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Sample records for adopt effective measures

  1. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  2. Who Is Adopted? Measuring Adoption Status Using National Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Bayley, Bruce K.; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Coyl, Diana; Grotevant, Harold D.; van Dulmen, Manfred; Dunbar, Nora

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to illustrate the complexities of using large-scale surveys to measure adoption status. Discusses conceptual and methodological issues in measuring adoption status. Presents decision rules for determining adoption status across three sources of data: school self-administered…

  3. Adopting software quality measures for healthcare processes.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Demirörs, Onur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the adoptability of software quality measures for healthcare process measurement. Quality measures of ISO/IEC 9126 are redefined from a process perspective to build a generic healthcare process quality measurement model. Case study research method is used, and the model is applied to a public hospital's Entry to Care process. After the application, weak and strong aspects of the process can be easily observed. Access audibility, fault removal, completeness of documentation, and machine utilization are weak aspects and these aspects are the candidates for process improvement. On the other hand, functional completeness, fault ratio, input validity checking, response time, and throughput time are the strong aspects of the process.

  4. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  5. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  6. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention. PMID:27435285

  7. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention.

  8. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  9. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  10. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  11. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  12. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  13. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  14. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  15. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2); environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184) = 7.82, p = .006), but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women. PMID:21736740

  16. Measuring the post-adoption customer perception of mobile banking services.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Fang, Kwoting

    2009-02-01

    With liberalization and internalization in the financial market and progress in information technology, banks face dual competitive pressures to provide service quality and administrative efficiency. That these recent developments are fueled by technology might misleadingly suggest that the adoption of mobile banking is largely based on technological criteria. The purpose of this study is to establish a better measurement model for postadoption user perception of mobile banking services. Based on 458 valid responses of mobile banking users, the results show that the instrument, consisting of 21 items and 6 factors, is a reliable, valid, and useful measurement for assessing the postadoption perception of mobile banking. PMID:19018694

  17. Measuring the post-adoption customer perception of mobile banking services.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Fang, Kwoting

    2009-02-01

    With liberalization and internalization in the financial market and progress in information technology, banks face dual competitive pressures to provide service quality and administrative efficiency. That these recent developments are fueled by technology might misleadingly suggest that the adoption of mobile banking is largely based on technological criteria. The purpose of this study is to establish a better measurement model for postadoption user perception of mobile banking services. Based on 458 valid responses of mobile banking users, the results show that the instrument, consisting of 21 items and 6 factors, is a reliable, valid, and useful measurement for assessing the postadoption perception of mobile banking.

  18. Building change: Effects of professional culture and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Kathryn Bess

    1998-12-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of energy-efficient buildings, energy efficiency measures have not been widely adopted by the building industry. My dissertation addresses the question "If energy efficiency is such a good idea, why isn't there more of it?" by studying the two professional groups that have the most influence over building design: architects and engineers. My hypothesis is that the professional cultures and organizational contexts of building designers can and do influence the achievable potential for energy efficiency in buildings. "Professional culture" describes what architects and engineers are generally taught (both directly and indirectly) to want in a building. "Organizational context" refers to where and how an individual architect or engineer does his or her work. Two utility-funded demand-side management projects provide data for this effort. I use technologies, designers, and decisions from these projects to explore the effects of engineering-economic information, professional culture, and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption. My results show that even in situations where cost and information barriers are overcome, professional culture and organizational contexts affect energy efficiency adoption. My conclusions recommend treating energy efficiency in the built environment as a socio-technical problem, not an engineering-economic one. To improve energy efficiency adoption in the short term, efficiency advocates should focus on organizational context, matching efficient technologies with the firm types most likely to adopt them. To generate market transformation in the long term, efficiency advocates should focus on educating future generations of designers to include efficiency in their professional cultures.

  19. Online Learning Adoption: Effects of Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Perceived Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watjatrakul, Boonlert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individual differences and perceived values of technology have received much attention in technology adoption literature. However, there is a lack of understanding of their relationships and effects on online learning adoption. The study aims to investigate the effects of two important personality traits (i.e. openness to experience and…

  20. What Can an Adoption Study Tell Us About the Effect of Prenatal Environment on a Trait?

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C

    2016-05-01

    Adoption studies provide possibilities for estimating the extent to which prenatal environmental events account for individual differences on a trait. Correlations with birth mothers but not adoptive mothers suggest the presence of genetic or prenatal environmental effects; higher correlations with birth mothers than with birth fathers suggest the presence of the latter. Changes over time may also be relevant. The concepts involved are illustrated with parent-child IQ correlations from the Texas and Colorado Adoption Projects.

  1. Incentives to adopt irrigation water saving measures for wetlands preservation: An integrated basin scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikouei, Alireza; Zibaei, Mansour; Ward, Frank A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryPreserving natural wetlands is a growing challenge as the world faces increased demand for water. Drought, climate change and growing demands by users aggravate the issue. The conflict between irrigated agriculture and wetland services presents a classic case of competition. This paper examines an institutional mechanism that offers an incentive to farmers to adopt water conservation measures, which in turn could reduce overall water use in irrigated agriculture within a selected basin. Reduced water demands could provide the additional water needed for wetland preservation. We present an analytical empirical model implemented through the development of an integrated basin framework, in which least-cost measures for securing environmental flows to sustain wetlands are examined for the Zayandeh-Rud River Basin of central Iran. To test this idea, two policies - one with and one without an incentive - are analyzed: (a) reduced agricultural diversions without a water conservation subsidy, and (b) reduced agricultural diversions with a water conservation subsidy. The policies are evaluated against a background of two alternative water supply scenarios over a 10-year period. Results reveal that a water conservation subsidy can provide incentives for farmers to shift out of flood irrigation and bring more land into production by adopting water-saving irrigation technologies. The policy increases crop yields, raises profitability of farming, and increases the shadow price of water. Although the conservation subsidy policy incurs a financial cost to the taxpayer, it could be politically and economically attractive for both irrigators and environmental stakeholders. Results open the door for further examination of policy measures to preserve wetlands.

  2. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Shintaro; dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from…

  3. Age at Adoption from Institutional Care as a Window into the Lasting Effects of Early Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early…

  4. Alternative agriculture adoption: Effects of ground water contamination and other factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cyphers, D.; D'Souza, G. )

    1992-12-01

    The factors influencing adoption of alternative agriculture are quantified using a logit model and survey data. The likelihood of adoption of alternative agriculture is affected most by the environmental characteristic of whether or not ground water contamination exists. This creates an awareness effect' upon which to formulate policies leading to a sustainable agriculture.

  5. Asian Indian Students: Moving beyond Myths and Adopting Effective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Asian Indian population and how the myth of the model minority can influence students' access to support services. It is important for school counselors to understand how this minority group experience stressors related to academics, career decision making, and personal/social development. Effective interventions and…

  6. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: Evaluation of the adoption phase.

    PubMed

    Parcel, G S; O'Hara-Tompkins, N M; Harrist, R B; Basen-Engquist, K M; McCormick, L K; Gottlieb, N H; Eriksen, M P

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the results of theory-based intervention strategies to increase the adoption of a tobacco prevention program. The adoption intervention followed a series of dissemination intervention strategies targeted at 128 school districts in Texas. Informed by Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention provided opportunities for districts to learn about and model themselves after 'successful' school districts that had adopted the program, and to see the potential for social reinforcement through the knowledge that the program had the potential to have an important influence on students' lives. The proportion of districts in the Intervention condition that adopted the program was significantly greater than in the Comparison condition (P < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression indicated that the variables most closely related to adoption among intervention districts were teacher attitudes toward the innovation and organizational considerations of administrators. Recommendations for the development of effective strategies for the diffusion of innovations are presented.

  7. Evaluation of a randomized intervention to increase adoption of comparative effectiveness research by community health organizations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Williams, Weston O; Dusablon, Tracy; Blais, Marissa Puckett; Tregear, Stephen J; Banks, Duren; PhD, Kevin D Hennessy

    2014-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the influence of two strategies (informational packets alone and in conjunction with Webinars) aimed at increasing the adoption of motivational interviewing (MI), a patient-centered behavioral health practice supported by evidence from comparative effectiveness studies, among community health organizations responsible for delivering mental and behavioral health services. Data were obtained from 311 directors and staff across 92 community organizations. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in decision to adopt MI. The mediating effects of multiple contextual variables were also examined. Results showed that both strategies positively influenced the decision to adopt. The positive impact on decision to adopt was significantly greater among individuals that received informational packets in conjunction with Webinars. Baseline attitudes toward evidence-based practices and pressures for change appeared to mediate this effect. PMID:24091611

  8. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic

  9. The awareness and want matrix with adoption gap ratio analysis for e-service diffusion effect.

    PubMed

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Since the hierarchical stages of a customer purchasing decision or innovation adoption process are interrelated, an analysis of all their stages, including awareness, want, and adoption, in relation to product or service diffusion, is urgently needed. Therefore, this study proposes the use of an awareness and want matrix, together with an adoption gap ratio analysis, to assess the effectiveness of innovation and technology diffusion for e-services. This study also conducts an empirical test on the promotion performance evaluation of 12 e-services promoted by the Taiwanese government.

  10. Early and later adoptions have different long-term effects on male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Barbazanges, A; Vallée, M; Mayo, W; Day, J; Simon, H; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1996-12-01

    Both prenatal and postnatal environmental factors exert complex influences on the development of an organism. Previous studies have demonstrated that intervening events during the prenatal period can have different and even opposite effects than similar intervening events occurring in the postnatal period. We have reported previously that early postnatal adoption prevents prenatal stress-induced long-term impairments in glucocorticoid feedback. To characterize further the effects of adoptions during the postnatal period, adoptions have been performed at different times, and the effect on the postnatal ontogeny of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis has been investigated. Adoptions were performed during the first hour after birth (A1) and on the fifth (A5) and twelfth (A12) days after birth. At each of these times, other litters (S1, S5, S12) underwent a "separation" controlling for the 1 min maternal separation necessary for the adoptions. Locomotor behavior, cognition, and stress-induced corticosterone secretion in the adult male offspring have been examined, along with maternal behavior. Early adoption (A1) was found to prevent the prolonged stress-induced secretion of corticosterone evident in early separated (S1) offspring. Similarly, A1 rats demonstrated lower novelty-induced locomotion and improved recognition performance in a Y-maze compared to S1 offspring. However, later adoption (A5, A12) prolonged stress-induced corticosterone secretion, increased the locomotor response to novelty, and disrupted cognitive performance in the offspring. Only the early adoption increased maternal licking behavior, a factor that may have a protective effect on the pups. Taken together, these results suggest that the same postnatal manipulation realized at different times can induce different, or even opposite, effects on the behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the adult offspring. PMID:8922434

  11. Estimating the environmental and economic effects of widespread residential PV adoption using GIS and NEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.; Mahler, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a study of the national effects of widespread adoption of grid-connected residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. A Geographic Information System (GIS) model is used to estimate potential PV system adoption and PV electricity generation and the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used to estimate the national effects of PV electricity generation. Adoption is assumed to occur if levelized PV system cost is less than the local average retail electricity rate at the country level. An estimate of the current {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} scenario (defined by a 6.5% real interest rate, 30-year loan life, $6{sub 1994}/W system cost, and $4{sub 1994}/month voluntary premium) results in no adoption. Several scenarios designed to stimulate PV adoption are modeled. As an example, if PV system costs are instead assumed to be $3{sub 1994}/W, rooftop systems are found to be cost effective in 16% of detached single-family households in the U.S. by 2015 (assuming full adoption of 4-kW systems), this results in 82.1 TWh of annual PV electricity generation, 170 TWh of avoided electricity transmission, distribution, and generation losses, 6 Mt/a of avoided carbon emissions, 50 kt/a of avoided NOx emissions, and 27.3 GW of avoided electricity generating capacity in place.

  12. Estimating the environmental and economic effects of widespread residential PV adoption using GIS and NEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.; Mahler, S.A.; Markel, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a study of the national effects of widespread adoption of grid-connected residential roof-top photovoltaic (PV) systems. A Geographic Information System (GIS) model is used to estimate potential PV system adoption and PV electricity generation and the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used to estimate the national effects of PV electricity generation. Adoption is assumed to occur if levelized PV system cost is less than the local average retail electricity rate at a county-level. The estimate of the current best scenario (defined in 1994 dollars by a 6.5% real interest rate, 30 year loan life, $6/W system cost, and $4/month voluntary premium) results in no adoption. The authors model several scenarios designed to stimulate PV adoption. As an example, if PV system costs are instead assumed to be $3/W, roof-top systems are found to be cost effective in 16% of detached single-family households in the US. By 2015 (assuming full adoption of 4 kW systems), this results in 82.1 TWh of annual PV electricity generation, 1709 TWh of avoided electricity transmission, distribution, and generation (TD and G) losses, 6 Mt/a of avoided carbon emissions, 50 kt/a of avoided NOx emissions, and 27.3 GW of avoided electricity generating capacity in place.

  13. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  14. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  15. The Effect of the Adoption of the Quality Philosophy by Teachers on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody Clark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the adoption of the Deming philosophy by teachers and use of the LtoJ[R] process resulted in greater academic achievement. Results of internal consistency analysis indicated that the instrument, the "Commitment to Quality Inventory for Educators," was a reliable measure of the Deming philosophy for…

  16. Sixty-five: Communication and the Adoption of Energy Conservation Measures by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    To determine the relationship of various forms of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners, and to compare the energy conserving behavior of those under 65 with those over 65, a three-year panel study was conducted in a Midwest suburban community. Heads of households who owned single family dwellings were…

  17. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences.

    PubMed

    Julian, Megan M

    2013-06-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered.

  18. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  19. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  20. Broadband in Schools: Effects on Student Performance and Spillovers for Household Internet Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belo, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This work comprises studies on the effects of broadband Internet in schools at three different levels: student performance, household Internet adoption, and individual computer and Internet use patterns and skill acquisition. I focus in the case of Portugal, where by 2006 the Portuguese government had completed a major initiative that upgraded the…

  1. A business case for HIT adoption: effects of "meaningful use" EHR financial incentives on clinic revenue.

    PubMed

    Behkami, Nima A; Dorr, David A; Morrice, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe a framework that allows decision makers to efficiently evaluate factors that affect Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and test suitable interventions; specifically financial incentives. The United States healthcare delivery system is experiencing a transformation to improve population health. There is strong agreement that "meaningful use" of Health Information Technology (HIT) is a major enabler in this effort. However it's also understood that the high cost of implementing an EHR is an obstacle for adoption. To help understand these complexities we developed a simulation model designed to capture the dynamic nature of policy interventions that affect the adoption of EHR. We found that "Effective" use of HIT approaches break-even-point and larger clinic revenue many times faster that "average" or "poor" use of HIT. This study uses a systems perspective to the evaluate EHR adoption process through the "meaningful use" redesign as proposed in the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act 2009 in the United States healthcare industry by utilizing the System Dynamics methodology and Scenario Analysis.

  2. Absolute reliability of isokinetic knee flexion and extension measurements adopting a prone position.

    PubMed

    Ayala, F; De Ste Croix, M; Sainz de Baranda, P; Santonja, F

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic peak torque (PT), angle of peak torque (APT), average power (PW) and total work (TW) for knee flexion and extension during concentric and eccentric actions measured in a prone position at 60, 180 and 240° s(-1). A total of 50 recreational athletes completed the study. PT, APT, PW and TW for concentric and eccentric knee extension and flexion were recorded at three different angular velocities (60, 180 and 240° s(-1)) on three different occasions with a 72- to 96-h rest interval between consecutive testing sessions. Absolute reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CV(TE)), percentage change in the mean (ChM) and relative reliability with intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1)). For both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups, all strength data (except APT during knee flexion movements) demonstrated moderate absolute reliability (ChM < 3%; ICCs > 0·70; and CV(TE) < 20%) independent of the knee movement (flexion and extension), type of muscle action (concentric and eccentric) and angular velocity (60, 180 and 240° s(-1)). Therefore, the current study suggests that the CV(TE) values reported for PT (8-20%), APT (8-18%) (only during knee extension movements), PW (14-20%) and TW (12-28%) may be acceptable to detect the large changes usually observed after rehabilitation programmes, but not acceptable to examine the effect of preventative training programmes in healthy individuals.

  3. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24694112

  4. Does Screen Size Matter for Smartphones? Utilitarian and Hedonic Effects of Screen Size on Smartphone Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Joon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of—and attitude toward—the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24694112

  5. Empirical analysis of retirement pension and IFRS adoption effects on accounting information: glance at IT industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended. PMID:25013868

  6. Empirical Analysis of Retirement Pension and IFRS Adoption Effects on Accounting Information: Glance at IT Industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended. PMID:25013868

  7. Empirical analysis of retirement pension and IFRS adoption effects on accounting information: glance at IT industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended.

  8. Targeting STAT3 in adoptively transferred T cells promotes their in vivo expansion and antitumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Scuto, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Deng, Jiehui; Forman, Stephen; Figlin, Robert; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells to improve natural immune response and antitumor functions has shown promise for treating cancer. However, the requirement for extensive ex vivo manipulation of T cells and the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment limit this therapeutic modality. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to circumvent these limitations by engineering Stat3-deficient CD8+ T cells or by targeting Stat3 in the tumor microenvironment. We show that ablating Stat3 in CD8+ T cells prior to their transfer allows their efficient tumor infiltration and robust proliferation, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor growth inhibition. For potential clinical translation, we combined adoptive T cell therapy with an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma tumor models. Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 in dendritic cells and T cells, reduced conversion of transferred Foxp3− T cells to tumor-associated T regulatory cells while increasing transferred CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation at the tumor site, leading to inhibition of primary tumor growth. These data demonstrate that adoptively transferred T cells can be expanded and activated in vivo either by engineering Stat3 silenced T cells or by targeting Stat3 systemically with small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:21118964

  9. Individual differences and workload effects on strategy adoption in a dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jungaa; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of individual differences and workload on strategy adaptivity in a complex, dynamic task called the Space Fortress game (Donchin, 1989). Participants learned to use a strategy of flying a ship in circles around the fortress in a standard game environment. Once they mastered the strategy, they were assigned to different workload conditions and transferred to a nonstandard environment in which a strong wind was introduced that made it more difficult to achieve a circular orbit. About half of the participants continued with their prior circular strategy while the rest adopted a novel strategy that achieved comparable performance with less effort. With this novel strategy, rather than trying to complete orbits they flew into the wind and then allowed the wind to blow them back to achieve a pendulum-like path. Participants without a working-memory load were more likely to adopt the new strategy. Participants were also more likely to adopt the new strategy if their pattern of behavior exposed them more often to the potential of drifting with the wind. The results indicate that spontaneous changes in strategy occur when people are exposed to the potential of a new strategy and have the cognitive resources to understand its potential. PMID:23831665

  10. Differences in the effects of host suppression on the adoptive immunotherapy of subcutaneous and visceral tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.E.; Shu, S.Y.; Chou, T.; Lafreniere, R.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    A syngeneic transplantable sarcoma induced in C57BL/6 mice, MCA 105, was used in studies to examine host suppression on the adoptive immunotherapy of established intradermal and experimentally induced pulmonary and hepatic metastases. Fresh immune splenocytes were generated from mice immunized to the MCA 105 tumor by a mixture of viable tumor cells and Corynebacterium parvum. The adoptive immunotherapy of intradermal MCA 105 tumor with immune cells required prior immunosuppression of the recipient by sublethal irradiation with 500 R or T-cell depletion. The effect of whole-body sublethal irradiation appeared to eliminate a systemic host suppression mechanism, since partialbody irradiation involving the tumor-bearing area did not permit successful immunotherapy. Host irradiation was not required to achieve successful immunotherapy of experimentally induced pulmonary or hepatic metastases. In nonirradiated recipients bearing both intradermal and pulmonary tumors, host suppression did not affect the function of transferred immune cells to induce regression of pulmonary metastases. Thus, suppression of adoptive immunotherapy appears to be relevant to tumors confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue but not to tumor in visceral sites, such as the lung and liver.

  11. Effects of adopting new precession, nutation and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S. Y.; Mueller, I. I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of adopting definitive precession and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame was investigated. It is noted that the effect on polar motion is a diurnal periodic term with an amplitude increasing linearly in time whole on UT1 it is a linear term: general principles are given to determine the effects of small rotations of the frame of a conventional inertial reference system (CIS) on the frame of the conventional terrestrial reference system (CTS); seven CTS options are presented, one of which is necessary to accommodate such rotation. Accommodating possible future changes in the astronomical nutation is discussed. The effects of differences which may exist between the various CTS's and CIS's on Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and how these differences can be determined are examined. It is shown that the CTS differences can be determined from observations made at the same site. The CIS differences by comparing the ERP's are determined by the different techniques during the same time period.

  12. Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Child HPA Regulation: Independent and Moderated Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…

  13. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  14. Health effects of adopting low greenhouse gas emission diets in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Milner, James; Green, Rosemary; Dangour, Alan D; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid; Spadaro, Joseph; Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary changes which improve health are also likely to be beneficial for the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, previous analyses have not accounted for the potential acceptability of low GHG diets to the general public. This study attempted to quantify the health effects associated with adopting low GHG emission diets in the UK. Design Epidemiological modelling study. Setting UK. Participants UK population. Intervention Adoption of diets optimised to achieve the WHO nutritional recommendations and reduce GHG emissions while remaining as close as possible to existing dietary patterns. Main outcome Changes in years of life lost due to coronary heart disease, stroke, several cancers and type II diabetes, quantified using life tables. Results If the average UK dietary intake were optimised to comply with the WHO recommendations, we estimate an incidental reduction of 17% in GHG emissions. Such a dietary pattern would be broadly similar to the current UK average. Our model suggests that it would save almost 7 million years of life lost prematurely in the UK over the next 30 years and increase average life expectancy by over 8 months. Diets that result in additional GHG emission reductions could achieve further net health benefits. For emission reductions greater than 40%, improvements in some health outcomes may decrease and acceptability will diminish. Conclusions There are large potential benefits to health from adopting diets with lower associated GHG emissions in the UK. Most of these benefits can be achieved without drastic changes to existing dietary patterns. However, to reduce emissions by more than 40%, major dietary changes that limit both acceptability and the benefits to health are required. PMID:25929258

  15. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally A.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally adopted individuals show earlier puberty than nonadopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from adopted domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained…

  16. Measures which host countries and countries of origin could adopt to promote the return of migrants.

    PubMed

    Debart, M H

    1986-03-01

    The immigration wave in the 1960s and 1970s brought scores of migrants to Europe. Most intended to work a few years in a foreign country and return to their homeland; however, poor economies in their own countries discouraged their return. At the same time, jobs became scarcer in their host countries. Several European countries today are resorting to measures designed to promote the return of migrants to their countries of origin. This paper outlines the two major options open to governments in their reintegration efforts. Option 1 requires instituting a definite reintegration policy. Public aid to promote reintegration may be provided. For example, the French give aid contingent upon the return of foreign workers in the labor force to the country of origin and not just upon their departure from the host country. Classical methods pay conpensation to the foreign worker; the problem then is to determine at what point to limit the funds. It must be decided whether or not unemployment benefits should be capitalized and whether or not to reimburse social security and old age contributions. It is also desirable for foreign workers to have access to a specialized organization which is able to advise them on setting up a project or business on their return; ideally, this organization should finance the project. Perhaps the best solution is to enlist participation of the governments of the countries of origin to make job openings known to their nationals desiring to return. Option 2 requires that reintegration be introduced into other economic and social programs. Returning foreign workers would be included as a factor in overall policy planning. Vocational training for return migrants could be proposed to job seekers as well as to dismissed workers. A portion of money used to finance housing projects could be earmarked for construction or reservation of housing in the country of origin. Bilateral vocational training programs can be addressed to nationals who want to

  17. Clinical technology assessment, cost-effective adoption, and quality management by hospitals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, S; Saver, C L

    1990-06-01

    Technology assessment in the 1990s must become an integral part of a hospital's strategic priority goals, with active participation of physicians and top management. Technology assessment should involve a wide range of criteria and health care consumer expectations, so that the appropriateness, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement aspects of new technologies are all considered. Mount Carmel Health's Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), established in 1986, monitors significant developments in new technologies and performs technology and outcomes assessments. ATBI activities, which have facilitated adoption of 35 treatment-based projects, are integrated into the existing QA structure of Mount Carmel hospitals. Through resolution of identified problems, quality care can be promoted, while providing patients innovative medical treatments.

