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Sample records for adopt haemophilus influenzae

  1. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like ... may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  2. About Haemophilus influenzae Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis About Haemophilus influenzae Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir H. ... severe, such as a bloodstream infection. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Infections caused by these bacteria... Causes, How ...

  3. Accelerating Policy Decisions to Adopt Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine: A Global, Multivariable Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Jessica C.; Stack, Meghan L.; Richmond, Marcie R.; Bear, Allyson P.; Hajjeh, Rana A.; Bishai, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Methods and Findings Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33–0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00–1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. Conclusions This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20305714

  4. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae infections.

    PubMed Central

    Takala, A K; Pekkanen, E; Eskola, J

    1991-01-01

    Nine cases of neonatal Haemophilus influenzae septicaemia were recorded in Finland during 1985-9; incidence was 2.8/100,000 live births, and 1.6% of all cases of neonatal septicaemia. The onset of the disease was early in all cases, ranging from 0-6 hours after delivery. Seven of the infants were preterm and three died (overall mortality 33%). H influenzae was isolated from blood in seven of the cases, and in two neonates with clinical signs of septicaemia it was found on several surface sites and the placenta. One of the eight strains of H influenzae was capsular type b and biotype I, the rest being non-typable--a distribution similar to those previously reported. Four of the uncapsulated strains were of biotype III, and three were of biotype II. None of the strains of H influenzae was of biotype IV, which has been reported to be characteristic of neonatal and genital isolates of H influenzae. All nine mothers had some sign of infection at the time of or shortly after delivery. H influenzae was isolated from five mothers: from the blood (n = 1) or from the placenta or cervix (n = 4). The use of intrauterine devices may be a possible risk factor for neonatal H influenzae infections; two of the mothers had such devices in place during their pregnancies. PMID:2025040

  5. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Recommend ... infection, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis (an infection of the covering of the brain ...

  6. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  7. Haemophilus influenzae and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Munson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal of the human upper respiratory tract. H. influenzae can, however, move out of its commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases. Such diseases include otitis media in young children, as well as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchitis. During the course of colonization and infection, H. influenzae must withstand oxidative stress generated by multiple reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by other co-pathogens and by host cells. H. influenzae has, therefore, evolved multiple mechanisms that protect the cell against oxygen-generated stresses. In this review, we will describe these systems relative to the well-described systems in Escherichia coli. Moreover, we will compare how H. influenzae combats the effect of oxidative stress as a necessary phenotype for its roles as both a successful commensal and pathogen. PMID:22919631

  8. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type f.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marta Pessoa; Pasternak, Jacyr; Giglio, Alfredo Elias; Casagrande, Rejane Rimazza Dalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2013-12-01

    With the decline in the rate of infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b since the widespread vaccination, non-b serotypes should be considered as potential pathogenic agents in children with invasive disease younger than 5 years old. We report the case of an immunocompetent 1-year-old boy with Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis. The agent was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. Serotyping was performed by tests using polyclonal sera and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. All Haemophilus influenzae isolates associated with invasive disease should be serotyped and notified as a way to evaluate the changes and trends in serotype distribution of this disease.

  9. Septic Arthritis Caused by Noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Gaillot, Olivier; Chotel, Franck; Freydière, Anne-Marie; Laurent, Frédéric; Vandenesch, François

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of type b Haemophilus influenzae vaccination, noncapsulated H. influenzae has become responsible for most cases of invasive H. influenzae diseases. In our two cases of septic arthritis, we isolated strains with β-lactamase-positive amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance (BLPACR). Thus, the increasing prevalence of BLPACR should be taken into account when empirical therapy is chosen for septic arthritis. PMID:23515545

  10. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  11. Transformation of Haemophilus influenzae by recombinant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, J.K.; McCarthy, D.R.; Clayton, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    A gene library of Haemophilus influenzae DNA has been constructed by ligating chromosomal DNA from cells resistant to a number of antibiotics, together with DNA of the H. influenzae plasmid RSF0885. Before ligation both DNAs were cut with the enzyme PvuII. The ligated DNA was allowed to enter competent H. influenzae sensitive to the antibiotics and selection was made for resistance to ampicillin, conferred by the plasmid RSF0885 DNA. Plasmids conferring resistance to various other antibiotics, as well as to ampicillin, have been obtained by this procedure and subsequent selection for chromosomal markers.

  12. Glycerophosphorylcholine regulates Haemophilus influenzae glpQ gene expression.

    PubMed

    Alrousan, Enas; Fan, Xin

    2015-05-01

    An important virulence strategy adopted by Haemophilus influenzae to establish a niche on the mucosal surface of the host is the phosphorylcholine (ChoP) decoration of its lipopolysaccharides, which promotes adherence to the host cells. Haemophilus influenzae is able to use glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) from host for ChoP synthesis. Utilization of GPC requires glpQ, which encodes a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase enzyme. In this study, we investigate the transcriptional regulation of glpQ gene using real-time PCR and transcriptional fusion of H. influenzae glpQ promoter to the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. The glpQ promoter activities were examined under environmental conditions including changes in temperature, oxygen, high salt and minimal growth medium. Our data showed that under room temperature and anaerobic conditions, the glpQ gene expression levels were significantly higher than under other growth conditions. In addition, the glpQ gene expression levels were upregulated in the presence of GPC. These results suggest that H. influenzae may upregulate glpQ expression in response to different environments it encounters during infection, from the airway surfaces (room temperature) to deep tissues (anaerobic). Upregulation of glpQ by GPC may allow efficient use of abundant GPC from mammalian cells by H. influenzae as a source of nutrient and for ChoP decoration of lipopolysaccharide that facilitates bacterial adhesion to host cells and growth during infection.

  13. Synthesis of histamine by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Davies, R J; Crook, S J; Tabaqchali, S

    1986-03-29

    Recent findings suggest that bacteria might contribute to histamine concentrations in the sputum of patients with infective lung disease. Ten isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, together with two reference strains, were incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. Serial estimations of histamine concentrations by high pressure liquid chromatography showed significant increases at 24 and 48 hours; no increases were evident in the control samples. These findings suggest that H influenzae might contribute to inflammation and limited airflow in infective lung disease by producing histamine.

  14. Synthesis of histamine by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Davies, R J; Crook, S J; Tabaqchali, S

    1986-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that bacteria might contribute to histamine concentrations in the sputum of patients with infective lung disease. Ten isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, together with two reference strains, were incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. Serial estimations of histamine concentrations by high pressure liquid chromatography showed significant increases at 24 and 48 hours; no increases were evident in the control samples. These findings suggest that H influenzae might contribute to inflammation and limited airflow in infective lung disease by producing histamine. PMID:3083910

  15. Haemophilus haemolyticus is infrequently misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in diagnostic specimens in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bowen; Kunde, Dale; Tristram, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The commensal Haemophilus haemolyticus is difficult to differentiate from the respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae using phenotypic tests. In a study that used molecular tests to retrospectively identify 447 phenotypically identified H. influenzae isolates from diagnostic specimens in Australia, only 7 (1.5%) H. haemolyticus were identified.

  16. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, Grant; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a rare cause of soft tissue infection. In this report, we present a case of multifocal necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult patient, secondary to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f infection, and we review literature on this rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:24989609

  17. Culture and PCR detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Binks, M J; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H

    2012-07-01

    A PCR for protein D (hpd#3) was used to differentiate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) from Haemophilus haemolyticus. While 90% of nasopharyngeal specimens and 100% of lower-airway specimens from 84 Indigenous Australian children with bronchiectasis had phenotypic NTHI isolates confirmed as H. influenzae, only 39% of oropharyngeal specimens with phenotypic NTHI had H. influenzae. The nasopharynx is therefore the preferred site for NTHI colonization studies, and NTHI is confirmed as an important lower-airway pathogen.

  18. Culture and PCR Detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian Indigenous Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Binks, M. J.; Grimwood, K.; Chang, A. B.; Leach, A. J.; Smith-Vaughan, H.

    2012-01-01

    A PCR for protein D (hpd#3) was used to differentiate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) from Haemophilus haemolyticus. While 90% of nasopharyngeal specimens and 100% of lower-airway specimens from 84 Indigenous Australian children with bronchiectasis had phenotypic NTHI isolates confirmed as H. influenzae, only 39% of oropharyngeal specimens with phenotypic NTHI had H. influenzae. The nasopharynx is therefore the preferred site for NTHI colonization studies, and NTHI is confirmed as an important lower-airway pathogen. PMID:22553240

  19. Development of Competence of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Hugh T.; Herriott, Roger M.

    1965-01-01

    Spencer, Hugh T. (The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md.), and Roger M. Herriott. Development of competence of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol. 90:911–920. 1965.—A chemically defined nongrowth medium was developed for the induction of competence of Haemophilus influenzae by a stepdown procedure. Cells grown logarithmically in Heart Infusion Broth became competent after being transferred to a medium which consisted of amino acids, sodium fumarate, and inorganic salts. Chloramphenicol (2 μg/ml) or l-valine (1 μg/ml) in the nongrowth medium inhibited development of competence. The inhibitory action of l-valine was reversed by comparable concentrations of l-isoleucine. Kinetic studies of the development of competence showed a variable capacity of competent cells to take up deoxyribonucleic acid and reaffirmed earlier findings that competence was not transmissible in H. influenzae. Addition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, thiamine, calcium pantothenate, uracil, and hypoxanthine to the medium for competence resulted in a minimal growth medium in which reduced levels of competence were developed. PMID:5294817

  20. PCR for capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Falla, T J; Crook, D W; Brophy, L N; Maskell, D; Kroll, J S; Moxon, E R

    1994-01-01

    A PCR method for the unequivocal assignment of Haemophilus influenzae capsular type (types a to f) was developed. PCR primers were designed from capsule type-specific DNA sequences cloned from the capsular gene cluster of each of the six capsular types. PCR product was amplified only from the capsular type for which the primers were designed. Product was confirmed by using either an internal oligonucleotide or restriction endonuclease digestion. A total of 172 H. influenzae strains of known capsular type (determined genetically) comprising all capsular types and noncapsulate strains were tested by PCR capsular typing. In all cases the PCR capsular type corresponded to the capsular genotype determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cap region. When used in conjunction with PCR primers derived from the capsular gene bexA, capsulate, noncapsulate, and capsule-deficient type b mutant strains could be differentiated. PCR capsular typing overcomes the problems of cross-reaction and autoagglutination associated with the serotyping of H. influenzae strains. The rapid and unequivocal capsular typing method that is described will be particularly important for typing invasive H. influenzae strains isolated from recipients of H. influenzae type b vaccine. Images PMID:7814470

  1. [Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis: typical and atypical presentation].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J M; Zurro, F J; Ferreiro, D; Llana, R; Uría, D F

    1998-02-01

    We present 2 cases of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. The first is a patient with atypical simptomatology: abdominal pain, fever and two days later pain in the back of his legs. Abdominal pathology was not found. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed polymorphonuclear cells, hyperproteinorachia and lowered glucose. CSF culture revealed Haemophilus influenzae, blood culture was sterile. The second had suffered surgery at maxilar and ethmoid sinuses four years before, and unknown germ meningitis 6 months before. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from CSF cultures and CSF rhinorrhea was detected by isotopic cisternography.

