology patients are not immune to medication misuse. Research examining OM among AYAs with cancer is scarce. This article examines the risk factors described in the general adult and adolescent medication abuse literature and aims to provide recommendations for practice in the AYA oncology population. The following risk factors should be examined in AYA oncology patients to determine their relevance: age, sex, behavioral and academic problems, psychological conditions, and a history of illicit drug use/abuse. To maintain the delicate balance of providing adequate pain relief while protecting patients from the risk of OM, clinicians must consider potential risk factors, motivating factors, and individual behaviors. Placing these challenges in perspective, this review provides clinical considerations, recommendations, and intervention strategies for OM prevention in AYA oncology patients. PMID:27435441

  1. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900

  2. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  3. Prioritization of research addressing antipsychotics for adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Matthew J; McCrory, Douglas C; Chatterjee, Ranee; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Myers, Evan R; Schmit, Kristine M; Coeytaux, Remy R; Correll, Christoph U; Kendrick, Amy S; Sanders, Gillian D

    2014-04-01

    Despite a paucity of high-quality evidence about benefits and harms, antipsychotic medication use among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder is increasing. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute tasked the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group with creating a prioritized agenda for research in this area that would incorporate the perspectives of relevant stakeholders. We identified a list of potential evidence gaps by reviewing existing literature and engaged a diverse group of 9 stakeholders to expand and refine this list. Using a forced-ranking prioritization method, stakeholders prioritized 10 of 23 potential evidence gaps as the most pressing for future research. These evidence gaps relate to 3 areas: the comparative effectiveness of intervention strategies, the effect of antipsychotics on patient-centered outcomes, and the influence of various patient characteristics on antipsychotic effectiveness. In addition to presenting these findings, we suggest appropriate study designs for addressing the stakeholder-prioritized research questions. PMID:24567115

  4. Executive Functioning, Barriers to Adherence, and Nonadherence in Adolescent and Young Adult Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Colina, Ana M; Eaton, Cyd K; Lee, Jennifer L; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Loiselle, Kristin; Mee, Laura L; LaMotte, Julia; Liverman, Rochelle; Blount, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE : To evaluate levels of executive functioning in a sample of adolescent and young adult (AYA) transplant recipients, and to examine executive functioning in association with barriers to adherence and medication nonadherence.  METHOD : In all, 41 caregivers and 39 AYAs were administered self- and proxy-report measures.  RESULTS : AYA transplant recipients have significant impairments in executive functioning abilities. Greater dysfunction in specific domains of executive functioning was significantly associated with more barriers to adherence and greater medication nonadherence.  CONCLUSION : AYA transplant recipients are at increased risk for executive dysfunction. The assessment of executive functioning abilities may guide intervention efforts designed to decrease barriers to adherence and promote developmentally appropriate levels of treatment responsibility. PMID:26567316

  5. Immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of childhood, adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barth, Matthew J; Chu, Yaya; Hanley, Patrick J; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2016-05-01

    With the introduction of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the first malignancy successfully treated with an immunotherapeutic agent. Since then, numerous advances have expanded the repertoire of immunotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, including many lymphoma subtypes. These include the introduction of monoclonal antibodies targeting a variety of cell surface proteins, including the successful targeting of immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors present on T-cells or tumour cells. Additionally, cellular immunotherapeutic approaches utilize T- or Natural Killer-cells generated with chimeric antigen receptors against cell surface proteins or Epstein-Barr virus-associated latent membrane proteins. The following review describes the current state of immunotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including a summary of currently available data and promising agents currently in clinical development with future promise in the treatment of childhood, adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:27062282

  6. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  7. Pilot study on executive function and adaptive skills in adolescents and young adults with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Hope

    2012-12-01

    High-functioning adolescents and young adults with mitochondrial disease are now attempting transitions to postsecondary environments. This pilot and case study explores factors that interfere with their successful transition through behavior-rating scales addressing academic skills and behavior. In the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Spearman correlation matrices showed that students' attitude to school was associated with depression and anxiety. Mothers' reports linked internalizing disorders with somatic symptoms. Two case studies, with Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function profiles, show the role executive functions play in academic success. Attention to both cognitive and psychiatric concerns may increase success in academics and enhance the sense of well-being in older students with mitochondrial disease. PMID:22628220

  8. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the utility of two psychometric tests with putative minimal cultural bias for use in field screening of lead (Pb)-exposed Ecuadorian Andean workers. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness in Pb-exposed adolescents and young adults of a nonverbal reasoning test standardized for younger children, and compared the findings with performance on a test of auditory memory. The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used as a test of nonverbal intelligence, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale was used to assess auditory memory/attention. The participants were 35 chronically Pb-exposed Pb-glazing workers, aged 12-21 yr. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the study group ranged from 3 to 86 microg/dl, with 65.7% of the group at and above 10 microg/dl. Zinc protoporphyrin heme ratios (ZPP/heme) ranged from 38 to 380 micromol/mol, with 57.1% of the participants showing abnormal ZPP/heme (>69 micromol/mol). ZPP/heme was significantly correlated with PbB levels, suggesting chronic Pb exposure. Performance on the RCPM was less than average on the U.S., British, and Puerto Rican norms, but average on the Peruvian norms. Significant inverse associations between PbB/ZPP concentrations and RCPM standard scores using the U.S., Puerto Rican, and Peruvian norms were observed, indicating decreasing RCPM test performance with increasing PbB and ZPP levels. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with performance on the Digit Span test for auditory memory. Mean Digit Span scale score was less than average, suggesting auditory memory/attention deficits. In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults. PMID:19308847

  9. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Adolescents and Young Adults and Risk of Early Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Saydah, Sharon; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of mortality associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a national sample of adolescents and young adults. METHODS Prospective study of participants in the third NHANES (1988–1994), aged 12 to 39 years at the time of the survey (n = 9245). Risk factors included 3 measures of adiposity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, self-reported smoking status, and cotinine level. Death before age 55 (n = 298) was determined by linkage to the National Death Index through 2006. Proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to determine the risk of death before age 55 years after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and presence of comorbid conditions. RESULTS After adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, results of categorical analyses showed that current smokers were at 86% greater risk for early death than those classified as never smokers; that those with a waist-to-height ratio >0.65 were at 139% greater risk than those with a WHR <0.5; and that those with an HbA1c level >6.5% were at 281% greater risk than those with an HbA1c level <5.7%. Neither high-density lipoprotein nor non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol measures were associated with risk for early death. CONCLUSIONS Our finding that risk for death before age 55 among US adolescents and young adults was associated with central obesity, smoking, and hyperglycemia supports reducing the prevalence of these risk factors among younger US residents. PMID:23420920

  10. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  11. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  12. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    PubMed

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  13. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. Objective To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. Methods A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. Results 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables. PMID:24263778

  14. Breastfeeding Intentions Among Pregnant Adolescents and Young Adults and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Hansen, Nathan; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of breastfeeding remain disproportionately low among young mothers in the United States. Although breastfeeding behavior may be most directly related to breastfeeding intention, little is known about breastfeeding intentions among young women who are expecting a baby. Subjects and Methods Pregnant adolescents and young adults (14–21 years old) and their male partners were recruited for participation. Females were asked if they intended to breastfeed, and their partners were asked if they wanted their partners to breastfeed; participants indicated reasons for their responses. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between breastfeeding intentions and sociodemographic characteristics, relationship characteristics, and partner's intention to breastfeed. Results Approximately 73% of females reported intending to breastfeed, and 80% of males reported wanting his partner to breastfeed, most commonly because it is “healthier for the baby” and “a more natural way to feed the baby.” Sociodemographic and relationship characteristics explained a small amount of variance of breastfeeding intention (15% and 4% among females, respectively, and 8% and 4% among males, respectively). Partner intention explained an additional 23% and 24% of the variance in individual intention for females and males, respectively. Females who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) from their current partner had lower odds of intending to breastfeed (odds ratio=0.37; 95% confidence interval=0.16, 0.84). Race/ethnicity modified associations among both genders. Conclusions These findings emphasize the importance of dyadic approaches and suggest strategies for improving breastfeeding intentions and behavior among young couples expecting a baby. These results are also among the first to document the relationship between IPV and breastfeeding intentions among young women. PMID:23611330

  15. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  16. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  17. Are Adolescent Substance Users Less Satisfied with Life as Young Adults and if so, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Laura M.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether adolescent cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use predicts life satisfaction in young adulthood. Survey data were used from a longitudinal cohort of 2376 adolescents at ages 18 and 29, originally recruited from California and Oregon middle schools at age 13. Results of multivariate models indicated…

  18. Best Practices in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Focus on Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Boissel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of asparaginase in chemotherapy regimens to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has had a positive impact on survival in pediatric patients. Historically, asparaginase has been excluded from most treatment protocols for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients because of perceived toxicity in this population, and this is believed to have contributed to poorer outcomes in these patients. However, retrospective analyses over the past 12 years have shown that 2-, 5-, and 7-year overall survival of AYA patients is significantly improved with pediatric versus adult protocols. The addition of asparaginase to adult protocols yielded high rates of first remission and improved survival. However, long-term survival remains lower compared with what has been seen in pediatrics. The notion that asparaginase is poorly tolerated by AYA patients has been challenged in multiple studies. In some, but not all, studies, the incidences of hepatic and pancreatic toxicities were higher in AYA patients, whereas the rates of hypersensitivity reactions did not appear to differ with age. There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, and management with anti-coagulation therapy is recommended. Overall, the risk of therapy-related mortality is low. Together, this suggests that high-intensity pediatric protocols offer an effective and tolerable approach to treating ALL in the AYA population. PMID:26421220

  19. Care of adolescents and young adults with diabetes - much more than transitional care: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Winocour, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) acquired in childhood and adolescence requires a sophisticated approach that facilitates better self-management through adherence to generic principles in managing chronic disease in this age group, allied to the complex clinical needs of managing T1DM and related conditions. Transitional care should be seen as a process over time supported by both paediatric and adult diabetologists within a multidisciplinary team, given the complementary skills that can be brought to bear. Undoubtedly, there is a need for more effective training of all healthcare professionals working in this service. However, the accumulation of older teenagers over time and new diagnoses in those aged 19 years or more confirms that a new paradigm is necessary for the successful care of young adults beyond transitional care. Traditional clinical models will often not work for those in employment and higher education, with evidence that ongoing engagement following transfer to adult services often ceases. The alarming evidence of progressive complications in T1DM of longer duration in patients under the age of 40 years is a wake-up call to transform the care of this most vulnerable group. PMID:24889572

  20. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  1. Adolescent and Young Adult Mortality by Cause: Age, Gender, and Country, 1955 to 1994

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; SLAP, GAIL B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare mortality rates from motor vehicle accidents (MVA), homicide, and suicide across countries, age groups, and time. Methods The World Health Organization Mortality Database was used to construct age- and gender-specific rates in 26 countries for individuals aged 15 to 34 years during the period 1955 to 1994. The rates were adjusted for differences among countries in the age-and-gender distributions of their populations. Cause-specific rates were compared by country, 4-year age groups, 8-year time blocks, and male/female ratios. Results The proportion of deaths in 15–34-year-olds owing to MVA, homicide, and suicide increased from 26% to 43% over the 40-year study period. Mortality rates differ by country more than time block, peak at ages 15–29 years, and are higher in males than females. Compared to the United States, 24 countries had lower homicide rates and 23 had lower MVA-death rates. Conclusions Despite declining rates of death from other causes, the rates of adolescent and young adult death from MVA, homicide, and suicide remain high in countries throughout the world. The proportion of deaths attributable to these causes increased steadily during the latter half of the 20th century. Fatal risk behaviors begin to increase during adolescence but do not peak until age 30 years, suggesting that the target population for prevention extends well beyond the teenage years. PMID:11755798

  2. Nutritional screening and early intervention in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Deborah L; Loman, Deborah G; Balakas, Karen; Flowers, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer who receive chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments are at risk for malnutrition due to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and mouth sores. Malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer increases the risk of infection, decreases tolerance to treatment, and even affects overall survival. A retrospective analysis of 79 children, adolescents, and young adults was conducted to evaluate nutritional screening at baseline and for the first 6 months of treatment. Interventions were also documented. Forty-nine participants had a positive screen for risk of malnutrition. In the patients with a positive screen, 78% had intervention within 24 hours of the identified risk for malnutrition. Thirty-five patients had a nutritional referral, which resulted in a full nutritional assessment and plan. Key independent variables were analyzed to determine if they were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. In addition, individual risk factors were analyzed to determine their association with malnutrition. Future studies should find whether early intervention is effective in reversing the risk of malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:23087250

  3. Oral contraceptive use and bone density in adolescent and young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Delia; Ichikawa, Laura; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Spangler, Leslie; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Reed, Susan; Ott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the millions of oral contraceptive (OC) users are under age 30 years and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Study Design This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14–30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole-body (DEXA). Results Of 389 OC users and 217 nonusers enrolled, 50% were adolescents (14–18 years). Of OC users, 38% used “low-dose” OCs [<30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)]. In adolescents, mean BMD differed by neither OC duration nor EE dose. However, 19–30 year-old women’s mean BMD was lower with longer OC use for spine and whole-body (p=0.004, p=0.02, respectively) and lowest for >12 months of low-dose OCs for the hip, spine and whole-body (p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Prolonged use of today’s OCs, particularly <30 mcg EE, may adversely impact young adult women’s bone density while ingesting these agents. PMID:20004271

  4. Psychosocial Strength Enhancing Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Akiko; Okamura, Jun; Ueda, Reiko; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of enhancing psychosocial strengths in newly diagnosed and relapsed adolescents and young adults (AYAs) to improve their resilience. A descriptive case study was used. The adolescent resilience model (ARM) and the self-sustaining process model were applied as theories. The data were analyzed using pattern-matching logic. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 patients aged 12 to 24 years and discharged within 10 years. We found that the newly diagnosed and the relapsing AYAs developed the 5 strength factors of the ARM during and after treatment. Whether the individuals cultivated a positive attitude and sense of purpose early or late, the AYAs developed resilience eventually. A positive attitude and sense of purpose during the early phase of care may be essential for improving resilience. The AYAs benefited from the support of their parents, friends, and previous experience. Individualized support and social resources may be important to develop these strengths. Further research is needed to develop strengths and improve resilience in newly diagnosed AYAs. PMID:25862715

  5. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  6. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713

  7. Reproductive Health Decision-Making in Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Zadeh, Sima; Albright, Jamie; Mellins, Claude Ann; Mancilla, Michael; Tepper, Vicki; Trexler, Connie; Purdy, Julia; Osherow, Janet; Lovelace, Susan; Kapetanovic, Suad

    2013-01-01

    With widespread access to antiretroviral therapy in the United States, many perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, becoming sexually active and making decisions about their reproductive health. The literature focusing on the reproductive decisions of individuals behaviorally infected with HIV can serve as a springboard for understanding the decision-making process of PHIV+ youth. Yet, there are many differences that critically distinguish reproductive health and related decision-making of PHIV+ youth. Given the potential public health implications of their reproductive decisions, better understanding of factors influencing the decision-making process is needed to help inform the development of salient treatment and prevention interventions. To begin addressing this understudied area, a “think tank” session, comprised of clinicians, medical providers, and researchers with expertise in the area of adolescent HIV, was held in Bethesda, MD, on September 21, 2011. The focus was to explore what is known about factors that influence the reproductive decision-making of PHIV+ adolescents and young adults, determine what important data are needed in order to develop appropriate intervention for PHIV+ youth having children, and to recommend future directions for the field in terms of designing and carrying out collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the findings from this meeting. The paper is organized around the key themes that emerged, including utilizing a developmental perspective to create an operational definition of reproductive decision-making, integration of psychosocial services with medical management, and how to design future research studies. Case examples are presented and model program components proposed. PMID:22736033

  8. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  9. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  10. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  11. Racial/Ethnic and Nativity Patterns of U.S. Adolescent and Young Adult Smoking.

    PubMed

    Wade, Becky; Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    We document racial/ethnic and nativity differences in U.S. smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults using the 2006 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=44,202). Stratifying the sample by nativity status within five racial/ethnic groups (Asian American, Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white), and further by sex and age, we compare self-reports of lifetime smoking across groups. U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites, particularly men, report smoking more than individuals in other racial/ethnic/nativity groups. Some groups of young women (e.g., foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and foreign-born blacks) report extremely low levels of smoking. Foreign-born females in all of the 25-34 year old racial/ethnic groups exhibit greater proportions of never smoking than their U.S.-born counterparts. Heavy/moderate and light/intermittent smoking is generally higher in the older age group among U.S.-born males and females whereas smoking among the foreign-born of both sexes is low at younger ages and remains low at older ages. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both race/ethnicity and nativity in assessments of smoking patterns and in strategies to reduce overall U.S. smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable health disparities. PMID:25339787

  12. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942381

  13. Young and Uninsured: Insurance Patterns of Recently Diagnosed Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors in the AYA HOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen; Schmidt, Susanne; Harlan, Linda; Kent, Erin; Lynch, Charles; Smith, Ashley; Keegan, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Young adults have historically been the least likely to have health insurance in the United States. Previous studies of childhood cancer survivors found lower rates of insurance and less access to medical care compared to siblings; however, no studies have examined continuity of insurance after cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Methods Using the AYA Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study, a cohort of 465 15-39 year-olds from participating Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated changes in and sponsors of health insurance coverage after diagnosis, coverage of doctor-recommended tests, and factors associated with lack of insurance post-diagnosis using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results Over 25% (n=118) of AYA cancer survivors experienced some period without insurance up to 35 months post-diagnosis. Insurance rates were high in the initial year after diagnosis (6-14 months; 93.3%) but decreased substantially at follow-up (15-35 months; 85.2%). The most common sponsor of health insurance was employer/school-coverage (43.7%). Multivariable analysis indicated that older survivors (25-39 vs. 15-19; Odds Ratio (OR): 3.35, p<0.01) and those with less education (high school or less vs. college graduate; OR: 2.80, p<0.01) were more likely to experience a period without insurance after diagnosis. Furthermore, >20% of survivors indicated there were doctor-recommended tests/treatments not covered by insurance, but >80% received them regardless of coverage. Discussion Insurance rates decrease with time since diagnosis in AYA cancer survivors. Future studies should examine how new policies under the Affordable Care Act extend access and insurance coverage beyond initial treatment. PMID:24899580

  14. Misunderstanding and Potential Unintended Misuse of Acetaminophen among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer P.; Doane, Cindy; Wilson, Karen M.; Wolf, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acetaminophen is highly accessible yet potentially dangerous when used incorrectly. In attempts to address concerns about acetaminophen, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified gaps in evidence about unintentional misuse among adolescents. Therefore, our objectives were to assess: adolescents’: 1) health literacy; 2) knowledge about acetaminophen; 3) recent use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; 4) and use of medication dosing instructions to understand the medicine and how to use it (‘acetaminophen skills’). Methods Subjects and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adolescents and young adults (ages 16–23 years) recruited from education settings and health care sites in Monroe County, New York, from 11/08–9/09. Measures: Using structured in-person interviews, we assessed acetaminophen knowledge and recent use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. We assessed participants’ ability to identify acetaminophen in OTC products and answer questions about instructions for acetaminophen use through role-plays of everyday health scenarios. We measured health literacy with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) for participants >18, and the REALM-Teen for those <18. Results Confusion about acetaminophen and its use was common. Limited health literacy was an independent risk factor for poor knowledge, misunderstanding, and potential unsafe use of acetaminophen-containing medicines, however, most participants at all health literacy levels erred dangerously in ‘unsafe’ understanding of acetaminophen use from label instructions. Conclusions Individuals with limited health literacy may face disproportionate risk of unsafe use of acetaminophen due to confusion and misunderstanding of label information. Better labeling, public health programs, and educational efforts could facilitate safer use of acetaminophen. PMID:21951256

  15. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods. PMID:25234582

  16. How I treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in older adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Emily

    2015-01-01

    At the intersection between children and older adults, the care of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) poses unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by other age groups. Although the survival of AYA patients is inferior to younger children, growing evidence suggests that AYA patients have improved outcomes, with disease-free survival rates of 60% to 70%, when treated with pediatric-based approaches. A holistic approach, incorporating a multidisciplinary team, is a key component of successful treatment of these AYA patients. With the appropriate support and management of toxicities during and following treatment, these regimens are well tolerated in the AYA population. Even with the significant progress that has been made during the last decade, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) during intensive therapy still have a poor prognosis. With new insights into disease pathogenesis in AYA ALL and the availability of disease-specific kinase inhibitors and novel targeted antibodies, future studies will focus on individualized therapy to eradicate MRD and result in further improvements in survival. This case-based review will discuss the biology, pharmacology, and psychosocial aspects of AYA patients with ALL, highlighting our current approach to the management of these unique patients. PMID:25805810

  17. Cancer Incidence Among Adolescents and Young Adults (15 to 29 Years) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Nathalie V; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Pinto Oliveira, Julio F; Ferman, Sima; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of cancers commonly found in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) differs from those in children and adults; therefore, the childhood classification is not appropriate for this population. Here we used a newly proposed classification system to reclassify cases of AYAs from Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in 5 geographic regions of Brazil. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence rates within this age group according to PBCR. Using the world population, incidence rates per million were analyzed in each diagnostic subgroup according to sex and age at diagnosis (15 to 19 y, 20 to 24 y, and 25 to 29 y). The median incidence rate was 232.31 per million for females and 218.07 per million for males. Incidence increased with age, with the highest rate observed for 25- to 29-year-olds in both sexes. Carcinomas, lymphomas, and skin tumors were most frequent among AYAs. High incidence rates of cervix-uterus carcinoma were observed in most PBCRs. AYAs present epidemiological characteristics that differ from those of children, reinforcing the need for a new classification. This study describes, for the first time, the cancer incidence rate in AYAs in Brazil, and we believe that our findings represent the Brazilian profile. PMID:26950086

  18. Clinical next-generation sequencing reveals aggressive cancer biology in adolescent and young adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kato, Shumei; Livingston, Andrew; Slopis, John; Anderson, Pete M.; Hong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15–39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. Methods We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). Conclusions This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26328274

  19. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p < 0.001) than Caucasians. The regression model for large artery elasticity index included average cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p < 0.001), age component (Caucasian only) (p < 0.001), and sex (p = 0.025). The regression model for small artery elasticity index included fat-free mass (p < 0.001), maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  20. Quantifying treatment delays in adolescents and young adults with cancer at McGill University