  18. An innovative container for WEEE collection and transport: details and effects following the adoption.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Rita; Gebennini, Elisa; Rimini, Bianca

    2009-11-01

    The content of hazardous components in Waste arising from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a major concern that urges governments and industry to take measures to ensure proper treatment and disposal. Thus, the European Union issued directives to encourage reuse, recycling and other proper forms of recovery of such waste while companies and academics are still studying methods and technologies for optimizing recovery processes. This paper presents an analysis of the logistics process assuring the correct collection, handling, transportation and storing of WEEE. The experience comes from an Italian WEEE treatment plant (TRED Carpi S.r.l.) where a new kind of container has been introduced in order to improve the logistics system. An evaluation framework is described and used in order to compare different system configurations and assess the advantages emerging from adopting proper equipments for WEEE transport and handling.

  19. An innovative container for WEEE collection and transport: Details and effects following the adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberini, Rita Gebennini, Elisa Rimini, Bianca

    2009-11-15

    The content of hazardous components in Waste arising from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a major concern that urges governments and industry to take measures to ensure proper treatment and disposal. Thus, the European Union issued directives to encourage reuse, recycling and other proper forms of recovery of such waste while companies and academics are still studying methods and technologies for optimizing recovery processes. This paper presents an analysis of the logistics process assuring the correct collection, handling, transportation and storing of WEEE. The experience comes from an Italian WEEE treatment plant (TRED Carpi S.r.l.) where a new kind of container has been introduced in order to improve the logistics system. An evaluation framework is described and used in order to compare different system configurations and assess the advantages emerging from adopting proper equipments for WEEE transport and handling.

  20. An innovative container for WEEE collection and transport: details and effects following the adoption.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Rita; Gebennini, Elisa; Rimini, Bianca

    2009-11-01

    The content of hazardous components in Waste arising from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a major concern that urges governments and industry to take measures to ensure proper treatment and disposal. Thus, the European Union issued directives to encourage reuse, recycling and other proper forms of recovery of such waste while companies and academics are still studying methods and technologies for optimizing recovery processes. This paper presents an analysis of the logistics process assuring the correct collection, handling, transportation and storing of WEEE. The experience comes from an Italian WEEE treatment plant (TRED Carpi S.r.l.) where a new kind of container has been introduced in order to improve the logistics system. An evaluation framework is described and used in order to compare different system configurations and assess the advantages emerging from adopting proper equipments for WEEE transport and handling. PMID:19695860

  1. Heilougjiang adopts measures to strengthen land management-each square millimeter of land is utterly cherished and rationally used

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Peiquan; Liu, Y.

    1983-07-30

    This article reports on how a Chinese province with a large area of land and a small population has adopted a series of measures to strengthen land management, to stop the illegal occupying of land, and to protect land resources. Investigations of land resources and of the state of land use, as well as soil surveys, have been launched in order to determine the rights of land ownership and use. Many counties and cities have experimented with dividing farm areas into districts and comprehensive land planning, established land files, trained key personnel in land management skills, and have launched scientific land research. Illegal occupation, waste and destruction of land have risen with the increase in population and construction. Per capita cultivated acreage has declined to 4.1 mu. An effort has been made to reach the people in urban and rural areas with this message: ''Cherish every square millimeter of land utterly and use it rationally''.

  2. Effects of adopting new precession, nutation and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S. Y.; Mueller, I. I.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of adopting new definitive precession and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame was investigated. It is noted that: (1) the effect on polar motion is a diurnal periodic term with an amplitude increasing linearly in time whole on UT1 it is a linear term; (2) general principles are given to determine the effects of small rotations of the frame of a conventional inertial reference system (CIS) on the frame of the conventional terrestrial reference system (CTS); (3) seven CTS options are presented, one of which is necessary to accommodate such rotation. Accommodating possible future changes in the astronomical nutation is discussed. The effects of differences which may exist between the various CTS's and CIS's on Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and how these differences can be determined are examined. It is shown that the CTS differences can be determined from observations made at the same site, while the CIS differences by comparing the ERP's determined by the different techniques during the same time period.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Cultural Differences on the Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…

  4. The Effect of Placement Instability on Adopted Children's Inhibitory Control Abilities and Oppositional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin E.; Dozier, Mary; Ackerman, John; Sepulveda-Kozakowski, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relations among placement instability, inhibitory control, and caregiver-rated child behavior. The sample included 33 adopted children who had experienced placement instability, 42 adopted children who had experienced 1 stable placement, and 27 children never placed in foster care. Five- and 6-year-old children completed the…

  5. Critique and Complexity: Presenting a More Effective Way to Conceptualise the Knowledge Adoption Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The process of "knowledge adoption" is defined as the means through which policy-makers digest, accept then "take on board" research findings. It is argued in Brown, however, that current models designed to explain knowledge adoption activity fail to fully account for the complexities that affect its operation. Within this paper, existing…

  6. Adoption age effects on english language acquisition: infants and toddlers from China.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Rena A; Tao, Shannon; Roberts, Jenny

    2005-02-01

    Children adopted from China represent the single largest group of internationally adopted children in this country. Because the adoptive families typically do not speak any Chinese language or dialect, most of these children experience an abrupt shift in their language environment. How age of adoption affects the course of English language development of children adopted from China is the focus of this study. All of the children in this study were either infants or toddlers at the time of adoption and all came from the same orphanage. The results showed that the older children (toddlers) were at both an advantage and a disadvantage when it came to English language development. The advantage of being older was that they learned faster. The disadvantage of being older was that there was more for them to learn to become age-appropriate in their English language development. There was, however, no evidence to suggest that the language switch from a Chinese- to an English-language environment was a formidable obstacle for either the infants or the toddlers.

  7. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  8. Unemployment, measured and perceived decline of economic resources: contrasting three measures of recessionary hardships and their implications for adopting negative health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Economic downturns could have long-term impacts on population health if they promote changes in health behaviors, but the evidence for whether people are more or less likely to adopt negative health behaviors in economically challenging times has been mixed. This paper argues that researchers need to draw more careful distinctions amongst different types of recessionary hardships and the mechanisms that may underlie their associations with health behaviors. We focus on unemployment experience, measured decline in economic resources, and perceived decline in economic resources, all of which are likely to occur more often during recessions, and explore whether their associations with health behaviors are consistent or different. We use population-based longitudinal data collected by the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study in the wake of the Great Recession in the United States. We evaluate whether those who had experienced each of these three hardships were more likely to adopt new negative health behaviors, specifically cigarette smoking, harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption, or marijuana consumption. We find that, net of controls and the other two recessionary hardships, unemployment experience was associated with increased hazard of starting marijuana use. Measured decline in economic resources was associated with increased hazard of cigarette smoking and lower hazard of starting marijuana use. Perceived decline in economic resources was linked to taking up harmful and hazardous drinking. Our results suggest heterogeneity in the pathways that connect hardship experiences and different health behaviors. They also indicate that relying on only one measure of hardship, as many past studies have done, could lead to an incomplete understanding of the relationship between economic distress and health behaviors.

  9. The effects of innovation factors on smartphone adoption among nurses in community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Gavin J; Park, Yangil

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new mobile technological device is the smartphone-a phone with advanced features such as Windows Mobile software, access to the Internet, and other computer processing capabilities. This article investigates the decision to adopt a smartphone among healthcare professionals, specifically nurses. The study examines constructs that affect an individual's decision to adopt a smartphone by employing innovation attributes leading to perceived attitudes. We hypothesize that individual intentions to use a smartphone are mostly determined by attitudes toward using a smartphone, which in turn are affected by innovation characteristics. Innovation characteristics are factors that help explain whether a user will adopt a new technology. The study consisted of a survey disseminated to 200 practicing nurses selected from two community hospitals in the southeastern United States. In our model, the innovation characteristics of observability, compatibility, job relevance, internal environment, and external environment were significant predictors of attitude toward using a smartphone. PMID:20697467

  10. The effects of innovation factors on smartphone adoption among nurses in community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Gavin J; Park, Yangil

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new mobile technological device is the smartphone-a phone with advanced features such as Windows Mobile software, access to the Internet, and other computer processing capabilities. This article investigates the decision to adopt a smartphone among healthcare professionals, specifically nurses. The study examines constructs that affect an individual's decision to adopt a smartphone by employing innovation attributes leading to perceived attitudes. We hypothesize that individual intentions to use a smartphone are mostly determined by attitudes toward using a smartphone, which in turn are affected by innovation characteristics. Innovation characteristics are factors that help explain whether a user will adopt a new technology. The study consisted of a survey disseminated to 200 practicing nurses selected from two community hospitals in the southeastern United States. In our model, the innovation characteristics of observability, compatibility, job relevance, internal environment, and external environment were significant predictors of attitude toward using a smartphone.

  11. The Effect of Software Features on Software Adoption and Training in the Audit Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Although software has been studied with technology adoption and training research, the study of specific software features for professional groups has been limited. To address this gap, I researched the impact of software features of varying complexity on internal audit (IA) professionals. Two studies along with the development of training…

  12. Top Manager Effects on Buprenorphine Adoption in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Jiang, Lan; Alexander, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of top managers’ characteristics on the adoption of buprenorphine for opioid dependence among U.S. outpatient substance abuse treatment units, this investigation analyzed a cross-sectional national study of 547 such units in the 2004–2005 wave of the Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey. Administrators reported their demographics, training, and treatment orientation, as well as features of the unit and its pattern of use of buprenorphine. Nationally, 15.8% of programs offered any buprenorphine services. Greater adoption of buprenorphine correlated with directors’ younger age, longer tenure, male gender, and weaker endorsement of abstinence as the most important treatment goal. Availability of naltrexone and medical services also correlated positively with buprenorphine adoption. The authors conclude that leaders’ characteristics are related to the adoption of innovative practices in addiction treatment programs. Future work should examine whether leadership development for community addiction programs might speed up the diffusion of buprenorphine and other innovative, evidence-based practices. PMID:19296223

  13. Decision-Making Processes of SME in Cloud Computing Adoption to Create Disruptive Innovation: Mediating Effect of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonthiprasat, Rattanawadee

    2014-01-01

    THE PROBLEM. The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to assess the relationship between different Cloud service levels of effective business innovation for SMEs. In addition, the new knowledge gained from the benefits of Cloud adoption with knowledge sharing would enhance the decision making process for businesses to consider the…

  14. Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.
Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.
Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.
Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. 
Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.

 Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection PMID:9470880

  15. Effect of Adoptive Transfer or Depletion of Regulatory T Cells on Triptolide-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinzhi; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) in triptolide (TP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice received either adoptive transfer of Tregs or depletion of Tregs, then underwent TP administration and were sacrificed 24 h after TP administration. Liver injury was determined according to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in serum and histopathological change in liver tissue. Hepatic frequencies of Treg cells and the mRNA expression levels of transcription factor Forkhead box P3 and retinoid orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), interleukin-10 (IL-10), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), and Notch/Notch ligand were investigated. Results: During TP-induced liver injury, hepatic Treg and IL-10 decreased, while T helper 17 cells cell-transcription factor RORγt, SOCS and Notch signaling increased, accompanied with liver inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated the severity of TP-induced liver injury, accompanied with increased levels of hepatic Treg and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs remarkably inhibited the expression of RORγt, SOCS3, Notch1, and Notch3. On the contrary, depletion of Treg cells in TP-administered mice resulted in a notable increase of RORγt, SOCS1, SOCS3, and Notch3, while the Treg and IL-10 of liver decreased. Consistent with the exacerbation of liver injury, higher serum levels of ALT and AST were detected in Treg-depleted mice. Conclusion: These results showed that adoptive transfer or depletion of Tregs attenuated or aggravated TP-induced liver injury, suggesting that Tregs could play important roles in the progression of liver injury. SOCS proteins and Notch signaling affected Tregs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of TP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27148057

  16. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart.

  17. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart. PMID:22746221

  18. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Phillip A.

    Determining the characteristics of effective teaching has been a problem for more than 50 years. Studies attempting to rate characteristics or to devise a fair evaluation method abound, but one necessary perspective must not be overlooked: that of the student. An effective teacher transmits knowledge with a blend of intensity and empathy that…

  19. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A microgrid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The microgrid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, such as water and space heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the microgrid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean central station generation in California.

  20. The effect of personal characteristics on the relationship between diffusion and adoption of telecentre with value creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahalin, Zulkhairi Md.

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines personal characteristics of respondents in the rural areas and the extent of its effect on the diffusion and adoption of the telecentre. Understanding the personal characteristics of the participants is needed in order to encourage better participation. A survey was conducted among participants of telecentres situated in rural areas in the northern states of Malaysia. Results showed that whilst family size had a significant effect on the relationships between diffusion and adoption with value creation, other personal characteristics were found not to affect the relationships. The results have important implications to sustainability of the telecentre, in which focus should be placed in small-sized families rather than based on background and other demographic profile of participants.

  1. Intellectual resemblance among adoptive adoptive and biological relatives: the Texas adoption project.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M; Loehlin, J C; Willerman, L

    1979-05-01

    Intellectual and personality measures were available from unwed mothers who gave their children up for adoption at birth. The same or similar measures have been obtained from 300 sets of adoptive parents and all of their adopted and natural children in the Texas Adoption Project. The sample characteristics are discussed in detail, and the basic findings for IQ are presented. Initial analyses of the data on IQ suggest moderate heritabilities. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary nature of these findings.

  2. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  3. Effects of a carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a microgrid

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Siddidqui, Afzal S.; Stadler, Michael

    2002-10-01

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid ((mu)Grid) consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A (mu)Grid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The (mu)Grid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without CHP equipment, such as water- and space-heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the (mu)Grid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean generation in California.

  4. Implementation factors and their effect on e-Health service adoption in rural communities: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An ageing population is seen as a threat to the quality of life and health in rural communities, and it is often assumed that e-Health services can address this issue. As successful e-Health implementation in organizations has proven difficult, this systematic literature review considers whether this is so for rural communities. This review identifies the critical implementation factors and, following the change model of Pettigrew and Whipp, classifies them in terms of “context”, “process”, and “content”. Through this lens, we analyze the empirical findings found in the literature to address the question: How do context, process, and content factors of e-Health implementation influence its adoption in rural communities? Methods We conducted a systematic literature review. This review included papers that met six inclusion and exclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological quality. Findings were categorized in a classification matrix to identify promoting and restraining implementation factors and to explore whether any interactions between context, process, and content affect adoption. Results Of the 5,896 abstracts initially identified, only 51 papers met all our criteria and were included in the review. We distinguished five different perspectives on rural e-Health implementation in these papers. Further, we list the context, process, and content implementation factors found to either promote or restrain rural e-Health adoption. Many implementation factors appear repeatedly, but there are also some contradictory results. Based on a further analysis of the papers’ findings, we argue that interaction effects between context, process, and content elements of change may explain these contradictory results. More specifically, three themes that appear crucial in e-Health implementation in rural communities surfaced: the dual effects of geographical isolation, the targeting of underprivileged groups, and the changes in ownership required

  5. Measurement in comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Rutter, Carolyn M; Kamineni, Aruna; Johnson, Eric A; Stout, Natasha K; Weiss, Noel S; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Doubeni, Chyke A; Buist, Diana S M

    2013-05-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) on preventive services can shape policy and help patients, their providers, and public health practitioners select regimens and programs for disease prevention. Patients and providers need information about the relative effectiveness of various regimens they may choose. Decision makers need information about the relative effectiveness of various programs to offer or recommend. The goal of this paper is to define and differentiate measures of relative effectiveness of regimens and programs for disease prevention. Cancer screening is used to demonstrate how these measures differ in an example of two hypothetical screening regimens and programs. Conceptually and algebraically defined measures of relative regimen and program effectiveness also are presented. The measures evaluate preventive services that range from individual tests through organized, population-wide prevention programs. Examples illustrate how effective screening regimens may not result in effective screening programs and how measures can vary across subgroups and settings. Both regimen and program relative effectiveness measures assess benefits of prevention services in real-world settings, but each addresses different scientific and policy questions. As the body of CER grows, a common lexicon for various measures of relative effectiveness becomes increasingly important to facilitate communication and shared understanding among researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and policymakers.

  6. The effect of hospital-physician integration on health information technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The US federal government has recently made a substantial investment to enhance the US health information technology (IT) infrastructure. Previous literature on the impact of IT on firm performance across multiple industries has emphasized the importance of a process of co-invention whereby organizations develop complementary practices to achieve greater benefit from their IT investments. In health care, employment of physicians by hospitals can confer greater administrative control to hospitals over physicians' actions and resources and thus enable the implementation of new technology and initiatives aimed at maximizing benefit from use of the technology. In this study, I tested for the relationship between hospital employment of physicians and hospitals' propensity to use health IT. I used state laws that prohibit hospital employment of physicians as an instrument to account for the endogenous relationship with hospital IT use. Hospital employment of physicians is associated with significant increases in the probability of hospital health IT use. Therefore, subsidization of health IT among hospitals not employing physicians may be less efficient. Furthermore, state laws prohibiting hospitals from employing physicians may inhibit adoption of health IT, thus working against policy initiatives aimed at promoting use of the technology. PMID:23055450

  7. The effect of hospital-physician integration on health information technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The US federal government has recently made a substantial investment to enhance the US health information technology (IT) infrastructure. Previous literature on the impact of IT on firm performance across multiple industries has emphasized the importance of a process of co-invention whereby organizations develop complementary practices to achieve greater benefit from their IT investments. In health care, employment of physicians by hospitals can confer greater administrative control to hospitals over physicians' actions and resources and thus enable the implementation of new technology and initiatives aimed at maximizing benefit from use of the technology. In this study, I tested for the relationship between hospital employment of physicians and hospitals' propensity to use health IT. I used state laws that prohibit hospital employment of physicians as an instrument to account for the endogenous relationship with hospital IT use. Hospital employment of physicians is associated with significant increases in the probability of hospital health IT use. Therefore, subsidization of health IT among hospitals not employing physicians may be less efficient. Furthermore, state laws prohibiting hospitals from employing physicians may inhibit adoption of health IT, thus working against policy initiatives aimed at promoting use of the technology.

  8. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  9. Principles of effective performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    As with any endeavor connected with trendy words and phrases, {open_quotes}performance measurement{close_quotes} means different things to different people. To some, performance means {open_quotes}customer satisfaction{close_quotes}, and little, if anything, else. To others, it is productivity; to still others, it is procedural. In most real-world situations there are elements of all three of these dimensions. Whatever your definition of performance, it is important that it be clear in your own mind what you are trying to achieve, and that you make sure that those working with and for you have the same understanding. This paper is written from the point of view that performance is primarily productivity; after acceptable productivity is achieved, performance is customer satisfaction. I consider performance to be procedural only insofar as necessary to maintain legality and propriety. Rather than adopting the standard bureaucratic approach to procedure (i.e., everything not required is forbidden), I believe that consistently excellent performance demands the complementary philosophy: everything not forbidden is permitted. Remember: wars are won by the general who knows when to break the rules. The principles enunciated below are not unique to DOE or to the office environment: They are applicable to any performance measurement program. I have tried, however, to provide examples that apply to the office or that are likely to be familiar to those of us working with office information technology today.

  10. Can Coolness Predict Technology Adoption? Effects of Perceived Coolness on User Acceptance of Smartphones with Curved Screens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Shin, Dong-Hee; Park, Eunil

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes an acceptance model for curved-screen smartphones, and explores how the sense of coolness induced by attractiveness, originality, subcultural appeal, and the utility of the curved screen promotes smartphone adoption. The results of structural equation modeling analyses (N = 246) show that these components of coolness (except utility) increase the acceptance of the technology by enhancing the smartphones' affectively driven qualities rather than their utilitarian ones. The proposed coolness model is then compared with the original technology acceptance model to validate that the coolness factors are indeed equally effective determinants of usage intention, as are the extensively studied usability factors such as perceived ease of use and usefulness.

  11. [Experimental and clinical study of adoptive immunotherapy combined with preadministration of OK-432: a method to augment the therapeutic effect].

    PubMed

    Kan, N; Okino, T; Nakanishi, M; Sato, K; Mise, K; Teramura, Y; Yamasaki, S; Hori, T; Ohgaki, K; Tobe, T

    1989-04-01

    Our previous method of adoptive immunotherapy using IL2-cultured autologous lymphocytes consists of (1) in vitro sensitization by sonicated autologous tumor extract, (2) the induction and proliferation of active CTL by crude IL2, and (3) the preadministration of OK-432 for the augmentation of the therapeutic effect. Here we describe a new method to augment the therapeutic effect of OK432-combined AIT. In BALB/c mice with advanced malignant ascites (MOPC 104E), serial therapy with OK-432, cyclophosphamide and AIT significantly prolonged the survival compared with other therapeutic schedules through synergism between host's effector cells induced by immuno-chemotherapy and transferred killer cells. Many patients with advanced malignancies, for example, unresectable gastrointestinal cancer, locally advanced breast cancer or lung metastases of breast cancer, respond to such immuno-chemo-lymphocytotherapy, while previous OK432-combined AIT was effective only in malignant pleural effusion or metastatic liver tumor from breast cancer or peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

  12. The Effects of Locus of Control on University Students' Mobile Learning Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Jung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Since mobile devices have become cheaper, easily accessible, powerful, and popular and the cost of wireless access has declined gradually, mobile learning (m-learning) has begun to spread rapidly. To further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of m-learning for university students, it is critical to understand whether they use m-learning.…

  13. Adoption and Perceived Effectiveness of Financial Improvement Strategies in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, George M.; Pink, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the use and perceived success of strategies to improve the financial performance of Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). Methods: Information about the use and perceived effectiveness of 44 specific strategies to improve financial performance was collected from an online survey of 291 CAH Chief Executive Officers and Chief…

  14. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  15. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Profiles of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2014-016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian; English, Brittany; Furgeson, Joshua; McCullough, Moira

    2014-01-01

    States and districts are beginning to use student achievement growth--as measured by state assessments (often using statistical techniques known as value-added models or student growth models)--as part of their teacher evaluation systems. But this approach has limited application in most states, because their assessments are typically administered…

  16. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Profiles of Early-Adopting Districts. Summary. REL 2014-016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian; English, Brittany; Furgeson, Joshua; McCullough, Moira

    2014-01-01

    States and districts are beginning to use student achievement growth--as measured by state assessments (often using statistical techniques known as value-added models or student growth models)--as part of their teacher evaluation systems. But this approach has limited application in most states, because their assessments are typically administered…

  17. Effect of regulatory cells induced by influenza virus during adoptive transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Volgarev, A.P.; Maiorova, L.P.; Smorodintsev, A.A.

    1987-06-01

    This paper examines the protective effect of humoral and cellular factors of immunity in experimental influenza infection in mice, with an analysis of the functional activity of the regulatory subpopulations of the lymphocytes, especially in the early stages of observation. The regulatory activity of the splenic lymphocytes was studied by assessing changes in the level of mitogen-induced proliferation of test cultures of lymphocytes from intact animals in the presence of lymphocytes obtained from infected mice at different times after infection. Tritium-labelled thymidine was used as the marker.

  18. The effect of late adoption of Canadian innovations: a case for implantable cardiac monitors.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Hamid; Winsor, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Syncope is a sudden and generally momentary loss of consciousness, which can have serious adverse events. The outcomes of the syncope episode can vary from a fall to fatal accidents. Syncope has a major negative effect on the patient's health-related quality of life. The economic burden of syncope on healthcare systems is considerable. There are no clear diagnostic pathways for identifying the cause of syncope; patients can be admitted to hospital and undergo expensive and often repeated and inconclusive diagnostic tests. Implantable cardiac monitors have been available for more than a decade to help early diagnosis of syncope in unexplained cases. However, despite being a Canadian invention, the use of the implantable cardiac monitors has been suboptimal in the Canadian healthcare system. This study provides an overview of syncope, its management, and presents the estimated potential cost savings per diagnosis of systematic use of implantable cardiac monitors in Ontario. PMID:25046970

  19. A polarization independent liquid crystal phase modulation adopting surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih

    2011-12-01

    A polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulation using the surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (SP-PDLC) is demonstrated. In the bulk region of the SP-PDLC, the orientations of LC directors are randomly dispersed; thus, any polarization of incident light experiences the same averaged refractive index. In the regions near glass substrates, the LC droplets are pinned. The orientations of top and bottom droplets are orthogonal. Two eigen-polarizations of an incident light experience the same phase shift. As a result, the SP-PDLC is polarization independent. Polarizer-free microlens arrays of SP-PDLC are also demonstrated. The SP-PDLC has potential for application in spatial light modulators, laser beam steering, and electrically tunable microprisms.