  2. First Complete Genome Sequence of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Kristy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen that primarily infects small children. In recent years, H. influenzae serotype a has emerged as a significant cause of invasive disease among indigenous populations. Here, we present the first complete whole-genome sequence of H. influenzae serotype a. PMID:28104664

  3. Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulou, Assimoula; Dias, Joana Gomes; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Ramliden, Miriam; Celentano, Lucia Pastore

    2017-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease during 2007–2014 in 12 European countries and assess overall H. influenzae disease trends by serotype and patient age. Mean annual notification rate was 0.6 cases/100,000 population, with an increasing annual trend of 3.3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.3%). The notification rate was highest for patients <1 month of age (23.4 cases/100,000 population). Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) caused 78% of all cases and showed increasing trends among persons <1 month and >20 years of age. Serotype f cases showed an increasing trend among persons >60 years of age. Serotype b cases showed decreasing trends among persons 1–5 months, 1–4 years, and >40 years of age. Sustained success of routine H. influenzae serotype b vaccination is evident. Surveillance systems must adopt a broad focus for invasive H. influenzae disease. Increasing reports of NTHi, particularly among neonates, highlight the potential benefit of a vaccine against NTHi. PMID:28220749

  4. [Severe infections by Haemophilus influenzae in children].

    PubMed

    Herrera Labarca, P; Prenzel Leupolt, I; García Henríquez, I

    1977-01-01

    Severity and increasing incidence of serious infections due to Haemophilus influenzae in children have been stressed in recent publications. An analysis of the clinical records of the Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Roberto del Río (Santiago, Chile) was made in order to gather information about frequency and clinical feature of this kind of infections in our environement. 120 children under 3 years of age in whom H. influenzae was isolated in samples of one or more of the following sources: CSF, blood, bone marrow, pleural and synovial fluids, were admitted from January 1970 to March 1976. Among the different syndromes observed, bacterial meningitis (83.3%) was associated with other localizations in 27%. Empyema (12.5%) was often (46.6%) associated with meningitis. Both clinical entities were the most common and with a definite tendency to increase their frequency in last years. Cultures of CSF, blood and bone marrow were considered effective tests for diagnosis in severe infections due to H. influenzae. Although precise incidence figures may not be obtained from the present data, this kind of diseases may be considered frequent and severe (mortality: 26.6% in this study).

  5. Acquired macrolide resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Christopher T; Kunde, Dale A; Tristram, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of specific acquired macrolide resistance genes previously reported as present in clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. A collection of 172 clinical respiratory isolates of H. influenzae, including 59 isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and 27 from non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients with significant prior macrolide use, was established. This collection was tested for azithromycin susceptibility using Etest and screened for the presence of erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), mef(A) and mef(E) using locked nucleic acid dual-labelled hydrolysis probes. The azithromycin MICs ranged from 0.09 to >256 mg/L, with 2 (1.2%) isolates susceptible, 163 (94.8%) intermediate and 7 (4%) resistant according to EUCAST breakpoints (susceptible, ≤0.12 mg/L; resistant, >4 mg/L). None of the acquired macrolide resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), mef(A) or mef(E) was detected in any of the isolates. The specific acquired macrolide resistance genes are not widespread in H. influenzae and the high prevalence of these genes previously reported might be unique to the specific circumstances of that study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae resistance in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, N F; Jerris, R C

    1991-06-01

    We prospectively tabulated all isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at DeKalb Medical Center from 1987 through 1989 to assess the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in patients of different ages. Of 325 total strains isolated, 24% produced beta-lactamase, rendering them resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Antibiotic resistance was as common in patients older than age 60 (24%) as in younger patients (23%). Sensitivity testing by disk diffusion and microdilution techniques on 71 isolates (37 beta-lactamase-positive) showed uniform susceptibility to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, and chloramphenicol, but three beta-lactamase-positive isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The high rate of ampicillin resistance noted in elderly patients has implications for the choice of antimicrobial therapy for these infections.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... CDC review information for Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) VIS: Page last reviewed: April 2, 2015 Page ...

  8. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hib Vaccine ( Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information ... vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by ...

  9. Evaluation of New Biomarker Genes for Differentiating Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Raydel D.; Wang, Xin; Katz, Lee S.; Vuong, Jeni T.; Bell, Melissa E.; Juni, Billie A.; Lowther, Sara A.; Lynfield, Ruth; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    PCR detecting the protein D (hpd) and fuculose kinase (fucK) genes showed high sensitivity and specificity for identifying Haemophilus influenzae and differentiating it from H. haemolyticus. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated two distinct groups for H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. PMID:22301020

  10. Evaluation of new biomarker genes for differentiating Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Theodore, M Jordan; Anderson, Raydel D; Wang, Xin; Katz, Lee S; Vuong, Jeni T; Bell, Melissa E; Juni, Billie A; Lowther, Sara A; Lynfield, Ruth; MacNeil, Jessica R; Mayer, Leonard W

    2012-04-01

    PCR detecting the protein D (hpd) and fuculose kinase (fucK) genes showed high sensitivity and specificity for identifying Haemophilus influenzae and differentiating it from H. haemolyticus. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated two distinct groups for H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  11. Identifying Haemophilus haemolyticus and Haemophilus influenzae by SYBR Green real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Latham, Roger; Zhang, Bowen; Tristram, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    SYBR Green real time PCR assays for protein D (hpd), fuculose kinase (fucK) and [Cu, Zn]-superoxide dismutase (sodC) were designed for use in an algorithm for the identification of Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus. When tested on 127 H. influenzae and 60 H. haemolyticus all isolates were identified correctly.

  12. Population Structure in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    LaCross, Nathan C.; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) frequently colonize the human pharynx asymptomatically, and are an important cause of otitis media in children. Past studies have identified typeable H. influenzae as being clonal, but the population structure of NTHi has not been extensively characterized. The research presented here investigated the diversity and population structure in a well-characterized collection of NTHi isolated from the middle ears of children with otitis media or the pharynges of healthy children in three disparate geographic regions. Multilocus sequence typing identified 109 unique sequence types among 170 commensal and otitis media-associated NTHi isolates from Finland, Israel, and the US. The largest clonal complex contained only five sequence types, indicating a high level of genetic diversity. The eBURST v3, ClonalFrame 1.1, and structure 2.3.3 programs were used to further characterize diversity and population structure from the sequence typing data. Little clustering was apparent by either disease state (otitis media or commensalism) or geography in the ClonalFrame phylogeny. Population structure was clearly evident, with support for eight populations when all 170 isolates were analyzed. Interestingly, one population contained only commensal isolates, while two others consisted solely of otitis media isolates, suggesting associations between population structure and disease. PMID:23266487

  13. Haemophilus influenzae: a forgotten cause of neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Dobbelaere, A; Jeannin, P; Bovyn, T; Ide, L

    2015-06-01

    Due to the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against serotype b, neonatal sepsis caused by Haemophilus influenzae became very rare. There is little data in Belgium concerning the prevalence of H. influenzae early onset neonatal sepsis and articles about neonatal sepsis and H. influenzae published in the last decade are scarce. We report two invasive infections with a non-typeable H. influenzae. These cases show that neonatal sepsis caused by non-typeable H. influenzae may be underestimated and we believe that there is need for a better registration of this kind of infection.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Dominic F; Moxon, E Richard; Pollard, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infection in young children worldwide. During childhood, acquisition of antibody directed against the polysaccharide capsule of the organism, presumably as a result of asymptomatic carriage, confers protection and disease is much less common after the age of 4 years. Like other polysaccharides, the polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) of the Hib capsule is a T-independent antigen and not immunogenic when administered as a vaccine in infancy. Because the highest rates of disease occur in the first 2 years of life, efficacious Hib vaccines have been designed by covalently linking the PRP capsule to a carrier protein that recruits T-cell help for the polysaccharide immune response and induces anti-PRP antibody production even in the first 6 months of life. Introduction of Hib protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines into many industrialized countries over the past 15 years has resulted in the virtual elimination of invasive Hib disease. However, despite the success of the vaccine programme several factors may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine in the routine programme, as observed in the UK recently. Such factors may include interference with other concomitant vaccines, waning immunity in the absence of booster doses of vaccine, and reduced natural boosting as a result of decreased transmission of the organism. However, the burden of disease remains highest in resource-poor countries and urgent efforts are needed to provide the benefits of this vaccine for children living in regions where it cannot be used for economic and logistical reasons. PMID:15379976

  15. Invasive Type e Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Cardines, Rita; Salmaso, Stefania; Renna, Giovanna; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2003-01-01

    We describe the first reported cases of invasive type e Haemophilus influenzae disease in Italy. All five cases occurred in adults. The isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and eight other antimicrobial agents. Molecular analysis showed two distinct type e strains circulating in Italy, both containing a single copy of the capsulation locus. PMID:12604001

  16. Levofloxacin-resistant haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2014-08-01

    Levofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae has increased significantly in Taiwan, from 2.0% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2010 (p<0.001). Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions.

  17. Molecular tools for differentiation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Janessa; Richmond, Peter C.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus are closely related bacteria that reside in the upper respiratory tract. NTHi is associated with respiratory tract infections that frequently result in antibiotic prescription whilst H. haemolyticus is rarely associated with disease. NTHi and H. haemolyticus can be indistinguishable by traditional culture methods and molecular differentiation has proven difficult. This current review chronologically summarizes the molecular approaches that have been developed for differentiation of NTHi from H. haemolyticus, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each target and/or technique. We also provide suggestions for the development of new tools that would be suitable for clinical and research laboratories. PMID:25520712

  18. Haemophilus influenzae triggers autophagy in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Mellado, María del Rosario; Reyes-Picaso, Carolina; Garcés-Pérez, Miriam S; Jardón-Serrano, Cynthia V; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The MAP-LC3 system regulates the intracellular formation of autophagy-associated vacuoles. These vacuoles contain the LC3 protein; thus it has been utilized as a marker to identify autophagosomes. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Haemophilus influenzae strains and their supernatants could activate autophagy in human larynx carcinoma cell line (HEp-2). We demonstrate that higher expression of the LC3B-II protein was induced, particularly by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) 49766 and by supernatants, containing <50 kDa proteins, of both strains. Ultrastructural studies demonstrate vacuoles with a double membrane and/or membrane material inside, showing similar features to those of autophagic vacuoles. Together, our findings demonstrate that H. influenzae strains and their supernatants trigger an autophagic process.

  19. Molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in non-typable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; Leranoz, S; Puig, M; Lorén, J G; Nikaido, H; Viñas, M

    1997-09-01

    Strains of the facultative anaerobe Haemophilus influenzae, both type b and non typable strains, are frequently multiresistant. The measurement of the antibiotic permeability of Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane (OM) shows that antibiotics can cross through the OM easily. Thus, enzymatic activity or efflux pumps could be responsible for multiresistance. An efflux system closely related to AcrAB of Escherichia coli is present in Haemophilus influenzae. However, their role in multiresistance seems irrelevant. Classical mechanisms such as plasmid exchange seems to be playing a major role in the multidrug resistance in Haemophilus influenzae.

  20. A PCR-high-resolution melt assay for rapid differentiation of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Janessa; Binks, Michael J; Beissbarth, Jemima; Hare, Kim M; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a PCR-high-resolution melt (PCR-HRM) assay to discriminate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonies from Haemophilus haemolyticus. This method is rapid and robust, with 96% sensitivity and 92% specificity compared to the hpd#3 assay. PCR-HRM is ideal for high-throughput screening for NTHi surveillance and clinical trials.