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y.; Stavrides-Eid, M.; Baig, A.; Cardoso, M.; Rho, Y.S.; Shams, W.M.; Mamo, A.; Kavan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the end of the 1980s, the magnitude of survival prolongation or mortality reduction has not been the same for adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer as for their older and younger counterparts. Precise reasons for those observations are unknown, but the differences have been attributed in part to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In 2003 at the Jewish General Hospital, we developed the first Canadian multidisciplinary aya oncology clinic to better serve this unique patient population. The aim of the present study was to develop an approach to quantify diagnosis delays in our aya patients and to study survival in relation to the observed delay. Methods: In a retrospective chart review, we collected information about delays, treatment efficacy, and obstacles to treatment for patients seen at our aya clinic. Results: From symptom onset, median time to first health care contact was longer for girls and young women (62 days) than for boys and young men (6 days). Median time from symptom onset to treatment was 173 days; time from first health care contact to diagnosis was the largest contributor to that duration. Delays in diagnosis were shorter for patients who initially presented to the emergency room, but compared with patients whose first health contact was of another type, patients presenting to the emergency room were 3 times more likely to die from their disease. Conclusions: Delays in diagnosis are frequently reported in ayas with cancer, but the duration of the delay was unrelated to survival in our sample. Application of this approach to larger prospective samples is warranted to better understand the relation between treatment delay and survival in ayas—and in other cancer patient groups. PMID:26715885

  1. Measles vaccine failures: lack of sustained measles-specific immunoglobulin G responses in revaccinated adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M L; Robinson, E D; Faerber, M; Thomas, D; Geyer, S; Peters, S; Martin, M; Martin, A; Sobel, D; Jones, R

    1994-01-01

    The measles-specific antibody responses of seronegative adolescents and young adults were evaluated after revaccination. Of 1650 previously vaccinated healthy volunteers between the ages of 10 and 30 years, 4.4% were found to be seronegative for measles antibodies and 9.9% had equivocal titers. Seronegative volunteers were revaccinated to measles and followed serially for development of measles-specific IgG. Of 43 subjects followed for at least 1 year, only 58% developed and maintained positive antibody titers; 12% never developed positive titers and 30% initially developed titers that fell below positive levels within 1 year. The peak titers achieved by those subjects who responded transiently were lower than those achieved by subjects who developed sustained responses. Thus even after the recommended two dose schedule of the current measles vaccine, some adolescents and young adults lack protective titers of measles-specific antibody. PMID:8170730

  2. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  3. Next steps for adolescent and young adult oncology workshop: An update on progress and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Seibel, Nita L; Lewis, Denise R; Albritton, Karen H; Blair, Donald F; Blanke, Charles D; Bleyer, W Archie; Freyer, David R; Geiger, Ann M; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Tricoli, James V; Wagner, Lynne I; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2016-04-01

    Each year, 70,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) between ages 15 and 39 years in the United States are diagnosed with cancer. In 2006, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Progress Review Group (PRG) examined the state of science associated with cancer among AYAs. To assess the impact of the PRG and examine the current state of AYA oncology research, the NCI, with support from the LIVESTRONG Foundation, sponsored a workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" on September 16 and 17, 2013, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings from the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and suggestions for future research priorities. Multidisciplinary teams that include basic scientists, epidemiologists, trialists, biostatisticians, clinicians, behavioral scientists, and health services researchers will be essential for future advances for AYAs with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:988-999. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849003

  4. Deliberate self-harm behaviors in Chinese adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu-Hui; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Hao, Jia-Hu; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and to determine the socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of DSH behaviors in Chinese adolescents and young adults in a representative sample of the general population. The data were obtained from an epidemiologic study involving adolescents and young adults from junior and senior schools and colleges located in eight provinces of China. A total of 17,622 cases were retained for analysis. The relationship between the explanatory variables with self-harm was analyzed using a Pearson χ (2) test and a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 3,001 (17.0%) students reported that they had harmed themselves deliberately in the past 12 months. The act of DSH occurring 1 and >2 times accounted for 4.2% (742) and 12.8% (2,259) of all respondents, respectively. The most frequently reported form of DSH was self-hitting. If the reference category was No DSH, the findings indicated that family composition, father's education, perceived family economic status, cigarette use, perceived body image, and higher scores in depression scales were important concomitants of repeat-incidents of DSH. The students, in western areas, who were younger, reported that having unhealthy weight control behaviors, and alcohol use had a higher risk for both types of DSH. Regarding students of age 15-18 years perceived body image (too fat), having unhealthy weight control behaviors or a high level of depression symptoms demonstrated an elevated risk for repeat-incident DSH when single-incident DSH was used as the reference category, whereas the students in middle area reported family composition (both parents), education of the father (less than college) or alcohol use had a decreased risk for repeat-incident DSH. The results of this study suggest that both types of DSH are associated with other wide-ranging problems in the students' lives. Despite their common features, these

  5. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  6. [Relationship between dating violence and use of alcohol and illegal drugs in Spanish adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Rivas, Marina Julia; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Graña, José Luis; Fernández, Liria

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between substance use (i.e., alcohol and illegal drugs) and dating aggression in couples of adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 1,282 people of between 15 and 20 years of age. Through cluster analysis, three groups of young people with different levels of substance use were identified: low, intermediate, and high use of alcohol and illegal drugs. Through logistic regression analysis, high levels of alcohol and illegal drug use were revealed to significantly increase the probability of reporting physical and sexual aggression in both sexes. Likewise, young people with high levels of use more frequently reported that they were the ones who initiated episodes of aggression against their partners. The results suggest that alcohol and drug use is a risk factor for dating aggression, a finding that should be taken into account for the prevention of intimate partner violence, beginning in adolescence. PMID:20549147

  7. The successful pharmacological treatment of adolescents and young adults with borderline personality disorder: a preliminary open trial of flupenthixol.

    PubMed

    Kutcher, S; Papatheodorou, G; Reiter, S; Gardner, D

    1995-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a significantly disabling disturbance often arising in adolescents or young adults. In the absence of demonstrated effective treatments in this population, this open prospective study evaluated the effect of low dose (3 mg per day) flupenthixol in 13 rigorously diagnosed adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Therapeutic outcome over eight weeks of treatment assessed across measures of impulsivity, depression/dysphoria, general psychopathology and global functioning showed significant improvement in all spheres. These findings suggest that low dose flupenthixol may have a role to play in the short-term treatment of this population. PMID:7703220

  8. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  9. Frontal preparatory neural oscillations associated with cognitive control: A developmental study comparing young adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS). We found that for adults, AS were associated with increased beta-band (16-38Hz) power in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), enhanced alpha- to low beta-band (10-18Hz) power in the frontal eye field (FEF) that predicted performance, and increased cross-frequency alpha-beta (10-26Hz) amplitude coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF. Developmental comparisons between adults and adolescents revealed similar engagement of DLPFC beta-band power but weaker FEF alpha-band power, and lower cross-frequency coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF in adolescents. These results suggest that lateral prefrontal neural activity associated with cognitive control is adult-like by adolescence; the development of cognitive control from adolescence to adulthood is instead associated with increases in frontal connectivity and strengthening of inhibition signaling for suppressing task-incompatible processes. PMID:27173759

  10. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p < 0.03) and were more likely to smoke (p = 0.005), and had a lower healthy eating index (HEI) (p = 0.007) but similar alcohol consumption compared with controls. In obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26139232

  11. Cancer-Related Disclosure Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marie E.; Shuk, Elyse M.; Conway, Francine P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) employ self-disclosure in normative social interactions and in promoting identity development. Disclosure is associated with numerous psychological and physical benefits. Little research has examined how AYA cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence disclose their cancer history. Methods: Using a qualitative design, this study explored cancer-related disclosures among survivors (N=26) 16–24 years old at study (M=19.6 years), 14–18 years old at diagnosis (M=15.6 years), and currently at least 6 months post-treatment (M=3.2 years). Semi-structured interview guides were developed and used. Disclosure-related topics included survivorship communications and others' responses to AYAs' disclosure of their cancer experiences. Results: Grounded theory and thematic content analysis guided analyses, with an inductive data-driven approach. Three themes and eight subthemes emerged: “it depends” decision-making processes (don't ask/don't tell, shared experience, relationship potential), perceptions of others' responses (perceived apprehension, positive responses), and methods of disclosure (verbal, written, behavioral). No thematic differences were found by gender or age, although females reported greater frequency of disclosures. Conclusion: Disclosure emerged as a nuanced and complex process. “It depends” decision-making processes were most frequently endorsed, consistent with developmental complexities of this age group. This reflects social and psychological changes and highlights unique challenges for AYA survivors. This also reflects the importance of peers and social interactions as variables that influence disclosure. In the context of AYA cancer survivorship, understanding ways in which disclosure may bolster or hinder social support can assist survivors, clinicians, and families navigate survivorship. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25276496

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Partner STI Notification Among Adolescent and Young Adult Family Planning Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

  13. Targeting childhood, adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma: therapeutic horizons.

    PubMed

    Galardy, Paul J; Bedekovics, Tibor; Hermiston, Michelle L

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the third most common malignancy in children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA). NHL is a diverse set of diseases that arise at key regulatory checkpoints during B or T cell development in the bone marrow, germinal centre or thymus. While advances in the use of conventional cytotoxic agents have led to dramatic improvements in survival, these cures are associated with significant acute and long-term toxicities. Moreover, the prognosis for CAYA patients with relapsed or refractory NHL remains dismal, with the vast majority dying of their disease. Thanks to a large number of candidate-based biological studies, together with large-scale sequencing efforts, there has been an explosion of knowledge regarding the molecular pathophysiology of B- and T-NHL. This has ushered development of a flurry of novel therapeutic approaches that may simultaneously provide new hope for relapsed patients and an opportunity to reduce the therapeutic burden in newly diagnosed CAYA. Here we review a selection of the most promising new therapeutic approaches to these diseases. While the vast majority of these agents are untested in children, on-going work from many cooperative groups will soon explore their use in paediatric disease, in hope of further improving outcomes while maximizing quality of life. PMID:27019108

  14. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  15. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  16. A Prognostic Model Predicting Autologous Transplantation Outcomes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Satwani, Prakash; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Carreras, Jeanette; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Cashen, Amanda; Chen, Andy I.; Cohen, Jonathon B.; Costa, Luciano J.; Dandoy, Christopher; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, César O.; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Gale, Robert Peter; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Hertzberg, Mark S.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Kamble, Rummurti T.; Kanate, Abraham S.; Keating, Armand; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F.; Prestidge, Tim D.; Rolon, Juliana Martinez; Savani, Bipin N.; Vose, Julie M.; Wood, William A.; Inwards, David J.; Bachanova, Veronika; Smith, Sonali M.; Maloney, David G.; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AutoHCT) is a potentially curative treatment modality for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, no large studies have evaluated pre-transplant factors predictive of outcomes of AutoHCT in children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA, age <30 years). In a retrospective study, we analyzed 606 CAYA patients (median age 23 years) with relapsed/refractory HL who underwent AutoHCT between 1995–2010. The probabilities of progression free survival (PFS) at 1, 5 and 10 years were 66% (95% CI: 62–70), 52% (95% CI: 48–57) and 47% (95% CI: 42–51), respectively. Multivariate analysis for PFS demonstrated that at the time of AutoHCT patients with Karnofsky/Lansky score ≥90, no extranodal involvement and chemosensitive disease had significantly improved PFS. Patients with time from diagnosis to first relapse of <1 year had a significantly inferior PFS. A prognostic model for PFS was developed that stratified patients into low, intermediate and high-risk groups, predicting for 5-year PFS probabilities of 72% (95% CI: 64–80), 53% (95% CI: 47–59) and 23% (95% CI: 9–36), respectively. This large study identifies a group of CAYA patients with relapsed/refractory HL who are at high risk for progression after AutoHCT. Such patients should be targeted for novel therapeutic and/or maintenance approaches post-AutoHCT. PMID:26237164

  17. A prognostic model predicting autologous transplantation outcomes in children, adolescents and young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Satwani, P; Ahn, K W; Carreras, J; Abdel-Azim, H; Cairo, M S; Cashen, A; Chen, A I; Cohen, J B; Costa, L J; Dandoy, C; Fenske, T S; Freytes, C O; Ganguly, S; Gale, R P; Ghosh, N; Hertzberg, M S; Hayashi, R J; Kamble, R T; Kanate, A S; Keating, A; Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Lazarus, H M; Marks, D I; Nishihori, T; Olsson, R F; Prestidge, T D; Rolon, J M; Savani, B N; Vose, J M; Wood, W A; Inwards, D J; Bachanova, V; Smith, S M; Maloney, D G; Sureda, A; Hamadani, M

    2015-11-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AutoHCT) is a potentially curative treatment modality for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, no large studies have evaluated pretransplant factors predictive of outcomes of AutoHCT in children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA, age <30 years). In a retrospective study, we analyzed 606 CAYA patients (median age 23 years) with relapsed/refractory HL who underwent AutoHCT between 1995 and 2010. The probabilities of PFS at 1, 5 and 10 years were 66% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62-70), 52% (95% CI: 48-57) and 47% (95% CI: 42-51), respectively. Multivariate analysis for PFS demonstrated that at the time of AutoHCT patients with Karnofsky/Lansky score ⩾90, no extranodal involvement and chemosensitive disease had significantly improved PFS. Patients with time from diagnosis to first relapse of <1 year had a significantly inferior PFS. A prognostic model for PFS was developed that stratified patients into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, predicting for 5-year PFS probabilities of 72% (95% CI: 64-80), 53% (95% CI: 47-59) and 23% (95% CI: 9-36), respectively. This large study identifies a group of CAYA patients with relapsed/refractory HL who are at high risk of progression after AutoHCT. Such patients should be targeted for novel therapeutic and/or maintenance approaches post-AutoHCT. PMID:26237164

  18. Metabolomic (anthropometric and biochemical) indexes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the use of combination of international standardized anthropometric parameters, along with biochemical parameters (metabolomic indexes) to identify metabolic syndrome (MetS), in persons with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 42 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities (aged 13-30years) who attend special schools in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. The study included anthropometric (using the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry recommendations) and biochemical measures, and their combinations as metabolomic-indexes, that can significantly predict MetS occurrence in this vulnerable population. Waist circumference (WC) and relaxed arm circumference, both adjusted for height, have the highest correlation with MetS (R2=0.23-0.47, p<0.01). Besides body mass index (BMI) and WC we propose other indicators such as, skinfolds, hip circumference and relaxed arm circumference, all of them adjusted by height in order to better define the presence of MetS in persons with intellectual disabilities. PMID:25124697

  19. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Fizur, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Materials and methods We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed). Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications). One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. PMID:26316835

  20. Competence in Caregivers of Adolescent and Young Adult Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Deatrick, Janet A.; Hobbie, Wendy; Ogle, Sue; Fisher, Michael J.; Barakat, Lamia; Hardie, Thomas; Reilly, Maureen; Li, Yimei; Ginsberg, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Caregivers of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with complex medical conditions, including brain tumor survivors, have protracted and often complex roles, yet a gap exists in understanding their perceived competence. The aim of this study is to test a hypothesized model based on the theoretical and empirical literature: better caregiver health, better survivor health, and better family functioning contribute directly to fewer caregiving demands, which in turn contribute to greater caregiver competence. Method Telephone interviews using structured self-report questionnaires were conducted in this cross-sectional study with a sample of 186 caregivers (mothers) of childhood brain tumor survivors aged 14–40 years old who live with at least one parent. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized model. Results The final SEM model suggests that survivor health and family functioning directly predict caregiver competence. Caregiver health indirectly predicts caregiver competence through caregiver demands and then family functioning. Family income directly predicts family functioning. The model showed adequate fit (CFI = 0.905, TFI = 0.880, and RMSEA = 0.081). Overall, the model accounted for 45% of variance in caregiver competence. Conclusions For this sample of caregivers of AYA with medically complex conditions, family functioning and the health of survivors are both important to how they evaluate their skills as caregivers. The results of this study underscore the crucial role of care models that focus on optimizing the health of the survivor, caregiver, and family, along with supporting a family centered approach to their care. PMID:23957900

  1. Psychosocial Care for Adolescent and Young Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Liz; Chung, Carol; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Psychological issues following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) are unfortunately common. Literature specific to the transplant experience for the needs of adolescents and young adults (AYA) is lacking. The purpose of this article is to 1) describe the allogeneic transplant experience for AYA transplant patients during the first year following transplantation including demographic and treatment characteristics, 2) present AYA data obtained during and following a six-part post transplant discharge study, 3) illustrate typical AYA experiences using case studies and 4) propose AYA intervention strategies within Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. A Quality of Life (QOL) model provided both the research conceptual framework, and the content analysis framework for the qualitative research. Themes that emerged within each domain were the following: sexuality/fertility, fatigue, depression/poor coping/habits, adherence issues, use of technology, dependency issues, changes in roles/relationships, issues with school/education, financial issues, family problems/issues, miscellaneous, religion/spirituality, fear of future, uncertainty, life, death, more life appreciation. These data guide us for providing targeted interventions for the needs of this AYA population. This paper has presented literature and developmental theory, qualitative and qualitative data from an intervention study, and clinical cases in order to propose a developmental treatment model for AYA transplant patients. A coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is needed for the HCT patient who is an AYA. PMID:21966725

  2. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder--a review.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Fuhr, Margarete; Air, Tracy; Hering, Carola

    2014-08-30

    While neuropsychological dysfunction is a contributor to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult MDD, little is known about neuropsychological function in MDD during adolescence and early adulthood. The aim of this review is to evaluate literature on neuropsychological function in this young age group. A database search of Medline, the Cochrane database and PsycInfo was conducted. Inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded seven case-control studies on neuropsychological functioning in MDD (12-25 years of age) published since 1995. Effect sizes were calculated. Results show a broader range of statistically significant neuropsychological deficits in MDD compared to controls in the cognitive domains of executive function (EF), working memory (WM), psychomotor and processing speed (PPS), verbal fluency (VF) and visual (-spatial) memory (VM). Most convincingly, three out of four studies investigating WM and three out of four studies investigating PPS found statistically significant impairments in MDD with varying effect sizes. EF deficits were reported only in three out of seven studies with small, medium and large effect sizes. While some evidence was found for impaired VM and VF, no evidence was observed for attention and verbal learning and memory; however, these domains have been less extensively studied. Further research is required to broaden the study base. PMID:24851725

  3. Measurement of Aortic Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Patricia H.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Blecha, M. Beth; Mastbergen, Rebecca K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood in the distal abdominal aorta and later involves the carotid arteries. Noninvasive screening to detect these lesions may allow early intervention. Ultrasound images of the distal 10 mm of the aorta were obtained after an 8-hour fast and were analyzed by an automated program to determine the mean far wall intimal-medial thickness (IMT). The results were compared to the mean carotid IMT obtained concurrently. The mean age of the 313 males and 322 females imaged was 20.4 years (SD 5.6) and 61 participants had a second study to assess reproducibility. The mean aortic IMT was 0.63 mm (SD 0.14) for males and 0.61 mm (SD 0.13) for females while the mean carotid IMT was 0.50 (SD 0.04) mm and 0.49 (SD 0.04) mm respectively. Images were analyzed in 95% of participants. Intra-subject reproducibility for the mean aortic IMT had a coefficient of variation of 18% with a mean absolute difference of 0.12 mm (SD 0.10). For cIMT, the results were 3% and 0.02 mm (SD 0.01), respectively. Aortic IMT can be measured in normal adolescents and young adults with low rates of missing data and reasonable reproducibility. Aortic IMT increased with age at a greater rate than carotid IMT. PMID:20350682

  4. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863

  5. Examination of the double-deficit hypothesis with adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M

    2015-10-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range = 16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and phonological awareness (PA) constructs was superior to a one-factor model, supporting the assumption within the DDH that NS is a source of reading dysfunction separable from PA. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses resulted in findings that were only partially supportive of the DDH. NS was predictive of word reading, spelling, and reading fluency beyond PA and verbal intellectual ability, but not pseudoword reading and timed and untimed reading comprehension. Examination of DDH subtypes did not support the core assumption of the DDH that the double-deficit subtype would have more impaired reading skills than both of the single-deficit subtypes. The NS deficit subtype was found to be more prevalent than the double-deficit and PA deficit subtypes within the subgroup of dyslexics with impairment in reading fluency. Overall results provided mixed support for the DDH and pointed to the need for the inclusion of additional abilities within theories of the underlying mechanisms disrupted in dyslexia. PMID:25983024

  6. Recurrent DUX4 fusions in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Takahiko; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Kawazu, Masahito; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Kojima, Shinya; Ueno, Toshihide; Imoto, Naoto; Kohsaka, Shinji; Kunita, Akiko; Doi, Koichiro; Sakura, Toru; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Kondo, Eisei; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Ueda, Yasunori; Aoyama, Yasutaka; Ohtake, Shigeki; Takita, Junko; Sai, Eirin; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Morishita, Shinichi; Fukayama, Masashi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    The oncogenic mechanisms underlying acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA; 15-39 years old) remain largely elusive. Here we have searched for new oncogenes in AYA-ALL by performing RNA-seq analysis of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative AYA-ALL specimens (n = 73) with the use of a next-generation sequencer. Interestingly, insertion of D4Z4 repeats containing the DUX4 gene into the IGH locus was frequently identified in B cell AYA-ALL, leading to a high level of expression of DUX4 protein with an aberrant C terminus. A transplantation assay in mice demonstrated that expression of DUX4-IGH in pro-B cells was capable of generating B cell leukemia in vivo. DUX4 fusions were preferentially detected in the AYA generation. Our data thus show that DUX4 can become an oncogenic driver as a result of somatic chromosomal rearrangements and that AYA-ALL may be a clinical entity distinct from ALL at other ages. PMID:27019113

  7. High Prevalence of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Maureen E.; You, Y. Nancy; Ying, Jun; Bannon, Sarah A.; Lynch, Patrick M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Vilar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Established guidelines recommend evaluation for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). This group has been well described in the literature; however, patients diagnosed as adolescents and young adults are not well represented in CRC studies. Here, we define the clinical profile, including the extent of hereditary cancer syndromes and family history of cancer, in patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 or younger. Patients and Methods We reviewed patients who underwent genetic counseling at our institution during 5 years (2009 to 2013). Data were collected regarding demographics, clinicopathologic information, tumor and genetic testing, and family history. Patients with an identified hereditary cancer syndrome were compared with those without a syndrome. Results Of the 193 patients with evaluable data, 35% had an identifiable hereditary cancer syndrome, including 23 with Lynch syndrome, 22 with mutation-negative Lynch syndrome, 16 with familial adenomatous polyposis, two with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, two with biallelic MUTYH mutations, and one with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Patients without a hereditary syndrome more frequently presented with metastatic disease, whereas patients with a syndrome were more likely to present at earlier stages and to have a family history of cancer. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of the hereditary syndromes (19%) were diagnosed in individuals with no family history of the disease. Conclusion We conclude that patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 years or younger should receive genetic counseling regardless of their family history and phenotype. PMID:26195711