  20. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics.

  1. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics. PMID:25302332

  2. Genetic modification of T cells improves the effectiveness of adoptive tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jakóbisiak, Marek; Gołab, Jakub

    2010-10-01

    Appropriate combinations of immunotherapy and gene therapy promise to be more effective in the treatment of cancer patients than either of these therapeutic approaches alone. One such treatment is based on the application of patients' cytotoxic T cells, which can be activated, expanded, and genetically engineered to recognize particular tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Because T cells recognizing TAAs might become unresponsive in the process of tumor development as a result of tumor evasion strategies, immunogenic viral antigens or alloantigens could be used for the expansion of cytotoxic T cells and then redirected through genetic engineering. This therapeutic approach has already demonstrated promising results in melanoma patients and could be used in the treatment of many other tumors. The graft-versus-leukemia, or more generally graft-versus-tumor, reaction based on the application of a donor lymphocyte infusion can also be ameliorated through the incorporation of suicide genes into donor lymphocytes. Such lymphocytes could be safely and more extensively used in tumor patients because they could be eliminated should a severe graft-versus-host reaction develop.

  3. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  4. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals.

  5. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals. PMID:26865430

  6. Can Coolness Predict Technology Adoption? Effects of Perceived Coolness on User Acceptance of Smartphones with Curved Screens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Shin, Dong-Hee; Park, Eunil

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes an acceptance model for curved-screen smartphones, and explores how the sense of coolness induced by attractiveness, originality, subcultural appeal, and the utility of the curved screen promotes smartphone adoption. The results of structural equation modeling analyses (N = 246) show that these components of coolness (except utility) increase the acceptance of the technology by enhancing the smartphones' affectively driven qualities rather than their utilitarian ones. The proposed coolness model is then compared with the original technology acceptance model to validate that the coolness factors are indeed equally effective determinants of usage intention, as are the extensively studied usability factors such as perceived ease of use and usefulness. PMID:26348813

  7. Calibration method of laser plane equation for vision measurement adopting objective function of uniform horizontal height of feature points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Hao, Zhaobing; Li, Xiaotao; Su, Jian; Liu, Huanping; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2016-02-01

    A calibration method with an objective function generated from a uniform horizontal height is presented in this work for the laser plane in active vision measurement. A height target is developed with a center mark as the initial point of the uniform height. The height target is located on the horizontal plane of the 3D calibration board so that the horizontal plane is considered as the terminal of the uniform horizontal height. Based on the pinhole model of the camera and the laser plane equation, we model the objective function to find the optimal coefficients of the laser plane equation. The goal of the objective function is the smallest difference of the uniform height and the reconstructed height according to the feature points of the target. The objective function is optimized by the local particle swarm optimization. The calibrated global equation of a laser plane is obtained from the optimal value 1.153 × 103 of the objective function in the experiments. Two projective laser lines of the calibration laser plane cover the original laser lines in the image. The reconstruction errors of the calibration plane are also analyzed in discussions.

  8. Language Abilities of Internationally Adopted Children from China during the Early School Years: Evidence for Early Age Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred; Gauthier, Karine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the language, cognitive, and socioemotional abilities of 27 internationally adopted children from China, adopted by French-speaking parents, 12 of whom had been assessed previously by Gauthier and Genesee. The children were on average 7 years, 10 months old and were matched to nonadopted monolingual French-speaking children on age,…

  9. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  10. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption. PMID:22047850

  11. Cost effective energy conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Mashburn, W.H.

    1997-06-01

    Determining the cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECM`s) consists of more than determining simple payback or life cycle costing. If strategic energy planning is involved, then establishment of an energy management program is of major importance. Training incorporated into the energy auditing process enhances the audit by involving knowledgeable employees, as well an increasing the chance of implementation of measures identified and reported. Involving employees in the process gives them ownership, and greatly improves the implementation rate. Once a company gets turned on to saving energy, it spreads like wildfire through the plant. Consultants who incorporate training as part of their audit will enhance their marketability. This paper discusses training techniques as a part of the auditing process, and lists major potential ECM`s that the author has found to have a high priority.

  12. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-07

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world's largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions-induced by a single adopting neighbour-appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  13. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world's largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions-induced by a single adopting neighbour-appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading. PMID:27272744

  14. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  15. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  16. Effects of graphene plates’ adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqin; Ding, Chuanxian; Zheng, Xuebin; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseointegration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs) were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs’ adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months’ implantation. PMID:26089662

  17. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  18. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years) to 1982 (6.7 years), the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific) mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40-50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated. PMID:26273613

  19. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years) to 1982 (6.7 years), the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific) mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40–50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated. PMID:26273613

  20. Effects of graphene plates' adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqin; Ding, Chuanxian; Zheng, Xuebin; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseointegration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs) were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs' adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months' implantation.

  1. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. Objectives The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. Methods The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Results Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into

  2. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing. PMID:27240911

  3. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading. PMID:27272744

  4. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  5. Mechanisms of immunological eradication of a syngeneic guinea pig tumor. II. Effect of methotrexate treatment and T cell depletion of the recipient on adoptive immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, S.; Fonseca, L.S.; Hunter, J.T.; Rapp, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of methotrexate on the development of immunity to the line 10 hepatoma was studied in guinea pigs. Chronic methotrexate treatment had no apparent effect on the ability of immune guinea pigs to suppress the growth of inoculated tumor cells. In contrast, the same methotrexate regimen inhibited the development of tumor immunity if started before the 8th day after immunization with a vaccine containing viable line 10 cells admixed with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) cell walls. Thus, methotrexate selectively inhibited the afferent limb of the immune response. In adoptive transfer experiments, methotrexate-treated recipient guinea pigs were capable of being passively sensitized with immune spleen cells, indicating that the primary cell-mediated immune response of the recipient was not required for adoptive immunity. The contribution of recipient T cells in adoptive immunity was further investigated in guinea pigs deleted of T cells by thymectomy, irradiation, and bone marrow reconstitution. Despite demonstrable deficiency in T lymphocyte reactions, B animals were fully capable of rejecting tumors after transfer of immune cells. These results suggest that the expression of adoptive immunity was independent of recipient T cell participation. In addition, sublethal irradiation of immune spleen cells prior to adoptive transfer abolished their efficacy. Proliferation of transferred immune cells in the recipient may be essential for expression of adoptive immunity.

  6. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  7. Taking Adoption Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William

    1990-01-01

    Argues that adoption should be included in strategies to help children, teen parents, and other women with difficult pregnancies because adolescents are not equipped to raise children. Discusses the need for longitudinal research on adoption, adoption education in secondary schools, and studying mass media impact on adoption. (FMW)

  8. Neurodevelopmental and Psychological Assessment of Adolescents Born to Drug-Addicted Parents: Effects of SES and Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; Daka, Lulu; Goldzweig, Gil; Gil, Yoni; Mjen, Ludmila; Levit, Shabtai; Shufman, Emi; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal exposure to heroin may have long-term consequences for development during early and middle childhood. The present research studied the cognitive, social, and emotional functioning of adolescents exposed to drugs prenatally, and investigated the extent to which the early adoption of children exposed prenatally to drugs would…

  9. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  10. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  11. Genetic risks and ADHD symptomatology: exploring the effects of parental antisocial behaviors in an adoption-based study.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Nedelec, Joseph L; Rowland, Meghan W; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2012-04-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and alcoholism have effects on the development of ADHD symptomatologies. Analyses based on a sample of adoptees drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed that ADHD symptomatologies were elevated among adoptees who had biological mothers and fathers who had been arrested or who were alcoholics. These results suggest that part of the covariation between ADHD and antisocial behaviors may be the result of genetic factors that have general effects across a range of maladaptive outcomes.

  12. Adoption: The Bigger Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies two theoretical frameworks for adoption research: stress and coping literature and life-span developmental psychology. Recognizes that placing adoption within these larger study areas encourages differentiated, conditional questions such as when does adoption have which types of impacts for which types of individuals. (DLH)

  13. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  14. Pulsation effects on orifice measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, C. )

    1992-02-01

    The natural gas transmission industry has historically relied on the orifice as the contractual standard for custody transfer. The simplicity, reliability, low maintenance, rangeability (afforded by changing plate beta ratios) and repeatability of the orifice, together with reliable secondary systems, has dispelled flow measurement replacement attempts. While an influx of other meter types has occurred in recent years, the dominance of orifice meters dictate that any serious attempt at improved gas measurement accuracy must emphasize all phases of orifice meter installation. This paper reports on unsteady flow (pulsation) which can compromise orifice system accuracy. Instruments and error calculations for pulsation are reviewed.

  15. Real measurements and the quantum Zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruseckas, Julius; Kaulakys, B.

    2001-06-01

    In 1977, Mishra and Sudarshan [J. Math. Phys. 18, 756 (1977)] showed that an unstable particle would never be found decayed while it was continuously observed. They called this effect the quantum Zeno effect (or paradox). Later it was realized that the frequent measurements could also accelerate the decay (quantum anti-Zeno effect). In this paper, we investigate the quantum Zeno effect using the definite model of the measurement. We take into account the finite duration and the finite accuracy of the measurement. A general equation for the jump probability during the measurement is derived. We find that the measurements can cause inhibition (quantum Zeno effect) or acceleration (quantum anti-Zeno effect) of the evolution, depending on the strength of the interaction with the measuring device and on the properties of the system. However, the evolution cannot be fully stopped.

  16. The effects of techno-economic and organizational factors on the adoption of NASA-innovations by commercial firms in the U.S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    The present work reports on the effects of several organizational and techno-economic factors which tend to facilitate or inhibit the successful transfer and commercial utilization of technology generated outside the organizational setting of a potential industrial user. Innovations were regarded as either product cases or process cases, and successful adoption of these innovations was related to systematic data on the relation between innovator and user and on channels of communication.

  17. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  18. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  19. The claim from adoption.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  20. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  1. Aerosol direct radiative effect over China estimated with visibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, K.; Lin, J.

    2012-12-01

    As a short-lived climate forcer, aerosols exhibit strong radiative effects that vary significantly across the space and time. Current understanding of the long-term variability of aerosol climate forcings is however very poor due to lack of relevant atmospheric measurements. Historic records for visibility measurements from thousands of ground meteorological stations offer a plausible tool to study the decadal and multi-decadal variability of aerosol radiative effects. As a first step, this study presents a method to estimate aerosol direct radiative effect over China based on visibility data for 2006. Visibility data from about 400 ground stations are converted to near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, which are converted then to aerosol optical depth (AOD) based on spatially and temporally varying vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties simulated by the widely used chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The resulting AOD data are consistent with direct measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in regions where visibility and AOD measurement sites are close in distance. Next, the visibility-derived AOD data are combined with other aerosol optical properties adopted from GEOS-Chem, cloud data from ground stations and surface albedo data from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) to derive the direct radiative effect, by employing the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART). Spatial and monthly variations of aerosol radiative effects are examined.

  2. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem. PMID:25495493

  3. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem.

  4. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved.

  5. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. PMID:24362316

  6. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  7. Use of an holistic approach for effective adoption of User-Centred-Design techniques in diabetes disease management: Experiences in user need elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of designing eHealth tools for Chronic Disease Management is to understand how transforming cutting-edge innovations in something that can impact the current clinical practice and improve the performance of the health care systems. The adoption of User Centered Design techniques is fundamental in order to integrate these systems in an effective and successful way. The work presented in this paper describe the methodologies used in the context of two multidisciplinary research projects, METABO and MOSAIC. The adoption of the methodologies have been driven by the CeHRes Roamap, a holistic framework that support participatory development of eHealth. The work reported in this paper describes the results of the first two (out of the five) phases in eliciting user needs.

  8. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P < 0.01). Per capita intake increased over time for dairy products and eggs in the high income group (P < 0.01). A decrease in cost per kJ (rubles/kJ) was observed for both low and high income families (P < 0.01). These data suggest that Russian households were able to conserve the diet structure for children by using what appear to be food-related behavioral mechanisms during periods of economic crisis. PMID:14608060

  9. Dryland degradation: Measurement and effects on ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noojipady, P.; Prince, S. D.; Rishmawi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Land degradation is frequently described as a global crisis, affecting large areas globally and large numbers of people. Nevertheless, the location and severity of degradation globally with a resolution relevant to human activities is unknown. Beyond the direct stress of degradation on human livelihoods, there are important effects on the physical and biological environment. Examples include loss of potential primary production, changes in the surface water and energy balances, erosion, sediment transport and lofting of dust aerosols. Globally , degradation is mainly associated with drylands, such as the US dustbowl of the 1930s and, supposedly, ongoing loss of crop and livestock production in desert margins on all continents. The alarm over loss of land to deserts, particularly early 1980s in the African Sahel, led to the adoption of the term "desertification". Such degradation is said to have two components; a physical environment that reduces productivity; and human land use that exceeds the resilience of the land. Ecological theory suggests that land can exist in multiple stable states with transitions between them. Some experimental evidence suggests that one such state is degradation from which there can be no recovery. Clearly the occurrence of such stable degradation, where land is unable to recover when the physical conditions such as rainfall and human land use are ameliorated, is of theoretical and practical importance. The aim of this work is to contribute to the resolution of two issues: (i) are there significant areas in which land has been degraded by human actions and, (ii), have any of these areas entered a stable degraded state? Detection of the human component necessarily requires control of the physical component of degradation. We have developed a technique to detect areas that are at their potential production and to assess other areas relative to these. Satellite measurements of vegetation indices are used as a surrogate for Net Primary

  10. Method Effects and the Meaning of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although the idea of a method effect in psychological measurement seems intuitively straightforward – that is, it is said to occur when any characteristic of a measurement procedure contributes variance to scores beyond what is attributable to variance in the attribute of interest – much of the surrounding conceptual vocabulary remains confused. In part, these confusions can be traced to deeper confusion in the human science literature regarding the meaning of measurement. In particular, the thinking of human scientists about method effects has been shaped by (a) received wisdom regarding why method effects are problematic to begin with, and, therefore, what corrective measures are appropriate, (b) the formal and implied semantics of psychometric techniques that have been developed to model method effects, and (c) general philosophical undercurrents that have contributed to the collective understanding of psychological measurement. Notably, tensions between lines of thought that can be broadly characterized as empiricist and realist have contributed to uneven thinking surrounding the concept of a method effect. In this paper, it is argued that it may be possible to formulate an account of what method effects are that is coherent not only across different research traditions in the human sciences, but also with thinking found in other scientific disciplines; however, doing so requires a more explicit commitment to a realist position on measurement than is generally forthcoming from human scientists. By examining these issues, this paper hopes to contribute to semantic clarity regarding not just method effects, but also the meaning of measurement in psychology. PMID:23596427

  11. Adoptive cellular therapy.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based therapies with various lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. The transfusion of T lymphocytes, also called adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an effective treatment for viral infections, has induced regression of cancer in early stage clinical trials, and may be a particularly important and efficacious modality in the period following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Immune reconstitution post-SCT is often slow and incomplete, which in turn leads to an increased risk of infection and may impact relapse risk in patients with malignant disease. Immunization post-HSCT is frequently unsuccessful, due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. ACT has the potential to enhance antitumor and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. The ability to genetically engineer lymphocyte subsets has the further potential to improve the natural immune response, correct impaired immunity, and redirect T cells to an antitumor effector response. This chapter focuses on various applications of ACT for cancer immunotherapy, and we discuss some of the latest progress and hurdles in translating these technologies to the clinic.

  12. Technological advances in adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Mathias; Krueger, Christine; Schneck, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy is an attractive and elegant strategy for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases. Several approaches have been developed to generate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy in cancer and infectious diseases. Currently, many approaches are based on either the use of autologous peptide pulsed dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells or nonspecific expansion of T cells. Unfortunately, current approaches lack the ability to serve as reproducible and economically viable methods. Several groups are developing new artificial approaches to overcome problems associated with dendritic cells and the nonspecific expansion of T-cell clones in order to make adoptive immunotherapy more feasible and effective. Thus, by increasing the availability of adoptive immunotherapy, we will be able to better determine the efficacy of the approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In this review, we focus on technological advances that will facilitate adoptive immunotherapy. Specifically, we summarize current strategies which are either based on artificial antigen-presenting cells or on T-cell receptor gene transfer. PMID:15753966

  13. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  14. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  15. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  16. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  17. Adopt to sustain: The effect of biophysical and socioeconomic context on the ability of two contrasting U.S. agroecosystems to respond to changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, T.

    2015-12-01

    Increased demand for food, feed, fuel and fiber in U.S. agroecosystems has deleterious effects on the environment. Gauging the responses of these agroecosystems in the presence of extreme events and new market demands requires a fresh approach. This approach requires better comprehension of the interactions and feedback processes that either sustain or deplete both natural (e.g., soil productivity) and human (e.g., net income) capital. Because soil quality defines land productivity and long-term prosperity, we focus on the cascading effects that soil quality has on other ecosystem properties, profit, farmer decision making in mitigating soil degradation, and development of environmental policies. We argue that land use decision-making must not only be strictly based on socioeconomic and environmental criteria, but should also consider farmer/ farm characteristics, personal beliefs, and the support network that is needed for promoting and implementing conservation practices. Current approaches for adopting conservation do not fit into this paradigm. We develop an Agent Based Model Framework that incorporates novel aspects of ecological, socioeconomic and behavioral modeling to facilitate interactions of the farmer and its land through a multi-objective, maximization utility function. This function is continuously informed and updated by the improved modeling framework. This study is developing measures of sustainability for lags, hysteresis, tipping points, and adaptive capacity. We examine the complex relationship between farmer decision-making and the landscape in two contrasting systems in Iowa and Tennessee with unique distributions of characteristics in terms of climate, soil properties, and landscape patterns that regulate not only the type of farming practiced, but also the degree of soil erosion in each system. Central to this investigation is identifying and quantifying trade-offs among non-pecuniary and pecuniary objectives given alternative scenarios

  18. Genetic Risks and ADHD Symptomatology: Exploring the Effects of Parental Antisocial Behaviors in an Adoption-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Nedelec, Joseph L.; Rowland, Meghan W.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and…

  19. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake.

  20. Counterfactual Measurements and the Quantum Zeno Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Onofrio; Jiang, Liang

    2014-03-01

    The apparent paradoxical paradigm of an interaction free measurement (counterfactual measurement) of the presence of a classical or quantum object without any scattering or absorption of photons is considered in light of the quantum Zeno effect. From one perspective, the counterfactual measurement in principle is consistent with minimizing the interaction between the object and the photon. However, the quantum Zeno effect mandates that repeated interactions with photons (although weakly coupled) are required and necessary to inhibit the coherent evolution of the state of the system. We consider and appraise these seemingly conflicting concepts.

  1. The Effect of Training and Consultation Condition on Teachers' Self-Reported Likelihood of Adoption of a Daily Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Alex S.; Owens, Julie Sarno

    2015-01-01

    Using a within-subjects design and validated vignettes, this study examined the relative effects of four training and consultation conditions (i.e., consultation with key opinion leaders, consultation with observation and performance feedback, consultation with motivational interviewing, and professional development-as-usual) on teachers' (N =…

  2. Persuasion stage in adoption theory: a cognitive response-cognitive structure assessment of source credibility and tax-incentive effects on consumer decision making for residential solar systems. [Suburbs of Baltimore

    SciTech Connect

    Batory, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The research objective was to learn more about the consumer's acceptance or rejection process toward a major residential energy innovation, a solar-generated water heating system. An experiment was conducted that evaluated one aspect of solar's commercialization, the persuasion stage in new-product-adoption decision making. A test of source credibility and monetary incentive effects on the consumer's decision-making processes was carried out. The experiment contained two message sources: the Department of Energy (a high credibility source) and a homebuilder (a moderate credibility source), and three levels of incentives, a tax credit equal to 40% of the solar unit purchase price, a 20% tax credit, and no tax credit. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of six experimental treatments in a 2 x 3 fixed-effects factorial design. Subjects were 226 adult homeowners drawn from the suburbs of Baltimore, Maryland. The research postulated and tested a process of acceptance or rejection of innovations which was based on a cognitive-response/cognitive-structure paradigm of decision making. This process is called the persuasion stage by adoption theorists. Cognitive responses, beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral measures were the dependent variables. Consumers were shown to confront or debate incoming information by comparing it to their existing cognitive structure. This comparison process generated cognitive responses which led to changes in beliefs, attitudes, and behavior toward the innovation. The findings confirm that the federal government's intervention in the marketplace is having a favorable effect on the adoption decision process toward solar-generated water heating.

  3. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  4. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  5. Atmospheric effect on spectral signature - measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    In order to improve the quality of remote sensing there is a need to estimate the atmospheric effect on the remotely sensed image, from the image itself. This can be done by recognition of some surface features with known radiative characteristics. For this purpose measurements of the atmospheric effect on the spectral signature of surface cover were conducted during hazy conditions. Simultaneous measurements of the aerosol optical thickness and its vertical distribution were carried. The results of the measurements are used here to study the spectral dependence of the atmospheric effect on remote sensing of vegetated fields (forest, corn field etc.) and water bodies, and to verify theoretical predictions. It is suggested that the radiances over dark areas (e.g. water in the near IR and forest in the visible) can be used to derive the aerosol optical thickness. Combined with climatological information, the derived optical thickness can be used to perform corrections of the atmospheric effect (not given here).

  6. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  7. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  8. The Colorado Adoption Project

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Corley, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically-informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated- sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP’s history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP’s initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study’s multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development. PMID:23158098

  9. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  10. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  11. Development and Validation of the "Attitudes toward Adoption Scale" and the "Gay and Lesbian Parents' Adoption Scale."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate newly developed measures of attitudes about adoption. The Attitudes toward Adoption Scale was developed, based on research literature, to investigate the attitudes of people with and without experience with adoption toward adoption. Eighty-six college students completed this scale and made open-ended comments…

  12. Measuring teaching effectiveness--or not.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Graham P

    2013-01-01

    Faculty in the present-day academic medicine environment are expected to perform multiple functions, notably, the provision of high-quality teaching to the medical professionals of tomorrow. However, evaluating the effectiveness of this teaching is particularly difficult. Student evaluations of teaching, despite their many flaws, are widely used as a convenient tool to measure teaching effectiveness. Administrators continue to routinely use student evaluation of teaching surveys in faculty retention/promotion and merit pay decisions. This practice should be reevaluated since it may have unintended consequences, such as grade inflation and content debasement, and may contribute to faculty leaving the institution and even the profession. A more valid, reliable, and formative protocol for the evaluation of genuine teaching effectiveness needs to be developed as a matter of some urgency. In this review, alternatives to the student evaluation of teaching are explored to better measure true teaching effectiveness.