  1. A PCR–High-Resolution Melt Assay for Rapid Differentiation of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Binks, Michael J.; Beissbarth, Jemima; Hare, Kim M.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a PCR–high-resolution melt (PCR-HRM) assay to discriminate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonies from Haemophilus haemolyticus. This method is rapid and robust, with 96% sensitivity and 92% specificity compared to the hpd#3 assay. PCR-HRM is ideal for high-throughput screening for NTHi surveillance and clinical trials. PMID:24478508

  2. Molecular basis of the efficacy of cefaclor against Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, M; Malouin, F

    1992-01-01

    Cefaclor sustained its inhibitory activity against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Although a relatively high permeability coefficient was calculated for ampicillin compared with that calculated for cefaclor, the resulting periplasmic concentration of cefaclor was 5.7 times that of ampicillin. The efficacy of cefaclor may be due to its higher beta-lactamase resistance, which allows it to achieve a greater periplasmic concentration and adequate binding to crucial penicillin-binding proteins. Images PMID:1489208

  3. Relationships of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains to Hemolytic and Nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Kirk W.; Xie, Jingping; LaCross, Nathan; Patel, Mayurika; Mukundan, Deepa; Murphy, Timothy F.; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is both a human respiratory pathogen and pharyngeal commensal, while H. haemolyticus, the closest phylogenetic relative of H. influenzae, is arguably a strict pharyngeal commensal. A hemolytic phenotype has historically differentiated H. haemolyticus from H. influenzae, but the recent recognition of significant nonhemolytic H. haemolyticus colonization has decreased this trait's resolvability. Given this and the potential of recombination between the species, we examined the distribution of microbiologic and molecular traits between collections of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus strains separated within a dendrogram obtained by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). All strains hybridizing with a probe to iga, a gene encoding an immunoglobulin A protease of H. influenzae, clustered apart from strains that did not hybridize with the probe. Other traits also segregated significantly along this division, suggesting a separation of the species. Of note, the LOS genes licA, lic2A, and lgtC of H. influenzae were approximately 2, 6, and 54 times, respectively, more prevalent in H. influenzae than in H. haemolyticus. In contrast to species separation, interspecies recombination was evidenced by the inability of single gene sequences to phylogenetically separate the species and by the “fuzzy” distribution of some species-specific traits across the species dividing line. Together, these data support the historically accurate and pragmatic division of these species while recognizing their potential for recombination. Future comparative genomic studies identifying common and distinctive genes could be useful in evaluating their role in the commensal or virulent growth, respectively, of H. influenzae. PMID:18039799

  4. Inducible repair system in Haemophilus influenzae unaccompanied by mutation. [uv

    SciTech Connect

    Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.

    1980-07-01

    Weigle reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated HPlc1 phage was observed after ultraviolet or mitomycin C treatment of Haemophilus influenzae cells. The amount of reactivation was considerably increased when the treated cells were incubated in growth medium before infection. The presence of chloramphenicol during this incubation abolished the reactivation. No mutation of this phage accompanied the reactivation. When cells were treated so as to produce a maximal reactivation of phage, neither reactivation nor mutation of cells was observed. It is concluded that H. influenzae has an inducible repair system that is not accompanied by mutation.

  5. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Infection in Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Pabbathi, Smitha; Greene, John N

    2017-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer is infection. Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the United States in the 1990s, invasive H influenzae infection has become less common. We report on 5 patients with cancer and invasive H influenzae infection. A literature review was also performed of the dominant Haemophilus subtype and the clinical features associated with the infection and concomitant cancer. Of the 17 cases found in the literature, had hematological malignancies and 1 case each had thymoma, schwannoma, teratoma, and pancreatic, Merkel cell, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and rectal carcinomas. Two cases occurred with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. Pneumonia with bacteremia was seen in 8 cases, whereas pleuritis, neck cellulitis, septic arthritis, meningitis, and mediastinitis were diagnosed in the others. No focus of infection was identified in 2 cases. Nontypable H influenzae (NTHi) occurred in 4 cases, and Hib was isolated in 2 cases; serotyping was not reported in the others. Leukocytosis occurred in 7 cases and lymphopenia in 3; no cases presented with neutropenia. Four isolates were positive for beta-lactamase. Susceptibility data were unavailable in 5 case patients. Among serotyped cases, 67% were of the NTHi strain - a finding consistent with the change in the epidemiology of H influenzae since the introduction of the Hib vaccine.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Protein P6 Molecular Characterization May Not Differentiate All Strains of H. Influenzae from H. haemolyticus▿

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Arthur; Adlowitz, Diana G.; Yellamatty, Edna; Pichichero, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates by outer membrane protein (OMP) P6 gene sequencing is complicated by sequence variants in isolates. Further testing using RapID NH and multilocus sequence analysis may not help identify some isolates. Translated OMP P6 gene sequences are not conserved among all isolates presumed to be H. influenzae. PMID:20686092

  7. Haemophilus influenzae Pyomyositis in a Patient with Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Unique Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    George, Gemlyn; Climaco, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. Skin and soft tissue infections are very uncommon. Of these, the majority were associated with necrotizing fasciitis requiring emergent debridement. We report a case of pyomyositis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in an adult with diabetes. PMID:28352482

  8. [Haemophilus influenzae purulent meningitis in adults: looking for a predisposing factor].

    PubMed

    Boukadida, Jalel; Hannachi, Neila

    2002-05-01

    We bring back an adult case of purulent meningitis to Haemophilus influenzae. We insist on the particular aspects of the host of this meningitis type at the adult. These aspects must be searched every time that Haemophilus influenzae is isolated in cerebrospinal fluid in adult's meningitis.

  9. Improved medium for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Redding, J S; Maher, L A; Howell, A W

    1987-01-01

    The need for complex growth media has complicated routine susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae because of antagonism of certain antimicrobial agents by the medium or because of difficulties in interpretation of growth endpoints. Haemophilus test medium (HTM) is a simple, transparent medium for broth- or agar-based tests with H. influenzae. HTM incorporates Mueller-Hinton medium with additions of 15 micrograms of hematin per ml, 15 micrograms of NAD per ml, and 5 mg of yeast extract per ml as growth-promoting additives. Agar or broth microdilution MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents for a collection of 179 H. influenzae isolates determined by using HTM compared favorably with MICs determined by the conventional agar or broth dilution methods recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Disk diffusion tests performed with HTM allowed accurate categorization of susceptible and resistant strains and were easier to interpret than tests performed with Mueller-Hinton chocolate agar. A particular advantage of HTM was the reliability of broth- or agar-based test results with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The results of the study suggest modification of current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards MIC-interpretive criteria for H. influenzae with amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Error rate-bounded analysis of MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes also suggest modified zone-interpretive criteria for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline with HTM or conventional media. Interpretive zone sizes are newly proposed for cefaclor and rifampin disk diffusion tests. PMID:3500965

  10. Low occurrence of 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus' misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Fenger, Mette G; Ridderberg, Winnie; Olesen, Hanne V; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2012-12-01

    Non-influenzae commensal Haemophilus species of low pathogenicity may be difficult to discriminate from Haemophilus influenzae. We investigated the level of misidentifications in respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis patients and evaluated the colonisation dynamics of genuine H. influenzae isolates. One hundred and ninety-two presumptive H. influenzae isolates were re-examined by assessment of marker genes sodC and fucK, and isolates with aberrant genotypes were subjected to multilocus sequence typing. Misidentifications (3%) were mainly caused by failure to identify porphyrin-synthesising strains, and only a single strain (0.5%) could be classified as 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus'. Sequential isolates of confirmed H. influenzae isolates from individual patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Despite the routine prescription of antimicrobial therapy, the majority of H. influenzae isolates were identical with at least one of the strains cultured from the two preceding positive samples from the same patient.

  11. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-05-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years.

  12. In vitro evaluation of nicotinamide riboside analogs against Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Godek, C P; Cynamon, M H

    1990-08-01

    Exogenous NAD, nicotinamide mononucleotide, or nicotinamide riboside is required for the growth of Haemophilus influenzae. These compounds have been defined as the V-factor growth requirement. We have previously shown that the internalization of nicotinamide riboside is energy dependent and carrier mediated with saturation kinetics. Thionicotinamide riboside, 3-pyridinealdehyde riboside, 3-acetylpyridine riboside, and 3-aminopyridine riboside were prepared from their corresponding NAD analogs. These compounds and several other nicotinamide riboside analogs were evaluated for their ability to support the growth of H. influenzae and for their ability to block the uptake of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide riboside by H. influenzae. 3-Aminopyridine riboside blocked the uptake of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide riboside and inhibited the growth of H. influenzae when NAD, nicotinamide mononucleotide, or nicotinamide riboside served as the V factor. The antibacterial activity of 3-aminopyridine riboside was found to be specific for H. influenzae but had no effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. In additional experiments by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, it was determined that whole cells of H. influenzae degrade 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide to 3-aminopyridine riboside, which is then internalized. Inside the cell, 3-aminopyridine riboside has the ability to interfere with the growth of H. influenzae by an undetermined mechanism.

  13. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. PMID:25787137

  14. Transformation of Haemophilus influenzae by plasmid RSF0885

    SciTech Connect

    Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.; McCarthy, D.; Clayton, N.L.

    1981-12-01

    Plasmid RSF0885, which conferred ampicillin resistance, transformed competent Haemophilus influenzae cells with low efficiency (maximun, less than 0.01%). As judged by competition experiments and uptake of radioactivity, plasmid RSF0885 deoxyribonucleic acid was taken up into competent H. influenzae cells several orders of magnitude less efficiently than H. influenzae chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. Plasmid RSF0885 transformed cells with even lower efficiency than could be accounted for by the low uptake. Transformation was not affected by rec-1 and rec-2 mutations in the recipient, and strains cured of the plasmid did not show increased transformation. Plasmid molecules cut once with a restriction enzyme that made blunt ends did not transform. Transformation was favored by the closed circular form of the plasmid.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS distinctly differentiates nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bingqing; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yongchan; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Li; Lv, Jing; Wang, Yingtong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories.

  16. MALDI-TOF MS Distinctly Differentiates Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yongchan; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Li; Lv, Jing; Wang, Yingtong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories. PMID:23457514

  17. TEM-1-encoding small plasmids impose dissimilar fitness costs on Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Lund, Marianne; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Only two beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and ROB-1, have been observed in Haemophilus influenzae, while four different TEM but no ROB enzymes have been found in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the dissemination of small beta-lactamase-encoding plasmids in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae, we assessed the fitness cost of three TEM-1- (pPN223, pA1209, pA1606), one TEM-15- (pSF3) and one ROB-1-bearing (pB1000) plasmid when expressed in either bacterial species. All plasmids were stable in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae except pB1000, which showed on average (sample mean) 76% curing in H. parainfluenzae after 5  days of subculture. Competition assays between isogenic strains with and without plasmid showed no competitive disadvantage of pPN223 and pA1606 in H. influenzae, or of pA1209 in H. parainfluenzae. In contrast, pSF3 and pB1000 were associated with significant competitive disadvantages in both species. Some of the competitive disadvantages may be related to differences in plasmid copy number and mRNA expression of the beta-lactamase genes, as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, plasmids encoding TEM beta-lactamases isolated from H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be stably transferred between species. The fast curing of pB1000 in H. parainfluenzae observed in this study correlates to the fact that ROB-1 has never been reported for this species. TEM-1-encoding plasmids are associated with the lowest level of fitness cost, but different TEM-1 plasmids confer different levels of fitness cost on the two hosts.