  8. The relationship between disordered eating and sexuality amongst adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Annie; Russon, Jody; Herres, Joanna; Atte, Tita; Kodish, Tamar; Diamond, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that gay and bisexual males are at increased risk for disordered eating symptoms (DES); however, studies examining DES amongst lesbians and bisexual women have produced mixed findings. Furthermore, few studies have included questioning or "unsure" individuals. This study examined DES symptoms in adolescents and young adults across self-reported sexual attraction and behavior. Participants were recruited from ten primary care sites in Pennsylvania and administered the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) - a web-based screening tool that assesses psychiatric symptoms and risk behaviors - during a routine visit. As expected, males who were attracted to other males exhibited significantly higher disordered eating scores than those only attracted to members of the opposite sex. Males who engaged in sexual activities with other males also exhibited significantly higher scores than those who only engaged in sexual activities with females. Amongst females, there were no significant differences in DES scores between females who were only attracted to females and those only attracted to males. Those who reported being attracted to both sexes, however, had significantly higher scores, on average, than those only attracted to one sex. More surprisingly, females who were unsure of who they were attracted to reported the highest DES scores of all. These findings are contrary to previous assumptions that same-sex attraction plays a protective role against eating pathology in females. Females who are unsure or attracted to both sexes may actually be at increased risk for developing DES. PMID:26332989

  9. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  10. Risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Viivi I; Artama, Miia S; Malila, Nea K; Pitkäniemi, Janne M; Rantanen, Matti E; Ritvanen, Annukka K; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria

    2016-10-15

    Offspring of cancer survivors (CS) may be at risk for congenital anomalies due to the mutagenic therapies received by their parents. Our population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of CS compared to offspring of their siblings. Using the Finnish Cancer Registry, Central Population Register, and Hospital Discharge Register, we identified hospital contacts due to congenital anomalies in 6,862 offspring of CS (early-onset cancer between 1953 and 2004) and 35,690 offspring of siblings. Associations between congenital anomalies and cancer were evaluated using generalized linear regression modelling. The ratio of congenital anomalies in offspring of CS (3.2%) was slightly, but non-significantly, elevated compared to that in offspring of siblings (2.7%) [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.25]. When offspring of childhood and adolescent survivors (0-19 years at cancer diagnosis) were compared to siblings' offspring, the risk for congenital anomalies was non-significantly increased (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.92-1.49). No such increase existed for offspring of young adult survivors (20-34 years at cancer diagnosis) (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23). The risks for congenital anomalies were elevated among offspring of CS diagnosed with cancer in the earlier decades (1955-1964: PR 2.77, 95% C I 1.26-6.11; and 1965-1974: PR 1.55, 95% C I 0.94-2.56). In our study, we did not detect an overall elevated risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of survivors diagnosed in young adulthood. An association between cancer exposure of the parent and congenital anomalies in the offspring appeared only for those CS who were diagnosed in the earlier decades. PMID:27280956

  11. ‘Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. Participants: A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI⩾99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th–97.9th centile). Measures: Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Results: Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. Conclusion: The popular image of

  12. Universal Intervention Effects on Substance Use among Young Adults Mediated by Delayed Adolescent Substance Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Guyll, Max; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3…

  13. Adherence-related issues in adolescents and young adults with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Raanani, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medical recommendations is a widespread problem well documented in a multitude of clinical settings. Nonadherence may adversely affect clinical outcomes such as survival and quality of life and increase health-care-related costs. An understanding of the factors driving nonadherence is key to developing effective adherence-enhancing interventions (AEIs). There are ongoing attempts in contemporary adherence research to better define the various components of adherence, to find optimal measures of adherence and correlations with clinical outcomes, and to create a classification system for AEIs. Nonadherence is also widely prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic hematological diseases, affecting up to 50% of patients and increasing with age. Combined use of objective (i.e. electronic monitoring, EM) and subjective (i.e. self-report) measures of adherence may be the preferred approach to assess adherence. The unique physical, social and emotional aspects of the AYA life stage are closely related to intricate causes of nonadherence in AYAs such as problems in transition to adult care. Until proven otherwise, the empirical target in AYAs with hematological disorders should be perfect adherence. Multilevel AEIs, EM feedback and behavioral interventions are among the most effective types of AEIs. Despite the magnitude of the problem, only a handful of AEIs have been evaluated among AYAs with hematological disorders. Thus, this is a field with unmet needs warranting high-quality trials using standardized and well-specified assessment methods and interventions. This review discusses the prevalence, definition, causes and clinical implications of nonadherence among AYAs with hematological disorders, along with strategies to measure and improve adherence. PMID:25228561

  14. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  15. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time. PMID:26307356

  16. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors. PMID:22649147

  17. Trajectories of adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior and family climate: Longitudinal implications for young adult romantic relationship competence.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as key individual and family level factors that may forecast later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by a family systems framework, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of adolescent hostility and family climate, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the etiology of romantic relationship functioning. We drew on a large sample (N = 974) of young adults (mean age = 19.5) that were followed starting in the fall of 6th grade, and subsequently in spring of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades prior to the young adult assessment. Using a latent difference score cross-lag model (McArdle, 2009), our results indicated that a more positive family climate was associated with decreases in HAB, but HAB was not associated with changes in family climate. Further, the influence of the family climate on HAB was consistent across all time points. HAB and family climate had different predictions for young adult romantic relationships: Increasing HAB over adolescence predicted relationship violence, while maintenance in family climate was a key predictor of relationship problem-solving skills. The only predictor of love and connection in relationships was early family functioning. Implications for developmental theory and prevention science are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337516

  18. Cancer of Unknown Primary in Adolescents and Young Adults: Clinicopathological Features, Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Kanwal; Mhadgut, Hemendra; McQuade, Jennifer L.; Lei, Xiudong; Ross, Alicia; Matamoros, Aurelio; Wang, Huamin; Overman, Michael J.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (15–39 years) is increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical and biological entity. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP), a disease traditionally presenting in older adults with a median age of 65 years, poses several challenges when diagnosed in AYA patients. This study describes clinicopathological features, outcomes and challenges in caring for AYA-CUP patients. Methods A retrospective review of 47 AYAs diagnosed with CUP at MD Anderson Cancer Center (6/2006–6/2013) was performed. Patients with favorable CUP subsets treated as per site-specific recommendations were excluded. Demographics, imaging, pathology and treatment data was collected using a prospectively maintained CUP database. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare overall survival. The cox-proportional model was used for multivariate analyses. Results Median age was 35 years (range 19–39). All patients underwent comprehensive workup. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histology (70%). A median of 9 immunostains (range 2–29) were performed. The most common putative primary was biliary tract based on clinicopathological parameters as well as gene profiling. Patients presented with a median of 2 metastatic sites [lymph node (60%), lung (47%), liver (38%) and bone (34%)]. Most commonly used systemic chemotherapies included gemcitabine, fluorouracil, taxanes and platinum agents. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 10.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.7–15.4) months. On multivariate analyses, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (Hazard ratio (HR) 3.66; 95%CI 1.52–8.82; P = 0.004), ≥3 metastatic sites (HR 5.34; 95%CI 1.19–23.9; P = 0.029), and tissue of origin not tested (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.44–8.06; P = 0.005) were associated with poor overall survival. Culine’s CUP prognostic model (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, liver metastases) was validated in this cohort (median

  19. Biologic and clinical characteristics of adolescent and young adult cancers: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, James V; Blair, Donald G; Anders, Carey K; Bleyer, W Archie; Boardman, Lisa A; Khan, Javed; Kummar, Shivaani; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Hunger, Stephen P; Merchant, Melinda; Seibel, Nita L; Thurin, Magdalena; Willman, Cheryl L

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have not attained the same improvements in overall survival as either younger children or older adults. One possible reason for this disparity may be that the AYA cancers exhibit unique biologic characteristics, resulting in differences in clinical and treatment resistance behaviors. This report from the biologic component of the jointly sponsored National Cancer Institute and LiveStrong Foundation workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" summarizes the current status of biologic and translational research progress for 5 AYA cancers; colorectal cancer breast cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, melanoma, and sarcoma. Conclusions from this meeting included the need for basic biologic, genomic, and model development for AYA cancers as well as translational research studies to elucidate any fundamental differences between pediatric, AYA, and adult cancers. The biologic questions for future research are whether there are mutational or signaling pathway differences (for example, between adult and AYA colorectal cancer) that can be clinically exploited to develop novel therapies for treating AYA cancers and to develop companion diagnostics. Cancer 2016;122:1017-1028. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849082

  20. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  1. Development of a tool to describe overall health, social independence and activity limitation of adolescents and young adults with disability.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Chelsea B; Holland, Margaret M; McDermott, Suzanne; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mann, Joshua R; Salzberg, Deborah; Ozturk, Orgul; Ouyang, Lijing

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for research that focuses on the correlation between self-perceived quality of life (QoL) and the health outcomes of adolescents with disability transitioning to adulthood. To better understand the transition experience of adolescents and young adults with disability, we developed a questionnaire to assess the impact of disability on QoL. We recruited 174 participants who were 15-24 years old and diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS), spina bifida (SB) or muscular dystrophy (MD) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to identify factors that characterize QoL. Five factors emerged: emotional health, physical health, independence, activity limitation, and community participation. To validate the tool, we linked medical claims and other administrative data records and examined the association of the factor scores with health care utilization and found the questionnaire can be utilized among diverse groups of young people with disability. PMID:25577179

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  3. A Key to Evaluation: The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Leonard, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Guiding deaf and hard of hearing students in making important decisions about their adult careers can be a difficult task. Twenty years after its inception, the TCB, as adapted for deaf and hard of hearing students, may help. The TCB is a unique assessment tool designed to measure the transition skills of deaf high school adolescents and young…

  4. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  5. Neurobiological and Memory Models of Risky Decision Making in Adolescents versus Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Estrada, Steven M.; DeMarinis, Jessica A.; Myers, Regina M.; Stanisz, Janine M.; Mills, Britain A.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences,…

  6. Neighborhood disadvantage and obesity across childhood and adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY children and young adults cohort (1986-2010).

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Steven Elías

    2016-05-01

    Previous research suggests that youth who grow up in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods face higher odds of becoming obese. Neighborhood effects scholars, meanwhile, have suggested that contextual influences may increase in strength as children age. This is the first study to examine whether developmental epochs moderate the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on obesity over time. I use thirteen waves of new restricted and geo-coded data on children ages 2-18 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults. Bivariate and pooled logistic regression results suggest that neighborhood disadvantage has a stronger impact on adolescents' likelihood of becoming obese. Fixed effects models reveal that after adjusting for observed and unobserved confounders, adolescents continue to face higher odds of becoming obese due to the conditions associated with living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, as research on adults suggests, girls experience larger impacts of neighborhood disadvantage than boys. PMID:26973033

  7. What does quality healthcare look like to adolescents and young adults? Ask the experts!

    PubMed

    Edwards, Melinda; Lawson, Caron; Rahman, Safiyyah; Conley, Kerry; Phillips, Hannah; Uings, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that developmentally appropriate services for adolescents and young people improve both healthcare experience and health outcomes. However, there is limited evidence of using young people's expertise to evaluate services, or of young people participating in service developments or design to meet their healthcare needs. This report covers both the process and outcomes of a collaborative project with a group of young people (aged 17-25 years) who are 'experts by experience'. We used qualitative mixed methodology to derive themes from narrative accounts of these young people's healthcare experiences to develop an assessment framework that they identified as being relevant to evaluating services. Informing young people about other assessment measures currently in use (including the Department of Health's You're Welcome quality criteria) enabled the group to further develop their views and refine their proposed assessment framework. This paper is co-authored with young people, enabling them to directly voice their views about healthcare services. Reflections on this process and recommendations for working more collaboratively with young people to evaluate healthcare services are also given. PMID:27037384

  8. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  9. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  10. Positive association between concentration of phthalate metabolites in urine and microparticles in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Pau-Chung; Torng, Pao-Ling; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been used worldwide in various products for many years. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to DEHP and its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces endothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, exposure to DEHP had been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. Circulating microparticles have been known to be indicators of vascular injury. However, whether DEHP or its metabolites are independently associated with microparticles in humans remains unknown. From 2006 to 2008, we recruited 793 subjects (12-30years) from a population-based sample to participate in this cardiovascular disease prevention examination. Each participant was subjected to interviews and biological sample collection to determine the relationship between concentrations of DEHP metabolites MEHP, mono(ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethly-5-oxoheyl) phthalate in urine and concentrations of endothelial microparticles (CD62E and CD31+/CD42a-), platelet microparticles (CD62P and CD31+/CD42a+), and CD14 in serum. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in MEHP concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in serum microparticle counts/μL of 0.132 (±0.016) in CD31+/CD42a- (endothelial apoptosis marker), 0.117 (±0.023) in CD31+/CD42a+ (platelet apoptosis marker), and 0.026 (±0.007) in CD14 (monocyte, macrophage, and neutrophil activation marker). There was no association between DEHP metabolite concentration and CD62E or CD62P. In conclusion, a higher MEHP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in endothelial and platelet microparticles in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to DEHP and atherosclerosis. PMID:27104673

  11. Yoga as a Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Julia; McNamara, Sharon; Genatossio, Alan; Breuner, Cora; Weber, Tracy; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Yoga has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with asthma but has not been investigated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a prospective pilot study to evaluate the safety of a standardized yoga program among CF patients aged 12 to 25 years. Participants engaged in a 50-minute yoga session twice weekly for 8 weeks conducted by a certified yoga instructor using a standardized program designed to be safe for health-compromised individuals. Yoga sessions were individual to avoid transmission of infections. Primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life instrument (CFQ-R), lung function, Ease of Breathing Score (measure of exercise tolerance), and weight. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Adherence was very good; the mean (SD) number of sessions completed was 14.2 (1.3) out of 16 sessions. Eight patients reported 25 adverse events. The most common was cough, reported in 7. Two events were possibly related to study procedures: calf pain and headache. There were no significant changes in dyspnea or pain scales. The mean (SD) CFQ-R respiratory domain score increased from screening to end of study: 67.9 (11.4) to 82.1 (9.9), P=.04. There were no significant changes in the other outcome measures. Conclusions: In this pilot study, a standardized 8-week yoga program was safe and well tolerated among adolescent and young adult CF patients with mild to moderate lung disease. This study may be helpful to yoga instructors who are interested in working with CF patients. Larger controlled trials are warranted to determine further benefits. PMID:26665020

  12. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  13. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation. PMID:26206471

  14. Educational and Skills-Based Interventions for Preventing Relationship and Dating Violence in Adolescents and Young Adults. A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013:14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellmeth, Gracia L. T.; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational and skills-based interventions are often used to prevent relationship and dating violence among young people. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions designed to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Search Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central…

  15. Change in Ambulatory Ability of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Steven M.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Strauss, David J.; Shavelle, Robert M.; Reynolds, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the probability that a child with cerebral palsy (CP) will lose or gain ambulatory ability through adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed retrospectively data from 1987 to 2002 on Californians with CP initially aged 10 years (SD 0.9y; n=7550 [4304 males, 3246 females]) and 25 years (SD 0.8y; n=5721 [3261 males,…

  16. Impact of Treatment Site in Adolescents and Young Adults With Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Julie; Sun, Can-Lan; Kang, Tongjun; Wyatt, Laura; D’Appuzzo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults (AYAs; aged 15–39 years) have inferior survival in comparison with younger (aged 0–14 years) cancer patients. Impact of care at specialized centers such as National Cancer Institute–designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers (NCICCC) for AYAs of all ages or the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) for AYAs aged 15 to 21 years with central nervous system (CNS) tumors remains unstudied. Methods We constructed a cohort of 560 children and 784 AYAs with CNS tumors reported to the Los Angeles cancer registry from 1998 to 2008. Cox and logistic regression models were used, with two-sided P values from Wald χ2 tests. Results In Cox regression analysis restricted to World Health Organization (WHO) grade II tumors, patients of all ages saw worse outcome if not treated at NCICCC/COG sites (non-NCICCC/COG vs NCICCC/COG: hazard ratio [HR] =1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 2.72). Furthermore, the worse outcome for AYAs compared with children (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.98; P = .005) was abrogated (HR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.79 to 2.29; P = .27) by care at NCICCC/COGs. Those less likely to receive care at NCICCC/COG sites included young AYAs (aged 15–21 years vs children: odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.48; P < .001) and older AYAs (aged 22–39 years) with low socioeconomic status (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.89; P = .02), public/no insurance (OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.71; P < .01), and distance to care greater than 5 miles (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.57; P < .001). Conclusions Population-based data reveal that care at NCICCC/COG sites mitigates inferior outcome in AYAs with WHO grade II CNS tumors compared with children. Compared with children, AYAs are less likely to receive care at NCICCC/COGs. Insurance, socioeconomic status, and distance serve as barriers to care at NCICCCs for older AYAs. PMID:25178694

  17. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  18. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  19. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  20. Arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults with and without type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH CVD study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amy S.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard F.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Marcovina, Santica; Daniels, Stephen R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Fino, Nora F.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a useful parameter to predict future cardiovascular disease. Objective We sought to compare arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D) and explore the risk factors associated with the differences observed. Subjects and methods Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI75), and brachial distensibility (BrachD) were measured in 402 adolescents and young adults with T1D (age 18.8 ± 3.3 yr, T1D duration 9.8 ± 3.8 yr) and 206 non-diabetic controls that were frequency-matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in a cross-sectional study. General linear models were used to explore variables associated with an increase in arterial stiffness after adjustment for demographic and metabolic covariates. Results T1D status was associated with a higher PWV (5.9 ± 0.05 vs. 5.7 ± 0.1 m/s), AI75 (1.3 ± 0.6 vs. −1.9 ± 0.7%), and lower BrachD (6.2 ± 0.1 vs. 6.5 ± 0.1%Δ/mmHg), all p < 0.05. In multivariate models, age, sex, race, adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, and the presence of microalbuminuria were found to be independent correlates of increased arterial stiffness. After adjustment for these risk factors, T1D status was still significantly associated with arterial stiffness (p < 0.05). Conclusions Peripheral and central subclinical vascular changes are present in adolescents and young adults with T1D compared to controls. Increased cardiovascular risk factors alone do not explain the observed differences in arterial stiffness among cases and controls. Identifying other risk factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in youth with T1D is critical to prevent future vascular complications. PMID:25912292

  1. A prospective study of overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among adolescent and young-adult women

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Hayley H.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms, overeating and binge eating among adolescent and young-adult females in the United States. Methods We investigated incident overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among 4,798 females in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a prospective cohort study of adolescents and young adults throughout the United States. Participants who reported at least monthly episodes during the past year of eating a very large amount of food in a short of amount of time, but not experiencing a loss of control, were classified as overeaters. Those who did report a loss of control while overeating were classified as binge eaters. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the McKnight Risk Factor Survey. Participants were followed from 1999 until 2003. Generalized estimating equations were used for lagged-analysis with time-varying covariates. Analyses were adjusted for age, age at menarche, body mass index (BMI), and follow-up time. Results Females reporting depressive symptoms at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to start overeating (odds ratio (OR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 2.5) and binge eating (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) during the follow-up. Similarly, females engaging in overeating (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) or binge eaters (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.9) at baseline, were two times more likely than their peers to develop depressive symptoms during the follow-up. Conclusions These results indicates that it is important to consider depressive symptoms in overeating and binge eating prevention and treatment initiatives targeting adolescent and young adult females. PMID:22525111

  2. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists. PMID:24877779

  3. Transition Strategies for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Use AAC. AAC Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, David B., Ed.; Beukelman, David R., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    To make a smooth transition to a fulfilling, self-determined adult life, young people who use Augmentative-Alternative Communication (AAC) need effective services that meet their individual needs and make the most of advances in technology. Professionals will provide these critical supports with the help of this book, the first complete guide to…

  4. Using Young Adult Literature as Artifact To Gain Insight about the Adolescent Experience in Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lois T.

    Using young adult literature from other countries in the classroom provides a common ground from which to build the tolerance and appreciation of cultural diversity so needed in today's world. By viewing books from other countries as artifacts of culture, it is possible to learn about other lands and their peoples. It is also possible to…

  5. Violence among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Maine: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta.

    Teens and young adults in Maine are at greatest risk for being either the offender or the victim of violence. At present, prevention activities in Maine are limited and fragmented. This document marks the beginning of a study of incidence and impact of violence among Maine youth. The process involved in conducting this was significantly hampered…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship With Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua

    2015-09-01

    This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. PMID:25720535

  7. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Black, Lucinda J; Burrows, Sally; Lucas, Robyn M; Marshall, Carina E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy; Beilin, Lawrence J; Holt, Patrick G; Hart, Prue H; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at 20 years. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI (coefficient -0·01; 95 % CI -0·03, -0·003; P=0·014). No change over time was detected in the association for males; for females, the inverse association was stronger at 20 years compared with 17 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with log-HOMA-IR (coefficient -0·002; 95 % CI -0·003, -0·001; P<0·001) and positively associated with log-TAG in females (coefficient 0·002; 95 % CI 0·0008, 0·004; P=0·003). These associations did not vary over time. There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and HDL-cholesterol or SBP. Clinical trials in those with insufficient vitamin D status may be warranted to determine any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, while monitoring for any deleterious effect on TAG. PMID:27153206

  8. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, “What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?” and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  9. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2013-10-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, "What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?" and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  10. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  11. Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and

  12. [Accidents in a population of 350 adolescents and young adults: circumstances, risk factors and prediction of recurrence].

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniel; Ingrand, Pierre; Delamour, Magali; Ingrand, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Accidents among adolescents and young adults are a public health issue, and present two main characteristics: a strong association with sporting activities, and frequent recurrence. Sports accidents are generally relatively benign, but they show a marked tendency to recur Young people engaging in sporting activities do not generally exhibit psychological traits different from the general population. In contrast, the other types of accident, and particularly domestic and traffic accidents, appear to have specific features: they are often more serious, but above all they are associated with psychopathologic features, including depression, anxiety, disorders due to life events, and thrill-seeking These psychopathological features are strongly associated with recurrence. The authors describe a simple self-administered questionnaire (ECARR) designed to assess the risk of accident recurrence in this population. PMID:21513131

  13. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

  14. The experience of Japanese adolescents and young adults after losing siblings to childhood cancer: three types of narratives.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. PMID:25413258

  15. Receipt of prescribed controlled substances by adolescents and young adults prior to presenting for opiate dependence treatment.