  13. Measuring teaching effectiveness--or not.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Graham P

    2013-01-01

    Faculty in the present-day academic medicine environment are expected to perform multiple functions, notably, the provision of high-quality teaching to the medical professionals of tomorrow. However, evaluating the effectiveness of this teaching is particularly difficult. Student evaluations of teaching, despite their many flaws, are widely used as a convenient tool to measure teaching effectiveness. Administrators continue to routinely use student evaluation of teaching surveys in faculty retention/promotion and merit pay decisions. This practice should be reevaluated since it may have unintended consequences, such as grade inflation and content debasement, and may contribute to faculty leaving the institution and even the profession. A more valid, reliable, and formative protocol for the evaluation of genuine teaching effectiveness needs to be developed as a matter of some urgency. In this review, alternatives to the student evaluation of teaching are explored to better measure true teaching effectiveness. PMID:23328860

  14. Effects of Communities That Care on the Adoption and Implementation Fidelity of Evidence-Based Prevention Programs in Communities: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Arthur, Michael W.; Hanson, Koren; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes findings from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a randomized controlled trial of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, on the adoption and implementation fidelity of science-based prevention programming in 24 communities. Data were collected using the Community Resource Documentation (CRD), which entailed a multi-tiered sampling process and phone and web-based surveys with directors of community-based agencies and coalitions, school principals, service providers, and teachers. Four years after the initiation of the CTC prevention system, the results indicated increased use of tested, effective prevention programs in the 12 CTC intervention communities compared to the 12 control communities, and significant differences favoring the intervention communities in the numbers of children and families participating in these programs. Few significant differences were found regarding implementation quality; respondents from both intervention and control communities reported high rates of implementation fidelity across the services provided. PMID:21667142

  15. Casting system effectiveness--measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Luk, H W; Darvell, B W

    1992-03-01

    Evaluating castability as a property of dental casting alloys is an unworkable concept, since any measure is demonstrably affected by several external factors. Casting System Effectiveness (CSE) is shown experimentally and theoretically to depend primarily upon the time taken for the advancing front to freeze. A spiral tube mold was used to measure casting length obtained under variations in casting temperature; this pattern is proposed as a standard measure of CSE. A Bernoulli 'free-fall' numerical model is shown to reproduce the principal features of such casting, with some evidence of viscosity limitation of the turbulent flow at long casting lengths. Direct measurement of melt velocities confirmed turbulent flow in the mold. A method is also suggested for assessing the influence of investment porosity on CSE.

  16. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    PRODAN, CAMELIA; SLATER, LEE; NTARLAGIANNIS, DIMITRIOS

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  17. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Camelia

    2013-06-14

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  18. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  19. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  20. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  1. Aerosol Delivery of Interleukin-2 in Combination with Adoptive Transfer of Natural Killer Cells for the Treatment of Lung Metastasis: Methodology and Effect.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Simin; Gordon, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a subtype of lymphocytes with a major role as a host defense mechanism against tumor cells. Allogeneic NK cell therapy is being used as an alternative promising therapy for many different cancers. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for NK cell proliferation, survival, and effector functions. Cytokine support is essential to activate, expand, and increase the life span of NK cells. Aerosol delivery of IL-2 in combination with adoptive transfer of NK cells offers a reasonable approach for the treatment of lung metastases as it avoids the deleterious side effects of systemic IL-2. Using a human OS mouse model, we demonstrated the efficacy of this approach. Combination therapy of aerosol IL-2 with NK cells resulted in a better therapeutic effect against OS lung metastases as compared with each therapy alone. Aerosol IL-2 selectively increased infiltration, retention, and proliferation of infused NK cells in the lung, and there was no local inflammation or toxicity in the lungs or any other organ. Our results demonstrate that delivery of IL-2 via the aerosol route offers a feasible and innovative approach to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of NK cells against pulmonary metastases. In the following chapter, we describe the methodology and effect of this innovative therapeutic approach. PMID:27177675

  2. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  3. Measuring Campus Portal Effectiveness and the Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrek, Mohamad Noorman bin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness or success of universities' portal implementation from the perspective of students as users. Adopting the model developed by Delone and McLean, portal effectiveness is defined as being composed of information quality, systems quality and service quality. In addition, the paper also…

  4. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  5. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  6. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  7. Current measurement by Faraday effect on GEPOPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Correa; H, Chuaqui; E, Wyndham; F, Veloso; J, Valenzuela; M, Favre; H, Bhuyan

    2014-05-01

    The design and calibration of an optical current sensor using BK7 glass is presented. The current sensor is based on the polarization rotation by Faraday effect. GEPOPU is a pulsed power generator, double transit time 120ns, 1.5 Ohm impedance, coaxial geometry, where Z pinch experiment are performed. The measurements were performed at the Optics and Plasma Physics Laboratory of Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. The verdet constant for two different optical materials was obtained using He-Ne laser. The values obtained are within the experimental error bars of measurements published in the literature (less than 15% difference). Two different sensor geometries were tried. We present the preliminary results for one of the geometries. The values obtained for the current agree within the measurement error with those obtained by means of a Spice simulation of the generator. Signal traces obtained are completely noise free.

  8. Effectiveness of nonporous windscreens for infrasonic measurements.

    PubMed

    Dauchez, Nicolas; Hayot, Maxime; Denis, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with nonporous windscreens used for reducing noise in infrasonic measurements. A model of sound transmission using a modal approach is derived. The system is a square plate coupled with a cavity. The model agrees with finite element simulations and measurements performed on two windscreens: a cubic windscreen using a material recommended by Shams, Zuckerwar, and Sealey [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1335-1340 (2005)] and an optimized flat windscreen made out of aluminum. Only the latter was found to couple acoustical waves below 10 Hz without any attenuation. Moreover, wind noise reduction measurements show that nonporous windscreens perform similarly as a pipe array by averaging the pressure fluctuations. These results question the assumptions of Shams et al. and Zuckerwar [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 3327-3334 (2010)] about compact nonporous windscreens design and effectiveness. PMID:27369141

  9. Effectiveness of nonporous windscreens for infrasonic measurements.

    PubMed

    Dauchez, Nicolas; Hayot, Maxime; Denis, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with nonporous windscreens used for reducing noise in infrasonic measurements. A model of sound transmission using a modal approach is derived. The system is a square plate coupled with a cavity. The model agrees with finite element simulations and measurements performed on two windscreens: a cubic windscreen using a material recommended by Shams, Zuckerwar, and Sealey [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1335-1340 (2005)] and an optimized flat windscreen made out of aluminum. Only the latter was found to couple acoustical waves below 10 Hz without any attenuation. Moreover, wind noise reduction measurements show that nonporous windscreens perform similarly as a pipe array by averaging the pressure fluctuations. These results question the assumptions of Shams et al. and Zuckerwar [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 3327-3334 (2010)] about compact nonporous windscreens design and effectiveness.

  10. Effect of measurement noise on Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Nalatore, Hariharan; Sasikumar, N; Rangarajan, Govindan

    2014-12-01

    Most of the signals recorded in experiments are inevitably contaminated by measurement noise. Hence, it is important to understand the effect of such noise on estimating causal relations between such signals. A primary tool for estimating causality is Granger causality. Granger causality can be computed by modeling the signal using a bivariate autoregressive (AR) process. In this paper, we greatly extend the previous analysis of the effect of noise by considering a bivariate AR process of general order p. From this analysis, we analytically obtain the dependence of Granger causality on various noise-dependent system parameters. In particular, we show that measurement noise can lead to spurious Granger causality and can suppress true Granger causality. These results are verified numerically. Finally, we show how true causality can be recovered numerically using the Kalman expectation maximization algorithm.

  11. Measuring gravitational effects on antimatter in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentino, G. M.; Palladino, A.; Venanzoni, G.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an experimental test of the gravitational interaction with antimatter by measuring the branching fraction of the CP violating decay KL →π+π- in space. We show that at the altitude of the International Space Station, gravitational effects may change the level of CP violation such that a 5 σ discrimination may be obtained by collecting the KL produced by the cosmic proton flux within a few years.

  12. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  13. Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, James; Johnson, William

    2014-03-01

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band waveguide tee, which lies in the center of an electromagnet, injecting power into the two opposing arms of the tee, and measuring the output at the third arm. Application of a magnetic field gives a Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. This method yields the semiconductor mobility, which we can compare for calibration purposes with mobility data from direct-current (Van der Pauw1) measurements. We are in the process of modeling the system using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation to better understand the behavior of the electric fields inside the sample. Resistivity data is obtained by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This talk presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. Measured mobilities ranged from 270-3000 cm2/V.s . 1L. J. van der Pauw, PhilipsResearchReports 13, 1 (1958)

  14. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  15. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of faculty mentoring relationships.

    PubMed

    Berk, Ronald A; Berg, Janet; Mortimer, Rosemary; Walton-Moss, Benita; Yeo, Theresa P

    2005-01-01

    "Mentor" is a term widely used in academic medicine but for which there is no consensus on an operational definition. Further, criteria are rarely reported for evaluating the effectiveness of mentoring. This article presents the work of an Ad Hoc Faculty Mentoring Committee whose tasks were to define "mentorship," specify concrete characteristics and responsibilities of mentors that are measurable, and develop new tools to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentoring relationship. The committee developed two tools: the Mentorship Profile Questionnaire, which describes the characteristics and outcome measures of the mentoring relationship from the perspective of the mentee, and the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale, a 12-item six-point agree-disagree-format Likert-type rating scale, which evaluates 12 behavioral characteristics of the mentor. These instruments are explained and copies are provided. Psychometric issues, including the importance of content-related validity evidence, response bias due to acquiescence and halo effects, and limitations on collecting reliability evidence, are examined in the context of the mentor-mentee relationship. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:15618097

  17. Is The Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Measurable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoyang

    2005-03-01

    Despite of the large intrinsic spin Hall conductivity in a spin- orbit coupled material predicted theoretically, we show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect in any diffusive sample is not measurable via conventional transport methods, thus the research on the intrinsic spin Hall effect is limited at the pure theoretical content. After generally defining the intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients, we show that the intrinsic magnetization Hall current, which is the sum of the intrinsic spin and intrinsic orbit-angular-momentum Hall currents, is identically zero. More importantly, we demonstrate that the equation of motion for the spin density does not depend on the intrinsic spin Hall current, therefore the transverse spin accumulation is solely determined by the extrinsic spin Hall current. The zero intrinsic magnetization Hall current and the independence of the spin accumulation on the intrinsic spin Hall effect lead us to conclude that the intrinsic spin Hall effect can not be assessed by conventional spin transport experiments based on the measurement of the magnetization current and the spin accumulation at the edge of the sample.

  18. Effect of an Ergonomics-Based Educational Intervention Based on Transtheoretical Model in Adopting Correct Body Posture Among Operating Room Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Zeinab; Dehdari, Tahere; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hosein; Soltanian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the preventive strategies for chronic low back pain among operating room nurses is instructing proper body mechanics and postural behavior, for which the use of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been recommended. Methods: Eighty two nurses who were in the contemplation and preparation stages for adopting correct body posture were randomly selected (control group = 40, intervention group = 42). TTM variables and body posture were measured at baseline and again after 1 and 6 months after the intervention. A four-week ergonomics educational intervention based on TTM variables was designed and conducted for the nurses in the intervention group. Results: Following the intervention, a higher proportion of nurses in the intervention group moved into the action stage (p < 0.05). Mean scores of self-efficacy, pros, experimental processes and correct body posture were also significantly higher in the intervention group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the cons and behavioral processes, except for self-liberation, between the two groups (p > 0.05) after the intervention. Conclusions: The TTM provides a suitable framework for developing stage-based ergonomics interventions for postural behavior. PMID:26925897

  19. Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan

    2014-07-01

    We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.

  20. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  1. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  2. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption.

  3. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-06-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

  4. Effect of tape recording on perturbation measures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Lin, E; Hanson, D G

    1998-10-01

    Tape recorders have been shown to affect measures of voice perturbation. Few studies, however, have been conducted to quantitatively justify the use or exclusion of certain types of recorders in voice perturbation studies. This study used sinusoidal and triangular waves and synthesized vowels to compare perturbation measures extracted from directly digitized signals with those recorded and played back through various tape recorders, including 3 models of digital audio tape recorders, 2 models of analog audio cassette tape recorders, and 2 models of video tape recorders. Signal contamination for frequency perturbation values was found to be consistently minimal with digital recorders (percent jitter = 0.01%-0.02%), mildly increased with video recorders (0.05%-0.10%), moderately increased with a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.15%), and most prominent with a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.24%). Recorder effect on amplitude perturbation measures was lowest in digital recorders (percent shimmer = 0.09%-0.20%), mildly to moderately increased in video recorders and a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.25%-0.45%), and most prominent in a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.98%). The effect of cassette tape material, length of spooled tape, and duration of analysis were also tested and are discussed.

  5. Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, James; Johnson, William

    2013-03-01

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample, unlike the Van der Pauw method.[1] Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band waveguide tee and placing the tee in the center of an electromagnet. The next step is to inject power into two arms of the tee and to balance the output so that no power comes out of the third arm of the tee at zero magnetic field. Application of a nonzero magnetic field gives a Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. We use a network analyzer to measure the ratio of the Hall signal to the input power. This method yields the semiconductor mobility in the wafer, which we can compare for calibration purposes with mobility data from our Van der Pauw measurements. This talk presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. Preliminary measurements on doped III-V semiconductor samples will also be presented.

  6. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  7. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  8. Measuring Effect Sizes: The Effect of Measurement Error. Working Paper 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2008-01-01

    Value-added models in education research allow researchers to explore how a wide variety of policies and measured school inputs affect the academic performance of students. Researchers typically quantify the impacts of such interventions in terms of "effect sizes", i.e., the estimated effect of a one standard deviation change in the variable…

  9. Continuous measurement: Watchdog effect versus golden rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, E.

    1984-04-01

    Conditions which may lead to a freezing of the motion of a system under continuous observation (the so-called "Zeno paradox" or "watchdog effect") are examined. The measurement process is treated phenomenologically by the usual wave-packet reduction as well as in a more realistic way by including the measuring apparatus. For this purpose a model for an ideal measurement process is employed, following an example given by von Neumann. The resulting behavior varies between complete freezing and a mere suppression of interference terms and constant transition rates as represented by a master equation (rate equation). The most familiar example of the latter is Fermi's golden rule, with integration leading to exponential decay. Reviewing and extending the derivation of the Pauli master equation, the conditions leading to constant transition rates are discussed. The importance of the interaction with the natural environment for establishing a master equation is emphasized. Some consequences for the derivation of macroscopic equations of motion and for the physical foundations of superselection rules are pointed out.

  10. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  11. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  12. Recruiting Mexican American Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Robert S.; Serpe, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 591 Mexican Americans to determine adoption interest and create recruiting practices for prospective parents. Approximately one-third of sample reported an interest in adoption, but many perceived both structural and cultural obstacles to adoption. Based on findings, recommendations for increasing recruitment of…

  13. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Timothy W; Ten Cate, James A; Allured, Bradley; Carpenter, Michael A

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  14. The Adoption of Digital Imaging Technology at Daily College Student Newspapers and the Credibility of News Photos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James D.

    A mail survey of 86 daily college newspapers (91% of the population) measured the adoption rate of digital imaging technology for the routine processing of news photographs to establish the stage of adoption and to assess possible effects of the technology on students' perceptions of newsphoto credibility. Results indicated that 63% reported…

  15. Family planning. A most effective preventive health measure.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J

    1984-06-01

    Family planning is widely regarded as among the most effective of preventive health measures and can contribute to break the vicious cycle of infection, malnutrition, and uncontrolled fertility widespread among mothers and children in the Third World. Significant achievements have been scored in the past 2 decades in educating people about the health implications of reproduction and providing contraceptive services to those who want them. Increasing numbers of women in developing countries are aware of the advantages of fewer and better spaced children. However, this awareness is often not reflected in practice. Only 2/% of women in developing countries, compared with 70% in developed countries, practice family planning. This situation is considered serious in view of the fact that the number of couples in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania who require contraceptive protection will double to 1 billion by the year 2000. The gap between awareness and practice reflects numerous factors, including nonavailability of services, inaccurate knowledge about family planning, and women's oppression. Overcoming the cultural, economic, and social barriers to family planning requires sensitive and diverse communication strategies. High-level political support, village-based community programs, a high level of female education, and a well-developed primary health care system have contributed to the success of family planning efforts. Since family planning to a large extent reflects individual decision making, attention should be directed toward the role of fieldworkers and local family planning acceptors in influencing others to adopt contraception. PMID:6469252

  16. Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiflett, Samuel G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

  17. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    PubMed

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massatti, Richard R.; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Gregoire, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provides information on the reliability and validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale (TAPS), a multidimensional 36-item Likert-type scale that measures cultural competence among transracial adoptive (TRA) parents. The TAPS was theoretically developed and refined through feedback from experts in TRA adoption. A…

  19. The family romance fantasies of adopted children.

    PubMed

    Wieder, H

    1977-01-01

    Despite the absence of psychoanalytic studies to support the position, family romance fantasies have been assumed to be similar in form and function in both the adopted child and the blood kin child. My studies, documented herein from the analyses of three adoptees, reveal that knowing one is adopted results in modifications of the fantasy and that certain types of adoptees seem incapable of effectively creating the paradigmatic family romance fantasy.

  20. Measures of effectiveness:an annotated bibliography.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance, from the open literature, on developing a set of ''measures of effectiveness'' (MoEs) and using them to evaluate a system. Approximately twenty papers and books are reviewed. The papers that provide the clearest understanding of MoEs are identified (Sproles [46], [48], [50]). The seminal work on value-focused thinking (VFT), an approach that bridges the gap between MoEs and a system, is also identified (Keeney [25]). And finally three examples of the use of VFT in evaluating a system based on MoEs are identified (Jackson et al. [21], Kerchner & Deckro [27], and Doyle et al. [14]). Notes are provided of the papers and books to pursue in order to take this study to the next level of detail.

  1. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  2. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted. PMID:721273

  3. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  4. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  5. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala.

  6. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  7. Overview of Measuring Effect Sizes: The Effect of Measurement Error. Brief 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Don; Grossman, Pam; Lankford, Hamp; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The use of value-added models in education research has expanded rapidly. These models allow researchers to explore how a wide variety of policies and measured school inputs affect the academic performance of students. An important question is whether such effects are sufficiently large to achieve various policy goals. Judging whether a change in…

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  9. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  10. Effective Adoption of Tablets in Post-Secondary Education: Recommendations Based on a Trial of iPads in University Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Colin F.; Wardley, Leslie J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of tablets, such as the Apple iPad, in university classes and provides recommendations for other instructors to consider when adopting tablet technology. During the trial conducted in the summer of 2011 using iPads, we found that tablets had both academic and social uses, which should be considered when using…

  11. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  12. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  13. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  14. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  15. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  16. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  17. Disentangling the effects of cognitive development and linguistic expertise: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted children.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2012-08-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally-adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for 1 year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children's ability to learn some abstract words.

  18. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  19. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  20. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  1. Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2007-01-01

    Although faculty support has been identified as a critical factor in the success of educational-technology programs, many people involved in such efforts underestimate the complexities of integrating technology into teaching. In this article, the author proposes an adoption cycle to help tackle the complex issue of technology adoption for…

  2. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  3. Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    June, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    The transfusion of T cells, also called adoptive T cell therapy, is an effective treatment for viral infections and has induced regression of cancer in early-stage clinical trials. However, recent advances in cellular immunology and tumor biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T cell therapy. For example, use of engineered T cells is being tested as a strategy to improve the functions of effector and memory T cells, and manipulation of the host to overcome immunotoxic effects in the tumor microenvironment has led to promising results in early-stage clinical trials. Challenges that face the field and must be addressed before adoptive T cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice are discussed. PMID:17476350

  4. What's in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Lisa M; Barber, Rebecca T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters.

  5. What’s in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Lisa M.; Barber, Rebecca T.; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters. PMID:27008213

  6. What's in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Lisa M; Barber, Rebecca T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters. PMID:27008213

  7. Pre-adoptive Factors Predicting Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples’ Relationship Quality Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined pre-adoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the first year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the first year of parenthood, regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, pre-adoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, pre-adoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and post-adoption. PMID:20545395

  8. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  9. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  10. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  11. Evaluating Collaboration for Effectiveness: Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Lydia I.; Brock, Donna-Jean P.; Savla, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Although collaboration is recognized as an effective means to address multifaceted community issues, successful collaboration is difficult to achieve and failure is prevalent. To effectively collaborate, collaborators must recognize the strengths and weaknesses within their own efforts. Using Mattessich and colleagues' work as a springboard,…

  12. Comment on the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Michael Levin argues that data from the study are consistent with a black/white IQ difference that is significantly genetic. Richard Lynn maintains that adoption by middle-class, white families has no effect on intelligence. Waldman, Weinberg, and Scarr respond to these criticisms and support the original conclusions. (SLD)

  13. Substance abuse treatment organizations as mediators of social policy: slowing the adoption of a congressionally approved medication.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Stanley S; Thomas, Cindy Parks; Martin, Timothy C; Chilingerian, Jon; Reif, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most substance abuse treatment occurs in outpatient treatment centers, necessitating an understanding of what motivates organizations to adopt new treatment modalities. Tichy's framework of organizations as being comprised of three intertwined internal systems (technical, cultural, and political) was used to explain treatment organizations' slow adoption of buprenorphine, a new medication for opiate dependence. Primary data were collected from substance abuse treatment organizations in four of the ten metropolitan areas with the largest number of heroin users. Only about one fifth offered buprenorphine. All three internal systems were important determinants of buprenorphine adoption in our multivariate model. However, the cultural system, measured by attitude toward medications, was a necessary condition for adoption. Health policies designed to encourage adoption of evidence-based performance measures typically focus on the technical system of organizations. These findings suggest that such policies would be more effective if they incorporate an understanding of all three internal systems.

  14. Measuring Effectiveness in a Virtual Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Jannette L.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring quality of service in academic libraries traditionally includes quantifiable data such as collection size, staff counts, circulation numbers, reference service statistics, qualitative analyses of customer satisfaction, shelving accuracy, and building comfort. In the libraries of the third millennium, virtual worlds, Web content and…

  15. Measuring the effectiveness of targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Hassig, S

    1991-06-01

    Considered opinion is that multiple indicators must be used to evaluate a project's success in slowing HIV transmission. There may be difference only over which is the best measure. The 4 indicators recommended for availability, accuracy, and usefulness are 1) reported condom use, 2) reported number of sexual partners, 3) condom sales, and 4) incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's). These measures are workable during program start-up, ongoing program implementation, and concurrent with evaluation. Methodologies employed for data collection are quantitative methods such as surveys and qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews or focus groups, direct observation or medical data from clinical exams, tests, or medical records. Reported condom use, albeit a surrogate measure, may be more valid when the questions asked about condom use during the last sex act, or a 1-week recall. Another reliability check would be to compare consistency with actual use in a focus group or reports from peer educators. Change in number of partners is important for intervention projects in STD clinics, workplace, or other social settings. The example given is for Trinidad's KAP surveys which measure changes in numbers of partners, condom use, and condom sales or distribution figures. Condom sales data, rather than free distribution figures, reflect a commitment to using condoms, and frequently condom use is already part of AIDS campaigns. Free condoms if part of a peer education project are more useful. In Mali, 82 prostitutes reported using 62,000 condoms while 58,000 were distributed in a month period. This is close enough to validate the data. STD rates are important measures because of the finding that STD's can increase the chance of HIV transmission by up to 100 times in a single act of intercourse. The number of STD cases can be substituted for costly incidence data.

  16. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  17. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  18. Volume Fraction Effects in Electroacoustic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Rasmusson, Mikael

    2001-08-15

    We measured the dynamic mobility of a polystyrene latex at 1 MHz as a function of volume fraction using the ESA-8000. The volume fraction dependence is compared with a semiempirical equation as well as with some theoretical predictions. It turns out that our polystyrene latex exhibits a volume fraction dependence much weaker than that predicted by any of the theories. This suggests that (polystyrene) latices may not be the ideal model system and that the centrifugation process may influence the surface structure of the particles. We also measured the dynamic mobility spectrum of a silica sol as a function of volume fraction using the Acoustosizer. The experimental spectrum of the silica sol was found to agree reasonably well with the semiempirical and theoretical spectra, especially below φ=0.144. At higher volume fractions we observed positive phase angles that were not predicted by the semiempirical method nor the cell model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11482951

  19. Counseling Issues in Adoptions by Stepparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patricia A.; Mast, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Although the number of nonrelative adoptions is decreasing, stepparent adoptions are not. These adoptions are viewed as nonproblematic family business separate from the general adoption picture. This article examines demographic data in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, from 55 stepparent adoptions concerning stepparent adopters, birth parents, and…

  20. Understanding the effect size and its measures.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The evidence based medicine paradigm demands scientific reliability, but modern research seems to overlook it sometimes. The power analysis represents a way to show the meaningfulness of findings, regardless to the emphasized aspect of statistical significance. Within this statistical framework, the estimation of the effect size represents a means to show the relevance of the evidences produced through research. In this regard, this paper presents and discusses the main procedures to estimate the size of an effect with respect to the specific statistical test used for hypothesis testing. Thus, this work can be seen as an introduction and a guide for the reader interested in the use of effect size estimation for its scientific endeavour.