  18. Haemophilus influenzae stores and distributes hemin by using protein E.

    PubMed

    Al Jubair, Tamim; Singh, Birendra; Fleury, Christophe; Blom, Anna M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Thunnissen, Marjolein M; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2014-07-01

    The human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae causes mainly respiratory tract infections such as acute otitis media in children and exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We recently revealed the crystal structure of H. influenzeae protein E (PE), a multifunctional adhesin that is involved in direct interactions with lung epithelial cells and host proteins. Based upon the PE structure we here suggest a hypothetical binding pocket that is compatible in size with a hemin molecule. An H. influenzae mutant devoid of PE bound significantly less hemin in comparison to the PE-expressing wild type counterpart. In addition, E. coli expressing PE at the surface resulted in a hemin-binding phenotype. An interaction between hemin and recombinant soluble PE was also demonstrated by native-PAGE and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Surface plasmon resonance revealed an affinity (Kd) of 1.6 × 10(-6)M for the hemin-PE interaction. Importantly, hemin that was bound to PE at the H. influenzae surface, was donated to co-cultured luciferase-expressing H. influenzae that were starved of hemin. When hemin is bound to PE it thus may serve as a storage pool for H. influenzae. To our knowledge this is the first report showing that H. influenzae can share hemin via a surface-located outer membrane protein.

  19. Airway dysbiosis: Haemophilus influenzae and Tropheryma in poorly controlled asthma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jodie L; Daly, Joshua; Baines, Katherine J; Yang, Ian A; Upham, John W; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra; James, Alan L; Hugenholtz, Philip; Willner, Dana; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways where bacteria may act as protagonists of chronic inflammation. Little is known about the relation of airway inflammation to the presence of specific bacterial taxa. We sought to describe the sputum microbiome in adults with poorly controlled asthma.DNA was extracted from induced sputum and microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Bacterial species were characterised, and the relationship between microbial populations, asthma inflammatory subtypes and other covariates was explored. Real-time PCR was used to identify Tropheryma whipplei and Haemophilus influenzae in sputum.Adults with neutrophilic asthma had reduced bacterial diversity and species richness. Tropheryma was identified and confirmed with real-time PCR in 12 (40%) participants. Haemophilus occurred most often in a group of younger atopic males with an increased proportion of neutrophils. PCR confirmed the presence of H. influenzae in 35 (76%) participants with poorly controlled asthma.There are phenotype-specific alterations to the airway microbiome in asthma. Reduced bacterial diversity combined with a high prevalence of H. influenzae was observed in neutrophilic asthma, whereas eosinophilic asthma had abundant T. whipplei.

  20. Susceptibility of Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae to Seven Penicillins

    PubMed Central

    Thornsberry, C.; Baker, C. N.; Kirven, L. A.; Swenson, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-seven clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from various sections of the United States, England, and Germany were tested for susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, epicillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and methicillin. Fifty-three of the strains had previously been judged to be ampicillin resistant and 14 had been determined to be ampicillin susceptible. Fifty-two of the 53 resistant strains produced β-lactamase, but none of the susceptible strains produced it. On the basis of minimal inhibitory concentrations, the most active compounds were ticarcillin and carbenicillin. Whether this greater activity is useful clinically has not been established. PMID:1083202

  1. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bruin, J P; Kostrzewa, M; van der Ende, A; Badoux, P; Jansen, R; Boers, S A; Diederen, B M W

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted laboratory methods that have been used for decades do not reliably distinguish between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates. H. haemolyticus strains are often incorrectly identified as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). To distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus we have created a new database on the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) bio-typer 2 and compared the results with routine determination of Haemophilus (growth requirement for X and V factor), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total we have tested 277 isolates, 244 H. influenzae and 33 H. haemolyticus. Using MLST as the gold standard, the agreement of MALDI-TOF MS was 99.6 %. MALDI-TOF MS allows reliable and rapid discrimination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  2. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

  3. Architecture and adhesive activity of the Haemophilus influenzae Hsf adhesin.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Shane E; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; Juehne, Twyla; St Geme, Joseph W

    2005-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b is an important cause of meningitis and other serious invasive diseases and initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract. Among the major adhesins in H. influenzae type b is a nonpilus protein called Hsf, a large protein that forms fiber-like structures on the bacterial surface and shares significant sequence similarity with the nontypeable H. influenzae Hia autotransporter. In the present study, we characterized the structure and adhesive activity of Hsf. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of Hsf revealed three regions with high-level homology to the HiaBD1 and HiaBD2 binding domains in Hia. Based on examination of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins corresponding to these regions, two of the three had adhesive activity and one was nonadhesive in assays with cultured epithelial cells. Structural modeling demonstrated that only the two regions with adhesive activity harbored an acidic binding pocket like the binding pocket identified in the crystal structure of HiaBD1. Consistent with these results, disruption of the acidic binding pockets in the adhesive regions eliminated adhesive activity. These studies advance our understanding of the architecture of Hsf and the family of trimeric autotransporters and provide insight into the structural determinants of H. influenzae type b adherence.

  4. Systems properties of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd metabolic genotype.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J S; Palsson, B O

    1999-06-18

    Haemophilus influenzae Rd was the first free-living organism for which the complete genomic sequence was established. The annotated sequence and known biochemical information was used to define the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype. This genotype contains 488 metabolic reactions operating on 343 metabolites. The stoichiometric matrix was used to determine the systems characteristics of the metabolic genotype and to assess the metabolic capabilities of H. influenzae. The need to balance cofactor and biosynthetic precursor production during growth on mixed substrates led to the definition of six different optimal metabolic phenotypes arising from the same metabolic genotype, each with different constraining features. The effects of variations in the metabolic genotype were also studied, and it was shown that the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype contains redundant functions under defined conditions. We thus show that the synthesis of in silico metabolic genotypes from annotated genome sequences is possible and that systems analysis methods are available that can be used to analyze and interpret phenotypic behavior of such genotypes.

  5. Tolerance of Haemophilus influenzae to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, M G; Lavoie, G Y

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were tested for tolerance (MBC/MIC greater than or equal to 32) to ampicillin and cefotaxime by broth dilution tests. Of 200 strains, 9 were tolerant to ampicillin, and 10 were tolerant to cefotaxime. Tolerant organisms were identified in both systemic and nonsystemic infections and among different biotypes and serotypes of H. influenzae. These tolerant isolates were compared with nontolerant isolates by broth dilution and killing curves with log-phase and stationary-phase inocula. Both tolerant and nontolerant bacteria in log phase were killed more rapidly by antibiotics than bacteria in stationary-phase growth. When tested against 11 different beta-lactams, several patterns of tolerance were observed. Six of the ten strains were tolerant to aztreonam, four were tolerant to cefuroxime, three were tolerant to cefamandole, and two were tolerant to cefoxitin. Strain H130 was tolerant to all beta-lactam antibiotics studied. None of the 10 tolerant H. influenzae isolates were tolerant to chloramphenicol, rifampin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Although the clinical significance of tolerance is not determined, this study suggests that the bactericidal activity (MBC) of beta-lactam antibiotics against H. influenzae should be determined in cases of severe infections in which clinical response is slow or unsatisfactory. PMID:3879660

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmer, H A; van Alphen, L; Geelen-van den Broek, L; Greenwood, B M; Valkenburg, H A; Dankert, J

    1992-01-01

    One hundred two invasive and 64 noninvasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected in the course of a 2-year prospective field study on the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis in The Gambia. The isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and subtyped by outer membrane protein (OMP) profile analysis (OMP subtyping). H. influenzae meningitis was found to be caused by serotype b (95%). In invasive disease, serotype a, although present in the throat of healthy children, caused only occasionally (5.9%) disease. The distribution of biotypes of H. influenzae appeared to be very similar to that found outside The Gambia. A distinct pattern of OMP subtypes, different from other parts of the world, is prevalent in H. influenzae type b (Hib) in The Gambia. OMP subtypes 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9 were observed to be predominant. These subtypes, except subtype 2, have not been described. L subtypes (subtypes 2, 4, and 8) were associated with invasive disease, whereas non-L subtypes (subtypes 5 and 9) were found more often in healthy carriers (P less than 0.001). A significant difference in geographical distribution was found in subtypes of noninvasive Hib strains (P less than 0.05). We conclude that in The Gambia H. influenzae invasive disease is caused mainly by type b strains with a limited number of OMP subtypes, which are different from the subtypes found elsewhere in the world. These data are important for the surveillance of Hib disease in developing countries and are baseline data for a Hib polyribosyl-ribitolphosphate-conjugated vaccine trial in The Gambia. Alternative Hib OMP vaccines should include a set of representative OMPs. Images PMID:1537907

  7. Comparison of laboratory-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish between Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Sandstedt, Sara A.; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayurika; McCrea, Kirk W.; Qin, Zhaohui; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary New methods to distinguish between nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus were compared. The results of iga variable region hybridization to dotblots and library-on-a-slide microarrays were more similar to a “gold standard” multigene phylogenetic tree than iga conserved region hybridization or P6 7F3 epitope immunoblots. PMID:18652852

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Previously Characterized Using an Electrophoretic Typing Scheme.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Huda J; VanWagoner, Timothy M; Morton, Daniel J; Seale, Thomas W; Whitby, Paul W; Stull, Terrence L

    2015-11-25

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of human disease. Strains were selected for genome sequencing to represent the breadth of nontypeable strains within the species, as previously defined by the electrophoretic mobility of 16 metabolic enzymes.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Previously Characterized Using an Electrophoretic Typing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Mussa, Huda J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of human disease. Strains were selected for genome sequencing to represent the breadth of nontypeable strains within the species, as previously defined by the electrophoretic mobility of 16 metabolic enzymes. PMID:26607889

  10. Prevalence of the sodC gene in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by microarray-based hybridization.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Kirk W; Wang, Myron L; Xie, Jingping; Sandstedt, Sara A; Davis, Gregg S; Lee, Joseph H; Marrs, Carl F; Gilsdorf, Janet R

    2010-03-01

    The sodC gene has been reported to be a useful marker for differentiating nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus in respiratory-tract samples, but discrepancies exist as to the prevalence of sodC in NT H. influenzae. Therefore, we used a microarray-based, "library-on-a-slide" method to differentiate the species and found that 21 of 169 (12.4%) NT H. influenzae strains and all 110 (100%) H. haemolyticus strains possessed the sodC gene. Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed that the 21 NT H. influenzae strains were H. influenzae and not H. haemolyticus. An inactive sodC gene has been reported in encapsulated H. influenzae strains belonging to phylogenetic division II. Capsule-specific Southern hybridization and PCR and a lack of copper/zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) expression indicated that 6 of the 21 sodC-containing NT H. influenzae strains in our study were likely capsule-deficient mutants belonging to phylogenetic division II. DNA sequence comparisons of the 21 H. influenzae sodC genes with sodC from H. haemolyticus or encapsulated H. influenzae demonstrated that the sodC genes of the six H. influenzae capsule-deficient mutants were, on average, 99% identical to sodC from encapsulated H. influenzae but only 85% identical to sodC from H. haemolyticus. The sodC genes from 2/15 NT H. influenzae strains were similarly more closely related to sodC from encapsulated strains, while sodC genes from 13 NT H. influenzae strains were almost 95% identical to sodC genes from H. haemolyticus, suggesting the possibility of interspecies recombination in these strains. In summary, this study demonstrates that sodC is not completely absent (9.2%) in true NT H. influenzae strains.

  11. [Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in Argentina from 2005 to 2010 during the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era].