    PubMed

    Matson, Steven C; Bentley, Cathleen; Hughes Dughman, Vicki; Bonny, Andrea E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to document the number of controlled substance prescriptions filled by adolescents and young adult patients in the 2 years prior to presentation for opiate dependence treatment. Methods. Opiate-dependent youth (N = 125) presenting to our Medication-Assisted Treatment for Addiction program from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were identified via electronic medical record. Subjects were further classified based on their opiate use as dependent to heroin-only, prescription (Rx) opiate-only, or combined heroin + Rx opiate only. The Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS) was used to identify each subject's controlled substance prescription history. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationships between patient characteristics and the total number of prescriptions filled. Results. Twenty-five percent of subjects had filled ≥6 prescriptions, and 15% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. The mean number of prescriptions filled was 5 (range: 0-59). Thirteen percent had filled ≥6 opiate/narcotic prescriptions, and 8% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. Conclusions. A subset of opiate-dependent youth had filled multiple opiate/narcotic prescriptions providing some evidence that physician-provided prescriptions may be a source of opiate abuse or diversion for a minority of opiate-dependent adolescents and young adults. PMID:24826367

  16. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences.

    PubMed

    Pousette Lundgren, Gunilla; Wickström, Anette; Hasselblad, Tove; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life. PMID:27359125

  17. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children. PMID:26190204

  18. Increased Neural Responses to Reward in Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    von Rhein, Daniel; Cools, Roshan; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Franke, Barbara; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; van Rooij, Daan; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Lojowska, Maria; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal reward processing. Limited and inconsistent data exist about the neural mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Furthermore, it is unknown whether reward processing is abnormal in unaffected siblings of participants with ADHD. Method We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain responses during reward anticipation and receipt with an adapted monetary incentive delay task in a large sample of adolescents and young adults with ADHD (n=150), their unaffected siblings (n=92), and control participants (n=108), all of the same age. Results Participants with ADHD showed, relative to control participants, increased responses in the anterior cingulate, anterior frontal cortex, and cerebellum during reward anticipation, and in the orbitofrontal, occipital cortex, and ventral striatum during reward receipt. Responses of unaffected siblings were increased in these regions as well, except for the cerebellum during anticipation and the orbitofrontal cortex during receipt. Conclusion ADHD in adolescents and young adults is associated with enhanced neural responses in frontostriatal circuitry to anticipation and receipt of reward. The findings support models emphasizing aberrant reward processing in ADHD and suggest that processing of reward is subject to familial influences. Future studies using standard monetary incentive delay task parameters have to replicate our findings. PMID:25901776

  19. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Anette; Hasselblad, Tove; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life. PMID:27359125

  20. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Initiation into New-Type Drug Use among a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; He, Na; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between adolescent sexual debut and age at new-type drug initiation among a sample of young adult new-type drug users. A total of 276 participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Shanghai, China. The analyses were restricted to a total of 201 participants aged between 18 and 30 years. The average age at sexual debut and age at first new-type drug use were 18.8 and 20.9 years, respectively. About 94% of participants reported having sexual experience (n=188); of those, 137 (72.9%) had sexual debut before they first used new-type drugs, while 32 (17.0%) initiated both events at the same age. After adjustment for age, income, education, and sexual orientation, adolescent sexual debut was independently associated with younger age at new-type drug initiation. Adolescent sexual debut is associated with early onset of new-type drug use. Our findings underscore the importance of implementing sex-education programs for adolescents in schools in China. PMID:26098832

  1. The effects of dietary protein on bone mineral mass in young adults may be modulated by adolescent calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Whiting, Susan J

    2007-12-01

    The effect of dietary protein on bone mass measures at different life stages is controversial. We investigated the influence of protein intake on bone mass measures in young adults, considering the influence of calcium intake through adolescence. Subjects were 133 young adults (59 males, 74 females) who were participating in the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997, 2003-2006). At adulthood, their mean age was 23 y. We assessed dietary intake via serial 24-h recalls carried out at least once yearly. Total body (TB) bone mineral content (BMC) and TB bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed annually using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We determined TB-BMC net gain from the age of peak height velocity (PHV) to early adulthood. We analyzed data from all subjects and subsets based on sex and calcium intake using multiple regression. TB-BMC significantly increased from age at PHV to early adulthood by 41% in males and 37% in females. Height, weight, physical activity, and sex were significant predictors of TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD among all subjects. Protein intake predicted TB-BMC net gain in all subjects (beta = 0.11; P = 0.015). In females at peri-adolescence or early adulthood with adequate calcium intake (>1000 mg/d), protein intake positively predicted TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that when calcium intake is adequate, protein intake has a beneficial effect on the bone mass of young adult females. Protein, in the absence of sufficient calcium, does not confer as much benefit to bone. PMID:18029482

  2. Long-acting Reversible Contraception for Adolescents and Young Adults: Patient and Provider Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Frohwirth, Lori; Jerman, Jenna; Popkin, Ronna; Ethier, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Study objective To describe and explore provider- and patient-level perspectives regarding long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for teens and young adults (ages 16-24). Methods Data collection occurred between June – December 2011. We first conducted telephone interviews with administrative directors at 20 publicly funded facilities that provide family planning services. At six of these sites, we conducted a total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) with facility staff and forty-eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facility clients ages 16-24. Results Staff in the FGDs did not generally equate being a teen with ineligibility for IUDs. In contrast to staff, one quarter of the young women did perceive young age as rendering them ineligible. Clients and staff agreed that the “forgettable” nature of the methods and their duration were some of LARC’s most significant advantages. They also agreed that fear of pain associated with both insertion and removal and negative side effects were disadvantages. Some aspects of IUDs and implants were perceived as advantages by some clients but disadvantages by others. Common challenges to providing LARC-specific services to younger patients included extra time required to counsel young patients about LARC methods, outdated clinic policies requiring multiple visits to obtain IUDs, and a perceived higher removal rate among young women. The most commonly cited strategy for addressing many of these challenges was securing supplementary funding to support the provision of these services to young patients. Conclusion Incorporating young women’s perspectives on LARC methods into publicly funded family planning facilities’ efforts to provide these methods to a younger population may increase their use among young women. PMID:23287602

  3. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  4. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women. PMID:23564429

  5. Body image, psychosocial functioning, and personality: how different are adolescents and young adults applying for plastic surgery?

    PubMed

    Simis, K J; Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    2001-07-01

    This study addressed three questions: (1) Do adolescents undergoing plastic surgery have a realistic view of their body? (2) How urgent is the psychosocial need of adolescents to undergo plastic surgery? (3) Which relations exist between bodily attitudes and psychosocial functioning and personality? From 1995 to 1997, 184 plastic surgical patients aged 12 to 22, and a comparison group of 684 adolescents and young adults from the general population aged 12 to 22 years, and their parents, were interviewed and completed questionnaires and standardised rating scales. Adolescents accepted for plastic surgery had realistic appearance attitudes and were psychologically healthy overall. Patients were equally satisfied with their overall appearance as the comparison group, but more dissatisfied with the specific body parts concerned for operation, especially when undergoing corrective operations. Patients had measurable appearance-related psychosocial problems. Patient boys reported less self-confidence on social areas than all other groups. There were very few patient-comparison group differences in correlations between bodily and psychosocial variables, indicating that bodily attitudes and satisfaction are not differentially related to psychosocial functioning and self-perception in patients than in peers. We concluded that adolescents accepted for plastic surgery have considerable appearance-related psychosocial problems, patients in the corrective group reporting more so than in the reconstructive group. Plastic surgeons may assume that these adolescents in general have a realistic attitude towards their appearance. are psychologically healthy, and are mainly dissatisfied about the body parts concerned for operation. corrective patients more so than reconstructive patients. Introverted patients may need more attention from plastic surgeons during the psychosocial assessment. PMID:11464971

  6. Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Wright, Natasha E.; Kirchner-Medina, Christopher; Maple, Kristin E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-six percent of high school seniors have used cannabis in the past year, and an alarming 6.5% smoked cannabis daily, up from 2.4% in 1993 (Johnston et al., 2013). Adolescents and emerging adults are undergoing significant neurodevelopment and animal studies suggest they may be particularly vulnerable to negative drug effects. In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies outlining the effects of regular (at least weekly) cannabis use on neurocognition, including studies outlining cognitive, structural and functional findings. We will also explore the public health impact of this research. PMID:25013751

  7. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  8. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  9. Which dieters are at risk for the onset of binge-eating? A prospective study of adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.; Le Grange, Daniel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Dieting is a well-established risk factor for binge-eating, yet the majority of dieters do not develop binge-eating problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine psychosocial factors involved in the relation between dieting and binge-eating over a 10-year follow-up period. Methods A population-based sample (n=1,827) completed surveys assessing eating habits, psychological functioning, and weight status at 5-year intervals spanning early/middle adolescence (Time 1), late adolescence/early young adulthood (Time 2) and early/middle young adulthood (Time 3). Dieting, along with depression symptoms, self-esteem, and teasing experiences at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict new onset binge-eating at Time 2 and Time 3, respectively. Interactions between dieting status and varying degrees of these psychosocial factors in relation to binge-eating onset were also tested. Results Dieters were 2–3 times more likely than non-dieters to develop binge-eating problems over 5-year follow-ups. At most time-points, depression symptoms and self-esteem predicted binge-eating onset beyond the effects of dieting alone. Detrimental levels of these factors among dieters (relative to non-dieters) increased the likelihood of binge-eating onset only during the latter follow-up period. Conclusions Depression and self-esteem appear to be particularly salient factors involved in the relation between dieting and binge-eating onset among adolescents and young adults. Early identification of these factors should be a priority in order to prevent the development of binge-eating problems among already at-risk individuals. PMID:22727082

  10. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

  11. Inpatient and Emergency Room Visits for Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida Living in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Joshua R.; Royer, Julie A.; Turk, Margaret A.; McDermott, Suzanne; Holland, Margaret M.; Ozturk, Orgul D.; Hardin, James W.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare emergency room (ER) and inpatient hospital (IP) use rates for persons with spina bifida (SB) to peers without SB, when transition from pediatric to adult health care is likely to occur; and to analyze those ER and IP rates by age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and type of residential area. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Secondary data analysis in South Carolina. Participants We studied individuals who were between 15 and 24 years old and enrolled in the State Health Plan (SHP) or state Medicaid during the 2000–2010 study period. Methods Individuals with SB were identified using ICD-9 billing codes (741.0, 741.9) in SHP, Medicaid, and hospital uniform billing (UB) data. ER and IP encounters were identified using UB data. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Poisson models were estimated to compare rates of ER and IP use among the SB group to the comparison group. Main Outcome Measures Total ER rate and IP rate, in addition to cause-specific rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) and other condition categories. Results We found higher rates of ER and IP use in persons with SB compared to the control group. Among individuals with SB, young adults (those 20–24 years old) had higher rates of ER use due to all ACSC (P = .023), other ACSC (P = .04), and urinary tract infections (UTI; P = .002) compared to adolescents (those 15–19 years old). Conclusions Young adulthood is associated with increased ER use overall, as well as in specific condition categories (most notably UTI) in individuals 15–24 years old with SB. This association may be indicative of changing healthcare access as people with SB move from adolescent to adult health care, and/or physiologic changes during the age range studied. PMID:25511690

  12. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  13. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention. PMID:26361753

  14. Insulin regimens and insulin adjustments in diabetic children, adolescents and young adults: personal experience.

    PubMed

    Dorchy, H

    2000-12-01

    Because recent multicenter studies, even those performed in developed countries without financial restriction, show that treatment of childhood diabetes is inadequate in general and that levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are very different, diabetes treatment teams should individually explore the reasons for failure, without any prejudice or bias. The "good" treatment is signed by good HbA1c associated with good quality of life, and is not necessarily exportable without adjustment to the local way of life. HbA1c must be under 7%, if the upper normal limit is about 6%, which is possible, in our experience, even in diabetic children and adolescents. Our "recipes" are summarized. The number of daily insulin injections, 2 or 4, by itself does not necessarily give better results, but the 4-injection regimen allows greater freedom, taking into account that the proper insulin adjustment is difficult before adolescence. Successful glycemic control in young patients depends mainly on the quality and intensity of diabetes education. Any dogmatism must be avoided; only the objective result is important. PMID:11173723

  15. Skin Ulcers and Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida in South Carolina During 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne; Wang, Yinding; Royer, Julie A; Mann, Joshua R; Hardin, James W; Ozturk, Orgul; Ouyang, Lijing

    2016-03-01

    The authors investigated 48 deaths (7% death rate) among 690 adolescents and young adults with spina bifida in South Carolina during 2000-2010. The authors used Medicaid and other administrative data and a retrospective cohort design that included people with spina bifida identified using ICD-9 codes. Cox regression models with time-dependent and time-invariant covariates, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed. The authors found that 21.4% of the study group had a skin ulcer during the study period and individuals with skin ulcers had significantly higher mortality than those without ulcers (P < .0001). People who had their first skin ulcer during adolescence had higher mortality than those who had the first skin ulcer during young adulthood (P = .0002; hazard ratio = 10.70, 95% confidence interval for hazard ratio: 3.01, 38.00) and those without skin ulcers, controlling for other covariates. This study showed that age at which individuals first had a skin ulcer was associated with mortality. PMID:26239488

  16. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  17. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  18. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  19. Social and Personal Characteristics of the Learning Disabled: Limitations and Implications for the Adolescent and Young Adult. Position Paper Series: Document No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenberg, Pearl L.

    The paper examines current research on the social and personal competence of learning disabled (LD) adolescents and young adults, revealing two major lines of inquiry: (1) interpersonal environment (perceptions by others, sociometric status, social behavior deficits, verbal and nonverbal communication skills), and (2) affective status…

  20. "Feeling Caught" as a Mediator of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Avoidance and Satisfaction with Their Parents in Divorced and Non-Divorced Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Schrodt, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Tests the degree to which adolescents and young adults felt caught between their parents as a mediator between divorce and children's avoidance and satisfaction with them. Reveals that divorce was largely associated with avoidance and satisfaction through children's feelings of being caught, which were a function of their parents' demand-withdraw…

  1. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  2. Strategies to Facilitate Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adolescents or Young Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is…

  3. [Mediating role of emotional regulation between impulsive behavior in gambling, Internet and videogame abuse, and dysfunctional symptomatology in young adults and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Estévez Gutiérrez, Ana; Herrero Fernández, David; Sarabia Gonzalvo, Izaskun; Jáuregui Bilbao, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The way emotions are regulated might affect the engagement on risk behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, studying the relationship between these variables could be of great importance. Some of the less studied risky behaviors are pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse. This research aims to analyze the existing relationship between such risky behaviors, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional psychological symptomatology (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, somatization, obsessive-–compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). In addition, it also looks to assess whether emotional regulation plays a mediating role between pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse, and psychological symptomatology. The sample was composed of 1312 young adults and adolescents, aged between 12 and 30, recruited from scholar centers, universities and free time groups, and from associations and centers associated with FEJAR (Spanish Federation of Rehabilitated Gamblers). Participants completed measurements of impulsive behavior, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional symptomatology. Results showed that there is generally a positive and significant relation between these variables. Moreover, it has been pointed out that emotion regulation mediates the association between impulsive behavior and dysfunctional symptomatology among those young adults and adolescents who engage in these impulsive behaviors, except for the relation between videogame abuse and depressive symptomatology. Training in emotional regulation skills could be useful in dealing with and treating this type of behaviors in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25577999

  4. Gender and genetic contributions to weight identity among adolescents and young adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Wedow, Robbee; Briley, Daniel A; Short, Susan E; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research. PMID:27500942

  5. Urban African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults: who do they talk to about AIDS and condoms? What are they learning?

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Norris, A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the first qualitative part of a study designed to investigate factors related to the use of condoms among African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults in Detroit. This paper describes who young, urban, African-American and Hispanic persons talk to about AIDS and condoms and what they are learning. The paper provides data on attitudes and beliefs about AIDS and condoms that are needed for further research and for prevention programs. PMID:1931424

  6. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured. PMID:20837400

  7. Prospects and pitfalls of personalizing therapies for sarcomas: from children, adolescents, and young adults to the elderly.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek

    2014-09-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous class of tumors that affect all ages, from children, adolescents, and young adults to the elderly. Within this panoply of tumor subtypes lies the opportunity to bring to bear a vision of personalized medicine in which the fast-paced evolution from the "one gene, one test, one drug" approach to a comprehensive "panomic," multiplex, multianalyte method coupled with advances in bioinformatics platforms can unravel the biology of this disease. The increasingly enlarging repertoire of novel agents provides innumerable prospects in precision medicine. Personalized therapy covers the entire spectrum of cancer care, from risk factor assessment through prevention, risk reduction, therapy, follow-up after therapy, and survivorship care. Challenges remain in implementing the science of precision medicine in the clinic, including providing comprehensive multidisciplinary care and overcoming regulatory and economic hurdles, which must be facilitated within the collaborative framework of academia, industry, federal regulators, and third-party payers. PMID:25030655

  8. Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Summary of an Institute of Medicine Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Beaupin, Lynda K.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Fasciano, Karen; Ganz, Patricia A.; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Hudson, Melissa M.; Nevidjon, Brenda; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Rechis, Ruth; Richardson, Lisa C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). This population faces many short- and long-term health and psychosocial consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment, but many programs for cancer treatment, survivorship care, and psychosocial support do not focus on the specific needs of AYA cancer patients. Recognizing this health care disparity, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a public workshop to examine the needs of AYA patients with cancer. Workshop participants identified many gaps and challenges in the care of AYA cancer patients and discussed potential strategies to address these needs. Suggestions included ways to improve access to care for AYAs, to deliver cancer care that better meets the medical and psychosocial needs of AYAs, to develop educational programs for providers who care for AYA cancer survivors, and to enhance the evidence base for AYAs with cancer by facilitating participation in research. PMID:25568146

  9. Facebook's Contribution to Well-being among Adolescent and Young Adults as a Function of Mental Resilience.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Ido; Kiasi, Mali

    2016-01-01

    Studies of correlations between general internet use and psychological well-being have shown mixed results. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being, with mental resilience expected to moderate the relationship. Two hundred Israeli adolescents and young adults completed questionnaires assessing their Facebook use, mental resilience, and psychological well-being. Results showed that Facebook use was positively correlated with psychological well-being, and that this relationship was particularly strong for participants with low mental resilience. The findings support a positive effect of Facebook use as providing a virtual supportive community for individuals who may lack the social skills needed to develop social capital and confidence through traditional communication paths. PMID:26646353

  10. The relationship between autistic symptomatology and independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic symptomatology. Results showed that higher levels of autistic symptomatology were associated with lower levels of competence in independent living skills in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. These data indicated that the relationship between autistic symptomatology and independent living skills was syndrome-specific. Early intervention strategies that address autistic symptomatology are sorely needed to improve functional outcomes in this population. PMID:25518824

  11. Naming Speed of Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Alphanumeric Versus Color/Object Naming.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Brittany D; Nelson, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of adolescents and young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Reading Disorder (RD), and ADHD/RD on measures of alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric naming speed and the relationship between naming speed and academic achievement. The sample (N = 203) included students aged 17-28 years diagnosed with ADHD (n = 83), RD (n = 71), or ADHD/RD (n = 49). Individuals with ADHD performed significantly faster on measures of alphanumeric naming compared with RD and comorbid groups and, within group, demonstrated significantly quicker naming of letters/digits compared with colors/objects. Both alphanumeric rapid naming scores and processing speed scores variably predicted academic achievement scores across groups, whereas nonalphanumeric rapid naming only predicted reading comprehension scores within the ADHD group. Results support findings that older individuals with ADHD show relative weakness in rapid naming of objects and colors. Implications of these findings in regard to assessment of older individuals for ADHD are discussed. PMID:26471216

  12. Psychological Well-being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-04-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS; n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 135), and fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 46) Fathers of sons/daughters with ASDs reported a higher level of depressive symptoms than the other groups of fathers. Fathers of sons/daughters with DS reported a lower level of pessimism than the other groups of fathers. There were no group differences in paternal coping style. Group differences in paternal depressive symptoms and pessimism were, in part, related to differences in paternal age, the child's behavior problems, risk of having additional children with a disability, and maternal depressive symptoms. Findings from this study can be used to educate providers and design services for fathers during the later parenting years. PMID:22611299

  13. Psychosocial oncofertility issues faced by adolescents and young adults over their lifetime: a review of the research.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    This review considers psychosocial oncofertility research relevant to adolescents and young adults over their lifetime. There is growing awareness of the fertility preservation needs of younger males including lowering practical barriers and attending to emotional impact. Despite decisional challenges facing females--the experimental nature of procedures, time involved and potential involvement of partners/donors (for embryo cryopreservation)--findings suggest they too benefit from fertility information at diagnosis and access to fertility specialists. Studies consistently report that fertility concerns affect well-being, relationships and life planning. Both genders thus want fertility issues to be raised proactively by professionals in the years following diagnosis: to help them make informed decisions at a time relevant to them, develop coping strategies for current and future related areas and to be referred to specialist and/or therapeutic help if needed. Little is known about why cancer survivors are less likely to marry or have children, or about their parenthood experiences. PMID:23009083

  14. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hooke, Mary C.; Friedman, Debra L.; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy. PMID:26421221

  15. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  16. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  17. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. PMID:26068050

  18. Direct-to-Consumer Tobacco Marketing and Its Association with Tobacco Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Lee, Won; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (‘current’), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (‘established’) among adolescents and young adults. Methods We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15–23 year olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N=2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Results Overall, 12% of 15–17 year olds and 26% of 18–23 year olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority non-smoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than non-smoking Whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio[AOR]: 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI 1.1–6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Conclusions Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult non-smokers and is associated with smoking behavior. PMID:24661738

  19. Gender Differences in a Randomized Controlled Trial Treating Tobacco Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Mental Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Fromont, Sebastien C.; Ramo, Danielle E.; Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Delucchi, Kevin; Brown, Richard A.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of tobacco use in mental health settings is rare despite high rates of comorbidity. With a focus on early intervention, we evaluated a tobacco treatment intervention among adolescents and young adults recruited from outpatient, school-based, and residential mental health settings and tested for gender differences. Methods: Intervention participants received computerized motivational feedback at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months and were offered 12 weeks of cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Usual care participants received a self-help guide and brief cessation advice. We examined 7-day point prevalence abstinence with biochemical confirmation at 3, 6, and 12 months; smoking reduction; and 24-hr quit attempts. Results: At baseline, the sample (N = 60, 52% female, mean age = 19.5±2.9 years, 40% non-Hispanic Caucasian) averaged 7±6 cigarettes/day, 62% smoked daily, 38% smoked ≤ 30min of waking, 12% intended to quit in the next month, 47% had a parent who smoked, and 3 of 5 of participants’ closest friends smoked on average. During the 12-month study, 47% of the sample reduced their smoking, 80% quit for 24 hr, and 11%, 13%, and 17% confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively, with no differences by treatment condition (ps > .400). Over time, abstinence was greater among girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.9) than among boys, and abstinence was greater for lighter smokers than heavier smokers (AOR = 4.5) (p < .05). No mental health or other measured variables predicted abstinence. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers with mental health concerns are a challenging group to engage and to effectively treat for tobacco addiction, particularly heavier smokers and boys. Innovative approaches are needed. PMID:25762759