  1. Understanding the effect size and its measures

    PubMed Central

    Ialongo, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The evidence based medicine paradigm demands scientific reliability, but modern research seems to overlook it sometimes. The power analysis represents a way to show the meaningfulness of findings, regardless to the emphasized aspect of statistical significance. Within this statistical framework, the estimation of the effect size represents a means to show the relevance of the evidences produced through research. In this regard, this paper presents and discusses the main procedures to estimate the size of an effect with respect to the specific statistical test used for hypothesis testing. Thus, this work can be seen as an introduction and a guide for the reader interested in the use of effect size estimation for its scientific endeavour. PMID:27346958

  2. Identification of cost effective energy conservation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Boggs, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to a successful program of readily implemented conservation actions for reducing building energy consumption at Kennedy Space Center, recent detailed analyses have identified further substantial savings for buildings representative of technical facilities designed when energy costs were low. The techniques employed for determination of these energy savings consisted of facility configuration analysis, power and lighting measurements, detailed computer simulations and simulation verifications. Use of these methods resulted in identification of projected energy savings as large as $330,000 a year (approximately two year break-even period) in a single building. Application of these techniques to other commercial buildings is discussed

  3. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario’s adoption agencies

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Angela A.; Kennedy, V. Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E.; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government’s website. Information relevant to the study’s measures was collected using service providers’ websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option. PMID

  4. Employing Data to Measure Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The national push for educational accountability has focused attention on the need for effective teachers and high-quality instruction. The problem is that even among certified teachers, the meaning "high-quality instruction" often varies significantly from one teacher to the next, and one school to the next. Obviously, a lack of alignment between…

  5. Relativistic effects in astronomical timing measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the relativistic transformations that are necessary to transform the results of earth-based astronomical timing observations from the terrestrial frame in which the observations are made to the proper frame of the astronomical object being observed are derived. Two coordinate systems are considered, the first being the parametrized post-Newtonian coordinate system and the second being a coordinate system based on the use of temps dynamique barycentrique as a time coordinate. Effects due to propagation of signals through curved spacetime and due to the relativistic gravitational time dilation for the earth are derived in each system. The results are then applied to three modern accurate data types spacecraft ranging, pulsar timing, and VLBI. A new effect is found in the analysis of VLBI data, amounting to a rescaling of VLBI-determined baselines produced by the curvature of space in the neighborhood of the sun.

  6. Behavioral interventions--rationale, measurement, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2005-06-01

    Effective STD and HIV prevention requires synergism of individual-based prevention behaviors and societal/structural supports that will promote and maintain these behaviors. We should also expect the unexpected. STD rates in gay men have risen after effective prevention of HIV/STD in gay men and effective antiretroviral therapy. New drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine ("crystal meth"), have induced risky sexual behaviors in gay and heterosexual communities. Economic dislocation in Eastern Europe has resulted in trafficking of commercial sex workers to Europe, the Mideast, and Asia, all with the potential for STD and HIV spread. James Curran, formerly director of the HIV epidemiology and prevention effort at the CDC, has written: It is ironic that the two clearest examples of large-scale success in HIV prevention-reduction in HIV transmission in gay men in the United States and national declines in HIV incidence in Thailand-arise in societies/communities known in their own way for sexual openness....the openness in both communities provided the environment to make the powerful revolutionary changes needed. In Africa, the powerful voice of President Museveni of Uganda has also encouraged candor about sexual risk-taking and facilitated that nation's encouraging early success in reducing HIV prevalence...Unfortunately, most of the world remains unable or unwilling to deal frankly and consistently with sexuality despite the considerable risks of HIV infection in many communities. There is a worldwide sexual hangup hampering HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15963887

  7. Surface coating effects in remote sensing measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the infrared spectra of a liquid-(water) coated quartz substrate and a solid-(pyrophyllite) coated quartzite are compared to theoretical values. Results demonstrate that in the case of the water-coated quartz, a loss in spectral contrast of the quartz emission occurs at the principal restrahlen wavelengths of 8.5, 9.0, and 12.5 µ but is most pronounced at 12.5 µ. In the case of pyrophyllite-coated quartzite, additional spectral features appear between 8.0 and 10.0 µ as the exposure of quartzite through the pyrophyllite coating is increased. Addition of the pure quartzite and pyrophyllite spectra, weighted by exposed area, is shown to satisfactorily describe the composite spectra.

  8. Cost-effective and full-field method for measuring vibration of loudspeaker membrane using fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yong; Zhang, Zhiliang; Gao, Peng

    2014-11-01

    We proposed a cost-effective and full-field method for measuring vibration of loudspeaker using general industrial camera and fringe projection. The loudspeaker is excited by a sinusoidal signal. The fringe pattern is projected on the measured loudspeaker membrane that is dynamically deformed. Then the deformed fringes are captured by a camera. A trigger generation circuit is designed to control the camera. The Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) is adopted for 3D shape reconstruction. The validity of this method is approved by experiments. The cost of proposed measurement system is dramatically lower than that using high-speed camera.

  9. Adoptive immunotherapy of advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Schachter, Jacob

    2012-09-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has emerged as an effective therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Since the first introduction of the protocol in 1988 [1], major improvements have been achieved with response rates of 40%-72% among patients who were resistant to previous treatment lines. Both cell product and conditioning regimen are major determinants of treatment efficacy; therefore, developing ACT protocols explore diverse ways to establish autologous intra-tumoral lymphocyte cultures or peripheral effector cells as well as different lymphodepleting regimens. While a proof of feasibility and a proof of concept had been established with previous published results, ACT will need to move beyond single-center experiences, to confirmatory, multi-center studies. If ACT is to move into widespread practice, it will be necessary to develop reproducible high quality cell production methods and accepted lymphodepleting regimen. Two new drugs, ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb) and vemurafenib (Zelboraf, Roche), were approved in 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on positive phase III trials. Both drugs show a clear overall survival benefit, so the timing of when to use ACT will need to be carefully thought out. In contrast to these 2 new, commercially available outpatient treatments, ACT is a personally-specified product and labor-intensive therapy that demands both acquisition of high standard laboratory procedures and close clinical inpatient monitoring during treatment. It is unique among other anti-melanoma treatments, providing the potential for a durable response following a single, self-limited treatment. This perspective drives the efforts to make this protocol accessible for more patients and to explore modifications that may optimize treatment results.

  10. Diagnosis before treatment: Identifying dairy farmers' determinants for the adoption of sustainable practices in gastrointestinal nematode control.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, F; Claerebout, E; Cauberghe, V; Hudders, L; Van Loo, H; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-09-15

    Anthelmintic resistance is emerging in dairy cattle and this can result in a lack of effective control and production losses. Therefore, sustainable control strategies, such as targeted treatments (TT) and targeted selected treatments (TST), should be adopted by the industry. TT and TST approaches require the use of diagnostic methods to take informed treatment decisions. To understand the factors affecting the farmers' intention to adopt diagnostic methods before implementing anthelmintic drugs ('adoption intention'), a cross-sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in Belgium (Flanders). A framework was constructed to predict adoption intentions based on two fundamental theories in the field of behavioural psychology and health psychology: the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Belief Model. In the tested model, adoption intentions were predicted based on attitudes towards anthelminthics, attitudes towards diagnostic methods, subjective norms, behavioural control and perceived risk. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. The model fitted the data well and explained 46% of the variance in adoption intention of diagnostics. The factors 'attitude towards diagnostic methods' and 'subjective norm'; i.e. the influence of significant others, had the strongest, positive influence on adoption intention of diagnostic methods. 'Perceived behavioural control' had a weak, positive effect on intention. Further, 'attitude towards the use of anthelmintic drugs' had a negative effect on adoption intention of the diagnostic methods. This implicates an effect of current behaviour on future adoption, which should be considered in future research. Factors measuring risk perception of anthelmintic resistance; perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, had no effect on the adoption intention of diagnostic methods. The threat of anthelmintic resistance is perceived to be low for dairy herds. The study further did not find any differences in the effects

  11. Diagnosis before treatment: Identifying dairy farmers' determinants for the adoption of sustainable practices in gastrointestinal nematode control.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, F; Claerebout, E; Cauberghe, V; Hudders, L; Van Loo, H; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-09-15

    Anthelmintic resistance is emerging in dairy cattle and this can result in a lack of effective control and production losses. Therefore, sustainable control strategies, such as targeted treatments (TT) and targeted selected treatments (TST), should be adopted by the industry. TT and TST approaches require the use of diagnostic methods to take informed treatment decisions. To understand the factors affecting the farmers' intention to adopt diagnostic methods before implementing anthelmintic drugs ('adoption intention'), a cross-sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in Belgium (Flanders). A framework was constructed to predict adoption intentions based on two fundamental theories in the field of behavioural psychology and health psychology: the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Belief Model. In the tested model, adoption intentions were predicted based on attitudes towards anthelminthics, attitudes towards diagnostic methods, subjective norms, behavioural control and perceived risk. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. The model fitted the data well and explained 46% of the variance in adoption intention of diagnostics. The factors 'attitude towards diagnostic methods' and 'subjective norm'; i.e. the influence of significant others, had the strongest, positive influence on adoption intention of diagnostic methods. 'Perceived behavioural control' had a weak, positive effect on intention. Further, 'attitude towards the use of anthelmintic drugs' had a negative effect on adoption intention of the diagnostic methods. This implicates an effect of current behaviour on future adoption, which should be considered in future research. Factors measuring risk perception of anthelmintic resistance; perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, had no effect on the adoption intention of diagnostic methods. The threat of anthelmintic resistance is perceived to be low for dairy herds. The study further did not find any differences in the effects

  12. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of a home-based telehealth intervention on the use of secondary healthcare and mortality. Design Observational study of a mainstream telehealth service, using person-level administrative data. Time to event analysis (Cox regression) was performed comparing telehealth patients with controls who were matched using a machine-learning algorithm. Setting A predominantly rural region of England (North Yorkshire). Participants 716 telehealth patients were recruited from community, general practice and specialist acute care, between June 2010 and March 2013. Patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or diabetes, and a history of associated inpatient admission. Patients were matched 1:1 to control patients, also selected from North Yorkshire, with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use and predictive risk score. Interventions Telehealth involved the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals as part of the ongoing management of the patient's health condition. Monitoring centre staff alerted healthcare professionals if the telemonitored data exceeded preset thresholds. Control patients received usual care, without telehealth. Primary and secondary outcome measures Time to the first emergency (unplanned) hospital admission or death. Secondary metrics included time to death and time to first admission, outpatient attendance and emergency department visit. Results Matched controls and telehealth patients were similar at baseline. Following enrolment, telehealth patients were more likely than matched controls to experience emergency admission or death (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, p<0.001). They were also more likely to have outpatient attendances (adjusted HR=1.25, 1.11 to 1.40, p<0.001), but mortality rates were similar between groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in the

  13. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  14. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife.

  15. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent. PMID:15906883

  16. How cross-modality effects during intraspecific interactions of jumping spiders differ depending on whether a female-choice or mutual-choice mating system is adopted.

    PubMed

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2009-02-01

    An important prediction from game theory is that the value of a resource influences the level to which conflict escalates. Here we use jumping spiders (Salticidae) to consider this prediction in the context of species adopting different mating systems ('female mate-choice' and 'mutual mate-choice'). Our experiments are designed for determining whether the odour of conspecific females, more than the odour of heterospecific females, primes males to escalate conflict with a potential same-sex rival and also whether the odour of conspecific males, more than the odour of heterospecific males, primes females to escalate conflict with a potential same-sex rival. Four species were studied: Evarcha culicivora, a species in which mutual mate-choice is pronounced, and Portia fimbriata, Portia africana, and Jacksonoides queenslandicus, more conventional salticids in which female mate-choice and male-male competition appear to be dominant. Our hypothesis is that, for all four species, there is strong competition between males for access to females and that, for E. culicivora, but not for the other three species, there is also strong competition between females for access to males. Our findings are consistent with this hypothesis, as we show that, although the odour of conspecific females primes escalation of vision-based male-male conflict for all four species, E. culicivora is the only species for which there is evidence of odour from conspecific males priming the escalation of female-female conflict. PMID:19041931

  17. Measuring the effectiveness of gaseous virus disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Knotzer, Simone; Kindermann, Johanna; Modrof, Jens; Kreil, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of gaseous disinfection is critical for prevention and treatment of microbial contamination in biotechnological facilities. For an evaluation of gaseous disinfection efficacy, a down-scaled laboratory model was established, using currently available carrier tests and a custom-made dry fog box. A mixture of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (PAA/HP) was investigated as example, at concentrations between 0.4 and 2.9 mL/m(3) for up to 3 h for inactivation of a panel of lipid-enveloped and non-lipid-enveloped viruses. The influenza viruses were most sensitive to PAA/HP treatment and minute virus of mice was most resistant. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and reovirus III showed intermediate stability and similar inactivation kinetics. Use of the dry fog box circumvents dedicating an entire lab for the investigation, which renders the generation of data more cost-effective and allows for production of highly reproducible kinetic data.

  18. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable. PMID:10961833

  19. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  20. Measuring the effectiveness of gaseous virus disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Knotzer, Simone; Kindermann, Johanna; Modrof, Jens; Kreil, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of gaseous disinfection is critical for prevention and treatment of microbial contamination in biotechnological facilities. For an evaluation of gaseous disinfection efficacy, a down-scaled laboratory model was established, using currently available carrier tests and a custom-made dry fog box. A mixture of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (PAA/HP) was investigated as example, at concentrations between 0.4 and 2.9 mL/m(3) for up to 3 h for inactivation of a panel of lipid-enveloped and non-lipid-enveloped viruses. The influenza viruses were most sensitive to PAA/HP treatment and minute virus of mice was most resistant. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and reovirus III showed intermediate stability and similar inactivation kinetics. Use of the dry fog box circumvents dedicating an entire lab for the investigation, which renders the generation of data more cost-effective and allows for production of highly reproducible kinetic data. PMID:26260690

  1. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  2. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

    PubMed

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  3. Effects of pretesting implicit self-determined motivation on behavioral engagement: evidence for the mere measurement effect at the implicit level.

    PubMed

    Keatley, David A; Clarke, David D; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Research into individuals' intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the "mere measurement" effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measuring the implicit systems affects subsequent implicit interventions (e.g., priming), observable on subsequent behavior. Priming manipulations were also given to participants in order to investigate the interaction between measurement and priming of motivation. Initially, a 2 [implicit association test (IAT: present vs. absent) ×2 (Prime: autonomous vs. absent) and a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) × 2 (Prime: controlled vs. absent)] between participants designs were conducted, these were them combined into a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) ×3 (Prime: autonomous vs. controlled vs. absent) between participants design, with attempts at a novel task taken as the outcome measure. Implicit measure completion significantly decreased behavioral engagement. Priming autonomous motivation significantly facilitated, and controlled motivation significantly inhibited performance. Finally, there was a significant implicit measurement × priming interaction, such that priming autonomous motivation only improved performance in the absence of the implicit measure. Overall, this research provides an insight into the effects of implicit measurement and priming of motivation and the combined effect of completing both tasks on behavior. PMID:24592249

  4. Measuring effective area of spots from pulsed laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratan, Aurel; Zorila, Alexandru; Rusen, Laurentiu; Nemes, George

    2014-12-01

    The effective area of a laser spot is an important quantity used to characterize the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials according to ISO 21254-1:2011 standard. A method for measuring the effective area/diameter of spots from pulsed laser beams using charge-coupled device camera-based beam profilers is presented. Factors affecting the measurement's accuracy, as the background noise and the size of the summation area, were evaluated using MATLAB. To minimize the noise contribution, we use an iterative method similar to the one used to measure the second-moment-based spot sizes. We find that the two analyzed components of the background noise, its zero-mean noise and its offset, have an opposite effect on the measurements of the effective area/diameter as compared with the second-moment-based measurements. We prove that there is an upper limit of the relative error of such iterative measurements of effective area, the iteration limit parameter, and that it is a measurable quantity. We measure the effective area/diameter of laser spots with different sizes from a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, 6 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition frequency, and estimate the standard uncertainty of the measurements. Further, we generalize the effective area/diameter concept to include elongated (elliptical/rectangular) spots.

  5. Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.

    PubMed

    Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

    2011-12-01

    This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

  6. Innovation Adoption: A Review of Theories and Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical frameworks seek to describe the dynamic process of the implementation of innovations. Little is known, however, about factors related to decisions to adopt innovations and how the likelihood of adoption of innovations can be increased. Using a narrative synthesis approach, this paper compared constructs theorized to be related to adoption of innovations proposed in existing theoretical frameworks in order to identify characteristics likely to increase adoption of innovations. The overall goal was to identify elements across adoption frameworks that are potentially modifiable and, thus, might be employed to improve the adoption of evidence-based practices. The review identified 20 theoretical frameworks that could be grouped into two broad categories: theories that mainly address the adoption process (N = 10) and theories that address adoption within the context of implementation, diffusion, dissemination, and/or sustainability (N = 10). Constructs of leadership, operational size and structure, innovation fit with norms and values, and attitudes/motivation toward innovations each are mentioned in at least half of the theories, though there were no consistent definitions of measures for these constructs. A lack of precise definitions and measurement of constructs suggests further work is needed to increase our understanding of adoption of innovations. PMID:23549911

  7. Innovation adoption: a review of theories and constructs.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-07-01

    Many theoretical frameworks seek to describe the dynamic process of the implementation of innovations. Little is known, however, about factors related to decisions to adopt innovations and how the likelihood of adoption of innovations can be increased. Using a narrative synthesis approach, this paper compared constructs theorized to be related to adoption of innovations proposed in existing theoretical frameworks in order to identify characteristics likely to increase adoption of innovations. The overall goal was to identify elements across adoption frameworks that are potentially modifiable and, thus, might be employed to improve the adoption of evidence-based practices. The review identified 20 theoretical frameworks that could be grouped into two broad categories: theories that mainly address the adoption process (N = 10) and theories that address adoption within the context of implementation, diffusion, dissemination, and/or sustainability (N = 10). Constructs of leadership, operational size and structure, innovation fit with norms and values, and attitudes/motivation toward innovations each are mentioned in at least half of the theories, though there were no consistent definitions of measures for these constructs. A lack of precise definitions and measurement of constructs suggests further work is needed to increase our understanding of adoption of innovations.

  8. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness: The Role of Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the challenges associated with demonstrating organizational effectiveness and the role of performance measures as surrogates for demonstrating effectiveness are provided. The complexity of analysis and the importance of use of performance measures provide a way to review the strengths and weakness of eight different ways to…

  9. Measures Inherent to Treatments in Program Effectiveness Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert; Madden, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Program effectiveness reviews in education seek to provide educators with scientifically valid and useful summaries of evidence on achievement effects of various interventions. Different reviewers have different policies on measures of content taught in the experimental group but not the control group, called here "treatment-inherent" measures.…

  10. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  11. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  12. Has the Academy Adopted TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert; Deshotels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 469 colleges and universities assessed the degree to which colleges and universities have adopted total quality management (TQM) or continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. Results suggest use of TQM/CQI is lower than predicted, at about 13% of institutions. Variations in extent of use of the approach are discussed. (MSE)

  13. Communication Development and Differences in Children Adopted from China and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuo, Hisako

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The communication development of children adopted from China and Eastern Europe was compared by region of origin at 6 and 12 months after adoption. Method: Twenty children, recruited before or immediately following their adoption, participated in the study. Measures were collected between 2 and 6 months after adoption (Time 1) and between…

  14. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  15. Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, S

    1999-01-01

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.

  16. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  17. Hall effect measurements on InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemers, Ch.; Grap, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.; Lueth, H.; Trellenkamp, St.; Schaepers, Th.

    2012-10-08

    We have processed Hall contacts on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy using an electron beam lithography process with an extremely high alignment accuracy. The carrier concentrations determined from the Hall effect measurements on these nanowires are lower by a factor of about 4 in comparison with those measured by the common field-effect technique. The results are used to evaluate quantitatively the charging effect of the interface and surface states.

  18. A signalling theory of excessive technological adoption.

    PubMed

    Barros, P P; Pinto, C G; Machado, A

    1999-05-01

    Technology adoption has been identified as one of the main elements behind the growth of health care expenditures. It has been argued that the health insurance arrangements in the US justify, to a certain extent, the technology-driven rise in costs. Moreover, it eases the adoption of less cost-effective procedures and devices. This paper presents an additional argument by which excessive technology investments may occur: providers of care invest in technology as a way to "signal" their intrinsic (and unobservable) quality. Providers face the option of adopting a new technology. The decision of adoption in itself may convey information about his/her quality: for example, patients conjecture that providers who display newer technology are of higher quality. Providers, being aware of this, may invest in technology to reveal themselves as high quality. Thus, technology adoption could result only from the desire to attract patients. The investment is self-defeating in the sense that if all providers invest, no information about quality is transmitted to patients. We evaluate the argument in a context of demand for health care services where patients have initially no information about the quality of different providers. We show that an incentive to invest as a way to signal quality may or may not lead to overinvestment. It is also possible that only some providers invest. They reveal themselves as high quality providers. The analysis suggests that the argument is more important for some services than for others. Overall, an additional argument for overinvestment in technology in some circumstances is provided.

  19. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1) the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2) involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3) the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74%) were returned and 309 (69%) were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Salient results are: (1) Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (2) Physicians involvement in the planning, design and implementation increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (3) Physicians belief that the new CDSS will improve his/her job performance increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01). Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional

  20. Interorganizational Systems Adoption: A Socio-Technical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Pyne, Clayton

    This paper discusses a case study of an electronic data interchange (EDI) interorganizational system (IOS) adoption project between two organizations (ProvideCo and BuildCo) highlighting that IOS adoption is not only technological in nature and orientation but that organizational factors also play their part. As a result of the case analysis and key findings, an interorganizational collaboration model (Barratt 2004) is amended to explain and highlight the effect of organizational factors on IOS adoption. The amended model includes the relationship of technology (IOS) adoption to cross-functional collaborative activities and risk, power, opportunism, and trust.

  1. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  2. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and whether adoptive status moderated this relationship. Participating families included 616 adoptive and non-adoptive families with two adolescent children. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Sibling closeness was highest in families that emphasized both conversation and conformity and lowest in families that emphasized only conversation or neither conversation nor conformity. Emotional and behavioral closeness were differentially associated with adoption status, sibling age, and sibling gender. Few moderating effects of adoption status were found. Post hoc analyses showed moderating effects of sibling gender composition. PMID:21984844

  3. Social and attitudinal determinants of the behavioral intention to adopt solar-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    In spite of increased research efforts, an understanding of the factors encouraging solar adoption and the barriers hindering adoption is seriously deficient. This study attempts to correct this deficiency by developing a predictive model of intentions to adopt residential solar technologies. The development of the model derives from three sources: (1) findings from previous studies, (2) variables from the diffusion of innovations tradition, and (3) an attitude-behavior model from social psychology. The attitude-behavior model, developed by Martin Fishbein and his associates over the past several years, forms the core of the conceptual model that incorporates the diffusion variables and the findings from previous studies. The final conceptual model indicates, as expected, that a measure of attitudes toward the act of adopting solar technologies in the most-important predictor variable. Homeowners who weight the various factors associated with solar energy and arrive at a favorable composite-attitude express a behavioral intention to adopt the technology. Other factors, however, improve the level of prediction. Perceptions of economic advantages, perceptions of economic barriers, and educational attainment were found to be statistically significant predictors. Still other factors, such as income, the number of contracts with solar owners, and environmental concerns, improved prediction indirectly. However, perceived social norms had no significant effects on the formation of the intention to adopt solar energy systems.