    PubMed

    Efron, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Reijtman, Vanesa R; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the immunization programs of many countries has greatly reduced this invasive disease and the carriage caused by this serotype, also increasing other capsular types and non-capsular isolations. There were 313 isolations of H. influenzae under study, which were recovered from a sterile site coming from pediatric and adult patients carrying the invasive disease. Patients were treated at 90 different hospitals belonging to the Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas (National Lab Network for Meningitis and Acute Bacterial Respiratory Infections) from 2005 to 2010 for the following disorders: pneumonia, 40.3% (n=126), meningitis, 30.0% (n=94) and bacteremia, 26.5% (n=83). In pediatric patients (n=279), the highest frequency of isolations corresponded to children under the age of 2 years, 74.5% (n=208). Regarding type distribution, 61.3% corresponded to non-capsular H. influenzae (n=192), 20.1% to type b (n=63), 11.2% to type a (n=35), 4.8% to type f, and 2.6% to other types. Capsular H. influenzae was predominant in meningitis whereas non-capsular H. influenzae in pneumonia and bacteremia. The biotype was determined in 306 isolations. The totality (100%) of type a (n=35) was biotype II whereas 66.7% of type b (n=63) was biotype I. Slide agglutination and PCR tests were used in 220 isolations. There was a match of 0.982 (IC: 0.92-1.00) between them. During the last year, there was a great increase in type b, showing the importance of clinical and laboratory-based surveillance of the invasive disease caused by H. influenzae.

  12. Pediatric endogenous Haemophilus influenzae endophthalmitis with presumed hyposplenism

    PubMed Central

    Haruta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare but potentially devastating intraocular infection that can have severe sight-threatening complications. Most patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis have underlying infectious conditions, such as diabetes or malignancy, which predispose them to infection. Case report A 1-year-old girl presented with cloudiness of the right eye. Ocular examination showed a cloudy cornea in the right eye with conjunctival injection and hypopyon. The intraocular pressure was 43 mmHg, and the fundus could not be visualized. She had an 8-day history of fever, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed typical findings of bacterial meningitis. She was clinically diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and endophthalmitis in the right eye and was treated with intravenous, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics and vitrectomy. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, but not from the aqueous and vitreous cultures. Four months later, her pediatrician diagnosed Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, but she had no clinical signs of endophthalmitis. Seven years after the initial presentation, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye. Discussion Endophthalmitis caused by H. influenzae is generally associated with poor visual outcomes; however, the patient in the current case responded well to the treatment. The patient had recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae within a 4-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to search for underlying infectious causes and revealed that the patient had an extremely small spleen for her age. Because the spleen is critical for clearing encapsulated bacteria such as H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae, we speculated that hyposplenism led to the bloodstream infection of H. influenza and then endogenous endophthalmitis in the right eye. PMID:28115875

  13. The relationship between biofilm formations and capsule in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liang; Kida, Yutaka; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kaji, Chiharu; Sakai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Kiwao; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the biofilm formation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and H. influenzae type b (Hib) clinical isolates, we conducted the following study. Serotyping and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify β-lactamase-negative ampicillin (ABPC)-susceptible (BLNAS), β-lactamase-negative ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), TEM-1 type β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR)-NTHi, and Hib. Biofilm formation was investigated by microtiter biofilm assay, as well as visually observation with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in a continuous-flow chamber. As a result, totally 99 strains were investigated, and were classified into 4 groups which were 26 gBLNAS, 22 gBLNAR, 28 gBLPAR-NTHi and 23 Hib strains. The mean OD600 in the microtiter biofilm assay of gBLNAS, gBLNAR, gBLPAR-NTHi, and Hib strains were 0.57, 0.50, 0.34, and 0.08, respectively. NTHi strains were similar in terms of biofilm formations, which were observed by SEM and CLSM. Five Hib strains with the alternated type b cap loci showed significantly increased biofilm production than the other Hib strains. In conclusion, gBLNAS, gBLNAR, and gBLPAR-NTHi strains were more capable to produce biofilms compared to Hib strains. Our data suggested that resistant status may not be a key factor but capsule seemed to play an important role in H. influenzae biofilm formation.

  14. Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius

    PubMed Central

    Strouts, Fiona R.; Power, Peter; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Corton, Nicola; van Tonder, Andries; Quail, Michael A.; Langford, Paul R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    An emergent clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) is responsible for outbreaks of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF). First recorded in Brazil in 1984, the so-called BPF clone of Hae caused a fulminant disease that started with conjunctivitis but developed into septicemic shock; mortality rates were as high as 70%. To identify virulence determinants, we conducted a pan-genomic analysis. Sequencing of the genomes of the BPF clone strain F3031 and a noninvasive conjunctivitis strain, F3047, and comparison of these sequences with 5 other complete H. influenzae genomes showed that >77% of the F3031 genome is shared among all H. influenzae strains. Delineation of the Hae accessory genome enabled characterization of 163 predicted protein-coding genes; identified differences in established autotransporter adhesins; and revealed a suite of novel adhesins unique to Hae, including novel trimeric autotransporter adhesins and 4 new fimbrial operons. These novel adhesins might play a critical role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:22377449

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Haemophilus haemolyticus and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and a New Testing Scheme for Their Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fang; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Sivadas, Ambily; Mitchell, Gabriel J.; Jordan, I. King; Murphy, Timothy F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus has been recently discovered to have the potential to cause invasive disease. It is closely related to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NT H. influenzae). NT H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus are often misidentified because none of the existing tests targeting the known phenotypes of H. haemolyticus are able to specifically identify H. haemolyticus. Through comparative genomic analysis of H. haemolyticus and NT H. influenzae, we identified genes unique to H. haemolyticus that can be used as targets for the identification of H. haemolyticus. A real-time PCR targeting purT (encoding phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2 in the purine synthesis pathway) was developed and evaluated. The lower limit of detection was 40 genomes/PCR; the sensitivity and specificity in detecting H. haemolyticus were 98.9% and 97%, respectively. To improve the discrimination of H. haemolyticus and NT H. influenzae, a testing scheme combining two targets (H. haemolyticus purT and H. influenzae hpd, encoding protein D lipoprotein) was also evaluated and showed 96.7% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity for the identification of H. haemolyticus and 92.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the identification of H. influenzae, respectively. The dual-target testing scheme can be used for the diagnosis and surveillance of infection and disease caused by H. haemolyticus and NT H. influenzae. PMID:27707939

  16. Beta-Lactamase Activity in Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, W. Edmund; O'Dell, Noel M.

    1974-01-01

    The specific activity, substrate profile, response to inhibitors, inducibility, and cellular localization of the beta-lactamase produced by an ampicillin-resistant strain of Haemophilus influenzae type B were investigated. In these properties the enzyme resembles β-lactamases produced by other gram-negative bacilli more closely than those produced by gram-positive organisms. It is quite similar to an enzyme found in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and differs significantly from those described in other gram-negative bacilli. Comparison of the substrate profile with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of various β-lactamase antibiotics suggests that the β-lactamase plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance of this organism. PMID:15825317

  17. Susceptibility of Pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae to Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Finland, Maxwell; Garner, Carol; Wilcox, Clare; Sabath, Leon D.

    1976-01-01

    Strains of Diplococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were tested for susceptibility to numerous antibiotics by a twofold agar dilution method using an inocula replicator. Undiluted, fully grown broth cultures were used as inocula for both species, and cultures of pneumococci diluted 1:1,000 were also tested. The antibiotics included most of those in common use in the United States as well as some chemical modifications recently approved and others that are under investigation. The most striking aspect of the results was the marked susceptibility of the pneumococci to all the antibiotics tested except the polymyxins and most of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, although some new aminoglycosides were active in quite low concentrations. Some of the strains of pneumococci were of decreased susceptibility to penicillin G (minimal inhibitory concentrations, 0.2 to 0.4 μg/ml), but none were tetracycline resistant, although such strains had been reported previously from this laboratory. The strains of H. influenzae, which were all serologically nontypable, exhibited different patterns of susceptibility to the groups of antibiotics and to the individual chemically related ones. None of these strains (isolated early in 1972) were ampicillin resistant. The most active agents against H. influenzae were: carbenicillin and ampicillin, analogues related to each of them, rifampin, chloramphenicol, and the polymyxins. However, the tetracycline analogues other than tetracycline, some aminoglycosides, notably tobramycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and verdamicin, erythromycin, and some new lincomycin analogues were also active in low concentrations. Trimethoprim alone was highly active, and in combination with sulfamethoxazole it was even more active and synergistic against strains of both D. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. PMID:5052

  18. Isolation of an ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S M

    1980-01-01

    A 79-year-old female developed endocarditis and meningitis due to an ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Carbenicillin and gentamicin therapy resulted in bacteriological and clinical cure. The mechanism of resistance of ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strains of H. influenzae is unknown. PMID:6965443

  19. Haemophilus influenzae serotype a septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nicholas J

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a notable case of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child. Since the widespread immunization for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) in many indigenous peoples worldwide, there has been an increase in reported cases of Hia, postulating that this serotype is taking over the niche that Hib once occupied in indigenous populations.

  20. Biotypes of Haemophilus influenzae that are associated with noninvasive infections.

    PubMed

    Harper, J J; Tilse, M H

    1991-11-01

    In this study, we examined the biotypes of Haemophilus influenzae strains associated with noninvasive infections in hospitalized patients. Over an 18-month period, a total of 388 strains were isolated from patients of various ages (neonates to the elderly), and the biotypes of the strains were determined. Strains of biotype II accounted for 48% of the isolates; this was followed by strains of biotypes III and I (26 and 16%, respectively). The remaining 10% of the isolates were made up of strains of biotypes IV, V, VI, and VII. A total of 6% of strains were capsulated. The distribution of biotypes in specimens from the respiratory tract and associated sites was comparable to that obtained in similar investigations, but examination of isolates from neonatal and genital specimens did not support the concept that H. influenzae biotype IV is a major urogenital pathogen. Conflicting results regarding the incidence of certain biotypes in specimens, particularly those from the urogenital tract, may be due to the selection of different subpopulations of patients. Data relating to the specimens were used to evaluate the association between biotype and clinical diagnosis, the presence of other potential bacterial pathogens in the specimens, and the presence of viruses in the specimens. None of the differences in the distribution of biotypes which were examined was statistically significant.

  1. Enrichment and purification of proteins of Haemophilus influenzae by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M; Langen, H; Gray, C; Takács, B

    1998-05-15

    Haemophilus influenzae is a bacterium of pharmaceutical interest of which the entire genome has been sequenced. Identification of low-abundance proteins in a two-dimensional map is important for the detection of new drug targets. We applied chromatography on Polybuffer Exchanger (chromatofocusing) in order to fractionate and enrich H. influenzae proteins, possibly low-copy-number gene products, from larger volumes. Two proteins, major ferric iron-binding protein (HI0097) and 5'-nucleotidase (HI0206) were obtained in pure form and hypothetical protein HI0052 was purified to near homogeneity by this single purification step. Four other proteins, aspartate ammonia lyase (HI0534), peptidase D (HI0675), elongation factor Ts (HI0914) and 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate methyltransferase (HI1702), were strongly enriched so that chromatography on Polybuffer Exchanger can be used as an initial step for their isolation. Approximately 125 proteins were identified in the fractions collected from the column. Seventy of these were for the first time identified after chromatography on Polybuffer Exchanger. The proteins enriched by the chromatofocusing step include both low-abundance as well as high-copy-number gene products. They do not belong to a single protein class and the majority of them are enzymes with various functions. The results include a list and a two-dimensional map of the proteins enriched by chromatofocusing. They may be useful in the search of drug targets and in the design of purification protocols for the isolation of homologous proteins from related microorganisms.