  20. Longitudinal associations between binge eating and overeating and adverse outcomes among adolescents and young adults: Does loss of control matter?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Solmi, Francesca; Field, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between overeating (without loss of control) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control) and adverse outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Adolescents and young adults living throughout the United States. Participants 16,882 males and females participating in the Growing Up Today Study who were 9–15 years old at enrollment in 1996. Main Exposure Overeating and binge eating assessed via questionnaire every 12–24 months between 1996 and 2005. Main Outcome Measures Risk of becoming overweight or obese, starting to binge drinking frequently, starting to use marijuana, starting to use other drugs, and developing high levels of depressive symptoms. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations. All models controlled for age and sex; additional covariates varied by outcome. Results Among this large cohort of adolescents and young adults, binge eating is more common among females than males. In fully-adjusted models, binge eating, but not overeating, was associated with incident overweight/obesity (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.11, 2.69) and with the onset of high depressive symptoms (OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.40, 3.45). Neither overeating nor binge eating was associated with starting to binge drink frequently, while both overeating and binge eating predicted starting to use marijuana and other drugs. Conclusions Although any overeating, with or without loss of control, predicted the onset marijuana and other drug use, we found that binge eating is uniquely predictive of incident overweight/obesity and the onset of high depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that loss of control is an important indicator of severity of overeating episodes. PMID:23229786

  1. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Adolescents and Young Adults: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; Folaranmi, Temitope; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey W

    2015-10-23

    At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines). Both MenB vaccines were licensed based on statutory regulations for accelerated approval, which enabled FDA to approve the MenB vaccines for serious or life-threatening diseases based on safety and demonstration that vaccine effectiveness, as measured by bactericidal antibody responses with assays using several MenB test strains that were representative of prevalent strains in the United States, is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a requirement for accelerated approval, confirmatory studies in the postmarketing period will be conducted to verify and further describe the effectiveness of the vaccines against an extended number of MenB strains that represent a broader diversity of endemic disease. Additional postlicensure safety data are also needed and will be reviewed by ACIP as they become available. PMID:26492381

  2. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with negative affect

  3. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14–22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication – derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model – and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with

  4. Social Inequality and Substance Use and Problematic Gambling Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Epidemiological Surveys in Germany.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Dieter; Zemlin, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an overview of socioepidemiological research in Germany about the prevalence of addictive behaviours (smoking, binge and hazardous drinking, consumption of cannabis and other illegal drugs, the non-medical use of prescription drugs and problematic gambling) among adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years), also differentiating between different socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (attended school type, family affluence, parental occupational status, parental SES, employment status) and migration background. The authors evaluated data from ten national surveys and one regional survey conducted between 2002 and 2012, which included different samples. The trends over this time frame reveal that the proportion of adolescents who smoke tobacco, show problematic patterns of alcohol consumption, use cannabis or other illegal drugs has generally declined over the investigated time span in Germany. The results nevertheless suggest that some strong associations still exist between social inequalities and the prevalence of substance use. The detailed results are summarised in twelve tables. The main results are as follows: 1) Low SES (school type, employment status) was consistently associated with more cigarette smoking, and, where such data was available, this pattern was observed in both males and females. 2) With regard to family affluence, two surveys show that boys with low and middle FAS are significantly less likely to have binge drinking experience compared to boys with high FAS. There were no significant associations between problematic alcohol use and parental SES, and not all results of the surveys show that binge drinking is more prevalent among HS-students. Employment status was associated with gender differences; problematic patterns of alcohol consumption were significantly more prevalent among young unemployed males compared to GY-students (secondary high school/grammar school) of the same age. The opposite was true

  5. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  6. Registry of adolescent and young adult twins in the Tokyo area.

    PubMed

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Ando, Juko; Ono, Yutaka; Toda, Tatsushi; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2006-12-01

    Since established in 1998, the Keio Twin Project (KTP) has been dedicated to investigating genetic and environmental sources contributing to human psychological traits in adolescence and young adulthood. A population-based twin registry was constructed by the KTP through the use of official residential records in the Tokyo area, and to date requests to participate in our research have generated 1040 pairs of twins and triplets of age 14 to 30, forming one of the largest twin registries in Asia. Our comprehensive datasets, obtained through questionnaires, performance tests, and physical measurements, cover a wide range of human traits: personality, psychiatry, mental health, sociality, cognition, and physical index. Demographic variables and environment of upbringing are also sought by twins and by some parents. This extensive information allows us to clarify the genetic and environmental overlap across multiple traits as well as specificities unique to single traits. Adding an evolutionary psychology perspective to the behavior genetics framework is currently being attempted in order to develop a grand theory of human genetics. PMID:17254414

  7. A Portrait of Young Adolescents in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Leah

    Research findings are reported which depict characteristics and conditions of young adolescents in the 1980s. Discussion begins with an overview of what is known about the physical, socioemotional, and cognitive growth of young adolescents. It is argued that: (1) adults perpetuate many myths about teenagers; (2) adolescence is no more pathological…

  8. Controversies in the Evaluation and Management of Atypical Melanocytic Proliferations in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Damon; Kudchadkar, Ragini; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane L.

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of melanoma in children has brought increased attention to the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the pediatric age group. Although melanoma in infancy and early childhood is often associated with large congenital nevi, in older children and teenagers it is most often sporadic, occurring in patients with a low skin phototype and substantial sun exposure. The rarity of this potentially fatal disorder demands astute clinical attention and a high index of suspicion for atypical lesions in pediatric patients. The challenges include the difficult decision of whether to biopsy and an often equivocal pathologic diagnosis. These diagnostically challenging and equivocal lesions lead to a degree of uncertainty regarding additional workup, prognosis, potential therapy, and follow-up plans. Consultation with a specialty dermatopathologist can be very helpful, and advanced molecular diagnostic techniques may be used in selected circumstances. Although still controversial, good evidence exists to justify a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients with atypical melanocytic proliferations have a high rate of positive sentinel lymph nodes; however, their outcomes are clearly better than in similarly staged adults with conventional melanoma. With the multiple variables involved and the relative lack of prospectively derived evidence, clinical decision-making is challenging and patients and families may experience considerable stress. This article provides data and weighs the pros and cons of a rationale for decision-making in pediatric and young adult patients with diagnostically challenging melanocytic lesions. PMID:23744867

  9. A trial of d-cycloserine to treat the social deficit in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are difficult for older adolescents and young adults as impaired social communication affects the transition to adult life. d-Cycloserine, a partial glycine agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor, was tested in a double-blind randomized trial in 20 older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders using two dosing strategies (50 mg daily versus 50 mg weekly) for 8 weeks with a 2-week follow-up after discontinuation. d-Cycloserine caused statistically and clinically significant improvement with no differentiation between dosing strategies on the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist before and after d-cycloserine administration. PMID:25923852

  10. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WOMEN IN THE US

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Clum, Gretchen; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary; Perez, Lori; Xu, Jiahong; Cunningham, Shayna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study HIV health-related quality of life (HIV-HRQOL) is examined among 179 behaviorally infected adolescent and young adult women. Modifiable psychosocial variables including depression, stigma, social support, and illness acceptance, and the biological end-points of CD4 cell count and viral load were explored in relation to HIV-HRQOL. The three factors of the HIV-HRQOL measure include current life satisfaction, illness related anxiety and illness burden. Bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations for all psychosocial variables and HIV-HRQOL factors (p < .01), but not for biological end-points. In multivariate linear regression analysis significant associations remained between: depression (p = .006), illness acceptance (p < .001), social support (p = .001), and current life satisfaction, and depression (p = .012), illness acceptance (p = .015), and illness burden. A trend in association was noted for HIV stigma, with current life satisfaction and illness related anxiety but did not reach statistical significance (p = .097 and p = .109 respectively). Interventions that effectively decrease stigma and depression and increase social support and illness acceptance will likely improve the well-being and quality of life of HIV-infected adolescent women. PMID:21966746

  11. Exploring the feasibility of a therapeutic music video intervention in adolescents and young adults during stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burns, Debra S; Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) undergoing stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Twelve AYAs (aged 11-24 years) were randomized to the TMV or an audio-book protocol. The TMV was designed to diminish symptom distress and improve coping, derived meaning, resilience, and quality of life by supporting AYAs in exploring thoughts and feelings. Six sessions with a board-certified music therapist were held twice a week for 3 weeks. The Adolescent Resilience Model guided the selection of a large, comprehensive battery of outcome measures. Major data collections occurred before admission, after intervention, and at 100 days after transplantation. Participants completed a brief set of measures at presession/postsessions 2, 4, and 6. Rates of consent, session completion, and questionnaire completion supported feasibility. Immediate follow-up measures suggest positive trends in the TMV group for hope, spirituality, confidence/mastery, and self-transcendence. Positive trends at 100 days include MOS, symptoms distress, defensive coping, spirituality, and self-transcendence. Therapeutic music video participants also demonstrated gains in quality of life. The TMV intervention may buffer the immediate after-effects of the stem-cell transplantation experience, and a larger study is warranted. PMID:19661790

  12. Hope, connectedness, and action: responses of adolescents and young adults to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fernald, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study undertook to assess the degree to which a person's sense of interconnectedness with others may have a mediating effect on whether one reacts to the consciousness of nuclear threat with feelings of despair (helplessness and hopelessness) or with a sense of empowerment (hope, efficacy, and action for change). Subjects included 119 public high school students and 14 Friends' school students, ranging from 12-18 years of age; 58 university students ranging from 18-25 years of age; and 24 parents of public school students, 10 adult Friends, and 38 members of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ranging from 20-83 years of age. A self-rating questionnaire was administered to assess subjects' conscious level of concern about nuclear issues, feelings of connectedness with others in general and about nuclear concerns, feelings of hope and efficacy in general and with regard to nuclear issues, and participation in activities reflecting concerns about nuclear threat. Correlational analyses (multiple regression, Spearman Rho, Kendall's Tau) showed that general feelings of hope, level of activity, and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns were the best predictors of hope about nuclear concerns. Conscious level of concern and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns, along with age and SES were the best predictors of an active response to nuclear threat; additionally, parents' level of concern about nuclear issues was predictive of their children's degree of activity in response to nuclear threat. Adolescents' level of concern and degree of connectedness with others was predicted by their parents' degree of connectedness.

  13. Providers' assessment of transition readiness among adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Marchak, Jordan Gilleland; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Amaral, Sandra; Mee, Laura; Blount, Ronald L

    2015-12-01

    The Readiness for Transition Questionnaire- provider version (RTQ-Provider) was developed to evaluate adolescent patients' transition readiness and healthcare behaviors from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The RTQ-Provider is a parallel version of the RTQ-Teen and RTQ-Parent completed by patients and parents. This study seeks to evaluate the psychometric properties of the RTQ-Provider and its utility as a clinical transition planning tool. Participants consisted of 49 kidney transplant recipients between the ages of 15 and 21. The RTQ-Provider was completed by the pediatric nephrologist and psychologist from the multidisciplinary healthcare team and compared to RTQ data from teens and parents. The RTQ-Provider demonstrated good-to-excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability. Construct validity was supported through significant predictive relationships between providers' perceptions of transition readiness and older patient age, increased patient healthcare responsibility, and decreased parent involvement in health care. By providing parallel teen, parent, and provider forms, the RTQ has the potential to foster open communication between patients, families, and healthcare team members regarding transition readiness. The study provides initial support for the RTQ-Provider as a clinical tool to assess providers' perceptions of transition readiness; however, future longitudinal research is needed to evaluate predictive validity following patients' transfer to adult care. PMID:26508553

  14. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Jenkins, Richard A.; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. Methods The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer–assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Results Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single

  15. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  16. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  17. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs. PMID:26754944

  18. White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Bato, Angelica A; Blair, Melanie A; DeRosse, Pamela; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today's society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15-30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. PMID:25691778

  19. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J.; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients’ age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5–36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy. Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer. PMID:26632907

  20. Rupture Following Biceps-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spinal Cord Injury:

    PubMed Central

    Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326

  1. Increase in Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Incidence among Hispanic Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Franklin L.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Johnson, Rebecca H.

    2014-01-01

    Background While rising incidence rates of testicular germ cell tumors have been well documented in white men, relatively little is known about rates in men of Hispanic origin. In the current study, we compared germ cell tumor trends between men of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin as a function of age at diagnosis. Methods We analyzed testicular germ cell tumor incidence trends in white men by Hispanic ethnicity in two datasets of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, spanning 1992 to 2010 and 2000 to 2010, and sampling 15% and 28% of the United States population, respectively. Rates were age-adjusted to the year 2000 United States standard population. Results Between 1992 and 2010, the annual incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in 15- to 39-year-old Hispanic whites increased 58% from 7.18 cases per 100,000 in 1992 to 11.34 cases per 100,000 by 2010 (p < 1×10−9). Their incidence rates increased in metropolitan areas for both seminoma and non-seminoma subtypes and for all stages at diagnosis. In the same 19-year interval, incidence among non-Hispanic white young adults increased 7%, from 12.41 to 13.22 per 100,000. During the 2000 to 2010 interval, no significant trends were observed in incidence among non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion There has been a recent substantial increase in testicular germ cell tumor incidence among Hispanic adolescents and young adults in the United States. Similar trends were not observed in non-Hispanic whites. PMID:25044313

  2. Heterosexual Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs and Attitudes about Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.

    2006-01-01

    Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…

  3. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  4. Psychotherapeutic Approach to Incest-Related Disturbances in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiselman, Karin C.

    In late adolescence and early adulthood, an ideally developing woman learns to cope with the world outside her family of origin and acquires a sense of identity that is stable and largely positive. Individuals with severe early trauma may have difficulty completing adolescence. Incest is one childhood trauma that can either be mastered in late…

  5. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  6. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  7. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  8. Intravenous Hydration for Management of Medication-Resistant Orthostatic Intolerance in the Adolescent and Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Moak, Jeffrey P; Leong, Derek; Fabian, Robin; Freedenberg, Vicki; Jarosz, Elizabeth; Toney, Carol; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Darbari, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is common in teenagers (T) and young adults (A). Despite treatment with oral fluids, medication, and exercise, a significant number have symptoms from multiple organ systems and suffer low quality of life (QOL). Previous studies showed that acute intravenous (IV) hydration (IH) could help restore orthostatic tolerance; however, no data are available about the intermediate-term effects of IH. We therefore studied the efficacy of IH to improve QOL and manage medication-refractory OI patients. Our study population consisted of 39 patients (mean age = 16.1 ± 3.3) years; thirty-two were female. Average number of medications failed = 3.1. Average QOL score on self-reported OI questionnaire was 4.2 (normal QOL = 10). IV hydration consisted of normal saline (1-2 l/day, 3-7 days/week). 1) Orthostatic testing revealed Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia (24), Neurally Mediated Hypotension (14) or OI (1). 2) Average orthostatic change in heart rate was 48 ± 18 bpm. 3) IH was performed via intermittent IV access (10), PICC line (22), and Port (7). 4) Duration of IH varied from 1 week to 3.8 years (mean = 29 ± 47 weeks). 5) Overall, 79 % (n = 31) demonstrated clinically improved self-reported QOL. 6) Six patients who discontinued IH requested to restart treatment. (7) Complications consisted of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (n = 3) and infection (n = 4). IH is an effective therapy to improve QOL in T&A with medication-resistant OI. Most patients continued to report improved QOL once IH was discontinued. IH should be considered a therapeutic option in medication-resistant OI patients with low QOL. PMID:26446285

  9. Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith

    2014-09-01

    Chronic sleep loss and associated sleepiness and daytime impairments in adolescence are a serious threat to the academic success, health, and safety of our nation's youth and an important public health issue. Understanding the extent and potential short- and long-term repercussions of sleep restriction, as well as the unhealthy sleep practices and environmental factors that contribute to sleep loss in adolescents, is key in setting public policies to mitigate these effects and in counseling patients and families in the clinical setting. This report reviews the current literature on sleep patterns in adolescents, factors contributing to chronic sleep loss (ie, electronic media use, caffeine consumption), and health-related consequences, such as depression, increased obesity risk, and higher rates of drowsy driving accidents. The report also discusses the potential role of later school start times as a means of reducing adolescent sleepiness. PMID:25157012

  10. Young adults' perceptions of an adolescent's use of marijuana and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nabors, Laura A; Brubaker, Michael D; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received treatment. Participants responded to questions assessing acceptance, willingness to help, and beliefs about the adolescent's academic functioning. Students provided higher acceptance of the adolescent who drank an occasional beer compared to the one who had received treatment for alcohol use and the one who was using marijuana, but did not receive treatment. Results differed based on question type, suggesting that interpretation of stigma is complex and that context plays a role in understanding perceptions. Future research, focusing on reasons for differences in judgments across contexts, will provide new information. PMID:25905121

  11. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Detects Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction among Adult Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anthony F.; Raikhelkar, Jayant; Zabor, Emily C.; Tonorezos, Emily S.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Adsuar, Roberto; Mara, Elton; Huie, Kevin; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Steingart, Richard M.; Liu, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) provides a sensitive measure of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and may aid in the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity. 2DSTE was performed in a cross-sectional study of 134 patients (mean age: 31.4 ± 8.8 years; 55% male; mean time since diagnosis: 15.4 ± 9.4 years) previously treated with anthracyclines (mean cumulative dose: 320 ± 124 mg/m2), with (n = 52) or without (n = 82) mediastinal radiotherapy. The prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction, defined as fractional shortening < 27%, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 55%, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≤ 16%, was 5.2%, 6.0%, and 23.1%, respectively. Abnormal GLS was observed in 24 (18%) patients despite a normal LVEF. Indices of LV systolic function were similar regardless of anthracycline dose. However, GLS was worse (18.0 versus 19.0, p = 0.003) and prevalence of abnormal GLS was higher (36.5% versus 14.6%, p = 0.004) in patients treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. Mediastinal radiotherapy was associated with reduced GLS (p = 0.040) after adjusting for sex, age, and cumulative anthracycline dose. In adult survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, 2DSTE frequently detects LV systolic dysfunction despite a normal LVEF and may be useful for the long-term cardiac surveillance of adult cancer survivors. PMID:26942202

  12. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. PMID:26460699

  13. Fatigue in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease: biological and behavioral correlates and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Elswick, R K; Smith, Wally

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive, correlational study examined fatigue and potential biological and behavioral correlates in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease. Sixty adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue short form and measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive mood, stress, disease severity, and quality of life. Blood samples were obtained for hemoglobin and cytokines. Fatigue scores were mostly moderate in severity. Fatigue interfered to a moderate degree with daily activities and correlated significantly with pain, sleep quality, state and trait anxiety, depressive mood, stress, and quality of life. Fatigue was correlated with hemoglobin on the PROMIS measure. Fatigue was not correlated with cytokines or age, nor differed by disease severity. Fatigue was common in these adolescents and young adults, interfered with daily activities such as school, work and exercise, and significantly correlated with several potentially modifiable factors. As life expectancy increases in sickle cell disease, research is needed to test interventions to reduce fatigue. PMID:24378816

  14. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on human alpha rhythms: Resting EEG in adolescents, young adults, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Croft, R J; Leung, S; McKenzie, R J; Loughran, S P; Iskra, S; Hamblin, D L; Cooper, N R

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether adolescents and/or the elderly are more sensitive to mobile phone (MP)-related bioeffects than young adults, and to determine this for both 2nd generation (2G) GSM, and 3rd generation (3G) W-CDMA exposures. To test this, resting alpha activity (8-12 Hz band of the electroencephalogram) was assessed because numerous studies have now reported it to be enhanced by MP exposure. Forty-one 13-15 year olds, forty-two 19-40 year olds, and twenty 55-70 year olds were tested using a double-blind crossover design, where each participant received Sham, 2G and 3G exposures, separated by at least 4 days. Alpha activity, during exposure relative to baseline, was recorded and compared between conditions. Consistent with previous research, the young adults' alpha was greater in the 2G compared to Sham condition, however, no effect was seen in the adolescent or the elderly groups, and no effect of 3G exposures was found in any group. The results provide further support for an effect of 2G exposures on resting alpha activity in young adults, but fail to support a similar enhancement in adolescents or the elderly, or in any age group as a function of 3G exposure. PMID:20564174

  15. Assessing empathy in Salvadoran high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults: a Spanish validation of the basic empathy scale.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, René; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    Empathy is considered a key construct in the empirical study of high-risk adolescent and young adult delinquency, crime, and violence. This study examined the psychometric properties and criterion-related validity of a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which is an important measure designed to capture both affective and cognitive empathy that has been validated in multiple languages but not in Spanish. The study's sample consisted of 208 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults in the Greater San Salvador Metropolitan Area. The original BES was reduced from its 20-item design to a more culturally appropriate 7-item design. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity analysis indicate that the adapted BES is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of empathy for high-risk Salvadoran adolescents and young adults. Consistent with previous findings, females reported lower levels of empathy than males and delinquent/violent respondents reported lower levels of empathy than their nonoffender counterparts. PMID:22859664

  16. Testing the Feasibility and Psychometric Properties of a Mobile Diary (myWHI) in Adolescents and Young Adults With Headaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Headaches are prevalent among teens and young adults. Self-monitoring is essential for managing headaches and can be accomplished with the help of electronic headache diaries. An increasing number of electronic headache diaries exist, yet the absence of quality standards compromises their use for research and clinical purposes. Objective Our goal was to develop and test the usability, feasibility, and psychometric properties of an electronic diary iPhone application for self-monitoring by adolescents and young adults with headaches. Methods We used an iterative participatory design to develop and test our electronic headache diary. Participants aged 14-28 years old with recurrent headaches were recruited internationally. Screening and consent were conducted online. Following completion of an online pre-questionnaire, participants downloaded the diary to use in their natural environment for 14 days. An online post-questionnaire was completed following testing. The diary’s usability and feasibility were tested first and determined to be complete when improvements to the diary did not result in a statistically significant impact on indicators of feasibility and adherence. Interviews were conducted with participants of usability and feasibility testing. The psychometric properties of the diary were then tested, and a case study analysis of one participant was completed. Results Three cycles to test the usability and feasibility were conducted. Each cycle included 11-19 unique participants ranging in age from 16 to 28 years. Following the testing period for each cycle, 15% to 25% of participants took part in the post-cycle interview. Participants perceived the final version of the diary as useful, easy to learn, and efficient to use. Psychometric properties were then tested with a sample of 65 participants (6 aged 14-17 years old; 59 aged 18-28 years old). All items in the diary had substantial between- and within-subjects variability (percent of variance