  4. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  5. The British Chinese Adoption Study: Orphanage Care, Adoption and Mid-Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan; Grant, Margaret; Feast, Julia; Simmonds, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: While studies of ex-orphanage care show adverse effects on development, the longer-term impact on mid-life psychosocial functioning and physical health has not been established. Methods: Orphanage records provided baseline data on a sample of 100 Hong Kong Chinese girls who were subsequently adopted into the UK. A mid-life follow-up…

  6. Experimental verification of depolarization effects in bioelectrical impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Lv, Xinqiang; Du, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The electrode polarization effects on bioelectrical impedance measurement at low-frequency cannot be ignored. In this paper, the bioelectrical data of mice livers are measured to specify the polarization effects on the bio-impedance measurement data. We firstly introduce the measurement system and methodology. Using the depolarization method, the corrected results are obtained. Besides, the specific effects of electrode polarization on bio-impedance measurement results are investigated using comparative analysis of the previous and posterior correction results from dielectric spectroscopy, Cole-Cole plot, conductivity and spectroscopy of dissipation tangent. Experimental results show that electrode polarization has a significant influence on the characteristic parameters of mouse liver tissues. To be specific, we see a low-frequency limit resistance R0 increase by 19.29%, a reactance peak XP increase by 8.50%, a low-frequency limit conductivity Kl decrease by 17.65% and a dissipation peak tangent decrease by 160%.

  7. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  8. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations may be carried out by FAS at... in evaluations....

  9. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations... expertise to conduct or participate in evaluations....

  10. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations may be carried out by FAS at... in evaluations....

  11. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations may be carried out by FAS at... in evaluations....

  12. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations... expertise to conduct or participate in evaluations....

  13. Setting Minimum Standards for Measuring Public Relations Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenmann, Walter K.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the new 28-page booklet defining "Guidelines and Standards for Measuring and Evaluating PR Effectiveness." States that it is the result of a nine-month project carried out by an eight-member task force. (PA)

  14. New measurements of the EMC effect in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    A. Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Modifications of structure functions in nuclei (EMC effect) suggest that the nuclear quark distribution function is not just the incoherent sum of the proton and neutron distributions, and made clear the importance of nuclear effects even in high energy measurements. Jefferson Lab experiment E03-103 made precise measurements of the EMC effect in few-body and heavy nuclei with emphasis on the large x region. Data from the light nuclei suggests that the nuclear dependence of the high x quark distribution may depend on the nucleon's local environment, rather than being a purely bulk effect.

  15. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.18 Measuring cost-effectiveness. (a) In accordance with this...) Federal agencies performing LCC analysis on computers shall use either the Federal Buildings Life Cycle... building energy or water system with an energy or water conservation measure by retrofit to an...

  16. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.18 Measuring cost-effectiveness. (a) In accordance with this...) Federal agencies performing LCC analysis on computers shall use either the Federal Buildings Life Cycle... building energy or water system with an energy or water conservation measure by retrofit to an...

  17. A Perspective on the Measurement of Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, William S.

    1978-01-01

    Uses an historical analogy with Archimedes' problem concerning the volume of his king's golden crown to illustrate the evaluation problem for document and reference retrieval systems. Various methods that have been developed since 1950 to measure retrieval effectiveness are described, and utility measure formulas are provided. (JD)

  18. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  19. Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

  20. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  1. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  2. Chlorine measurement in the jet singlet oxygen generator considering the effects of the droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Mohamad S.; Saghafifar, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    A new method is presented to measure chlorine concentration more accurately than conventional method in exhaust gases of a jet-type singlet oxygen generator. One problem in this measurement is the existence of micrometer-sized droplets. In this article, an empirical method is reported to eliminate the effects of the droplets. Two wavelengths from a fiber coupled LED are adopted and the measurement is made on both selected wavelengths. Chlorine is measured by the two-wavelength more accurately than the one-wavelength method by eliminating the droplet term in the equations. This method is validated without the basic hydrogen peroxide injection in the reactor. In this case, a pressure meter value in the diagnostic cell is compared with the optically calculated pressure, which is obtained by the one-wavelength and the two-wavelength methods. It is found that chlorine measurement by the two-wavelength method and pressure meter is nearly the same, while the one-wavelength method has a significant error due to the droplets.

  3. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  4. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  5. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  6. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  7. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  8. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  9. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  10. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  11. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  12. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  13. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  14. Combinatorial measurements of Hall effect and resistivity in oxide films.

    PubMed

    Clayhold, J A; Kerns, B M; Schroer, M D; Rench, D W; Logvenov, G; Bollinger, A T; Bozovic, I

    2008-03-01

    A system for the simultaneous measurement of the Hall effect in 31 different locations as well as the measurement of the resistivity in 30 different locations on a single oxide thin film grown with a composition gradient is described. Considerations for designing and operating a high-throughput system for characterizing highly conductive oxides with Hall coefficients as small as 10(-10) m3/C are discussed. Results from measurements on films grown using combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy show the usefulness of characterizing combinatorial libraries via both the resistivity and the Hall effect. PMID:18377026

  15. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  16. Direct measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in cementite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeswurm, B.; Friemert, K.; Gürsoy, M.; Skokov, K. P.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of the magnetocaloric effect of cementite at its Curie temperature of 475 K are presented. An adiabatic temperature change of 1.76±0.01 K was measured using a direct measurement technique. The isothermal entropy change was determined from measurements of magnetisation isotherms and was shown to be 3.07 J K-1 kg-1 in a field change of 2 T. The field dependencies of both magnetocaloric properties follow the H2/3 dependence typical for ferromagnetic materials with a second order phase transition. The material may be of interest in magnetocaloric applications such as magnetic refrigeration or thermomagnetic power generation.

  17. Measures to Evaluate the Effects of DBS on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Bunton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate measures of speech production that could be used to document effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on speech performance, especially in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A small set of evaluative criteria for these measures is presented first, followed by consideration of several speech physiology and speech acoustic measures that have been studied frequently and reported on in the literature on normal speech production, and speech production affected by neuromotor disorders (dysarthria). Each measure is reviewed and evaluated against the evaluative criteria. Embedded within this review and evaluation is a presentation of new data relating speech motions to speech intelligibility measures in speakers with PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control speakers (CS). These data are used to support the conclusion that at the present time the slope of second formant transitions (F2 slope), an acoustic measure, is well suited to make inferences to speech motion and to predict speech intelligibility. The use of other measures should not be ruled out, however, and we encourage further development of evaluative criteria for speech measures designed to probe the effects of DBS or any treatment with potential effects on speech production and communication skills. PMID:24932066

  18. The effectiveness of educational interventions to enhance the adoption of fee-based arsenic testing in Bangladesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Rahman, Sheikh Masudur; Zheng, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Arsenic (As) testing could help 22 million people, using drinking water sources that exceed the Bangladesh As standard, to identify safe sources. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of household education and local media in the increasing demand for fee-based As testing. Randomly selected households (N = 452) were divided into three interventions implemented by community workers: 1) fee-based As testing with household education (HE); 2) fee-based As testing with household education and a local media campaign (HELM); and 3) fee-based As testing alone (Control). The fee for the As test was US$ 0.28, higher than the cost of the test (US$ 0.16). Of households with untested wells, 93% in both intervention groups HE and HELM purchased an As test, whereas only 53% in the control group. In conclusion, fee-based As testing with household education is effective in the increasing demand for As testing in rural Bangladesh.

  19. The Effectiveness of Educational Interventions to Enhance the Adoption of Fee-Based Arsenic Testing in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Rahman, Sheikh Masudur; Zheng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) testing could help 22 million people, using drinking water sources that exceed the Bangladesh As standard, to identify safe sources. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of household education and local media in the increasing demand for fee-based As testing. Randomly selected households (N = 452) were divided into three interventions implemented by community workers: 1) fee-based As testing with household education (HE); 2) fee-based As testing with household education and a local media campaign (HELM); and 3) fee-based As testing alone (Control). The fee for the As test was US$ 0.28, higher than the cost of the test (US$ 0.16). Of households with untested wells, 93% in both intervention groups HE and HELM purchased an As test, whereas only 53% in the control group. In conclusion, fee-based As testing with household education is effective in the increasing demand for As testing in rural Bangladesh. PMID:23716409

  20. The effectiveness of educational interventions to enhance the adoption of fee-based arsenic testing in Bangladesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Rahman, Sheikh Masudur; Zheng, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Arsenic (As) testing could help 22 million people, using drinking water sources that exceed the Bangladesh As standard, to identify safe sources. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of household education and local media in the increasing demand for fee-based As testing. Randomly selected households (N = 452) were divided into three interventions implemented by community workers: 1) fee-based As testing with household education (HE); 2) fee-based As testing with household education and a local media campaign (HELM); and 3) fee-based As testing alone (Control). The fee for the As test was US$ 0.28, higher than the cost of the test (US$ 0.16). Of households with untested wells, 93% in both intervention groups HE and HELM purchased an As test, whereas only 53% in the control group. In conclusion, fee-based As testing with household education is effective in the increasing demand for As testing in rural Bangladesh. PMID:23716409

  1. Continuous Stern-Gerlach effect: Noise and the measurement process

    PubMed Central

    Dehmelt, Hans

    1986-01-01

    This paper resumes the discussion of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, a method to continuously and nondestructively determine the spin state of the same individual electron, quasipermanently confined in a Penning trap in ultrahigh vacuum at liquid helium temperatures. Here the focus is on limitations to spin-state detection due to thermal and zero-point noise and on the quantum-mechanical measurement process. Illustrations of the continuous spin measurement process in the presence of selected perturbations are provided. The alteration of the spin state brought about by the frequency measurement process is exhibited. To resolve Zeno's paradox in a specific example, a slow resonant spin flip is discussed, when interrupted by frequent spin-state measurements. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is shown to be a near-ideal example for the quantum mechanical measurement process, for which all steps may be followed in quantitative detail. PMID:16593696

  2. Continuous Stern--Gerlach Effect: Noise and the Measurement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmelt, Hans

    1986-05-01

    This paper resumes the discussion of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, a method to continuously and nondestructively determine the spin state of the same individual electron, quasipermanently confined in a Penning trap in ultrahigh vacuum at liquid helium temperatures. Here the focus is on limitations to spin-state detection due to thermal and zero-point noise and on the quantum-mechanical measurement process. Illustrations of the continuous spin measurement process in the presence of selected perturbations are provided. The alteration of the spin state brought about by the frequency measurement process is exhibited. To resolve Zeno's paradox in a specific example, a slow resonant spin flip is discussed, when interrupted by frequent spin-state measurements. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is shown to be a near-ideal example for the quantum mechanical measurement process, for which all steps may be followed in quantitative detail.

  3. Continuous Stern-Gerlach effect: Noise and the measurement process.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H

    1986-05-01

    This paper resumes the discussion of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, a method to continuously and nondestructively determine the spin state of the same individual electron, quasipermanently confined in a Penning trap in ultrahigh vacuum at liquid helium temperatures. Here the focus is on limitations to spin-state detection due to thermal and zero-point noise and on the quantum-mechanical measurement process. Illustrations of the continuous spin measurement process in the presence of selected perturbations are provided. The alteration of the spin state brought about by the frequency measurement process is exhibited. To resolve Zeno's paradox in a specific example, a slow resonant spin flip is discussed, when interrupted by frequent spin-state measurements. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is shown to be a near-ideal example for the quantum mechanical measurement process, for which all steps may be followed in quantitative detail. PMID:16593696

  4. Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.

  5. Spatial compatibility interference effects: a double dissociation between two measures

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Alexander J.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In spatial compatibility tasks, when the spatial location of a stimulus is irrelevant it nevertheless interferes when a response is required in a different spatial location. For example, response with a left key-press is slowed when the stimulus is presented to the right as compared to the left side of a computer screen. However, in some conditions this interference effect is not detected in reaction time (RT) measures. It is typically assumed that the lack of effect means the irrelevant spatial code was not analysed or that the information rapidly decayed before response. However, we show that even in conditions where there appears to be no spatial interference when measuring RTs, effects can nevertheless be detected after response when recording facial electromyography responses. This dissociation between two measures highlights the importance of diverging methods to investigate visuomotor processes as conclusions based on only one measure can be misleading. PMID:26924937

  6. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.18 Measuring cost-effectiveness. (a) In accordance with this...) Federal agencies performing LCC analysis on computers shall use either the Federal Buildings Life Cycle...-effective if— (1) Life cycle costs, as described by § 436.19, are estimated to be lower; or (2) Net...

  7. A University Measures the Effects Of Its Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stear, Connie

    1977-01-01

    The University of Akron measured the effects of a three-year advertising campaign by means of a questionnaire sent to high school seniors and their parents as well as incoming freshmen enrollees. The results indicated that the advertising had been effective and supplied the university with guidelines for future campaigns. (Author)

  8. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  9. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  10. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  11. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  12. Air exchange effectiveness in office buildings: Measurement techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.

    1992-07-01

    We define two air exchange effectiveness parameters which indicate the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement air flow in an entire building, the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern locally, and the normalized local age of air. After describing two tracer gas procedures for measuring these parameters, we discuss assumptions inherent in the data analysis that are often violated in large office buildings. To obtain valuable data, careful selection of buildings for measurements and assessments to determine if operating conditions are reasonably consistent with the assumptions are necessary. Multiple factors, in addition to the air flow pattern in the occupied space, can affect measurement results, consequently, the interpretation of measurements is not straightforward. We summarize the results of measurements in several office buildings and in a research laboratory. Almost all measurements indicate that the extent of both short circuiting and displacement flow is small. A moderate amount of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. Ages of air and their reciprocals (local ventilation rates) often vary substantially between rooms, probably because of room-to-room variation in the rate of air supply. For future research, we suggest assessments of measurement accuracy, development of measurement approaches that may be practically applied for a broader range of buildings, and a greater focus on pollutant removal efficiencies.

  13. Combined effects of solvation and aggregation propensity on the final supramolecular structures adopted by hydrophobic, glycine-rich, elastin-like polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Anna M; Moscarelli, Pasquale; Bochicchio, Brigida; Lanza, Giuseppe; Castle, James E

    2013-05-01

    Previous work on elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) made of hydrophobic amino acids of the type XxxGlyGlyZzzGly (Xxx, Zzz = Val, Leu) has consistently shown that differing dominant supramolecular structures were formed when the suspending media were varied: helical, amyloid-like fibers when suspended in water and globules evolving into "string of bead" structures, poly(ValGlyGlyValGly), or cigar-like bundles, poly(ValGlyGlyLeuGly), when suspended in methyl alcohol. Comparative experiments with poly(LeuGlyGlyValGly) have further indicated that the interface energy plays a significant role and that solvation effects act in concomitance with the intrinsic aggregation propensity of the repeat sequence. Continuing our investigation on ELPs using surface (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy) and bulk (circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) techniques for their characterization, here we have compared the effect of suspending solvents (H(2)O, dimethylsulfoxide, ethylene glycol, and MeOH) on poly(ValGlyGlyValGly), the polypeptide most inclined to form long and well-refined helical fibers in water, searching for the signature of intermolecular interactions occurring between the polypeptide chains in the given suspension. The influence of sequence specificities has been studied by comparing poly(ValGlyGlyValGly) and poly(LeuGlyGlyValGly) with a similar degree of polymerization. Deposits on substrates of the polypeptides were characterized taking into account the differing evaporation rate of solvents, and tests on their stability in ultra high vacuum were performed. Finally, combining experimental and computational studies, we have revaluated the three-dimensional modeling previously proposed for the supramolecular assembly in water of poly(ValGlyGlyValGly). The results were discussed and rationalized also in the light of published data. PMID:23426573

  14. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  15. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  16. [Measure of sunscreen cream transmittance in UV wave range and analysis of sun protection effect].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Hua; Xiao, Duo

    2013-11-01

    SPF and PA index present the resistance ability of sunscreen to UVA (Ultraviolet A) and UVB (Ultraviolet B) respectively. The present article focuses on the research on the relationship between ultraviolet transmittance and sunscreen ability based on definition of sunscreen efficiency and a simple and significant result was obtained by deducing. The technique we applied is spectral analysis dealing with ethanol-ethyl ether mixed solvent by ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometer. We measured the UVA and UVB transmittance of 69 common sunscreen samples. The measurement result shows that spectral analysis method could differentiate sunscreens with different SPF and PA and identify whether the parameter value marked is accurate. So, an effective method is provided for the measurement of SPF and PA value. If different types of ultraviolet absorbent or UV scattering dose is added in sunscreen, the authors can distinguish them easily through the shape of the transmittance curve. In our sunscreen samples measured, domestic brands and imported brands are classified into two categories. By comparing the experimental results, the authors found that the domestic sunscreen and import sunscreen have no significant difference in sun block efficiency as long as the authors adopt the product of qualified manufacturer.

  17. Correcting electrode impedance effects in broadband SIP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Johan Alexander; Zimmermann, Egon; Esser, Odilia; Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements of the complex electrical resistivity can be affected by the contact impedance of the potential electrodes above 100 Hz. In this study, we present a correction procedure to remove electrode impedance effects from SIP measurements. The first step in this correction procedure is to estimate the electrode impedance using a measurement with reversed current and potential electrodes. In a second step, this estimated electrode impedance is used to correct SIP measurements based on a simplified electrical model of the SIP measurement system. We evaluated this new correction procedure using SIP measurements on water because of the well-defined dielectric properties. It was found that the difference between the corrected and expected phase of the complex electrical resistivity of water was below 0.1 mrad at 1 kHz for a wide range of electrode impedances. In addition, SIP measurements on a saturated unconsolidated sediment sample with two types of potential electrodes showed that the measured phase of the electrical resistivity was very similar (difference <0.2 mrad) up to a frequency of 10 kHz after the effect of the different electrode impedances was removed. Finally, SIP measurements on variably saturated unconsolidated sand were made. Here, the plausibility of the phase of the electrical resistivity was improved for frequencies up to 1 kHz, but errors remained for higher frequencies due to the approximate nature of the electrode impedance estimates and some remaining unknown parasitic capacitances that led to current leakage. It was concluded that the proposed correction procedure for SIP measurements improved the accuracy of the phase measurements by an order of magnitude in the kHz frequency range. Further improvement of this accuracy requires a method to accurately estimate parasitic capacitances in situ.

  18. Adoptive Cellular Therapy (ACT) for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jin, Hao; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qian; Yan, Cihui; Wei, Feng; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) with various lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells is one stone in the pillar of cancer immunotherapy, which relies on the tumor-specific T cell. The transfusion of bulk T-cell population into patients is an effective treatment for regression of cancer. In this chapter, we summarize the development of various strategies in ACT for cancer immunotherapy and discuss some of the latest progress and obstacles in technical, safety, and even regulatory aspects to translate these technologies to the clinic. ACT is becoming a potentially powerful approach to cancer treatment. Further experiments and clinical trials are needed to optimize this strategy.

  19. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  20. The Place of Adoption in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Jessup, Martha A.; Guydish, Joseph; Manser, Sarah Turcotte; Tajima, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established in 1999 to determine effectiveness of drug abuse treatment interventions among diverse client populations and settings. To address dissemination of research findings, the CTN also has as its mission the transfer of research findings to treatment providers. In a qualitative study of adoption of evidence based practice in the context of two CTN clinical trials, we interviewed 29 participants from seven organizational levels of the multisite study organization about post-trial adoption, their role in the clinical trial, and interactions between the research initiative and clinic staff and setting. Analysis of interview data revealed a range of opinion among participants on the place of adoption within the CTN. Innovation within the CTN to support adoption and further observational research on dynamics of adoption within the CTN can increase dissemination of evidence-based drug abuse treatment interventions in the future. PMID:20126428

  1. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  2. Measurements and simulations of the visual effects of particulate plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneur, Christian; Bergstrom, Robert W.; Johnson, Clark D.; Willard Richards, L.

    In this paper we present field measurements of the visual effects of particulate plumes from two power plants and a copper smelter. The measurements were conducted at downwind distances ranging from 7 to 34 km and for sun-observer angles ranging from 40 to 160°. The visual effects of the power plant plumes were relatively small due to atmospheric dispersion (Kincaid power plant plume in February 1981) or hazy background (Labadie power plant plume in August 1981). The plume from the San Manuel smelter was more visible because of the clean environment. The measurements of plume contrasts range from - 0.15 to + 0.15. Further development of the EPA plume visibility model to improve the treatment of multiple scattering of light and incorporate light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols is described. Teleradiometer measurements and model simulations are in reasonable agreement for cases in which experimental uncertainties are small. The model appears to underpredict forward scattering of light by plume particles.

  3. Mobile home weatherization measures: A study of their effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Hancock, E.; Franconi, E.; Hanger, R.; Weiger, J.

    1988-12-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (DOE OBCS) in FY 1987 and 1988 to investigate cost effective ways to weatherize mobile homes constructed prior to the enactment of HUD Thermal Standards in 1976. In FY 1987 SERI studied the effectiveness of a variety of infiltration-reducing retrofits by monitoring 20 units in the field before, during, and after applications of air tightening measures. In FY 1988 we began studying measures intended to reduce envelope conduction losses. These measures included storm windows, insulated skirting, and wall, roof, and floor insulation. This part of the project resulted in the development of a short-term testing method for measuring the thermal impact of individual conduction-reducing retrofits.

  4. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community.

  5. Multipath Effects on Phase Measurements with Continuous Terahertz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, A. H.; Albarracin, M. G.; Thomas, D. H.; von der Weid, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We evaluate the effect of multipath waves on terahertz phase measurements due to multiple reflections between the transmitter antenna and the sample. We show that the phase shift introduced by the sample will be biased by a value which depends on the sample position in the terahertz path. We show how to remove the bias and use the technique in the measurement of the index of refraction of Mylar at 194.4 GHz.

  6. Another Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Phillip E.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power circuit provides noncontact measurement of alternating or direct current of many ampheres in main conductor. Advantages of circuit over other nulling Hall-effect current-measuring circuits is stability and accuracy increased by putting both analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters in nulling feedback loop. Converters and rest of circuit designed for operation at sampling rate of 100 kHz, but rate changed to alter time or frequency response of circuit.

  7. Linking nursing unit's culture to organizational effectiveness: a measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Casida, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Organizational culture consists of the deep underlying assumptions, beliefs, and values that are shared by members of the organization and typically operate unconsciously. The four organizational culture traits of the Denison Organizational Culture Model (DOCM) are characteristics of organizational effectiveness, which include adaptability, involvement, consistency, and mission. Effective organizations demonstrate high levels of the four cultural traits which reflect their ability to balance the dynamic tension between the need for stability and the need for flexibility within the organization. The Denison Organizational Culture Survey (DOCS) is a measurement tool that was founded on the theoretical framework of the DOCM, and in the field of business, is one of the most commonly used tools for measuring organizational culture. The DOCS offers a promising approach to operationalizing and measuring the link between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness in the context of nursing units.

  8. The effect of measurement error on surveillance metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Brian Phillip; Hamada, Michael S.

    2012-04-24

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe different simulation studies that CCS-6 has performed for the purpose of understanding the effects of measurement error on the surveillance metrics. We assume that the measured items come from a larger population of items. We denote the random variable associate with an item's value of an attribute of interest as X and that X {approx} N({mu}, {sigma}{sup 2}). This distribution represents the variability in the population of interest and we wish to make inference on the parameters {mu} and {sigma} or on some function of these parameters. When an item X is selected from the larger population, a measurement is made on some attribute of it. This measurement is made with error and the true value of X is not observed. The rest of this section presents simulation results for different measurement cases encountered.

  9. Effective gain measurements in chromium-doped forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Seas, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective gain cross section in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite laser crystal was measured over the 1180-1330 nm spectral range. The experiment was performed using two collinear laser beams in a pump-and-probe arrangement. The peak-gain cross section from this measurement is estimated to be 1.9 x 10 to the -19th sq cm at 1215 nm, which is comparable to the value of about 2 x 10 to the -19th sq cm predicted by fluorescence linewidth and lifetime measurements. These results indicate that excited-state absorption is not a major loss mechanism in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite.

  10. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  11. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  12. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  13. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  14. Measurements and simulations of seeded electron microbunches with collective effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, K.; Molo, R.; Khan, S.; Lazzarino, L. L.; Lechner, C.; Maltezopoulos, Th.; Plath, T.; Rossbach, J.; Ackermann, S.; Bödewadt, J.; Dohlus, M.; Ekanayake, N.; Laarmann, T.; Schlarb, H.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal phase-space distributions of electron bunches seeded with an external laser were done in order to study the impact of collective effects on seeded microbunches in free-electron lasers. When the collective effects of Coulomb forces in a drift space and coherent synchrotron radiation in a chicane are considered, velocity bunching of a seeded microbunch appears to be a viable alternative to compression with a magnetic chicane under high-gain harmonic generation seeding conditions. Measurements of these effects on seeded electron microbunches were performed with a rf deflecting structure and a dipole magnet which streak out the electron bunch for single-shot images of the longitudinal phase-space distribution. Particle tracking simulations in 3D predicted the compression dynamics of the seeded microbunches with collective effects.