  2. Protein E of Haemophilus influenzae is a ubiquitous highly conserved adhesin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Brant, Marta; Kilian, Mogens; Hallström, Björn; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2010-02-01

    Protein E (PE) of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is involved in adhesion and activation of epithelial cells. A total of 186 clinical NTHi isolates, encapsulated H. influenzae, and culture collection strains were analyzed. PE was highly conserved in both NTHi and encapsulated H. influenzae (96.9%-100% identity without the signal peptide). PE also existed in other members of the genus Pasteurellaceae. The epithelial cell binding region (amino acids 84-108) was completely conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the pe sequence separated Haemophilus species into 2 separate clusters. Importantly, PE was expressed in 98.4% of all NTHi (126 isolates) independently of the growth phase.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae: using comparative genomics to accurately identify a highly recombinogenic human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Nosworthy, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima; Marsh, Robyn L; Pickering, Janessa; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Keil, Anthony D; Chang, Anne B; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2015-08-27

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that exclusively colonises humans and is associated with both acute and chronic disease. Despite its clinical significance, accurate identification of H. influenzae is a non-trivial endeavour. H. haemolyticus can be misidentified as H. influenzae from clinical specimens using selective culturing methods, reflecting both the shared environmental niche and phenotypic similarities of these species. On the molecular level, frequent genetic exchange amongst Haemophilus spp. has confounded accurate identification of H. influenzae, leading to both false-positive and false-negative results with existing speciation assays. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism data from 246 closely related global Haemophilus isolates, including 107 Australian isolate genomes generated in this study, were used to construct a whole-genome phylogeny. Based on this phylogeny, H. influenzae could be differentiated from closely related species. Next, a H. influenzae-specific locus, fucP, was identified, and a novel TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting fucP was designed. PCR specificity screening across a panel of clinically relevant species, coupled with in silico analysis of all species within the order Pasteurellales, demonstrated that the fucP assay was 100 % specific for H. influenzae; all other examined species failed to amplify. This study is the first of its kind to use large-scale comparative genomic analysis of Haemophilus spp. to accurately delineate H. influenzae and to identify a species-specific molecular signature for this species. The fucP assay outperforms existing H. influenzae targets, most of which were identified prior to the next-generation genomics era and thus lack validation across a large number of Haemophilus spp. We recommend use of the fucP assay in clinical and research laboratories for the most accurate detection and diagnosis of H. influenzae infection and colonisation.

  4. Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection of the Junbo Mouse.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Michael T; Hood, Derek W

    2017-03-02

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear bulla, is the most common bacterial infection in children. For one of the principal otopathogens, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), animal models allow us to investigate host-microbial interactions relevant to the onset and progression of infection and to study treatment of middle ear disease. We have established a robust model of NTHi middle ear infection in the Junbo mouse. Intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates of bulla infection and high bacterial titers in bulla fluids; bacteria can also spread down the respiratory tract to the mouse lung. An innate immune response is detected in the bulla of Junbo mice following NTHi infection, and bacteria are maintained in some ears at least up to day 56 post-inoculation. The Junbo/NTHi infection model facilitates studies on bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial intervention regimens and vaccines for better treatment and prevention of NTHi middle ear infection. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Transformation of natural genetic variation into Haemophilus influenzae genomes.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Shumilina, Svetlana; Hall, Ira M; Redfield, Rosemary J

    2011-07-01

    Many bacteria are able to efficiently bind and take up double-stranded DNA fragments, and the resulting natural transformation shapes bacterial genomes, transmits antibiotic resistance, and allows escape from immune surveillance. The genomes of many competent pathogens show evidence of extensive historical recombination between lineages, but the actual recombination events have not been well characterized. We used DNA from a clinical isolate of Haemophilus influenzae to transform competent cells of a laboratory strain. To identify which of the ~40,000 polymorphic differences had recombined into the genomes of four transformed clones, their genomes and their donor and recipient parents were deep sequenced to high coverage. Each clone was found to contain ~1000 donor polymorphisms in 3-6 contiguous runs (8.1±4.5 kb in length) that collectively comprised ~1-3% of each transformed chromosome. Seven donor-specific insertions and deletions were also acquired as parts of larger donor segments, but the presence of other structural variation flanking 12 of 32 recombination breakpoints suggested that these often disrupt the progress of recombination events. This is the first genome-wide analysis of chromosomes directly transformed with DNA from a divergent genotype, connecting experimental studies of transformation with the high levels of natural genetic variation found in isolates of the same species.

  6. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M; Kerwin, James; Guerrero, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen, can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24-h biofilms, two were found only in 96-h biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation.

  7. Lethal and mutagenic action of hydrogen peroxide on Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rincón, D A; Cabrera-Juárez, E

    1991-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of H2O2 on wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd and on uvr1, uvr2, rec1, and rec2 mutant strains were studied. The first two mutants are sensitive to UV, and the second two are defective in recombination. Rd, urv1, and rec1 strains were more sensitive to the killing effect of H2O2 treatment than were uvr2 and rec2 strains. There were peaks of mutagenesis at two H2O2 concentrations over a range of 30 to 275 mM. Our results suggest a specific repair of H2O2 damage that is independent of the Uvr2 and Rec2 gene products. Sensitivity to the killing effect of H2O2 and to the lethal action of near-UV light were similar for Rd and uvr1 strains. This finding suggests that the mechanisms of killing by and repair of H2O2 damage may have some overlap with those of near-UV radiation. PMID:1917884

  8. Complete genome sequence of Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) strain 129Pt and comparison to Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP and Haemophilus influenzae Rd.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, Jean F; Duncan, A J; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Detter, J Chris; Han, Cliff S; Misra, Monica; Richardson, Paul; Tapia, Roxanne; Thayer, Nina; Xie, Gary; Inzana, Thomas J

    2007-03-01

    Haemophilus somnus can be either a commensal of bovine mucosal surfaces or an opportunistic pathogen. Pathogenic strains of H. somnus are a significant cause of systemic disease in cattle. We report the genome sequence of H. somnus 129Pt, a nonpathogenic commensal preputial isolate, and the results of a genome-wide comparative analysis of H. somnus 129Pt, Haemophilus influenzae Rd, and Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP. We found unique genes in H. somnus 129Pt involved in lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis, carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, cation transport, amino acid metabolism, ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis, cell surface adhesion, biosynthesis of cofactors, energy metabolism, and electron transport. There were also many genes in common among the three organisms. Our comparative analyses of H. somnus 129Pt, H. influenzae Rd, and H. ducreyi 35000HP revealed similarities and differences in the numbers and compositions of genes involved in metabolism, host colonization, and persistence. These results lay a foundation for research on the host specificities and niche preferences of these organisms. Future comparisons between H. somnus 129Pt and virulent strains will aid in the development of protective strategies and vaccines to protect cattle against H. somnus disease.

  9. Construction of a novel shuttle vector for use in Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Esther; Juhas, Mario; Hood, Derek; Crook, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen. A number of complete genome sequences of various haemophili are available; however, functional studies have been limited by the lack of an effective shuttle vector which functions in all strains. Here, we have constructed a shuttle vector, pEJ6, which transfers genes between Escherichia coli and H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The vector contains an origin of replication from pLS88 which is functional in E. coli and H. influenzae. In addition it contains an RP4 mobilisation region. The vector can be introduced by electroporation and conjugation into capsulate and non-typeable H. influenzae and is functional for allelic replacement and mutant complementation. The vector will be useful for investigating gene function in Haemophilus spp. PMID:20849885

  10. Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure

    PubMed Central

    McVernon, J; Johnson, P; Pollard, A; Slack, M; Moxon, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare the convalescent antibody response to invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease between conjugate vaccine immunised and unimmunised children, to look for evidence of priming for immunologic memory. Methods: Unmatched case-control study in the UK and Eire 1992–2001 and Victoria, Australia 1988–1990. A total of 93 children were identified as having invasive Hib disease following three doses of conjugate vaccine in infancy through post licensure surveillance throughout the UK and Eire; 92 unvaccinated children admitted to an Australian paediatric hospital with invasive Hib disease were used as historical controls. Convalescent serum was taken for measurement of Hib antibody concentration, and clinical information relating to potential disease risk factors was collected. The geometric mean concentrations of convalescent Hib antibodies were compared between immunised and unimmunised children, using raw and adjusted data. Results: Hib conjugate vaccine immunised children had higher serum Hib antibody responses to disease (geometric mean concentration (GMC) 10.81 µg/ml (95% CI 6.62 to 17.66) than unimmunised children (1.06 µg/ml (0.61 to 1.84)) (p < 0.0001). However, following adjustment for the significant confounding influences of age at presentation and timing of serum collection, a difference persisted only in children presenting with meningitis (vaccinated GMC 3.78 µg/ml (2.78 to 5.15); unvaccinated GMC 1.48 µg/ml (0.90 to 2.21); p = 0.003). Conclusions: Higher antibody responses to invasive Hib disease in vaccinated children with meningitis reflect priming for immunologic memory by the vaccine. Although a majority of children in the UK are protected from Hib disease by immunisation, the relative roles of immunologic memory and other immune mechanisms in conferring protection remain unclear. PMID:12716702

  11. Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure.

    PubMed

    McVernon, J; Johnson, P D R; Pollard, A J; Slack, M P E; Moxon, E R

    2003-05-01

    To compare the convalescent antibody response to invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease between conjugate vaccine immunised and unimmunised children, to look for evidence of priming for immunologic memory. Unmatched case-control study in the UK and Eire 1992-2001 and Victoria, Australia 1988-1990. A total of 93 children were identified as having invasive Hib disease following three doses of conjugate vaccine in infancy through post licensure surveillance throughout the UK and Eire; 92 unvaccinated children admitted to an Australian paediatric hospital with invasive Hib disease were used as historical controls. Convalescent serum was taken for measurement of Hib antibody concentration, and clinical information relating to potential disease risk factors was collected. The geometric mean concentrations of convalescent Hib antibodies were compared between immunised and unimmunised children, using raw and adjusted data. Hib conjugate vaccine immunised children had higher serum Hib antibody responses to disease (geometric mean concentration (GMC) 10.81 microg/ml (95% CI 6.62 to 17.66) than unimmunised children (1.06 microg/ml (0.61 to 1.84)) (p < 0.0001). However, following adjustment for the significant confounding influences of age at presentation and timing of serum collection, a difference persisted only in children presenting with meningitis (vaccinated GMC 3.78 microg/ml (2.78 to 5.15); unvaccinated GMC 1.48 microg/ml (0.90 to 2.21); p = 0.003). Higher antibody responses to invasive Hib disease in vaccinated children with meningitis reflect priming for immunologic memory by the vaccine. Although a majority of children in the UK are protected from Hib disease by immunisation, the relative roles of immunologic memory and other immune mechanisms in conferring protection remain unclear.

  12. The in-vitro activity of pristinamycin against Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Lafaix, C; Bouvet, E; Dublanchet, A; Dabernat, H; Carrere, C; Picq, J J; Etienne, J

    1985-07-01

    The in-vitro activity of erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, josamycin and pristinamycin was tested by a plate-dilution method against strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. Pristinamycin was the most active product tested with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging between 0.5 and 4 mg/l for H. influenzae (modal value 1 mg/l) and between 0.03 and 0.12 mg/l for N. meningitidis (modal value 0.06 mg/l).

  13. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    MedlinePlus

    ... influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same as ...