  17. Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980–2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups (ḡ = 0.11, 95% CI [0.04, 0.17]) but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use (ḡ = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.16]). Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  18. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  19. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  20. The Music Experiences and Attitudes Of A First Cohort of Prelingually-Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults CI Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Smith, Rachel See; Scheperle, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the musical engagement (participation and attitude) of pediatric CI recipients who were implanted during early childhood and who have reached age 15 or older. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 31 prelingually deaf CI users who receive annual follow up services and assessment in a clinical research center. The questionnaire was used to examine involvement in and attitudes toward music in school, the community, and in the home; social affiliation (hearing, Deaf, both) and mode of communication (oral, manual, both) were also examined. Despite the technical limitations of cochlear implants in transmitting pitch, melody, and tone quality, over two thirds of this sample described music as being important or very important in their lives. A high level of past and present familial involvement in music was associated with higher levels of current involvement and importance of music in the lives of adolescent and young adult CI users. Comparisons were noted with data from prior studies of persons with hearing loss who were non-CI users. PMID:23565029

  1. Do brief alcohol interventions reduce tobacco use among adolescents and young adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Emily A; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980-2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups [g = 0.11, 95 % CI (0.04, 0.17)] but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use [g = 0.07, 95 % CI (-0.01, 0.16)]. Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  2. When to Tell and Test for Genetic Carrier Status: Perspectives of Adolescents and Young Adults from Fragile X Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe, Ramsey M.; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.; Melvin, Elizabeth; Dawson, Deborah V.; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn

    2009-01-01

    We report here our findings from adolescent and young adult females (ages 14–25) with a family history of fragile X syndrome regarding their perceptions of the optimal ages for 1) learning fragile X is inherited, 2) learning one could be a carrier for fragile X, and 3) offering carrier testing for fragile X. Three groups were enrolled: those who knew they were carriers or noncarriers and those who knew only they were at-risk to be a carrier. Only two of the 53 participants felt that offering carrier testing should be delayed until the age of 18 years. Participants who knew only that they were at-risk to be a carrier provided older optimal ages for offering carrier testing than those who knew their actual carrier status. Participants did not express regret or negative emotions about the timing of the disclosure of genetic risk information regarding their own experiences. Participants’ reasoning behind reported ages for informing about genetic risk and offering carrier testing varied depending on what type of information was being disclosed, which carrier status group the participant belonged to, and the preferred age for learning the information. Study findings suggest that decisions regarding the timing to inform about genetic risk and offer testing should be tailored to the individual needs of the child and his/her family. PMID:19449413

  3. Spatial function in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical phenotype and implications for the androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-04-01

    Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test. Results are consistent with the possibility of an organizational effect of androgens in the central nervous system that impacts the development of spatial abilities. Implications for the timing of the hypothetical critical period are discussed. PMID:25686803

  4. Assessment of voluntary exercise behavior and active video gaming among adolescent and young adult patients during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, Nicole C; Mingle, Lindsay; Smith, Janet; Morris, G Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study sought to examine the exercise behavior and preferences among adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Eighteen patients aged 19 to 25 years were recruited to engage in unsupervised exercise activities lasting at least 60 minutes/week during hospitalization for HSCT. Enrolled patients had access to standard exercise activities (walking, resistance training, and basketball) and active video gaming equipment. Physical function (6-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Up-and-Go test) and quality of life (Behavioral, Affective, and Somatic Experiences Scale) were assessed at different time points during admission. Participants exercised an average of 76% of the days during admission and spent an average of 36.5 minutes per day exercising. The Nintendo Wii was the preferred active video gaming equipment, but standard exercises accounted for 73% of all exercise time. Neither functional capacity nor quality of life improved. Results suggest that AYAs voluntarily exercise during HSCT admission, prefer to use standard exercise activities, and may require supervision in order to derive maximum benefits from their efforts. These results provide guidance for developing rehabilitation interventions for AYA HSCT recipients. PMID:23160792

  5. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care. PMID:26054052

  6. Childhood and adolescent violent victimization and the risk of young adult intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of participants, this study investigates childhood victimization in the home and adolescent violent victimization in the community on the risk of being a victim of intimate partner violence (IPV), general violence, or both during early adulthood. The study findings indicate being left home alone and being physically abused during childhood, and adolescent violent victimization in the community had strong independent effects on an individual's likelihood of becoming a victim of IPV, general violence, or both in early adulthood. The study findings suggest a consistent pattern of victimization across the life course, and intervention programs need to be developed that address the specific needs of children and adolescents at high risk for home and community violent victimization. PMID:22145539

  7. One size does not fit all: Psychometric properties of the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) and symptomology among adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Erica; Singh, Kavita; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon; Robertson, Laura; Sherr, Lorraine; Halpern, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health among is a major contributor to the burden of disease among adolescents. For this paper we use cross sectional survey data among a sample of 2,768 adolescent (aged 15-19) and 2,027 young adults (aged 20-24) living in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe to calibrate the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) against the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and examined the performance indices of the SSQ based on various cut points for classification. The SSQ depression screening tool performed best with a cut point of five or more positive responses out of 14 questions, resulting in the following validation coefficients for adolescents and young adults respectively: AUC (0.83, 088); kappa statistic (0.64, 0.66); sensitivity (0.89, 0.95); specificity (0.94, 0.92); PPV (0.45, 0.55); NVP (0.99, 1.00). The modified SSQ cut point of five or more substantially increase the depression estimates for both age groups to align more closely with the SRQ-20 estimates. The prevalence of depression increased from 3.5% to 13.2% among adolescents and from 5.1% to 16.2% among young adults based on these revisions to the SSQ. Using a multivariate logistic regression model we isolated particular characteristics to test their association with the odds of being misclassified as non-depressed based on the conventional SSQ cut point. Findings suggest that adolescents who were orphaned (OR 1.48) or ever had sex (2.13) were at a significantly greater odds of being a false negative than their counterparts. Secondary education was significantly associated with false negative misclassification among young adults (OR 2.11). When retested using the modified cut point of five or greater, associations with misclassification disappeared. This study highlight that not all depression scales are appropriate for use among adolescents given their unique developmental stage. While using culturally-appropriate scales such as the SSQ is important, we strongly recommend modification to the cut point in

  8. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  9. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  10. End-of-Life Care Intensity among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients in Kaiser Permanente Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W.; Chen, Lie H.; Cannavale, Kimberley; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Cooper, Robert M.; Chao, Chun R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs), but little is known about the care that AYA patients with cancer receive at the end of life (EOL). Objective To evaluate the intensity of EOL care among AYA cancer patients. Design Cross-sectional study using cancer registry and electronic health record data. Setting Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KSPC), an integrated health care delivery system. Participants 663 AYA patients with either (1) stage I-III cancer and evidence of cancer recurrence or (2) stage IV cancer at diagnosis who received care in KPSC and died in the years 2001–2010. Patients were eligible if they were aged 15–39 at death. Main Outcome Measures Chemotherapy use in the last 14 days of life, intensive care unit (ICU) care in the last 30 days of life, more than one emergency room (ER) visit in the last 30 days of life, hospitalization in the last 30 days of life, and a composite measure of medically intensive EOL care comprising any of the aforementioned measures. Results 11% of patients (72/663) received chemotherapy within 14 days of death. In the last 30 days of life, 22% of patients (144/663) were admitted to the ICU; 22% (147/663) had >1 ER visit; and 62% (413/663) were hospitalized. Overall, 68% (449/663) of subjects received at least one medically intensive EOL care measure. Conclusions and Relevance Most AYA patients receive at least one form of medically intensive EOL care. These findings suggest the need to better understand EOL care preferences and decision-making in this young population. PMID:26181778

  11. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  12. Persistence in High School: Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Stodel, Emma; Fullarton, Stephanie; Hagglund, Karras

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined persistence in high school among students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) from the perspective of the adolescents themselves. Tinto's (1975, 1997) Student Integration Model (SIM) provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model consists of three factors: background characteristics,…

  13. Sleep Patterns and Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, S. E.; Malow, B. A.; Newman, K. D.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and may adversely affect daytime functioning. Children with Williams syndrome have been reported to have disturbed sleep; however, no studies have been performed to determine if these problems continue into adolescence and adulthood. Methods: This study…

  14. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  15. Pseudoprogression in children, adolescents and young adults with non-brainstem high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Carceller, Fernando; Fowkes, Lucy A; Khabra, Komel; Moreno, Lucas; Saran, Frank; Burford, Anna; Mackay, Alan; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Marshall, Lynley V; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry; Jerome, Neil; Bridges, Leslie R; Laxton, Ross; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Pfister, Stefan M; Leach, Martin O; Pearson, Andrew D J; Jones, Chris; Koh, Dow-Mu; Zacharoulis, Stergios

    2016-08-01

    Pseudoprogression (PsP) is a treatment-related phenomenon which hinders response interpretation. Its prevalence and clinical impact have not been evaluated in children/adolescents. We assessed the characteristics, risk factors and prognosis of PsP in children/adolescents and young-adults diagnosed with non-brainstem high grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Patients aged 1-21 years diagnosed with HGG or DIPG between 1995 and 2012 who had completed radiotherapy were eligible. PsP was assessed according to study-specific criteria and correlated with first-line treatment, molecular biomarkers and survival. Ninety-one patients (47 HGG, 44 DIPG) were evaluable. Median age: 10 years (range, 2-20). Eleven episodes of PsP were observed in 10 patients (4 HGG, 6 DIPG). Rates of PsP: 8.5 % (HGG); 13.6 % (DIPG). Two episodes of PsP were based on clinical findings alone; nine episodes had concurrent radiological changes: increased size of lesions (n = 5), new focal enhancement (n = 4). Temozolomide, MGMT methylation or H3F3A mutations were not found to be associated with increased occurrence of PsP. For HGG, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 41.9 % no-PsP versus 100 % PsP (p = 0.041); differences in 1-year overall survival (OS) were not significant. For DIPG, differences in 1-year PFS and OS were not statistically significant. Hazard ratio (95 %CI) of PsP for OS was 0.551 (0.168-1.803; p = 0.325) in HGG; and 0.308 (0.107-0.882; p = 0.028) in DIPG. PsP occurred in both pediatric HGG and DIPG patients at a comparable rate to adult HGG. PsP was associated with improved 1-yr PFS in HGG patients. PsP had a protective effect upon OS in DIPG patients. PMID:27180091

  16. Does physical activity in adolescence have site-specific and sex-specific benefits on young adult bone size, content, and estimated strength?

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Johnston, James D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Cooper, David; Kontulainen, Saija

    2014-02-01

    The long-term benefits of habitual physical activity during adolescence on adult bone structure and strength are poorly understood. We investigated whether physically active adolescents had greater bone size, density, content, and estimated bone strength in young adulthood when compared to their peers who were inactive during adolescence. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure the tibia and radius of 122 (73 females) participants (age mean ± SD, 29.3 ± 2.3 years) of the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS). Total bone area (ToA), cortical density (CoD), cortical area (CoA), cortical content (CoC), and estimated bone strength in torsion (SSIp ) and muscle area (MuA) were measured at the diaphyses (66% tibia and 65% radius). Total density (ToD), trabecular density (TrD), trabecular content (TrC), and estimated bone strength in compression (BSIc ) were measured at the distal ends (4%). Participants were grouped by their adolescent physical activity (PA) levels (inactive, average, and active) based on mean PA Z-scores obtained from serial questionnaire assessments completed during adolescence. We compared adult bone outcomes across adolescent PA groups in each sex using analysis of covariance followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments. When adjusted for adult height, MuA, and PA, adult males who were more physically active than their peers in adolescence had 13% greater adjusted torsional bone strength (SSIp , p < 0.05) and 10% greater adjusted ToA (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis. Females who were more active in adolescence had 10% larger adjusted CoA (p < 0.05), 12% greater adjusted CoC (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis, and 3% greater adjusted TrC (p < 0.05) at the distal tibia when compared to their inactive peers. Benefits to tibia bone size, content, and strength in those who were more active during adolescence seemed to persist into young adulthood

  17. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  18. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M.; Crout, Richard J.; Marazita, Mary L.; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D.; Fox, Caroline S.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10−8) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10−23), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10−17), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10−17), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10−11), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10−9), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10−8) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10−8) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10−5 after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18–90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages. PMID:23669352

  19. Suicide among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-National Comparison of 34 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Krug, Etienne G.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on survey about suicide among 15- to 24-year-olds (N=15,555) in 34 of the wealthiest nations. Finland led in total and firearm-related suicides. An association was found between divorce rates and youth suicide rates, firearm-related suicide, and suicide rates among young males. An association was found between firearm availability and…

  20. Offline and Online Civic Engagement among Adolescents and Young Adults from Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB),…

  1. Regulating Worry, Promoting Hope: How Do Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cope with Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to climate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves…

  2. Mortality Trends from 2003 to 2009 among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Western Kenya Using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Hamel, Mary; Ackers, Marta; van Eijk, Anne M.; Orimba, Vincent; Hoog, Anja van’t; Beynon, Caryl; Vulule, John; Bellis, Mark A.; Slutsker, Laurence; deCock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Targeted global efforts to improve survival of young adults need information on mortality trends; contributions from health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) are required. Methods and Findings This study aimed to explore changing trends in deaths among adolescents (15–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years), using census and verbal autopsy data in rural western Kenya using a HDSS. Mid-year population estimates were used to generate all-cause mortality rates per 100,000 population by age and gender, by communicable (CD) and non-communicable disease (NCD) causes. Linear trends from 2003 to 2009 were examined. In 2003, all-cause mortality rates of adolescents and young adults were 403 and 1,613 per 100,000 population, respectively, among females; and 217 and 716 per 100,000, respectively, among males. CD mortality rates among females and males 15–24 years were 500 and 191 per 100,000 (relative risk [RR] 2.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7–4.0; p<0.001). NCD mortality rates in same aged females and males were similar (141 and 128 per 100,000, respectively; p = 0.76). By 2009, young adult female all-cause mortality rates fell 53% (χ2 for linear trend 30.4; p<0.001) and 61.5% among adolescent females (χ2 for linear trend 11.9; p<0.001). No significant CD mortality reductions occurred among males or for NCD mortality in either gender. By 2009, all-cause, CD, and NCD mortality rates were not significantly different between males and females, and among males, injuries equalled HIV as the top cause of death. Conclusions This study found significant reductions in adolescent and young adult female mortality rates, evidencing the effects of targeted public health programmes, however, all-cause and CD mortality rates among females remain alarmingly high. These data underscore the need to strengthen programmes and target strategies to reach both males and females, and to promote NCD as well as CD initiatives to reduce the mortality burden

  3. A Prospective Study of Psychological Distress and Weight Status in Adolescents/Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262

  4. Adolescent Conduct Disorder and Interpersonal Callousness as Predictors of Psychopathy in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2007-01-01

    Unfortunately, very little research has examined the link between antisocial personality traits in childhood and adult psychopathy. This study used data from a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys, assessed annually from recruitment (ages 7 to 12) through age 19. Parent and teacher ratings of interpersonal callousness (IC) were tested at predictors…

  5. Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women?

    PubMed

    Biglan, A; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Smolkowski, K; Metzler, C

    1995-12-01

    Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N = 22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N = 206) and 3 (N = 70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N = 51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a large city. Sample 5 (N = 51) was recruited from among young women on a college campus. Across all samples, 44.4% of women indicated that they had been forced into some form of sexual activity against their will. Self-reports of sexually coercive experiences were consistently related to risky sexual behavior. It appears that many young women are coerced into engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies the need for greater attention to male coercive sexual behavior and women's skills for coping with such behavior. PMID:8749985

  6. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Lee, Young M.; Odom, Mitchell J.; Solomon, Gary S.; Forbes, Jonathan A.; Sills, Allen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sports-related concussions (SRC) among high school and collegiate athletes represent a significant public health concern. The Concussion in Sport Group (CIS) recommended greater caution regarding return to play with children and adolescents. We hypothesized that younger athletes would take longer to return to neurocognitive baseline than older athletes after a SRC. Methods: Two hundred adolescent and young adult athletes who suffered a SRC were included in our clinical research cohort. Of the total participants, 100 were assigned to the 13-16 year age group and 100 to the 18-22 year age group and were matched on the number of prior concussions. Each participant completed baseline and postconcussion neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery. Return to baseline was defined operationally as post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores being equivalent to baseline using reliable change index (RCI) criteria. For each group, the average number of days to return to cognitive and symptom baseline were calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the mean number of days to return to baseline. Results: Significant differences were found for days to return to baseline between 13-16 year olds and 18-22 year olds in three out of four neurocognitive measures and on the total symptom score. The average number of days to return to baseline was greater for 13-16 year olds than for 18-22 year olds on the following variables: Verbal memory (7.2 vs. 4.7, P = 0.001), visual memory (7.1 vs. 4.7, P = 0.002), reaction time (7.2 vs. 5.1 P = 0.01), and postconcussion symptom scale (8.1 vs. 6.1, P = 0.026). In both groups, greater than 90% of athletes returned to neurocognitive and symptom baseline within 1 month. Conclusions: Our results in this clinical research study show that in SRC, athletes 13-16 years old take longer to return to their neurocognitive and symptom baselines than

  7. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. PMID:26455729

  8. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcomas in children, adolescents, and young adults: single institution experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Khatua, Soumen; Mukherjee, Devashis; Olar, Adriana; Lazar, Alexander; Luthra, Raja; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Ketonen, Leena; Zaky, Wafik

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature reporting the outcome of intracranial sarcomas (IS) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA). A multimodal therapeutic approach is commonly used, with no well-established treatment consensus. We conducted a retrospective review of CAYA with IS, treated at our institution, to determine their clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes. Immunohistochemistry (PDGFRA and EGFR) and DNA sequencing were performed on 5 tumor samples. A literature review of IS was also conducted. We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 7 years) with a primary diagnosis of IS between 1990 and 2015. Diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma (n = 9), chondrosarcoma (n = 2), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2). Five patients underwent upfront gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor. The 5-drug regimen (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and ifosfamide) was the most common treatment used. Nine patients died due to progression or recurrence (n = 8) or secondary malignancy (n = 1). The median follow-up period of the 4 surviving patients was 1.69 years (range 1.44-5.17 years). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 21 and 44 %, respectively. BRAF, TP53, KRAS, KIT, ERBB2, MET, RET, ATM, and EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 tissue samples. All 5 samples were immunopositive for PDGFRA, and only 2 were positive for EGFR. IS remain a therapeutic challenge due to high progression and recurrence rates. Collaborative multi-institutional studies are warranted to delineate a treatment consensus and investigate tumor biology to improve the disease outcome. PMID:26718692

  9. Fertility Preservation Knowledge, Counseling, and Actions among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Harlan, Linda C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Prasad, Pinki K.; Cress, Rosemary D.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hamilton, Ann S.; Parsons, Helen M.; Keel, Gretchen; Charlesworth, Sarah; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fertility of adolescents and young adult (AYA) cancer patients can be threatened by treatments, but little is known about the extent to which providers discuss this with patients or recommend fertility preservation, or patient and physician characteristics associated with these interactions. Methods Questionnaires from 459 AYA cancer patients diagnosed 2007-2008 and recruited through seven U.S. population-based cancer registries were analyzed in sex-specific multivariable models. We assessed characteristics associated with not discussing therapy effects on fertility or fertility preservation options, and not making fertility preservation arrangements. Results Males without a medical oncologist were more likely not to be told that therapy might affect fertility than those with a medical oncologist (male odds ratio [OR]=2.28; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.03, 5.00). Individuals without insurance (male OR=2.91; 95%CI 1.41, 5.91; female OR=5.46; [95%CI] = 1.59, 18.72), raising children <18 years old, and, among males only, who received treatment posing no or low fertility risk (OR=3.39; 95%CI=1.60, 7.16) were more likely not to discuss fertility preservation with providers. Finally, among males, those without a college degree (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.00, 3.97), lacking private insurance ([OR]=2.97; [95%CI]=1.16, 7.63), and raising children <18 years old (OR=3.53, 95%CI=1.63, 7.65) were more likely to not make fertility preservation arrangements; too few females had made fertility preservation arrangements for similar analyses. Conclusions Discussion and action surrounding fertility preservation for AYA cancer patients are associated with medical factors, patient socioeconomic and child-rearing status. These results highlight the need for insurance coverage for fertility preservation and increased awareness of fertility preservation options. PMID:26214755

  10. A Matter of Time: The Influence of Recording Context on EEG Spectral Power in Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kitsune, Glenn L; Cheung, Celeste H M; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-07-01

    Elevated theta or theta/beta ratio is often reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the consistency across studies and the relation to hypoarousal are increasingly questioned. Reports of elevated delta related to maturational lag and of attenuated beta activity are less well replicated. Some critical inconsistencies could relate to differences in recording context. We examined if resting-state EEG power or global field synchronization (GFS) differed between recordings made at the beginning and end of a 1.5 h testing session in 76 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, and 85 controls. In addition, we aimed to examine the effect of IQ on any potential group differences. Both regional and midline electrodes yielded group main effects for delta, trends in theta, but no differences in alpha or theta/beta ratio. An additional group difference in beta was detected when using regions. Group by time interactions in delta and theta became significant when controlling for IQ. The ADHD group had higher delta and theta power at time-1, but not at time-2, whereas beta power was elevated only at time-2. GFS did not differ between groups or condition. We show some ADHD-control differences on EEG spectral power varied with recording time within a single recording session, with both IQ and electrode selection having a small but significant influence on observed differences. Our findings demonstrate the effect of recording context on resting-state EEG, and highlight the importance of accounting for these variables to ensure consistency of results in future studies. PMID:25200165

  11. The Clinician's Toolbox: Assessing the Sexual Impacts of Cancer on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer (AYAC)

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Sylvie; Perez, Samara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents and young adults aged 15–39 years who have been diagnosed with cancer (AYAC) have unique medical and psychosocial needs. Following their cancer treatments, AYAC must learn to manage the sometimes irreversible general side effects of cancer treatments including side effects that impact their sexuality. These side effects include but are not limited to: infertility, altered body/physical appearance, and sexual dysfunction. Such effects may hinder AYAC efforts to date and experiment sexually, limiting sexual maturation and confidence, as well as the formation or maintenance of meaningful couple and sexual relationships. It is clear that we need to tailor our clinical approaches to ensure that we assess the unique needs and concerns faced by AYAC. Aims Based on consistent study findings substantiating the distinctive needs of AYAC, the main objective of this article is to present the core clinical components involved in assessing sexuality among AYAC. Methods The clinical recommendations are based on the authors and experts' clinical experiences coupled with a thorough examination of the literature related to AYAC sexuality. Main Outcome Measures This article first describes the three components (clinical interview, review of chart notes, and self-report questionnaires) of a sexuality assessment and the seven core domains that highlight target areas of focus. Results A detailed outline of each of the core domains of assessment (socio-demographics; medical history; fertility and sexually transmitted infection; sexual functioning; sexual coping style; body and self-image; and sexual history and dating/couple experience) is presented. A “toolbox” table containing useful resources for clinicians (e.g., questionnaires and red flags) and direct resources for AYAC patients are included. Conclusion Cancer can have a significant impact on numerous domains of AYAC sexuality. The assessment of and attention to the impact of sexuality on AYAC is