  15. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  16. Exploratory study on performance measures as indicators of IS effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy

    1992-01-01

    The Information Systems Directorate at JSC/NASA has undertaken the reevaluation of its performance measures process and measures. Under the direction of a quality approach it is essential to identify an external perspective of how well an organization is performing. This study was conducted with two major objectives: (1) survey and summarize the academic literature on performance measures as indicators of information systems (IS) effectiveness; and (2) survey organizations for their experience in measuring for IS effectiveness. Four approaches to measuring the effectiveness of IS performance were identified: (1) listen to the customer for the things they need; (2) align with corporate goals; (3) benchmark against well-respected organizations; and (4) ask yourself what critical factors lead to success. The list of known methods for soliciting customer feedback are as follows: (1) executive visit; (2) survey, interview, and focus group; (3) complaints and compliments; and (4) service level agreements. A common set of characteristics that satisfy customers was identified from the literature. The list includes elements such as the following: accuracy, timeliness, relevance, understandability, reliability, and completeness. Future research in this topic area should prove beneficial to determine the metrics for external validity.

  17. Optimal measurement strategies for effective suppression of drift errors

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-04-16

    Drifting of experimental set-ups with change of temperature or other environmental conditions is the limiting factor of many, if not all, precision measurements. The measurement error due to a drift is, in some sense, in-between random noise and systematic error. In the general case, the error contribution of a drift cannot be averaged out using a number of measurements identically carried out over a reasonable time. In contrast to systematic errors, drifts are usually not stable enough for a precise calibration. Here a rather general method for effective suppression of the spurious effects caused by slow drifts in a large variety of instruments and experimental set-ups is described. An analytical derivation of an identity, describing the optimal measurement strategies suitable for suppressing the contribution of a slow drift described with a certain order polynomial function, is presented. A recursion rule as well as a general mathematical proof of the identity is given. The effectiveness of the discussed method is illustrated with an application of the derived optimal scanning strategies to precise surface slope measurements with a surface profiler.

  18. Determinants of HMO Formulary Adoption Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Dranove, David; Hughes, Edward FX; Shanley, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify economic and organizational characteristics that affect the likelihood that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) include new drugs on their formularies. Data Sources We administered an original survey to directors of pharmacy at 75 HMOs, of which 41 returned usable responses. We obtained drug-specific data from an industry trade journal. Study Design We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for fixed-drug effects and random-HMO effects. We used factor analysis to limit the number of predictors. Data Collection Methods We held initial focus groups to help with survey design. We administered the survey in two waves. We asked respondents to report on seven popular new drugs, and to describe a variety of HMO organizational characteristics. Principal Findings Several HMO organizational characteristics, including nonprofit status, the incentives facing the director of the pharmacy, size and make-up of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, and relationships with drugs makers, all affect formulary adoption. Conclusions There are many organizational factors that may cause HMOs to make different formulary adoption decisions for certain prescription drugs. PMID:12650387

  19. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  20. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... adopted youngsters need to be told about their origins, ideally even before middle childhood. Introducing the Information ... needs to have an honest understanding of his origin. Adopted children who have not been told seem ...

  1. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Placement of Children (ICPC) Administrator - Provides legal and fiscal oversight for ICPC, which regulates the interstate movement of children in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ...

  2. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  3. Effect of magnetic field on Langmuir probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Jerome; Grondein, Pascaline; Chabert, Pascal; Godyak, Valery; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-09-01

    In the context of PEGASES thruster where an ion-ion plasma is formed across a localized magnetic field, a study to understand how magnetic field affects the Langmuir probe measurements has been made. Several theoretical works have predict that the plasma anisotropy created by a magnetic field will influence Langmuir probe measurement as a function of the orientation of the probe tip. The study has been made in an electropositive plasma of argon for a uniform magnetic field to avoid effects of magnetic field gradient. The electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) measured with various magnetic field show that the measurements with the probe tip along the magnetic field are depleted in the low energy range compared to the one perpendicular to the magnetic field. Comparison of the results obtained with different magnetic field and different probe orientations allows for evaluation the effect of magnetic field on accuracy of EEDF measurement in plasma with magnetic field. These results confirm the theory on Langmuir probes in magnetized plasma that predict a depletion of low electron energy for measurements along the magnetic field lines.

  4. Systematic Effects on Duration Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) have recently been introduced as a measurement of the duration of gamma-ray bursts. We present here a description of the method of measuring T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) and its application to gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). We use simulated as well as observed time profiles to address some of the possible systematic effects affecting individual T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) measurements. We show that these systematic effects do not mimic those effects that would result from time dilation if the burst sources are at distances of several Gpc. We discuss the impact of these systematic effects on the T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions for the gamma-ray bursts observed with BATSE. We distinguish between various types of T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions, and discuss the ways in which distributions observed with different experiments can vary, even though the measurements for commonly observed bursts may be the same. We then discuss the distributions observed with BATSE and compare them to those observed with other experiments.

  5. Doing an Effective Job? Measuring the Impact of Casework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susannah; Randall, Leisa; Mohammed, Azra

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to evaluate the impact of educational psychologists' (EPs') casework. Previous studies have often focussed on evaluating processes or reducing outcomes to measurable units. The authors argue that qualitative research methods can be used to illuminate EP effectiveness. They describe a real world and…

  6. Alternate Assessments as One Measure of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Jacqueline F.; Kleinert, Harold L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Gong, Brian; Quenemoen, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility requires states to develop and implement teacher effectiveness measures that consider student assessment results, including assessment results for students with disabilities participating in general and alternate assessments. We describe how alternate assessment results for students with…

  7. Effect of Instructions on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Elayne Proesel; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of instructions of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) of reading on (a) the number of words read correctly and incorrectly per minute and (b) the relationship between CBM reading and reading achievement. Results indicated that the specific instructions used have a significant impact on CBM…

  8. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlemann, H.; Koch, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE) for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005). Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  9. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...

  10. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...

  11. Measuring Information Technology Performance: Operational Efficiency and Operational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annette G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a practical approach for measuring operational efficiency and operational effectiveness for IT organizations introducing the ITIL process framework. The intent of the study was to assist Chief Information Officers (CIOs) in explaining the impact of introducing the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)…

  12. Measuring Effectiveness of TQM Training: An Indian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palo, Sasmita; Padhi, Nayantara

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 372 employees of a steel manufacturer in India were analyzed to measure effectiveness of total quality management training. Training created awareness, built commitment to quality, facilitated teamwork, and enhanced professional standards. However, communication competencies and customer value training needed improvement. (Contains…

  13. Report of the Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    The Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures was formed by the State Board of Directors for Community Colleges of Arizona to develop a statewide plan for systematically demonstrating the degree to which community colleges accomplish their diverse missions. Two subgroups were formed in the Task Force on transfer and college programs and…

  14. Using Performance Measurement To Evaluate Teams and Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the assumptions and goals of the Performance Effectiveness Management System (PEMS) of the University of Arizona Library and explains how to integrate performance measurement with a new system that focuses on teams and organizational outcomes. Phases of PEMS include: mission-critical services, programs, and activities; setting quality…

  15. Improved Hanle effect measurement technique for fast ions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Gardiner, R. B.; Church, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    An improved averaging technique for use with foil-excited fast ions is applied to a Hanle-effect measurement of the mean life of some fast ions. With improved data analysis, the employed technique is expected to be more precise, as well as experimentally simpler than previously used techniques.

  16. Microwave Hall effect measurements on biological and organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A. Y.; Hasan, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave Hall effect measurements have been performed by improved 10 GHz bimodal cavity resonators with hybrid end walls used to avoid the background signal that obscures the measurements on low mobility materials. Hall mobility results on copper phthalocyanines CuPc and other organic semiconductors, in the range of 8 cm2/V s to 60 cm2/V s, provide evidence of acoustic phonon scattering as the dominant conduction mechanism. Presently, the microwave Hall effect seems to represent the only means available for quantitative measurements on biological substances like DNA and proteins, which yield mobility values lower than 10 cm2/V s, and are therefore consistent with conduction mechanism involving hopping of charge carriers between localized energy sites.

  17. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, A.; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck SSSE coefficient of 2.8 × 10 - 7 V K-1.

  18. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  19. Optical Kerr-effect measurement for a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil J.; Jennings, Barry R.

    1993-06-01

    Nanosecond optical Kerr-effect (OKE) measurements are reported using a modified apparatus, designed to enable rapid and precise data recording in pure liquids. Careful design of the apparatus enables measurements to be made at several inducing wavelengths without substantial apparatus modifications. The first measurement of the optical Kerr effect for benzene at an inducing wavelength of 532 nm is presented together with novel OKE data for the hitherto unstudied homologous alcohol series from methanol to 1-dodecanol. Analysis of the results indicates for this series the existence of a linear relationship between the carbon chain length and the optically induced Kerr constant somewhat similar to the behavior previously observed in the n-alkanes.

  20. Effect of surface reflectivity on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianqian; Xia, Weiguang; Wang, Xi; Song, Hongwei; Huang, Chenguang

    2014-05-01

    While photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) is becoming a common diagnostic for tracking velocity in shock physical experiments, its validity on measuring surfaces with different reflectivity is not studied. This paper investigates the effects of surface reflectivity on PDV measurement for tracking back free surface velocity in laser shock processing. Credible measurement results for coarse polished surfaces with low reflectivity are obtained, whereas fine polished surfaces with relatively high reflectivity lead to heterodyne fringes with high frequency and corresponding unreasonably fast velocities. This phenomenon reported in the paper is somewhat inconsistent with the general view that PDV has remarkable robustness to large changes in surface reflectivity. The reason might be ascribed to multiple reflections of light, which cause the generation of multiple Doppler shifts. The mixing of the reference light and those Doppler-shifted lights brings out high frequency heterodyne fringes resulting in high velocity. Low surface reflectivity is better suited for PDV measurements.

  1. Spin Hall effect of light measured by interferometry.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Ranganathan, D; Joseph, Joby

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate a experimental method to measure the spin Hall effect of light (SHEL), which is based on the interference between two orthogonal circularly polarized beams with the help of a polarizer. Our method can measure the SHEL across the entire exit pupil, not only at the centroid as is the case with earlier methods, and hence one can scan the transverse section of the beam. We measured the SHEL of an aluminium mirror and a glass plate using a He-Ne laser at wavelength 633 nm, for incidence angles varying from 22° to 70°. The experimental results are in good agreement with theory. We also measured the shift across the transverse section of a Gaussian beam using same method.

  2. Using Subsidies to Promote the Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

    2008-01-01

    Since 1978 the federal government has implemented a variety of programs to promote the adoption of children from foster care. A key part of these programs has been the use of subsidies to lower the cost of adopting and parenting children who have been in foster care. Although subsidies are a key part of federal policy, there has been little empirical research on the effect of subsidies on adoption rates. This paper uses data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System to estimate the impact of subsidy rates on adoption rates. Subsidies to families have a positive and statistically significant effect on adoption rates. PMID:19242555

  3. A Narrative Inquiry of International Adoption Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Christin; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The international adoption entrance story is an unexplored topic in the adoption literature. The stories that families tell of beginning life with their new children has important implications for the development of an autobiographical narrative of an adopted child. A coherent autobiographical narrative is vital for healthy childhood development.…

  4. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  5. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  6. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  7. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  8. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  9. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  10. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  11. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  12. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  13. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  15. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  16. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  17. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  19. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  20. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  1. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  2. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  3. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  4. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  5. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  6. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  7. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  8. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  9. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  10. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  11. Effects of measurement error on estimating biological half-life

    SciTech Connect

    Caudill, S.P.; Pirkle, J.L.; Michalek, J.E. )

    1992-10-01

    Direct computation of the observed biological half-life of a toxic compound in a person can lead to an undefined estimate when subsequent concentration measurements are greater than or equal to previous measurements. The likelihood of such an occurrence depends upon the length of time between measurements and the variance (intra-subject biological and inter-sample analytical) associated with the measurements. If the compound is lipophilic the subject's percentage of body fat at the times of measurement can also affect this likelihood. We present formulas for computing a model-predicted half-life estimate and its variance; and we derive expressions for the effect of sample size, measurement error, time between measurements, and any relevant covariates on the variability in model-predicted half-life estimates. We also use statistical modeling to estimate the probability of obtaining an undefined half-life estimate and to compute the expected number of undefined half-life estimates for a sample from a study population. Finally, we illustrate our methods using data from a study of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure among 36 members of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam.

  12. Influence of speckle effect on doppler velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Changming, Zhao; Haiyang, Zhang; Suhui, Yang; Dehua, Zhang; Xingyuan, Zheng; Hongzhi, Yang

    2016-06-01

    In a coherent Lidar system, velocity measurement of a target is achieved by measuring Doppler frequency shift between the echo and local oscillator (LO) signals. The measurement accuracy is proportional to the spectrum width of Doppler signal. Actually, the speckle effect caused by the scattering of laser from a target will broaden the Doppler signal's spectrum and bring uncertainty to the velocity measurement. In this paper, a theoretical model is proposed to predict the broadening of Doppler spectrum with respect to different target's surface and motion parameters. The velocity measurement uncertainty caused by the broadening of spectrum is analyzed. Based on the analysis, we design a coherent Lidar system to measure the velocity of the targets with different surface roughness and transverse velocities. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical analysis. It is found that the target's surface roughness and transverse velocity can significantly affect the spectrum width of Doppler signal. With the increase of surface roughness and transverse velocity, the measurement accuracy becomes worse. However, the influence of surface roughness becomes weaker when the spot size of laser beam on the target is smaller.

  13. Temperature and slant path effects in Dobson and Brewer total ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; GröBner, J.; Stübi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these data sets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of a few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of a few percent between midlatitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments have been colocated since 1998, providing a unique data set of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross section is calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high- and low-resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information on the primary standard instruments is used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely, these differences increase when using the spectral data of Burrows et al. (1999). This finding illustrates that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  14. Temperature and Slant Path Effects in Dobson and Brewer Total Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; Groebner, J.; Stuebi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these datasets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of few percent between mid-latitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments are co-located since 1998, providing a unique dataset of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross-section are calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high and low resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information of the primary standard instruments are used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely these differences increase using the spectral data of Burrows (1999). This finding illustrates, that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross-sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  15. Measuring the organizational effectiveness of National Sport Governing Bodies.

    PubMed

    Frisby, W

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the goal and systems models of organizational effectiveness in Canadian National Sport Governing Bodies. The major issue addressed was whether elite amateur sport organizations which are more successful at acquiring scarce financial resources, are also more successful at achieving goals of performance excellence. World rankings, changes in world rankings and an effectiveness ranking, which accounts for the number of competing countries, were used to measure the degree to which the organizations are achieving their goals of performance excellence. The 1982 total operating budget of each NSGB and the increase in financial support received from Fitness and Amateur Sport from 1970 to 1982 were used to measure the ability of the NSGBs to acquire scarce financial resources under the systems model of effectiveness. The results revealed that one of the goal model indicators, the effectiveness ranking, was positively and significantly correlated with one of the system model indicators, the total operating budget. This suggests that the ability to acquire scarce financial resources is related to the ability of an NSGB to achieve its goal of performance excellence. This also suggests that the goal and systems models may be complementary methods of measuring the concept of organizational effectiveness even though they are most often viewed as being alternative approaches in the literature.

  16. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  18. Comparison of Perception toward the Adoption and Intention to Use Smart Education between Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sang-Yon; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of teachers toward the adoption of and intention to use Smart Education, to examine empirically the relationship between intention to use Smart Education and the consequential effect factors, and to obtain measures for revitalizing Smart Education. In order to accomplish…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Disordered Eating: An Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey. Biometric model-fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59–82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  1. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

  2. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. PMID:21598869

  3. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  4. Imaging motional Stark effect measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, O. P.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R.; Pütterich, T.; Wolf, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the Imaging Motional Stark Effect (IMSE) diagnostic obtained during its first measurement campaign at ASDEX Upgrade since installation as a permanent diagnostic. A brief overview of the IMSE technique is given, followed by measurements of a standard H-mode discharge, which are compared to equilibrium reconstructions showing good agreement where expected. The development of special discharges for the calibration of pitch angle is reported and safety factor profile changes during sawteeth crashes are shown, which can be resolved to a few percent due to the high sensitivity at good time resolution of the new IMSE system.

  5. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Thomas; O'Driscoll, B Ronan

    2006-01-01

    Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min). All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique) or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique). Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p < 0.0001). The mean PEF recorded with the turbine spirometer was 5.5% lower than the Wright meter reading. The Fleisch spirometer result was 19.5% lower than the Wright reading. However, adjustment of the Wrights measurements from the traditional Wright's scale to the new EU Peak Flow scale produced results that were only 7.2% higher than the Fleisch pneumotachograph measurements. Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments. PMID:16787543

  6. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-li; Li, Zhi-wei; Zhu, Jian-jun; Feng, Guang-cai; Long, Jiang-ping

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

  7. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  8. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  9. Effect of filament supports on emissive probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Howes, C. T.; Horányi, M.; Robertson, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed an emissive probe with a thin tungsten filament spot-welded across two nickel wires insulated with ceramic paint. We show that the ceramic supports covering the nickel wires have a large effect on the potential measurements in low-density plasmas. It is found that the potential measured by the emissive probe is more negative than the potential derived from a Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve when the plasma density is so low that the emitting filament remains immersed in the sheaths of the ceramic supports. The length of the filament L needs to be larger than about 2 Debye lengths (L > 2λDe) in order to avoid the influence of the ceramic supports and to achieve reliable plasma potential measurements using emissive probes.

  10. Effect of filament supports on emissive probe measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Howes, C. T.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.

    2013-01-15

    We have constructed an emissive probe with a thin tungsten filament spot-welded across two nickel wires insulated with ceramic paint. We show that the ceramic supports covering the nickel wires have a large effect on the potential measurements in low-density plasmas. It is found that the potential measured by the emissive probe is more negative than the potential derived from a Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve when the plasma density is so low that the emitting filament remains immersed in the sheaths of the ceramic supports. The length of the filament L needs to be larger than about 2 Debye lengths (L > 2{lambda}{sub De}) in order to avoid the influence of the ceramic supports and to achieve reliable plasma potential measurements using emissive probes.

  11. Effect of power frequency harmonics on magnetic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Isokorpi, J; Rautee, J; Keikko, T; Korpinen, L

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of harmonic frequencies on magnetic field measurements. We introduced magnetic field meters in a known magnetic field of different frequencies: power frequency (50 Hz) as well as 3rd (150 Hz) and 5th (250 Hz) harmonic frequencies. Two magnetic field levels (0.25 A and 2.5 A) were used. A Helmholtz coil was applied to generate an exact magnetic field. The difference between the measurement results at harmonic frequencies and at power frequency was analyzed using the t-test for matched pairs. The test results show significant differences (P< or =0.01) for 13 out of 28 tests carried out, which is probably due to a curved frequency response near the power frequency. It is, therefore, essential to consider harmonic frequencies in magnetic field measurements in practice.

  12. Effect of filament supports on emissive probe measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Howes, C T; Horányi, M; Robertson, S

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed an emissive probe with a thin tungsten filament spot-welded across two nickel wires insulated with ceramic paint. We show that the ceramic supports covering the nickel wires have a large effect on the potential measurements in low-density plasmas. It is found that the potential measured by the emissive probe is more negative than the potential derived from a Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve when the plasma density is so low that the emitting filament remains immersed in the sheaths of the ceramic supports. The length of the filament L needs to be larger than about 2 Debye lengths (L > 2λ(De)) in order to avoid the influence of the ceramic supports and to achieve reliable plasma potential measurements using emissive probes.

  13. Monitoring of herbicide effect in maize based on electrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseresnyés, I.; Fekete, G.; Végh, K.; Székács, A.; Mörtl, M.; Rajkai, K.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the herbicide acetochlor on root growth was studied by a non-destructive electrical impedance and capacitance method in pot experiments on maize. Acetochlor was applied both as single active ingredient and mixed with safener AD-67 in two dosages. Without safener addition, acetochlor had a permanent inhibiting effect on plant root expansion. The safener AD-67 was capable of providing protective effect against herbicide application. High correlations between root electrical impedance or capacitance and the root dry mass or surface area under our laboratory conditions were confirmed by plant harvest method. Root electrical impedance and capacitance measurements proved to be valid for monitoring the effect of the herbicide influencing root development and for distinguishing plant groups subjected to different stress conditions.

  14. Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

    1993-03-03

    An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.

  15. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC CHROMATIC EFFECTS ON WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2015-07-10

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma.

  16. Impact of Atmospheric Chromatic Effects on Weak Lensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2015-07-01

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma.

  17. Improved correction of VIPERS angular selection effects in clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Granett, B. R.; Bel, J.; Guzzo, L.; de la Torre, S.; Aff004

    2016-10-01

    Clustering estimates in galaxy redshift surveys need to account and correct for the way targets are selected from the general population, as to avoid biasing the measured values of cosmological parameters. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is no exception to this, involving slit collisions and masking effects. Pushed by the increasing precision of the measurements, e.g. of the growth rate f, we have been re-assessing these effects in detail. We present here an improved correction for the two-point correlation function, capable to recover the amplitude of the monopole of the two-point correlation function ξ(r) above 1 h-1 Mpc to better than 2.

  18. International Workshop on Stratospheric Aerosols: Measurements, Properties, and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Following a mandate by the International Aerosol Climatology Program under the auspices of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Radiation Commission, 45 scientists from five nations convened to discuss relevant issues associated with the measurement, properties, and effects of stratospheric aerosols. A summary is presented of the discussions on formation and evolution, transport and fate, effects on climate, role in heterogeneous chemistry, and validation of lidar and satellite remote sensing of stratospheric aerosols. Measurements are recommended of the natural (background) and the volcanically enhanced aerosol (sulfuric acid and silica particles), the exhaust of shuttle, civil aviation and supersonic aircraft operations (alumina, soot, and ice particles), and polar stratospheric clouds (ice, condensed nitric and hydrochloric acids).

  19. Mitigating the effects of measurement noise on Granger causality

    SciTech Connect

    Nalatore, Hariharan; Ding Mingzhou; Rangarajan, Govindan

    2007-03-15

    Computing Granger causal relations among bivariate experimentally observed time series has received increasing attention over the past few years. Such causal relations, if correctly estimated, can yield significant insights into the dynamical organization of the system being investigated. Since experimental measurements are inevitably contaminated by noise, it is thus important to understand the effects of such noise on Granger causality estimation. The first goal of this paper is to provide an analytical and numerical analysis of this problem. Specifically, we show that, due to noise contamination (1) spurious causality between two measured variables can arise and (2) true causality can be suppressed. The second goal of the paper is to provide a denoising strategy to mitigate this problem. Specifically, we propose a denoising algorithm based on the combined use of the Kalman filter theory and the expectation-maximization algorithm. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the denoising approach.

  20. UV index forecasts and measurements of health-effective radiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, Uwe; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grewe, Rolf-Dieter

    2011-01-10

    While erythemal irradiance as a potentially damaging effect to the skin has been extensively studied and short-term forecasts have been issued to the public to reduce detrimental immediate and long-term effects such as sunburn and skin cancer by overexposure, beneficial effects to human health such as vitamin D(3) production by UV radiation and melatonin suppression by blue visible light have attained more and more attention, though both of them have not become part of forecasting yet. Using 4years of solar radiation data measured at the mid-latitude site Lindenberg (52°N), and forecast daily maximum UV index values, an overall good correspondence has been found. The data base of solar UV radiation and illuminance has also been used to analyze effects of clouds and aerosols on the effective irradiance. Optically thick clouds can strongly modify the ratios between erythemal and vitamin D(3) effective irradiance such that direct radiative transfer modeling of the latter in future UV forecasts should be preferably used. If parameterizations of vitamin D(3) effective irradiance from erythemal irradiance are used instead, the optical cloud depth would have to be taken into account to avoid an overestimation of vitamin D(3) with parameterizations neglecting cloud optical depth. Particular emphasis for the beneficial effects has been laid in our study on low exposure. Daily doses of solar irradiation for both vitamin D(3) and melatonin suppression do not reach minimum threshold doses even with clear sky and unobstructed horizon during the winter months.