  14. [Effect of ambroxol on biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae and bactericidal action].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Zhang, Yutuo; Lin, Yantao; Li, Haifeng; Xin, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Xu, Yunpeng; Shang, Xiaoling

    2014-05-01

    To establish a biofilm model of Haemophilus influenzae and observe the effect of ambroxol on biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae and bactericidal action. Thirty strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from adenoids of children with adenoidal hypertrophy. Two strains which could build stronger biofilms was selected in a 96-well plate. The effect of ambroxol on biofilms were determined by crystal violet, and the structure of biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The numbers of viable bacterial in biofilm after ambroxol treatmented determined by plate culture count. Through crystal violet assay, significant difference (P < 0.01) between the two group after treatment was found when ambroxol concentration reached at 0.25 mg/ml and 0.49 mg/ml. The biofilms was destroyed by SEM. Ambroxol had the positive effect on bacterial killing by plate culture count,and the effect was in a dose dependent. Ambroxol could destroy the biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae, and had bactericidal function in vitro.

  15. Culture of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from the nasopharynx: Not all media are equal.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tegan M; Rumaseb, Angela; Beissbarth, Jemima; Barzi, Federica; Leach, Amanda J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2017-03-22

    The efficacy of chocolate agar, versus bacitracin, vancomycin, clindamycin, chocolate agar (BVCCA) for the isolation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from nasopharyngeal swabs was determined. BVCCA cultured NTHi from 97.3% of NTHi-positive swabs, compared to 87.1% for chocolate agar. To maximise culture sensitivity, the use of both media is recommended.

  16. Predicted configurations of oligosaccharide extensions in the lipooligosaccharide of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Kirk W; Xie, Jingping; Daniel, Deborah; Ulrich-Lewis, Justin Theophilus; Zhang, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    Lipooligosaccharide configurations were predicted in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates based on the presence of seven oligosaccharide extension-initiating genes (or alleles). Predicted configurations with 2 to 3 oligosaccharide extensions were more prevalent among middle ear than throat strains. In addition, strains with these configurations averaged higher levels of serum resistance than strains with other configurations.

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Mary Anne; Zhang, Lixin; Swanson, Douglas S.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2017-01-01

    During 5 months in 2014, three Amish children in Missouri, USA, were diagnosed with invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. Two were rural neighbors infected with a genetically similar rare strain, sequence type 45. One child had recently traveled, raising the possibility of maintenance of this strain among unvaccinated carriers in Amish communities. PMID:27983486

  18. Conservation and Recombination in the Genome Sequence of Haemophilus influenzae Type f WAPHL1.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Allen C; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C; Li, Zhen; Tran, Michael; Greninger, Alexander L

    2017-09-21

    We report here the second draft genome sequence of a bloodstream isolate of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. Three discrete 3.1- to 7.8-kb sites contained 80% of the variability in the genome, consistent with recombination in known virulence factors. Copyright © 2017 Bateman et al.

  19. In vitro capability of faropenem to select for resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Beachel, Linda; Ednie, Lois; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2008-02-01

    When tested against nine strains of pneumococci and six of Haemophilus influenzae of various resistotypes, faropenem failed to select for resistant mutants after 50 days of consecutive subculture in subinhibitory concentrations. Faropenem also yielded low rates of spontaneous mutations against all organisms of both species. By comparison, resistant clones were obtained with macrolides, ketolides, and quinolones.

  20. High Genetic Diversity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates from Two Children Attending a Day Care Center▿

    PubMed Central

    LaCross, Nathan C.; Marrs, Carl F.; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-one nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) isolates from the throats of two healthy children were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Nine unique sequence types (STs) were identified. These STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree of reported NTHi STs, demonstrating the high level of NTHi diversity found in colonized children. PMID:18845825

  1. Effect of cefotaxime or ceftriaxone treatment on nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae type b colonization in children.

    PubMed Central

    Goldwater, P N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone treatment on nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were prospectively studied with 53 children with invasive Hib disease. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were monitored during therapy. Hib was eliminated within 2 days in 92% of patients and was eliminated in all patients after the third day of antibiotic treatment. PMID:8540735

  2. Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolated from three Japanese children with invasive H. influenzae infection.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Hachisu, Yushi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tokutake, Shoko; Okui, Hideyuki; Kutsuna, Satoru; Fukasawa, Chie; Murayama, Kei; Oohara, Asami; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Midori; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2015-04-01

    In Japan, publicly subsidized Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccines became available in 2011; consequently, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae infection in paediatric patients of less than 5 years of age decreased dramatically. In 2013, the first case of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis in a Japanese infant was reported, and another case of Hif meningitis in a Japanese infant was observed in 2013. We experienced a fatal paediatric case of Hif bacteraemia in 2004; therefore, we conducted an analysis of the three Hif strains isolated from these three Japanese children with invasive Hif infections. All three strains were β-lactamase-non-producing, ampicillin-sensitive strains, with MICs of 1 µg ml(-1) or less. However, one of the three strains showed slightly elevated MICs for ampicillin (1 µg ml(-1)), cefotaxime (0.25 µg ml(-1)) and meropenem (0.13 µg ml(-1)). A molecular analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified all three strains as sequence type (ST) 124, which is a predominant invasive Hif strain in many countries. SmaI-digested PFGE showed variable DNA fragmentation patterns among the strains, suggesting that some highly virulent strains have originated from a single ST124 clone and caused invasive Hif infections in Japan. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that have led to the clonal expansion of virulent ST124 strains.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains That Establish Bacteremia in the Infant Rat Model of Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Mussa, Huda J.; Cole, Brett K.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive disease. The infant rat is the accepted model of invasive H. influenzae disease. Here, we report the genome sequences of six nontypeable H. influenzae strains that establish bacteremia in the infant rat. PMID:26404588

  4. Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 Compared with Those of Four Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    PubMed Central

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Clark, Catherine; Bryskier, Andre; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Activities of HMR 3787, a new 2-fluoroketolide, and its (des)-fluor derivative, RU 64399, were tested against 111 Haemophilus influenzae and 26 H. parainfluenzae strains and compared with those of telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. HMR 3787 and RU 64399 MICs were comparable with those of azithromycin but were less affected by incubation in CO2. Time-kill studies of 12 strains showed that HMR 3787, RU 64399, and telithromycin were bactericidal against all strains after 24 h at two times the MIC. PMID:12499225

  5. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae type a as a cause of paediatric septic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ulanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Incidence rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b disease have decreased significantly since the introduction of the Hib vaccine; however, the rates in indigenous populations remain disproportionately high, specifically in the paediatric population. Additionally, with the decline of type b invasive infections, there has been a rebound in the incidence of invasive infections caused by other strains of H. influenzae, particularly serotype a. Case presentation: We present a paediatric case of septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae type a in a toddler that was fully resolved following antibiotic therapy. This report adds to other reports of septic arthritis in indigenous populations as shown through a review of recently documented H. influenzae type a septic arthritis cases. Conclusion: Socio-economic risk factors for invasive H. influenzae type a disease, such as poverty, poor housing conditions, overcrowding, smoking and substance abuse during pregnancy, as well as the need for H. influenzae type a immunization of vulnerable populations, are discussed. PMID:28348786

  7. Absence of an important vaccine and diagnostic target in carriage- and disease-related nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Chang, Anne B; Sarovich, Derek S; Marsh, Robyn L; Grimwood, Keith; Leach, Amanda J; Morris, Peter S; Price, Erin P

    2014-02-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-associated disease is a major health problem globally. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified the absence of hpd genes encoding Haemophilus protein D in 3 of 16 phylogenetically distinct NTHi isolates. This novel finding is of potential clinical significance, as protein D and hpd represent important NTHi vaccine antigen and diagnostic targets, respectively.

  8. Allosteric Site Variants of Haemophilus influenzae β-Carbonic Anhdyrase†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Roger S.; Tu, Chingkuang; Lee, Joseph; Herman, Ariel G.; Chapnick, Douglas A.; Shah, Shalini H.; Gareiss, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) is hypothesized to be an allosteric protein that is regulated by the binding of bicarbonate ion to a non-catalytic (inhibitory) site that controls the ligation of Asp44 to the catalytically essential zinc ion. We report here the X-ray crystallographic structures of two variants (W39F and Y181F) involved in the binding of bicarbonate ion in the non-catalytic site and an active site variant (D44N) that is incapable of forming a strong zinc ligand. The alteration of Trp39 to Phe increases the apparent Ki for bicarbonate inhibition by 4.8-fold. While the structures of W39F and Y181F are very similar to the wild-type enzyme, the X-ray crystal structure of the D44N variant reveals that it has adopted an active site conformation nearly identical to that of non-allosteric β-carbonic anhydrases. We propose that the structure of the D44N variant is likely to be representative of the active conformation of the enzyme. These results lend additional support to the hypothesis that HICA is an allosteric enzyme that can adopt active and inactive conformations, the latter of which is stabilized by bicarbonate ion binding to a non-catalytic site. PMID:19459702

  9. Diversity of the P2 protein among nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J; Grass, S; Jeanteur, D; Munson, R S

    1994-01-01

    The genes for outer membrane protein P2 of four nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains were cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences were compared with the outer membrane protein P2 sequence from H. influenzae type b MinnA and the sequences of P2 from three additional nontypeable H. influenzae strains. The sequences were 76 to 94% identical. The sequences had regions with considerable variability separated by regions which were highly conserved. The variable regions mapped to putative surface-exposed loops of the protein. PMID:8188390

  10. Haemophilus influenzae serotype a as a cause of serious invasive infections.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, Marina; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, particularly H influenzae serotype b (Hib), is an important pathogen that causes serious diseases like meningitis and septicaemia. Since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in the 1990s, the epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease has changed substantially, with most infections now caused by non-Hib strains. We discuss the importance of H influenzae serotype a (Hia) as a cause of serious morbidity and mortality and its global epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, immunology, prevention, and control. Much like Hib, the capsule of Hia is an important virulence factor contributing to the development of invasive disease. Molecular typing of Hia has identified distinct clonal groups, with some linked to severe disease and high case-fatality rates. Similarities between Hia and Hib capsules, their clinical presentation, and immunology of infection suggest that a bivalent Hia-Hib capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine could offer protection against these two important serotypes of H influenzae.

  11. Major subtypes of invasive Haemophilus influenzae from 1983 to 1985 in Atlanta, Ga.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J A; Pigott, N; Cochi, S L; Facklam, R R

    1990-01-01

    We compared outer membrane protein (OMP) patterns of Haemophilus influenzae isolated in metropolitan Atlanta, Ga., from July 1983 to June 1985. Of 74 randomly selected H. influenzae serotype b, biotype I, isolates (24% of the total number of H. influenzae, and 32% of the total number of H. influenzae serotype b, biotype I, isolates), 66 (89.2%) had the same OMP pattern. Of the remaining eight, five (6.7%) had an identical OMP pattern. The other three isolates had separate and distinct patterns. A greater diversity of OMP patterns was found with H. influenzae serotype b, biotype II, and nonserotypeable H. influenzae. Of the 18 H. influenzae serotype b, biotype II, isolates (5.8% of the total number of H. influenzae isolates), 1 had an OMP pattern similar to that of the predominate biotype I OMP type, 6 (33% of the biotype II) had the same pattern, and 11 had heterogeneous patterns. Of the 19 recoverable, nonserotypeable biotype II isolates (6.8% of the total number of H. influenzae), 18 had different OMP patterns, and no pattern was similar to those observed with serotype b. These findings indicate that most H. influenzae strains isolated during this 2-year period were indistinguishable by serotype, biotype, or OMP patterns. Images PMID:2191007

  12. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine formulation and risk of childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Groves, F; Sinha, D; Auvinen, A

    2002-08-27

    Incidence of childhood leukaemia was studied among subjects of a vaccine trial in Finland comparing the polysaccharide-diptheria toxoid conjugate and oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine formulations. Eighty cases of childhood leukaemia were detected: 35 among children on the polysaccharide-diptheria toxoid conjugate arm, and 45 among children on the oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate arm, which was not statistically significant.