  12. Differences in zinc status and the leptin axis in anorexic and recovered adolescents and young adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zepf, F.D.; Sungurtekin, I.; Glass, F.; Elstrodt, L.; Peetz, D.; Hintereder, G.; Kratzsch, J.; Biskup, C.S.; Poustka, F.; Wöckel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal studies suggests that leptin metabolism is associated with zinc (Zn) status. However, research investigating this relationship in adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) is scarce; the present study aims to fill that gap. Methods Serum concentrations of leptin, the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and the free leptin index (FLI) were obtained in healthy control subjects (n=19), acutely ill individuals (n=14) and recovered patients with AN (n=15). Serum Zn concentrations noted in previous research data were also incorporated for all groups. Results Leptin, FLI and Zn concentrations were higher in recovered subjects with AN when compared with acutely ill AN patients. Remitted patients showed higher sOB-R concentrations but no difference in FLI compared with the control group. Leptin and FLI were lower in the acutely ill patients compared with the control subjects, who showed no differences in Zn concentrations. Zn concentrations were not correlated with leptin, sOB-R or FLI concentrations in any of the three investigated subgroups. Conclusions The present investigation does not entirely support an association between Zn, Leptin and FLI concentrations in subjects with AN, possibly due to limited statistical power. Further research and replication of the present findings related to the interaction between leptin and Zn is warranted. However, with respect to serum leptin levels the data of the present investigation indicate that acutely ill and remitted patients with AN differ as regards serum leptin concentrations and FLI, which is in line with previous research. PMID:22393314

  13. A retrospective analysis of treatment-related hospitalization costs of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Korgenski, Ernest Kent; Ying, Jian; Ng, Christi F; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Nelson, Richard E; Andrews, Seth; Raetz, Elizabeth; Fluchel, Mark; Lemons, Richard; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children's Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL. PMID:26714675

  14. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. Results showed that higher trait anger and anger expressed outwardly over the follow-up was related to increased likelihood of suicide attempts among males. For girls, trait anger and both the inward and outward expression of anger moderated the risk for suicide attempts associated with major depression. These results are interpreted in light of theory regarding behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems. PMID:20183651

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Exposure to Physical Activity and Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Klifa, Catherine; Pérez, Adriana; Kriska, Andrea M.; High, Robin R.; Snetselaar, Linda; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of early lifetime exposure to physical activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined breast density measures. Methods Associations of adolescent [high school (ages 14–17 years) and early adulthood [post high school (ages 18–21 years) and past year] leisure-time physical activity, as well as a principal component score including all three estimates, were examined with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in a cross-sectional analysis of 182 healthy women, aged 25–29 years enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-up Study (DISC06). Generalized linear mixed (GLM) models were used to examine associations after adjustment for relevant covariates for the entire analytic sample. Analyses were repeated in nulliparous women and hormonal contraceptive non-users. Results Physical activity during high school and post high school were not statistically significantly related to %DBV or ADBV in multivariable models. Past year physical activity was positively related to %DBV in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively) that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). After additional adjustment for childhood and early adulthood BMI, this association became non-statistically significant. The relation between past year physical activity and ADBV was not statistically significant. These findings were similar in non-users of hormonal contraceptives. No statistically significant relationships were found in nulliparous women or between the principal component score and %DBV or ADBV. Conclusion Results from this study are consistent with previous research suggesting that physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood is unrelated to breast density. PMID:23377838

  16. Calcium supplementation trials and bone mass development in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Whiting, Susan J

    2006-04-01

    The development of bone mass during childhood through young adulthood is an important determinant of bone health later in life, and calcium is the major building block. Most randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of calcium supplementation have been done in girls; however, calcium supplementation in boys has been investigated in recent studies. Positive short-term effects on bone measures during growth has been shown in boys and girls, particularly in weight-bearing appendicular bone, although the lifelong effect is not certain. PMID:16673756

  17. Change and Prospects in Education for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Worldwide expansion of enrollment in postcompulsory education has contributed to an ambiguous "post-adolescence" life stage as young adults transition into adult citizenship. Possible pathways at the end of compulsory schooling have diversified, particularly in developed countries under the influence of vocationalism. Young adults need more…

  18. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation During Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph L; Vest, Andrea E

    2012-09-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern - called the over-scheduling hypothesis - has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115 youth (ages 12-18) assessed long-term relations between intensity of participation during adolescence and adjustment at young adulthood (ages 18-24). Time diaries measured intensity as hours per week of participation. Results showed that, controlling for demographic factors and baseline adjustment, intensity was a significant predictor of positive outcomes (e.g., psychological flourishing, civic engagement, educational attainment) and unrelated to indicators of problematic adjustment (e.g., psychological distress, substance use, antisocial behavior) at young adulthood. PMID:23066336

  19. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  20. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, Elizabeth C; Sanchez, Victoria; Ford, Chandra L; Smurzynski, Marlene; Leone, Peter A; Fox, Kimberley K; Irwin, Kathleen; Miller, William C

    2004-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24) were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening. PMID:15189565

  1. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Thin-Ideal Internalization across Puberty and Pre-Adolescent, Adolescent, and Young Adult Development

    PubMed Central

    Suisman, Jessica L.; Thompson, J. Kevin; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the identification of specific types of risk factors during critical developmental periods. The present twin study examined genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across adolescent and pubertal development. Method Participants were 1,064 female twins (ages 8–25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Thin-ideal internalization and pubertal development were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models were used to examine if age and/or pubertal development moderate genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization. Results Phenotypic analyses indicated significant increases in thin-ideal internalization across age and pubertal development. Twin models suggested no significant differences in etiologic effects across development. Nonshared environmental influences were most important in the etiology of thin-ideal internalization, with genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental accounting for approximately 8%, 15%, and 72%, respectively, of the total variance. Discussion Despite mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization across development, the relative influence of genetic versus environmental risk did not differ significantly across age or pubertal groups. The majority of variance in thin-ideal internalization was accounted for by environmental factors, suggesting that mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization may reflect increases in the magnitude/strength of environmental risk across this period. Replication is needed, particularly with longitudinal designs that assess thin-ideal internalization across key

  3. Adolescent disruptive behavior and borderline personality disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have prospective information, especially regarding males, on the prediction of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adulthood from psychiatric disorders in childhood. Certain childhood disorders, however, have notably similar features in common with BPD. In particular, the affective dysfunction, hostility and interpersonal conflict of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and the impulsivity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in particular may be indicative of an early developmental path towards BPD. The present study uses longitudinal data from a clinical sample of 177 boys, initially between the ages of 7 and 12, who were followed up annually to age 18, and who were reassessed at age 24 (n = 142). The study examines the prediction from repeated childhood measures of psychopathology measured annually through adolescence to BPD symptoms assessed at age 24, accounting for the effects of covariates including substance use, other personality disorders at age 24 and harsh physical punishment. The prevalence of BPD in this sample was consistent with other population estimates. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ODD were the only child psychiatric disorders to predict BPD symptoms, and the oppositional behavioral dimension of ODD was particularly predictive of BPD. These results indicate possible developmental links between early psychiatric disorders and BPD. PMID:21853377

  4. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  5. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  6. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  7. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  8. Mechanical efficiency and balance in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, S; Al-Jarrah, M D; Nammourah, I; Harries, N

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical efficiency (ME) during stair-climbing measures ambulation ability. This study investigated the relationship between ME and age, anthropometric, functional walking, and balance parameters in 52 adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP), age 13.5-23.3 yrs, who participated in an intervention study to improve walking. Measurements included ME, 6-min and 10-m walk tests and the Berg balance scale (BBS). Walk test measures correlated significantly with ME, as expected, as did BBS (r=0.68) and age (r=0.51). The multiple correlation coefficient with both age and BBS increased to 0.80. The measurements were divided into two groups of low (<40, n=19) and high (>40, n=33) BBS scores. Repeating regression analyses, demonstrated that in the low BBS group ME was significantly related to BBS, but not age, in contrast to opposite results in the high BBS group. Regressions were calculated for each of the 14 items of the BBS with ME. For the whole group, 12 items correlated significantly, but only three in the high BBS group (one leg standing, reach while standing and tandem standing). In the low BBS group 10 of the items correlated significantly, with the former three ranking near the top. Balance is an important component of ambulation in children with CP. Mobility in those scoring>40 is related to age, but in those more deficient in balance (<40) mobility is more closely associated with balance than age. Effective therapy to improve walking in younger children might incorporate more balance-focused exercises, similar to those related to BBS items strongly associated with ME. PMID:23522668

  9. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F.; Porter, James N.; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    performance correlates of normative gray matter thinning during adolescence. PMID:24744452

  10. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences. PMID:22903193

  11. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  12. Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding why young people try and stop electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is critical to inform e-cigarette regulatory efforts. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (N = 127) in 1 middle school (MS), 2 high schools (HSs), and 2 colleges in Connecticut to assess themes related to e-cigarette experimentation and discontinuation. We then conducted surveys to evaluate these identified themes in 2 MSs, 4 HSs, and 1 college (N = 1,175) to explore whether reasons for e-cigarette experimentation and/or discontinuation differed by school level or cigarette smoking status. Results: From the focus groups, we identified experimentation themes (i.e., curiosity, flavors, family/peer influence, easy access, and perceptions of e-cigarettes as “cool” and as a healthier/better alternative to cigarettes) and discontinuation themes (i.e., health concerns, loss of interest, high cost, bad taste, and view of e-cigarettes as less satisfying than cigarettes). The survey data showed that the top reasons for experimentation were curiosity (54.4%), appealing flavors (43.8%), and peer influences (31.6%), and the top reasons for discontinuation were responses related to losing interest (23.6%), perceiving e-cigarettes as “uncool” (16.3%), and health concerns (12.1%). Cigarette smokers tried e-cigarettes because of the perceptions that they can be used anywhere and to quit smoking and discontinued because they were not as satisfying as cigarettes. School level differences were detected. Conclusions: E-cigarette prevention efforts toward youth should include limiting e-cigarette flavors, communicating messages emphasizing the health risks of use, and changing social norms surrounding the use of e-cigarettes. The results should be interpreted in light of the limitations of this study. PMID:25481917

  13. Outcome analysis of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in adolescent and young adults with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saad; Rauf, Shahzad M; Elhassan, Tusneem A M; Maghfoor, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage many patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We are reporting the outcome of HDC auto-SCT and the impact of 21 prognostic factors in relapsed and refractory adolescent (14-21 years) and young adult (>21-30 years) (AYA) HL patients. We used Fine and Gray's competing risk analysis method and regression model for outcome analysis. From 1996 to 2013, 290 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HL underwent HDC auto-SCT for relapsed/refractory HL; 216 patients (74.5 %) were AYA at the time of auto-SCT. Male/female were equal, median age at auto-SCT was 22.4 years, and there were 94 adolescent (43.5 %) and 122 young adults (56.5 %). There was refractory disease in 121 (56 %) patients, relapsed in 95 (44 %). Median follow-up was 72.6 months. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated that 5-year overall survival is 62.7 % (adolescents (63.5 %), young adults (62 %)) and event-free survival was 51.3 %. Five-year cumulative incidence of disease-specific death (DS-death) is 33 % and that of DS-event is 45 %. For DS-death, the multivariate analysis identified complete remission (CR) duration of <12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 3.61, P = 0.0009), no CR after salvage (HR: 3.93, P = 0.0002), and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 3.3, P = 0.016) and positive B symptoms (HR 2, P = 0.028) as negative factors. For DS-event, CR duration of <12 months (HR 1.88, P = 0.02), no CR after salvage (HR 3.47, P = 0.000005) and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 1.88, P = 0.02) were found significant. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated overall survival (OS) at 36 months with 0-2:3:4 factors being 93.6:54:21 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Kaplan-Meier estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 36 months with 0-1:2:3 factors being 84.6:65:31 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Clinically, adolescents have similar outcomes as young adults. PMID:27376363

  14. Two Measures of Self-Regulation for Young Adults and Late Adolescents in the Academic and Social Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, John; Little, Todd D.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present domain-specific measures of academic and social self-regulation in young adults. We base our scales on Baltes and colleagues' Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) model, and establish the factor structure of our new measures using data collected from a sample of 152 college students. We then compare the…

  15. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  16. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  17. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  18. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  19. Emerging Trends and Innovations in the Identification and Management of Drug Use among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Marsch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    One in four youths aged 12 to 17 years and more than half of young adults aged 18 to 25 years in the United States have used an illicit drug in their lifetime. A significant number progress to problematic use, and only 1 in 10 young people who meet criteria for dependence or abuse receive some form of treatment. Despite advances in the field, effectively intervening along the continuum of drug use involvement remains a challenge. In this article, we review the current epidemiology of illicit drug use by young people; describe recent advances in assessment, intervention and treatment; and highlight how technology can help overcome barriers to effective management of drug use among young people. PMID:22423469

  20. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  1. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  2. Effects of a major U.S. hurricane on mental health disorder symptoms among adolescent and young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effects of Hurricane Ike-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of friends and family on mental health symptoms among affected young women and adolescents. Methods Data from a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 2,536 young women aged 16-24 years affected by Hurricane Ike was examined. Poisson regression estimated the effect of types of hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of family or friends on depressive and hurricane-related post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results Nearly half (46.3%) of the respondents suffered damage, and 13% lost jobs as a result of Ike. Hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury to self, and injury to and mortality of friends or family were associated with increased Ike-related PTSD symptoms. Damage and job loss were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusion Accessible mental health services and plans to reduce job loss among adolescents and those they depend on for income are needed in areas affected by hurricanes to help mitigate psychological consequences among low-income young women. PMID:23562221

  3. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:24423135

  4. Risk Bases in Childhood and Adolescence among HIV-negative Young Adult Gay and Bisexual Male Barebackers

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Siconolfi, Daniel; Fumerton, Megan; Barlup, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    We sought to consider the phenomenon of intentional unprotected intercourse, known colloquially as barebacking, with regard to identities that gay men develop as barebackers and the developmental bases which may predispose some men to this identity. As part of a larger study, we analyzed the life history interviews of 12 diverse HIV-negative men in early adulthood, using thematic coding procedures to identify events, conditions, and emotional states in childhood and adolescence that might help to explain why uninfected young men might place themselves at risk for HIV seroconversion. These analyses elicited various risk bases in childhood and adolescence, including early sexual experiences, pronounced experimentation with and abuse of drugs and alcohol, feelings of loneliness, a lack of love relationships despite sexual activity, and early experiences of loss. These findings suggest a complex interplay between emotional factors and life events, which may help to explain these men as sexual risk takers. PMID:19946573

  5. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Hensel, Devon J.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Reilly, Meredith L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined. PMID:25089964

  6. Neuropsychological, Behavioral, and Academic Sequelae of Cleft: Early Developmental, School Age, and Adolescent/Young Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Lynn C; McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Nopoulos, Peg C

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral, neuropsychological, and academic outcomes of individuals with cleft across three age levels: 1) infancy/early development, 2) school age, and 3) adolescence/young adulthood. The review points out that attachment, neurocognitive functioning, academic performance/learning, and adjustment outcomes are the result of a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors and vary with developmental level, sex, and craniofacial anomaly diagnosis. The degree to which associated genetic or neurodevelopmental conditions may explain inconsistent findings is unknown and suggests the need for caution in generalizing from group data on cleft. PMID:21905907

  7. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25854319

  8. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  9. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-09-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Personalized Text Message Reminders to Promote Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna; Johnson, Amy; Muldoon, Abigail; Rice, Dion

    2016-05-01

    HIV-positive adolescents and young adults often experience suboptimal medication adherence, yet few interventions to improve adherence in this group have shown evidence of efficacy. We conducted a randomized trial of a two-way, personalized daily text messaging intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among N = 105 poorly adherent HIV-positive adolescents and young adults, ages 16-29. Adherence to ART was assessed via self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-100 %) at 3 and 6-months for mean adherence level and proportion ≥90 % adherent. The average effect estimate over the 6-month intervention period was significant for ≥90 % adherence (OR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.01-4.45, p < .05) and maintained at 12-months (6 months post-intervention). Satisfaction scores for the intervention were very high. These results suggest both feasibility and initial efficacy of this approach. Given study limitations, additional testing of this intervention as part of a larger clinical trial with objective and/or clinical outcome measures of adherence is warranted. PMID:26362167

  12. Anthropometric measurements for the prediction of the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study on adolescents and young adults from southern india

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, S K; Thomas, N; Christopher, S; Geethanjali, F S; Paul, T V; Sanjeevi, C B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine which anthropometric measurement correlates best with the metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Schools, high schools and universities. Participants 1359 adolescents and young adults aged 14–25 years. Main outcome measures Anthropometric predictors of metabolic abnormalities as classified by International Diabetes Federation definition. Results The waist circumference (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.43: p≤0.01) and the abdominal skin fold thickness (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.04, p≤0.01) above the third quintile cut-offs were found to be significantly associated with metabolic abnormalities. The sensitivity of either one of these measurements in predicting metabolic abnormalities was 66.1% with a negative predictive value of 82.8%. Hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with an abdominal skin fold thickness over the fourth quintile alone (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.1). All the anthropometric measurements correlated well with elevated triglycerides and hypertension. Conclusions In a large community-based cross-sectional survey of subjects aged 14–25 years, the waist circumference and the abdominal skin fold thickness are important predictors of the metabolic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome. This simple clinical tool may help in a primary care setting to identify subjects who require a further biochemical evaluation and would considerably reduce the cost of unwarranted testing. PMID:27325971

  13. The Relation Between Adolescent Social Competence and Young Adult Delinquency and Educational Attainment Among At-Risk Youth: The Mediating Role of Peer Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156

  14. Tweeting About Testing: Do Low-Income, Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults Use New Media Technologies to Communicate About Sexual Health?

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Zai; Divney, Anna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Context Little research exists about adolescents' and young adults' use of new media technologies to communicate about sexual health. Understanding how young people at high risk for STDs use these technologies can inform media-based interventions. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2011, a sample of 94 low-income, parenting adolescents and young adults recruited at clinics in Connecticut completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their use of media technologies, communication with friends about sexual health and willingness to use media technologies for such communication. Descriptive statistics were calculated; characteristics of those willing and those unwilling to communicate were compared in chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Ninety-three percent of participants had mobile phones; 71% used Facebook regularly. Participants discussed sexual health more often with close friends than with casual friends, and preferred to have such conversations in person (71% with close friends and 68% with casual friends), over the phone (52% and 45%) or via text message (30% and 28%), rather than through social networking sites (0–9% and 2–7%). Fewer than one-third reported being willing to share sexual health information with friends through a specific new media technology. Those who were willing were predominantly black (59%); of those who were unwilling, 51% were Latino. Condom self-efficacy, STD knowledge and number of Facebook friends were greater among those who were willing than among those who were unwilling. Conclusions For conversations about sexual health, young urban parents prefer private forms of communication; thus, social networking sites may not aid STD interventions. PMID:22958662

  15. Teens' Favorite Books: Young Adults' Choices 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of young adult literature that were selected "Young Adults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an…

  16. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  17. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents and young adults with PTSD symptoms after physical and sexual abuse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is known to have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence on psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Equally sparse are data on moderators of treatment response on PTSD-related epigenetic changes, health care costs and loss of productivity, alterations in cognitive processing, and on how successful interventions affect all of these factors. Early treatment may prevent later (co)morbidity. In this paper, we present a study protocol for the evaluation of a newly developed psychotherapeutic manual for PTSD after CSA/CPA in adolescents and young adults – the Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT). Methods/design In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) D-CPT is compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 90 adolescent outpatients aged 14 to 21 years will be randomized to one of these conditions. Four assessments will be carried out at baseline, at end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after end of therapy. Each time, patients will be assessed via clinical interviews and a wide range of questionnaires. In addition to PTSD symptoms and comorbidities, we will evaluate moderators of treatment response, epigenetic profiles, direct and indirect costs of this disorder, and neurophysiological processing of threat cues in PTSD and their respective changes in the course of these two treatments (D-CPT and TAU). Discussion The study will provide new insights in the understudied field of PTSD in adolescents and young adults. A newly developed intervention will be evaluated in this therapeutically underserved population. Results will provide data on treatment efficacy, direct and indirect treatment costs, as well as on associations of treatment outcome and PTSD intensity both to epigenetic profiles and to the neurobiological processing of threat cues. Besides, they will

  18. Effect of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes (CHRN) on Longitudinal Cigarettes per Day in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have sought to identify specific genetic markers associated with cigarettes per day (CPD) during adolescence and young adulthood, the period of greatest vulnerability for the development of nicotine dependence. Methods: We used a longitudinal design to investigate the effect of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRN) subunit genes on CPD from 15 to 21 years of age in young smokers of European descent (N = 439, 59% female). The number of CPD typically smoked during the previous 30 days was self-reported. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CHRN genes were genotyped using DNA extracted from saliva samples collected at the 5-year assessment. Mixed-model analyses of SNP effects were computed across age at the time of assessment using log-transformed CPD as the phenotype. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project were used to clarify the architecture of CHRN genes to inform SNP selection and interpretation of results. Results: CPD was associated with a CHRNB3A6 region tagged by rs2304297, with CHRNA5A3B4 haplotype C (tagged by rs569207), and with the CHRNA2 SNP rs2271920, ps < .004. The reliability of single-SNP associations was supported by the correspondence between a more extensive set of SNP signals and the underlying genetic architecture. The 3 signals identified in this study appear to make independent contributions to CPD, and their combined effect accounts for 5.5% of the variance in log-transformed CPD. Conclusions: Level of CPD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with CHRNB3A6, CHRNA5A3B4, and CHRNA2. PMID:23943838

  19. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Christine L; Knowlden, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults. Methods The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1) primary or secondary interventions, 2) with any quantitative design, 3) published in the English language, 4) between January 2003 and March 2014, 5) that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6) which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7) utilized TPB or TRA. Results Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication. Conclusion Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors in adolescents should aim to incorporate multi-faceted, theory-based approaches. Future studies should consider

  20. “You’re too young for this”: Adolescent and Young Adults’ Perspectives on Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    KENT, ERIN E.; PARRY, CARLA; MONTOYA, MICHAEL J.; SENDER, LEONARD S.; MORRIS, REBECCA A.; ANTON-CULVER, HODA

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors face unique challenges not systematically addressed by cancer clinicians. Four focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted with 19 survivors to profile experiences and identify key concerns for future interventions. The resultant themes reflect cancer care continuum challenges (such as delays in diagnosis, problems with adherence), psychosocial concerns (such as infertility and reproductive concerns, changing social relationships, financial burden), and the paradox of being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult. Future intervention development for adolescent and young adult survivors should involve patient voices at each stage of the research process. PMID:22416959

  1. Treatment of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer in a multidisciplinary setting: on the way to a highly specialized AYA unit.