  1. Refraction effects of atmosphere on geodetic measurements to celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problem is considered of obtaining accurate values of refraction corrections for geodetic measurements of celestial bodies. The basic principles of optics governing the phenomenon of refraction are defined, and differential equations are derived for the refraction corrections. The corrections fall into two main categories: (1) refraction effects due to change in the direction of propagation, and (2) refraction effects mainly due to change in the velocity of propagation. The various assumptions made by earlier investigators are reviewed along with the basic principles of improved models designed by investigators of the twentieth century. The accuracy problem for various quantities is discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  2. Rotational Raman scattering (Ring effect) in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebula, Richard P.; Joiner, Joanna; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Hilsenrath, Ernest; McPeters, Richard D.; Park, Hongwoo

    1995-07-01

    A detailed radiative transfer calculation has been carried out to estimate the effects of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) on satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation. Raman-scattered light is shifted in frequency from the incident light, which causes filling in of solar Fraunhofer lines in the observed backscattered spectrum (also known as the Ring effect). The magnitude of the rotational Raman scattering filling in is a function of wavelength, solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, surface pressure, and instrument spectral resolution. The filling in predicted by our model is found to be in agreement with observations from the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer and the Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer.

  3. New measurements of the EMC effect in very light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J; Gaskell, D; Arrington, J; Fomin, N; Solvignon, P; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M.H.S.; Christy, M E; Clasie, B; Connell, S; Dalton, M; Day, D; Dunne, J; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Gao, H; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Hungerford, E; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, K; Lee, C; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Meekins, D G; Mertens, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Nomura, H; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Villano, A

    2009-11-01

    New Jefferson Lab data are presented on the nuclear dependence of the inclusive cross section from 2H, 3He, 4He, 9Be and 12C for 0.3measurement of the EMC effect for 3He at large x and a significant improvement for 4He. The data do not support previous A-dependent or density-dependent fits to the EMC effect and suggest that the nuclear dependence of the quark distributions may depend on the local nuclear environment.

  4. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  5. Effective shielding to measure beam current from an ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle, H.; Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Marroncle, J.; Senée, F.; Simon, C.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-15

    To avoid saturation, beam current transformers must be shielded from solenoid, quad, and RFQ high stray fields. Good understanding of field distribution, shielding materials, and techniques is required. Space availability imposes compact shields along the beam pipe. This paper describes compact effective concatenated magnetic shields for IFMIF-EVEDA LIPAc LEBT and MEBT and for FAIR Proton Linac injector. They protect the ACCT Current Transformers beyond 37 mT radial external fields. Measurements made at Saclay on the SILHI source are presented.

  6. Effect of environmental factors on solar UV measurements.

    PubMed

    Rafanelli, C

    2001-01-01

    For a correct understanding and interpretation of solar UV data sampled at ground level, several practical and theoretical problems of measurement are shown. In particular, the comparison between either different sites or instruments is thoroughly analysed, and the effects due to O3 level, albedo and cloudiness are discerned. The impact of clouds and their position with respect to the sun on the observation carried out both by spectral and broad-band instruments are also examined.

  7. Measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice is now an expectation for hand surgeons. Hand surgeons need to be able to assess associated benefits, risks, cost, and applicability of a treatment option when providing care to their patients. Using a clinical example, this article takes the reader through the three-step approach when using a publication from the medical literature on therapy. The focus of this article is primarily the second and third steps, which involve measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness.

  8. Investigations of Shape Conundra Using Reorientation-Effect Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orce, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    A recent Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect measurement at TRIUMF has enabled information on diagonal matrix elements for the 3.368 MeV high-lying first excited state in 10Be from γ-ray data. The result allows for a comparison with state-of-the-art no-core-shell-model calculations and questions our knowledge of the spin-orbit interaction. Similar experiments using 12C beams at TRIUMF are aimed at measuring the diagonal matrix element for the first 2+ state at 4.439 MeV, which is currently determined as oblate, but presents an uncertainty of over 50%. Nuclear clustering effects are also being investigated using 20Ne beams at iThemba LABS--the first `safe' reorientation-effect measurement with 20Ne beams. In addition, the occurrence of oblate shapes and shape coexistence will also be studied using 70Se beams at 5.5 MeV/u at HIE-ISOLDE. These studies will shed light on nuclear shapes and resolved some of the timely shape conundra found in nuclei.

  9. Measurement of the thermo-optical effect of integrated waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmel, Johannes; Lamprecht, Tobias; Michler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Thermo-optical switches are widely used in integrated optics and various types of integrated optical structures have been reported in literature. These structures include, but are not limited to Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer (MZI) switches and digital optical switches. The thermo-optical effect depends on the refractive index, the polarizability and the density of a material. The polarizability effect can often be neglected and the change of refractive index is dominated by a density change due to the thermal expansion of the material. We report herein a new method to measure the thermo-optical effect of waveguides directly, using integrated MZIs fabricated in polymer waveguide technology. Common methods rely on macroscopic samples, but the properties can differ significantly for micro-structured waveguides. Using a floodlight halogen rod lamp and metal-shields, we realized a radiation heater with a trapezoidal-shaped heating pattern. While the heating occurred from the bottom side, a thermocouple was placed on top of the sample. By dynamically measuring the temperature and the corresponding output-power of the MZI, the temperature difference between constructive and destructive interference can be determined. Multiple measurements of different sample MZIs exhibit an average thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) of 1.6 ∗ 10-4 1/K .

  10. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  11. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  12. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  13. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  14. The microwave Hall effect measured using a waveguide tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, J. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Johnson, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8-12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the wafer gives a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d.c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This paper presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2/(V s).

  15. The Microwave Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William; Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, J. Robert

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. This technique does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing a semiconductor wafer into a slot in an X-band (8 - 12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the wafer and produces a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d. c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. We determine a calibration constant as a function of the ratio of thickness to skin depth for two and three inch silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2 / (Vsec)

  16. Effect of multiple scattering on depolarization measurements with spaceborne lidars.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens

    2003-06-20

    An analytical model based on the integration of the scattering-angle and light-path manifold has been developed to quantify the effect of multiple scattering on cirrus measurements obtained with elastic polarization lidars from space. Light scattering by molecules and by a horizontally homogeneous cloud is taken into account. Lidar parameter, including laser beam divergence, can be freely chosen. Up to 3 orders of scattering are calculated. Furthermore, an inversion technique for the retrieval of cloud extinction profiles from measurements with elastic-backscatter lidars is proposed that explicitly takes multiple scattering into account. It is found that for typical lidar system parameters such as those of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) instrument multiple scattering does not significantly affect depolarization-ratio measurements in cirrus clouds with small to moderate optical depths. For all simulated clouds, the absolute value of the difference between measured and single-scattering volume depolarization ratio is < 0.006. The particle depolarization ratio can be calculated from the measured volume depolarization ratio and the retrieved backscatter ratio without degradation of accuracy; thus characterization of the various cirrus categories in terms of the particle depolarization ratio and retrieval of cloud microphysical properties is feasible from space. The results of this study apply to polar stratospheric clouds as well.

  17. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  18. Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Otoacoustic Emission Measures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    1995-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are used extensively in hearing evaluations. Changes in middle ear pressure may have an effect on both forward and backward transmission of signals through the middle ear. The effect that such changes have on OAEs may depend on extent of pressure change, stimulus frequency, and stimulus level. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of these variables on distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) and cochlear microphonic distortion products (CMDPs) for a wide range of stimuli. Pigmented adult guinea pigs were experimental subjects. An animal surgical model was established to manipulate pressure in the middle ear and CMDP and DPOAE were simultaneously measured. The effects on forward transmission were determined from the CMDP data. It was assumed that the DPOAE measures were affected by changes in both forward and backward transmission. The effects on backward transmission were determined from the DPOAE data after the effect on forward transmission were subtracted out. For all conditions the frequency ratio rm f_2/f_1 was held at 1.2 and the level ratio rm L_1/L_2 was 10 dB. The effects on forward transmission were similar to those for backward transmission in all experimental conditions. Negative pressure had a greater effect than positive pressure. Positive pressures of +10 and +20 cmH_2O affected transmission for low frequency stimuli (f_2 = 1620 and 2680 Hz) but had little effect for high frequency stimuli (f_2 = 6980 and 10250 Hz). Negative pressures of -2.5 to -10 cmH_2O affected transmission across all frequencies tested. The effect at low frequencies is hypothesized to be related to tympanic membrane stiffness. The effect of negative pressure at high frequencies may be related to change in the incudostapedial joint. The slope of growth function decreased with the pressure change for DPOAEs but changed little for CMDPs. The decrease in slope for DPOAEs suggests that the level chosen for analysis can influence the result of the

  19. Regional variation in physician adoption of antipsychotics: Impact on US Medicare expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie M.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Men, Aiju; Berndt, Ernst R.; Huskamp, Haiden A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regional variation in US Medicare prescription drug spending is driven by higher prescribing of costly brand-name drugs in some regions. This variation likely arises from differences in the speed of diffusion of newly-approved medications. Second-generation antipsychotics were widely adopted for treatment of severe mental illness and for several off-label uses. Rapid diffusion of new psychiatric drugs likely increases drug spending but its relationship to non-drug spending is unclear. The impact of antipsychotic diffusion on drug and medical spending is of great interest to public payers like Medicare, which finance a majority of mental health spending in the U.S. Aims We examine the association between physician adoption of new antipsychotics and antipsychotic spending and non-drug medical spending among disabled and elderly Medicare enrollees. Methods We linked physician-level data on antipsychotic prescribing from an all-payer dataset (IMS Health's Xponent™) to patient-level data from Medicare. Our physician sample included 16,932 U.S. psychiatrists and primary care providers with ≥10 antipsychotic prescriptions per year from 1997-2011. We constructed a measure of physician adoption of 3 antipsychotics introduced during this period (quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole) by estimating a shared frailty model of the time to first prescription for each drug. We then assigned physicians to one of 306 U.S. hospital referral regions (HRRs) and measured the average propensity to adopt per region. Using 2010 data for a random sample of 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 138,680 antipsychotic users. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log link was used to estimate the effect of region-level adoption propensity on beneficiary-level antipsychotic spending and non-drug medical spending adjusting for patient demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, eligibility category, and whether the antipsychotic was

  20. Changes in Motivation for Adoption, Value Orientations and Behavior in Three Generations of Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoksbergen, Rene A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypothesizes that in this century a pattern of three generations of adoptive parents has developed, differing in motives and attitudes toward adoption: traditional-closed, open-idealistic, and materialistic-realistic. Maintains that adoption has lost its taboo character, domestic adoption is decreasing or has almost vanished (Scandinavia,…

  1. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  2. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  3. Speech and language development in six infants adopted from China

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, JOHANNA R.; POLLOCK, KAREN E.; OLLER, D. KIMBROUGH

    2012-01-01

    Children adopted from China currently represent the largest group of newly internationally adopted children in the US. An exploratory investigation of the communicative development of six young females adopted at ages 9 to 17 months from China by US families was conducted. Children were followed longitudinally from approximately three months post-adoption to age three years. English language skills were assessed at approximately three-month intervals, detailed communicative analyses were conducted at six months post-adoption, and outcomes were measured at three years of age. Results indicated wide variability in rates of English language development. Phonological, social-communicative, and lexical bases of communication were intact for each child at six months post-adoption. At age three years, four of the children demonstrated speech and language skills within one standard deviation of standardized test norms, one child demonstrated skills above the normal range, and one child’s skills were below the normal range. This study provides evidence of the resiliency of children’s language learning abilities. PMID:23204925

  4. Measuring Young’s modulus the easy way, and tracing the effects of measurement uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2015-09-01

    The speed of sound in a solid is determined by the density and elasticity of the material. Young’s modulus can therefore be calculated once the density and the speed of sound in the solid are measured. The density can be measured relatively easily, and the speed of sound through a rod can be measured very inexpensively by setting up a longitudinal standing wave and using a microphone to record its frequency. This is a simplified version of a technique called ‘impulse excitation’. It is a good educational technique for school pupils. This paper includes the description and the free provision of custom software to calculate the frequency spectrum of a recorded sound so that the resonant peaks can be readily identified. Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees.

  5. Effects of Wafer Emissivity on Rapid Thermal Processing Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Tsai, B. K.; Kreider, K. G.; Kimes, W. A.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are widely used to measure wafer temperatures in rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools. To use blackbody-calibrated LPRTs to infer the wafer temperature, it is necessary to build a model to predict the effective emissivity accounting for the wafer and chamber radiative properties as well as geometrical features of the chamber. The uncertainty associated with model-corrected temperatures can be investigated using test wafers instrumented with thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) on which the LPRT target spot has been coated with films of different emissivity. A finite-element model of the wafer-chamber arrangement was used to investigate the effects of Pt spot (ɛs = 0.25) and Au spot (ɛs = 0.05) on the temperature distribution of test wafers with spectral emissivities of 0.65 and 0.84. The effects of the shield reflectivity and the cool lightpipe (LP) tip on the wafer temperature were evaluated. A radiance analysis method was developed, and a comparison of model-based predictions with experimental observations was made on a 200 mm diameter wafer in the NIST RTP test bed. The temperature rises caused by the low-emissivity spot were predicted and the cooling effect of the LP tip was determined. The results of the study are important for developing the model-based corrections for temperature measurements and related uncertainties using LPRTs in semiconductor thermal processes.

  6. Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar storms and their effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Lillis, R. J.; Ulusen, D.; Mitchell, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Falkenberg, T. V.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather events in the form of solar photons and energetic charged particles provide brief but relatively intense periods of energy input to the Martian plasma environment and atmosphere, with implications for a number of science and exploration-related issues. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft orbited Mars for more than 9 years, and was capable of indirectly detecting space weather events and their effects. Shocks associated with passing coronal mass ejections are evident in MGS magnetometer data, and in proxies for upstream solar wind pressure at 1.5 AU derived from magnetometer measurements. Fluxes of solar energetic particles with energies greater than ˜30 MeV are sometimes evident in the background count rates of the MGS electron instrument. Measurements of the background count rates at altitudes of ˜400 km over a seven year period provide an unprecedented long-baseline data set of the energetic particle environment at Mars over a significant fraction of a solar cycle. We will present results of analyses pertaining to three main uses of MGS observations of solar storms. First, by combining MGS measurements of solar storms with terrestrial and solar measurements, we have analyzed the propagation of individual solar storm events from the Sun throughout the inner heliosphere. Next, we have used MGS particle and field measurements to study the effect of solar storms on the Martian plasma environment - including increased fluxes of 10-20 keV electrons close to the planet and influences on auroral activity. Finally, we have studied the influence of solar storms on the Martian upper atmosphere - including suprathermal electrons produced in the atmosphere via impact ionization and a correlation of solar storm periods with ionospheric electron density profiles.

  7. Nondipole Effects in Chiral Systems Measured with Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, K. P.; Hemmers, O.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W. C.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of third-generation synchrotron light sources, it has been demonstrated that higher-order corrections to the dipole approximation are necessary for the description of light-matter interactions in the soft x-ray range. These effects, known as 'nondipole effects', present themselves as asymmetries in the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Chiral molecules, known to have asymmetries in photoelectron angular distributions when exposed to circularly polarized light, have been proposed to demonstrate a chiral-specific nondipole effect when exposed to linearly polarized light. We present the first-ever measurement of nondipole chiral angular distributions for the case of each enantiomer of camphor in the photon energy range 296-343eV.

  8. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  9. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  10. Organizational and environmental determinants of hospital EMR adoption: a national study.

    PubMed

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ozcan, Yasar A

    2007-10-01

    The recent focus on health care quality improvement and cost containment has led some policymakers and practitioners to advocate the adoption of health information technology. One such technology is the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), which is predicted to change and improve health care in the USA. Little is known about factors that influence hospital adoption of this relatively new technology. The purpose of this paper is to determine the national prevalence of EMR adoption in acute care hospitals while examining the organizational and environmental correlates using a Resource Dependence Theoretical Perspective. Significant predictors of hospital EMR use may indicate barriers to use for some hospitals and can be used to guide policy. This study uses a non-experimental cross sectional design to examine hospital EMR use in 2004. A logistic regression approach is used to determine the correlations between hospital EMR use and organizational and environmental characteristics. Hospital EMR use was identified using the HIMSS Analytics data. Organizational and environmental variables were measured using data from the AHA, CMS (financial and case mix) and ARF. Hospital EMR adoption is significantly associated with environmental uncertainty, type of system affiliation, size, and urbanness. The effects of competition, munificence, ownership, teaching status, public payer mix, and operating margin were not statistically significant. Significant predictors of hospital EMR adoption represent barriers that may prevent certain hospitals from obtaining and using EMRs. These hospitals include those that are smaller, more rural, non-system affiliated, and in areas of low environmental uncertainty. Since EMR adoption may be an organizational survival strategy for hospitals to improve quality and efficiency, hospitals that are at risk of missing the wave of implementation should be offered services and incentives to enable them to implement and maintain EMR systems.

  11. Magnetospheric Effects on High Energy Solar Particles: PAMELA Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Ryan, J. M.; Christian, E. R.; Stochaj, S.; Bruno, A.; Mergè, M.; Martucci, M.; Ricci, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Bazilevskaya, G.; Bravar, U.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are thought to be accelerated at the Sun by solar flares or by the shocks formed by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Even more elusive is the origin of the highest energy SEPs in so-called Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). At these energies, the effects of transport are often minimal, providing an opportunity to investigate the problem of particle acceleration. However, the effects of transport en route to Earth often obscure the acceleration process(es). The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument provides new data that aid in separating the effects of acceleration and transport. Furthermore, PAMELA bridges a critical gap in energy between the low-energy space-based and highest-energy ground-based measurements. We report on recent PAMELA observations of high-energy SEPs and illustrate some of the governing effects of acceleration and transport with the first GLE of solar cycle 24, i.e., 2012 May 17. The PAMELA data of 2012 May 17 reveal two distinct spectral components, a low-energy SEP component that exhibits significant scattering or redistribution, accompanied by a high-energy component that reaches the Earth relatively unaffected by dispersive transport effects. We postulate that the scattering or redistribution at low energies takes place locally providing one of the first opportunities to witness the effects of SEP transport in the Earth's magnetosheath.

  12. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, A. Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.

  13. Measurement of the dynamo effect in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Sarff, J.S.; Hirano, Y.; Toyama, H.

    1995-11-01

    A series of the detailed experiments has been conducted in three laboratory plasma devices to measure the dynamo electric field along the equilibrium field line (the {alpha} effect) arising from the correlation between the fluctuating flow velocity and magnetic field. The fluctuating flow velocity is obtained from probe measurement of the fluctuating E x B drift and electron diamagnetic drift. The three major findings are (1) the {alpha} effect accounts for the dynamo current generation, even in the time dependence through a ``sawtooth`` cycle; (2) at low collisionality the dynamo is explained primarily by the widely studied pressureless Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, i.e., the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the E x B drift; (3) at high collisionality, a new ``electron diamagnetic dynamo`` is observed, in which the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the diamagnetic drift. In addition, direct measurements of the helicity flux indicate that the dynamo activity transports magnetic helicity from one part of the plasma to another, but the total helicity is roughly conserved, verifying J.B. Taylor`s conjecture.

  14. In Situ Magnetic Field Measurement using the Hanle Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a simple method of in situ magnetic field mapping near zero points in magnetic fields. It is ideal for measuring trapping parameters such the field gradient and curvature, and should be applicable in most experiments with a magneto-optical trap (MOT) or similar setup. This method works by probing atomic transitions in a vacuum, and is based on the Hanle effect, which alters the polarization of spontaneous emission in the presence of a magnetic field. Unlike most techniques based on the Hanle effect, however, we look only at intensity. Instead of measuring polarization we use the change in directional radiation patterns caused by a magnetic field. Using one of the cooling beams for our MOT, along with a linear polarizer, a narrow slit, and an inexpensive webcam, we measure the three dimensional position of a magnetic field zero point within our vacuum to within +/-1 mm and the gradient through the zero point to an accuracy of 4%. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  15. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  16. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    PubMed

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  17. Measurement of Pockels Effect in Piezoelectric Chiral Polymer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukiji, Mitsuo; Kowa, Hiroyuki; Muraki, Kanae; Umeda, Norihiro; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2005-09-01

    The possibility has been indicated that a piezoelectric polymer with helical chirality (chiral polymer) such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) shows a large linear electrooptical constant (Pockels effect). However, the linear electrooptical constant of a PLLA film may be very small because such a film fabricated by the conventional method has a complex high-order structure with intermingled crystalline and amorphous regions. In order to measure the small linear electrooptical constant of a PLLA film, we developed a new measurement system, which is based on the heterodyne interferometry principle. In this system, the accuracy of retardation is 0.08 nm and the measurement time is 0.1 s. In our attempt to realize a PLLA film with a large linear electrooptical constant, we fabricated a PLLA film, which was heated to 120°C under 320 MPa. Finally, using our new measurement system, we obtained a linear electrooptical constant of 0.070 pm/V in the PLLA film, which is very small compared with those of other famous Pockels materials. However, the linear electrooptical constant of the PLLA film is clarified in this study for the first time.

  18. Measuring the Second Chern Number from Nonadiabatic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The geometry and topology of quantum systems have deep connections to quantum dynamics. In this Letter, I show how to measure the non-Abelian Berry curvature and its related topological invariant, the second Chern number, using dynamical techniques. The second Chern number is the defining topological characteristic of the four-dimensional generalization of the quantum Hall effect and has relevance in systems from three-dimensional topological insulators to Yang-Mills field theory. I illustrate its measurement using the simple example of a spin-3 /2 particle in an electric quadrupole field. I show how one can dynamically measure diagonal components of the Berry curvature in an overcomplete basis of the degenerate ground state space and use this to extract the full non-Abelian Berry curvature. I also show that one can accomplish the same ideas by stochastically averaging over random initial states in the degenerate ground state manifold. Finally, I show how this system can be manufactured and the topological invariant measured in a variety of realistic systems, from superconducting qubits to trapped ions and cold atoms.

  19. Measuring the Second Chern Number from Nonadiabatic Effects.

    PubMed

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The geometry and topology of quantum systems have deep connections to quantum dynamics. In this Letter, I show how to measure the non-Abelian Berry curvature and its related topological invariant, the second Chern number, using dynamical techniques. The second Chern number is the defining topological characteristic of the four-dimensional generalization of the quantum Hall effect and has relevance in systems from three-dimensional topological insulators to Yang-Mills field theory. I illustrate its measurement using the simple example of a spin-3/2 particle in an electric quadrupole field. I show how one can dynamically measure diagonal components of the Berry curvature in an overcomplete basis of the degenerate ground state space and use this to extract the full non-Abelian Berry curvature. I also show that one can accomplish the same ideas by stochastically averaging over random initial states in the degenerate ground state manifold. Finally, I show how this system can be manufactured and the topological invariant measured in a variety of realistic systems, from superconducting qubits to trapped ions and cold atoms.

  20. Physical effects on visible temperature measurements of shocked foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J.; Falk, K.; Fryer, C.; Greef, C.; Williams, J.; Schmidt, D.; McCoy, C.; Boehly, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments measuring the temperature of shock compressed foams at pressures from ~ 50 to >300 GPA. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility and utilized the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) to measure the optical emission from the shocked foam targets and infer the temperature. A comparison of our results to both standard equation of state (EOS) tables and to quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations result in temperatures that are below these theoretical predictions, especially at the higher pressures. This indicates either an error in these models or a limitation with this type of measurement technique. In order to estimate whether the emission from the shock front is consistent with the bulk temperature of the shocked material, a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations were performed. We find these simulations predict emission more consistent with the measurements at high pressures, similar to previous results for shocked Silicon. The effect of specific physics issues at the shock front, including temperature relaxation, electron thermal conduction, and radiation transport are evaluated to determine the magnitude of their affect on the emission. Both experimental and simulations results will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the NNSA/DOE.