    PubMed

    Bernig, T; Jahn, F; Witkowsky, S; Huehn, R; Hentschel, A; Kegel, T; Schmoll, H-J; Körholz, D

    2013-11-01

    Further survival improvements of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are clearly affected by biological characteristics of the malignancies and age-specific needs. Multidisciplinary teams drawing expertice from both pediatric and adult cancer teams as well as clinical trials are required to meet the age specific needs of AYA patients with cancer. In 2011, the first AYA unit was established at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), where patients with newly-diagnosed cancer aged 15-25 are treated interdisciplinary by pediatric and adult oncologists. The enrollment into pediatric or adult clinical trials is controlled by age 18. Over the last 2 years, 19 AYA with cancer have been treated at the unit; and, in turn patients and their relatives reflected a high satisfaction with the offered novel health care approach. In the scope of the future Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), a complete ward is planned for all admitted AYA up to 25 years with cancer. The patients will be treated by a tumor-specialized multidisciplinary team of adult or pediatric oncologists and oncological surgeons. Therefore, we intend to establish a special teaching curriculum for physicians, nurses and psychosocial health care staff. Rather than age, cancer biology of a malignancy, surveillance data of late side effects as well as the age-specific needs of AYA patients will be crucial for best treatment options. PMID:24166088

  2. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the PSI/PMSC Horizon Jeunes youth-targeted social marketing program for improving adolescent reproductive health in urban Cameroon. The program targeted adolescents through peer education, youth clubs, mass media promotion, and behavior change communications. After about 13 months of intervention, knowledge of the program was nearly universal, and the majority of youths had direct contact with the program. Program effectiveness is examined using a quasi-experimental research design with a preintervention and postintervention survey in an intervention and comparison site. The intervention had a significant effect on several determinants of preventive behavior, including awareness of sexual risks, knowledge of birth control methods, and discussion of sexuality and contraceptives. The intervention increased the proportion of female youths who reported using oral contraceptives and condoms for birth control. However, condom use is not yet consistent. Although the proportion of young men who reported using condoms for birth control also increased, this change could not be attributed to the intervention. Although this short intervention successfully increased the reported use of various birth control methods, including condoms, there is no evidence that the intervention increased use of condoms for STD prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11063059

  3. Chronic restricted access to 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young adult rats impairs spatial memory and alters sensitivity to outcome devaluation.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H

    2013-08-15

    Although increasing consumption of sugar drinks is recognized as a significant public health concern, little is known about (a) the cognitive effects resulting from sucrose consumption; and (b) whether the long-term effects of sucrose consumption are more pronounced for adolescents. This experiment directly compared performance on a task of spatial learning and memory (the Morris Water Maze) and sensitivity to outcome devaluation following 28 days of 2-h/day access to a 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young-adult Wistar rats. Sucrose groups developed elevated fasting blood glucose levels after the diet intervention, despite drawing <15% of calories from sucrose and gaining no more weight than controls. In subsequent behavioral testing, sucrose groups were impaired on the Morris Water Maze, with some residual deficits in spatial memory observed more than 6 weeks after the end of sucrose exposure. Further, results from outcome devaluation testing indicated that in the older cohort of rats, those fed sucrose showed reduced sensitivity to devaluation of the outcome, suggestive of differences in instrumental learning following sucrose exposure. Data provide strong evidence that sucrose consumption can induce deficits in spatial cognition and reward-oriented behavior at levels that resemble patterns of sugar drink consumption in young people, and which can remain long after exposure. PMID:23954407

  4. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  5. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  6. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  7. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  8. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p < 0.001. Among participants with infrequent cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  9. Young adult follow-up of adolescent girls in juvenile justice using the Columbia suicide severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D; Degarmo, David S

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the reliability and validity of the Columbia Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS). Severely delinquent adolescent girls (n = 166) participated in a treatment trial and repeated assessments over time. Lifetime suicide attempt history was measured using the C-SSRS in early adulthood (n = 144; 7-12 years postbaseline). Nonclinician raters showed strong interrater reliability using the C-SSRS. Self-reports, caseworker reports, and caregiver reports of girls' suicide attempt histories collected at baseline correlated with adult participants' recollections of their baseline attempt histories. Suicidal ideation measured prospectively across a 7- to -12-year period was associated with retrospectively reported suicide attempt across the same period. PMID:24446880

  10. Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use and Personality Factors on Adult Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Sybille M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined stability of adolescent drug use into young adulthood and explored influence of personality on adolescent and adult drug use. Participants (n=640) in longitudinal study completed questionnaires assessing tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drug use. General drug use factor in adolescence significantly predicted young adult drug use.…

  11. Physical Activity-Associated Bone Loading During Adolescence and Young Adulthood Is Positively Associated With Adult Bone Mineral Density in Men.

    PubMed

    Strope, Matthew A; Nigh, Peggy; Carter, Melissa I; Lin, Nantian; Jiang, Jun; Hinton, Pamela S

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity during growth increases bone mass and strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist. The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) if bone loading during adolescence (13-18 years) or young adulthood (19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood; (b) if current participation in high-impact activity (ground reaction force>4×body weight) and/or resistance training is associated with greater BMD; and, (c) if continuous participation in a high-impact activity from adolescence to adulthood is associated with greater BMD. Apparently healthy, physically active men aged 30 to 65 years (n=203) participated in this cross-sectional study. Exercise-associated bone loading was estimated based on ground reaction forces of historical physical activity. Current BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were grouped based on current participation in a high-impact activity (n=18), resistance training (n=57), both (n=14), or neither (n=114); groups were compared by two-way analysis of covariance. Bone loading during adolescence and young adulthood were significant, positive predictors of BMD of the whole body, total hip, and lumbar spine, adjusting for lean body mass and/or age in the regression models. Individuals who currently participate in a high-impact activity had greater lumbar spine BMD than nonparticipants. Men who continuously participated in a high-impact activity had greater hip and lumbar spine BMD than those who did not. In conclusion, physical activity-associated bone loading both during and after skeletal growth is positively associated with adult bone mass. PMID:25237041

  12. Prevalence and correlates of HIV risk among adolescents and young adults reporting drug use: Data from an urban Emergency Department in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults who use substances are at particularly high risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location for HIV prevention for at-risk youth. To inform future interventions in the ED, this study identifies correlates of HIV risk behaviors among substance using youth seeking ED care. Among 600 14-24-year-olds with past 6-month drug use, bivariate correlates of HIV risk included: older age, female gender, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, marijuana use, other drug use, and dating, peer, and community violence. Regression analyses indicated that older age, marijuana use, and dating violence were positively related to HIV risk. Results suggest HIV prevention efforts for youth in the urban ED should address marijuana use and dating violence as well as sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25126024

  13. Type A behavior and its determinants in children, adolescents and young adults with and without parental coronary heart disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Räikkönen, K; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Pietikäinen, M

    1991-01-01

    Healthy children, adolescents and young adults with parental coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 78) were compared with their one-to-one matched controls without a parental CHD (N = 78) in terms of their psychological and behavioral characteristics. The variables adopted were Type A behavior, self-esteem, achievement striving, hyperactivity and social maladjustment. The results indicate a tendency for boys with parental CHD to be characterized by higher scores on Type A behavior, lower self-esteem and more intense striving for achievement compared to their matched controls. Girls with parental CHD differed from their matched controls in the predicted direction only in one respect: a higher level of hyperactivity was characteristic for cases. PMID:2046059

  14. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  15. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3-20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II-III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm(2); p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm(2); p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm(2); p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  18. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  19. Evaluation of a combined blood glucose monitoring and gaming system (Didget®) for motivation in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Aisenberg, Javier; Kaufman, Francine; Halvorson, Mary; Cruz, Eric; Riordan, Mary Ellen; Varma, Chandrasekhar; Pardo, Scott; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane F; Schachner, Holly C; Bailey, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and acceptability of a blood glucose meter coupled with a gaming system for children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. During an in-clinic visit, duplicate blood samples were tested by subjects (N = 147; aged 5-24 yr) and health care providers (HCPs) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the Didget® system. Subjects' meter results were compared against Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) reference results and HCP results using least squares regression and error grid analyses. Precision was measured by average within-subject and within-HCP coefficient of variation (CV). During the home-use component of this study, subjects (n = 58) tested their blood glucose at least two to three times daily for 3-5 d to evaluate routine use of the system. Subjects' meter results showed significant correlations with both YSI (r(2) = 0.94; p < 0.001 for regression slope) and HCP results (r(2) = 0.96; p < 0.001). Average within-subject and within-HCP CVs were 5.9 and 7.2%, respectively. Overall satisfaction was assessed by subjects, their parents or guardians, and HCP surveys. Subject satisfaction with the Didget® system was good to excellent; most subjects found the system easy to use, motivating, and helpful for building good blood glucose monitoring habits. Most HCPs agreed that the system fulfilled a need in diabetes management. In conclusion, the Didget® system was precise and clinically accurate in the hands of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:21699639

  20. Cost utility analysis of reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescence and young adult with severe thalassemia compared to hypertransfusion and iron chelation program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematopoieticic stem cell transplantation is the only therapeutic option that can cure thalassemia disease. Reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RI-HSCT) has demonstrated a high cure rate with minimal complications compared to other options. Because RI-HSCT is very costly, economic justification for its value is needed. This study aimed to estimate the cost-utility of RI-HSCT compared with blood transfusions combined with iron chelating therapy (BT-ICT) for adolescent and young adult with severe thalassemia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes over the patients’ lifetimes using a societal perspective. All future costs and outcomes were discounted at a rate of 3% per annum. The efficacy of RI-HSCT was based a clinical trial including a total of 18 thalassemia patients. Utility values were derived directly from all patients using EQ-5D and SF-6D. Primary outcomes of interest were lifetime costs, quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in US ($) per QALY gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were conducted to investigate the effect of parameter uncertainty. Results In base case analysis, the RI-HSCT group had a better clinical outcomes and higher lifetime costs. The incremental cost per QALY gained was US $ 3,236 per QALY. The acceptability curve showed that the probability of RI-HSCT being cost-effective was 71% at the willingness to pay of 1 time of Thai Gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita), approximately US $ 4,210 per QALY gained. The most sensitive parameter was utility of severe thalassemia patients without cardiac complication patients. Conclusion At a societal willingness to pay of 1 GDP per capita, RI-HSCT was a cost-effective treatment for adolescent and young adult with severe thalassemia in Thailand compared to BT-ICT. PMID:23379888

  1. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  2. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  3. Association of socioeconomic status change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in South African young adults: Birth to Twenty Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S; Pisa, Pedro T; Griffiths, Paula L; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social epidemiology models suggest that socioeconomic status (SES) mobility across the life course affects blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in young adults, and the impact of early growth on this relationship. Setting Data for this study were obtained from a ‘Birth to Twenty’ cohort in Soweto, Johannesburg, in South Africa. Participants The study included 838 Black participants aged 18 years who had household SES measures in infancy and at adolescence, anthropometry at 0, 2, 4 and 18 years of age and blood pressure at the age of 18 years. Methods We computed SES change using asset-based household SES in infancy and during adolescence as an exposure variable, and blood pressure and hypertension status as outcomes. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations between SES change from infancy to adolescence, and age, height and sex-specific blood pressure and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for confounders. Results Compared to a persistent low SES, an upward SES change from low to high SES tertile between infancy and adolescence was significantly associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the age of 18 years (β=−4.85; 95% CI −8.22 to −1.48; p<0.01; r2=0.1804) after adjusting for SES in infancy, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and weight gain. Associations between SES change and SBP were partly explained by weight gain between birth and the age of 18 years. There was no association between SES mobility and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure or hypertension status. Conclusions Our study confirms that upward SES change has a protective effect on SBP by the time participants reach young adulthood. Socioeconomic policies and interventions that address inequality may have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease burden related to BP in later life. PMID

  4. Rationale for a Pediatric-Inspired Approach in the Adolescent and Young Adult Population with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, with a Focus on Asparaginase Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Putti, Maria Caterina; Colombini, Antonella; Casagranda, Sara; Ferrari, Giulia Maria; Papayannidis, Cristina; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Abbenante, Maria Chiara; Sartor, Chiara; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades great improvements have been made in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with 5-year overall survival rates currently approaching almost 90%. In comparison, results reported in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are relatively poor. In adults, results have improved, but are still lagging behind those obtained in children. Possible reasons for this different pattern of results include an increased incidence of unfavorable and a decreased incidence of favorable cytogenetic abnormalities in AYAs compared with children. Furthermore, in AYAs less intensive treatments (especially lower cumulative doses of drugs such as asparaginase, corticosteroids and methotrexate) and longer gaps between courses of chemotherapy are planned compared to those in children. However, although favorable results obtained in AYAs receiving pediatric protocols have been consistently reported in several international collaborative trials, physicians must also be aware of the specific toxicity pattern associated with increased success in AYAs, since an excess of toxicity may compromise overall treatment schedule intensity. Cooperative efforts between pediatric and adult hematologists in designing specific protocols for AYAs are warranted. PMID:25317319

  5. Ethnic Differences in and Childhood Influences on Early Adult Pulse Wave Velocity: The Determinants of Adolescent, Now Young Adult, Social Wellbeing, and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Silva, Maria J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Faconti, Luca; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie

    2016-06-01

    Early determinants of aortic stiffness as pulse wave velocity are poorly understood. We tested how factors measured twice previously in childhood in a multiethnic cohort study, particularly body mass, blood pressure, and objectively assessed physical activity affected aortic stiffness in young adults. Of 6643 London children, aged 11 to 13 years, from 51 schools in samples stratified by 6 ethnic groups with different cardiovascular risk, 4785 (72%) were seen again at aged 14 to 16 years. In 2013, 666 (97% of invited) took part in a young adult (21-23 years) pilot follow-up. With psychosocial and anthropometric measures, aortic stiffness and blood pressure were recorded via an upper arm calibrated Arteriograph device. In a subsample (n=334), physical activity was measured >5 days via the ActivPal. Unadjusted pulse wave velocities in black Caribbean and white UK young men were similar (mean±SD 7.9±0.3 versus 7.6±0.4 m/s) and lower in other groups at similar systolic pressures (120 mm Hg) and body mass (24.6 kg/m(2)). In fully adjusted regression models, independent of pressure effects, black Caribbean (higher body mass/waists), black African, and Indian young women had lower stiffness (by 0.5-0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-1.1 m/s) than did white British women (6.9±0.2 m/s). Values were separately increased by age, pressure, powerful impacts from waist/height, time spent sedentary, and a reported racism effect (+0.3 m/s). Time walking at >100 steps/min was associated with reduced stiffness (P<0.01). Effects of childhood waist/hip were detected. By young adulthood, increased waist/height ratios, lower physical activity, blood pressure, and psychosocial variables (eg, perceived racism) independently increase arterial stiffness, effects likely to increase with age. PMID:27141061

  6. Attitudes toward Life and Death and Suicidality in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brenda J.; Range, Lillian M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward life and death, alone and in combination with life events, to determine suicide risk for young adults. Used the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents, Life and Death Attitudes Scale, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, Death Anxiety Scale, and Life Experiences Survey to measure responses of 140 young adults…

  7. Young people, adult worries”: RCT of an internet-based self-support method “Feel the ViBe” for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high. Since almost all children of the current generation have access to the internet, an online intervention will make help better available for this target group. In 2011, an internet-based self-support method for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence was developed in the Netherlands: “Feel the ViBe”. The intervention was developed in close collaboration with the target group. This article describes the protocol of the RCT to study the effectiveness of this intervention. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial using the method of minimization to randomize the participants in two parallel groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio, being an intervention group, having access to “Feel the ViBe” and usual care (UC), and a control group, having access to minimally enhanced usual care (mEUC) followed by access to the intervention after twelve weeks. Outcomes are measured with questionnaires on PTSD symptoms, mental health and sexual and reproductive health. Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) will be used to measure a direct effect of participating in the intervention. Data from a web evaluation questionnaire (WEQ), user statistics and qualitative analysis of online data will be used to support the findings. To compare results Cohen’s d effect sizes will be used. Discussion A RCT and process evaluation will test effectiveness and provide information of how the effects can be explained, how the intervention meets the expectation of participants

  8. Alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in adolescents and young adults at varying genetic and environmental risk*

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.E.; Grant, J.D.; Yoon, H.Y.; Bucholz, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorder symptoms frequently occur in adolescents and younger adults who seldom acknowledge a need for help. We identified sociodemographic, clinical, and familial predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in an offspring of twins sample. Method We analyzed longitudinal data from the Children of Alcoholics and Twins as Parents studies, which are combinable longitudinal data sources due to their equivalent design. We analyzed respondents (n=1,073, 56.0% of the total sample) with alcohol use disorder symptoms at the baseline interview. Familial characteristics included perceptions of alcohol problems and help seeking for alcohol problems within the immediate family and a categorical variable indicating genetic and environmental risk. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking. Results Approximately 25.9% recognized their alcohol problems and 26.7% sought help for drinking. In covariate-adjusted analyses, help seeking among family members predicted problem recognition, several clinical characteristics predicted both problem recognition and help seeking, and familial risk predicted help seeking. Alcohol problem recognition mediated the association between alcohol use disorder symptoms and incident help seeking. Conclusions Facilitating the self-recognition of alcohol use disorder symptoms, and perhaps the awareness of family members’ help seeking for alcohol problems, may be potentially promising methods to facilitate help seeking. PMID:26036603

  9. [Deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in two cities of the Southern Cone: Córdoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil), 1990-2010].

    PubMed

    Rojas Cabrera, Eleonora Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze and compare the evolution of deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in the cities of Cordoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil). It also seeks to establish if the results are consistent with those reported in previous national and local research. Based on official data, specific mortality rates (by sex, age and cause) are calculated for the 1990-92 and 2008-10 periods. In general, violent causes play a significant part in the total number of deaths especially among young men and as they get older. In line with the reality of the country, in Córdoba both non-traffic-related and also traffic-related deaths are most frequent. On the other hand, in Porto Alegre (where the level of deaths from violent causes is higher), homicides and traffic accidents are the most common cause of death. Beyond the actions taken so far, it is necessary to redouble efforts to counter the problem in question, both in the recording of information for decision-making and in regard to the decisions when they are put into practice. PMID:25650595

  10. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  11. Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 13–24 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Youth living with HIV are highly under-represented in the evidence base for adherence interventions, despite their diverse and unique needs and barriers. Objective: This systematic review aimed to identify antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions specifically targeting adolescents and young adults (defined as ages 13–24) with the goal of characterizing the evidence base. Methods: Articles were identified using the PubMed database and cover work published through September 14, 2015. Inclusion criteria: (1) average age 13 to 24, (2) HIV positive, (3) on or beginning ART, (4) intervention targeted ART adherence in full or in part, (5) reported adherence, viral load, and/or CD4 count outcomes. Strength of evidence was defined as level 1 [randomized controlled trial (RCT) with significance testing on outcomes], 2 (within group studies with statistical testing on outcomes), 3 (RCTs with descriptive results), or 4 (within group studies with descriptive results). Results: Of 151 articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Published between 2003 and 2014, these studies evaluated diverse intervention approaches. Most were conducted in the US and were small pilots that have yet to be replicated despite promising results. Only 3 studies met criteria for highest level strength of evidence; 2 supported a phone-based counseling approach with adherence monitors and 1 for weekly individual and family counseling. Conclusions: Despite nearly 20 years passing since the wide-scale availability of ART, and clear recognition that adolescents and youth adults fair worse on the cascade of HIV care, the evidence base remains sparse and underdeveloped. Promising approaches need replication and more rigorous studies are desperately needed. PMID:26959190

  12. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  13. Low testosterone levels may be associated with suicidal behavior in older men while high testosterone levels may be related to suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between testosterone and suicidal behavior. A link between testosterone and the neurobiology of suicidal behavior may be related to: a) a direct effect of testosterone on suicidality via certain brain mechanisms; and/or b) a testosterone influence on aggression and, consequently, suicidality; and/or c) a testosterone effect on mood and, consequently, suicidality; and/or d) a testosterone effect on cognition and, consequently, suicidality. At least one study has demonstrated a relation between high levels of testosterone and suicide in young people. A significant number of studies suggest that high testosterone levels are associated with aggression in adolescents and adults. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aggression is associated with suicidal behavior. The effect of high testosterone levels on suicidality in adolescents and young adults may be mediated by testosterone-related elevated aggression. It is also possible that, in young people, high testosterone levels are directly linked to suicidality via certain brain mechanisms. In older men, decreased testosterone levels are associated with depressive symptoms and reduced cognitive function, whereas higher blood levels of testosterone are associated with better mood and cognitive functioning. Depression and reduced cognition are associated with suicidal behavior and may mediate the effect of decreased testosterone levels on suicidality. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is associated with high testosterone levels, whereas suicidality in older men is associated with decreased testosterone secretion. PMID:23893672

  14. "It was pretty scary": the theme of fear in young adult women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally; Humphreys, Janice C

    2013-11-01

    The mental health impact of abusive adolescent dating relationships has not been well described, but fear related to abuse has been reported. We elaborate the theme of fear in women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse. A sample of community-based women, ages 19-34, who experienced an abusive dating relationship during adolescence (ages 11-20) was used. Data were analyzed via thematic analysis. Fear was a consistent and resonant theme. Three types of fear were identified: fear for self, fear for other relationships, and fearful expectation. These results offer important insights into the impact of abusive adolescent relationships on women's mental health. PMID:24131412

  15. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  16. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences.

    PubMed

    Curcio, S; García-Espinosa, V; Arana, M; Farro, I; Chiesa, P; Giachetto, G; Zócalo, Y; Bia, D

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4-28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4-8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504

  17. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, S.; García-Espinosa, V.; Arana, M.; Farro, I.; Chiesa, P.; Giachetto, G.; Zócalo, Y.; Bia, D.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4–28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4–8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504

  18. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  19. Privileged High School Girls' Responses to Depictions of Femininity in Popular Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suico, Theresa Go

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature has been a subject of contention for educators, adolescent psychologists, and critics for decades. Although some commentators maintain that young adult literature can be educationally and developmentally beneficial for adolescent readers, others argue that it often contains negative and potentially harmful messages that…

  20. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. PMID:26055933