  13. Utility of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of multiple Haemophilus influenzae isolates from throat swabs of children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Antos-Bielska, Małgorzata; Lau-Dworak, Magdalena; Olszewska-Sosińska, Olga; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Trafny, Elżbieta A

    2014-07-01

    Eleven out of 40 children with adenoiditis were colonized with multiple genotypes of Haemophilus influenzae. Heterogeneous antibiotic susceptibility to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was observed in 6 children. A multiple-colony methodology may potentially help to find the resistant strains of H. influenzae in patients who do not respond to the antibiotic treatment.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection and quantitation of capsular antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, F J; Winkelstein, J A; Moxon, E R

    1978-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect the presence of the ribose-ribitol phosphate capsular antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b in laboratory and clinical specimens. The assay is simple, sensitive, specific, and quantitative and should prove to be of value in the diagnosis and management of H. influenzae infections. PMID:310425

  15. Population genetics of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a in three Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Shuel, Michelle; Wylie, John; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Hoang, Linda; Law, Dennis K S

    2013-05-01

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is an important pathogen since the introduction of vaccines for control of disease due to serotype b strains. Using a sodC-based polymerase chain reaction, Hia can be divided into 2 phylogenetic divisions, each with their own unique multilocus sequence types. Most Canadian Hia belongs to clonal division I and the ST-23 clonal complex. The recently described hypervirulent clone of ST-4 was found in a single Canadian isolate. Therefore, surveillance of invasive H. influenzae disease should include serotyping to detect Hia and multilocus sequence typing to detect hypervirulent clones.

  16. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae infection and moxalactam on platelet function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S L; Courtney, J T; Kenal, K A

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, children with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis received moxalactam or ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Of 41 children, 6 had prolonged bleeding times (greater than 6 min), and 7 of 9 tested had abnormal platelet aggregation at hospital admission. At the end of therapy, no children in the ampicillin-chloramphenicol group, compared with 5 of 22 moxalactam-treated children (23%) (P = 0.08), had prolonged bleeding times (6.5 to 7.5 min). Our data suggest that H. influenzae meningitis and treatment with moxalactam may each have an effect on platelet function in children. PMID:3579263

  17. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in invasive disease reveals lack of the capsule locus.

    PubMed

    Lâm, T-T; Claus, H; Frosch, M; Vogel, U

    2016-01-01

    Among invasive Haemophilus influenzae, unencapsulated strains have largely surpassed the previously predominant serotype b (Hib) because of Hib vaccination. Isolates without the genomic capsule (cap) locus are designated non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). They are different from capsule-deficient variants that show deletion of the capsule transport gene bexA within the cap locus. The frequency of capsule-deficient variants in invasive disease is unknown. We analysed 783 unencapsulated invasive isolates collected over 5 years in Germany and found no single capsule-deficient isolate. Invasive unencapsulated strains in Germany were exclusively NTHi. A negative serotyping result by slide agglutination was therefore highly predictive for NTHi.

  18. A glutathione-based system for defense against carbonyl stress in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background adhC from Haemophilus influenzae encodes a glutathione-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase that has previously been shown to be required for protection against killing by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). This group of enzymes is known in other systems to be able to utilize substrates that form adducts with glutathione, such as aldehydes. Results Here, we show that expression of adhC is maximally induced under conditions of high oxygen tension as well as specifically with glucose as a carbon source. adhC could also be induced in response to formaldehyde but not GSNO. An adhC mutant was more susceptible than wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 to killing by various short chain aliphatic aldehydes, all of which can be generated endogenously during cell metabolism but are also produced by the host as part of the innate immune response. Conclusions These results indicate that AdhC plays a role in defense against endogenously generated reactive carbonyl electrophiles in Haemophilus influenzae and may also play a role in defense against the host innate immune system. PMID:22849540

  19. Pneumopathie postoperatoire à association Haemophilus Influenzae et Neisseria meningitidis chez un enfant diabetique

    PubMed Central

    Chemsi, Hicham; Frikh, Mohamed; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Belfkih, Bouchra; Sekhsokh, Yassine; Chadli, Maryama; Elouennass, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae est un hôte saprophyte du rhinopharynx chez près des deux tiers des enfants et les adultes. Neisseria meningitidis est une bactérie strictement humaine qui vit dans le rhinopharynx, pouvant provoquer une rhinopharyngite bénigne ou un état de portage asymptomatique. Nous rapportons le cas d'une pneumopathie postopératoire à association Haemophilus influenzae et Neisseria meningitidis chez un enfant diabétique. Patient âgé de 3 ans, diabétique admis au service de chirurgie cardio-vasculaire pour prise en charge chirurgicale tardive. L'évolution postopératoire a été marquée par une aggravation de l'état respiratoire, devenu encombré avec des secrétions abondantes nécessitant une hospitalisation en réanimation. Un bilan infectieux a été réalisé, notamment un prélèvement distal protégé qui a révélé une association de Neisseria meningitides et Haemophilus influenzae. A travers ce cas, nous discutons les associations bactériennes dans certaines situations à risque. Chacune de ces deux espèces est responsable d'infections diverses. Cependant l'association au même site est rare. PMID:28292047

  20. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications.

    PubMed

    Post, Deborah M B; Ketterer, Margaret R; Coffin, Jeremy E; Reinders, Lorri M; Munson, Robert S; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F; Foster, Eric D; Gibson, Bradford W; Apicella, Michael A

    2016-01-04

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease.

  1. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  2. Haemophilus influenzae uses the surface protein E to acquire human plasminogen and to evade innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Diana; Singh, Birendra; Riesbeck, Kristian; Zipfel, Peter F

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes acquire the human plasma protein plasminogen to their surface. In this article, we characterize binding of this important coagulation regulator to the respiratory pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and identify the Haemophilus surface protein E (PE) as a new plasminogen-binding protein. Plasminogen binds dose dependently to intact bacteria and to purified PE. The plasminogen-PE interaction is mediated by lysine residues and is also affected by ionic strength. The H. influenzae PE knockout strain (nontypeable H. influenzae 3655Δpe) bound plasminogen with ∼65% lower intensity as compared with the wild-type, PE-expressing strain. In addition, PE expressed ectopically on the surface of Escherichia coli also bound plasminogen. Plasminogen, either attached to intact H. influenzae or bound to PE, was accessible for urokinase plasminogen activator. The converted active plasmin cleaved the synthetic substrate S-2251, and the natural substrates fibrinogen and C3b. Using synthetic peptides that cover the complete sequence of the PE protein, the major plasminogen-binding region was localized to a linear 28-aa-long N-terminal peptide, which represents aa 41-68. PE binds plasminogen and also vitronectin, and the two human plasma proteins compete for PE binding. Thus, PE is a major plasminogen-binding protein of the Gram-negative bacterium H. influenzae, and when converted to plasmin, PE-bound plasmin aids in immune evasion and contributes to bacterial virulence.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae can use human transferrin as a sole source for required iron.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, D A; Sparling, P F

    1985-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae grown on enriched medium containing protoporphyrin IX rather than hemin was iron starved by the addition of the chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Iron starvation could be overcome in each of 33 H. influenzae type b isolates by 30% Fe-saturated human transferrin but not by human lactoferrin. Among nontypeable H. influenzae, 28 of 35 isolates, including 2 of 3 systemic isolates, were able to utilize Fe-transferrin. None of 18 H. parainfluenzae isolates was able to use Fe-transferrin. Iron starvation of H. influenzae type b resulted in increased amounts of three membrane proteins of 94,000 to 98,000 daltons. Images PMID:3872264

  4. Invasive Disease Due to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae among Children in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Joshua M.; St. Geme III, Joseph W.; Cutter, David; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Anyanwu, Juliana; Jacobs, Richard F.; Schutze, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we reviewed cases of invasive disease due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae among children hospitalized at Arkansas Children's Hospital from 1993 to 2001. A total of 28 cases were examined, including 21 associated with bacteremia and 4 associated with meningitis. Of the patients examined, 86% were ≤4 years of age, and 68% had underlying medical conditions. Characterization of the bacterial isolates by multilocus sequence type genotyping revealed significant overall genetic diversity, similar to the diversity in the general population structure for nontypeable H. influenzae. However, four separate pairs of isolates were closely related genetically, a relationship confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization studies using probes for the major H. influenzae adhesin genes. These results suggest that selected strains of nontypeable H. influenzae may have more invasive potential, especially in young children and patients with underlying medical conditions. At this point, the specific factors that contribute to enhanced virulence remain unclear. PMID:12843045

  5. Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Nurul I.; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A.; Davis, Gregg S.; Marrs, Carl F.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated their prevalences in 148 Haemophilus haemolyticus strains, a closely related species that colonizes the human pharynx and is considered to be nonpathogenic. Four out of five genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, and hemR) were significantly more prevalent in the middle ear strains (96%, 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively) than in throat strains (80%, 92%, 93%, and 85%, respectively) of NTHI, suggesting that strains possessing these genes have a virulence advantage over those lacking them. All five genes were dramatically more prevalent in NTHI strains than in H. haemolyticus, with 91% versus 9% hxuA, 98% versus 11% hxuB, 98% versus 11% hxuC, 93% versus 20% hemR, and 97% versus 34% hup, supporting their potential role in virulence and highlighting their possibility to serve as biomarkers to distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus. In summary, this study demonstrates that heme acquisition genes are more prevalent in disease-causing NTHI strains isolated from the middle ear than in colonizing NTHI strains and H. haemolyticus isolated from the pharynx. PMID:25903577

  6. Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Nurul I; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A; Davis, Gregg S; Marrs, Carl F; Gilsdorf, Janet R

    2015-07-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated their prevalences in 148 Haemophilus haemolyticus strains, a closely related species that colonizes the human pharynx and is considered to be nonpathogenic. Four out of five genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, and hemR) were significantly more prevalent in the middle ear strains (96%, 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively) than in throat strains (80%, 92%, 93%, and 85%, respectively) of NTHI, suggesting that strains possessing these genes have a virulence advantage over those lacking them. All five genes were dramatically more prevalent in NTHI strains than in H. haemolyticus, with 91% versus 9% hxuA, 98% versus 11% hxuB, 98% versus 11% hxuC, 93% versus 20% hemR, and 97% versus 34% hup, supporting their potential role in virulence and highlighting their possibility to serve as biomarkers to distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus. In summary, this study demonstrates that heme acquisition genes are more prevalent in disease-causing NTHI strains isolated from the middle ear than in colonizing NTHI strains and H. haemolyticus isolated from the pharynx.

  7. Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in urethral exudates from men with acute urethritis: a descriptive study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Gómez, Julià; Villar-García, Judit; Supervia, August; Pujol, Ramon M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes from male patients diagnosed of Haemophilus spp urethritis. A chart review of patients who presented to our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 with symptoms of acute urethritis in which Haemophilus spp was isolated in their urethral samples was performed. Haemophilus spp was isolated in 52 out of 413 urethral samples (12.6%) received in our laboratory from patients with symptoms of acute urethritis during the study period. Seven cases corresponded to Haemophilus influenzae and 45 cases to Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The most common clinical presentation was mucopurulent urethral discharge (71%). Eight per cent were HIV-infected patients, and 60% were men who have sex with men. Haemophilus spp was isolated as a single pathogen in 6.8% (28 of 413) of cases. Seventeen per cent of Haemophilus spp were β-lactamase producers. All patients reported having practiced unprotected insertive oral sex the month before consultation, and five of them denied having had another sexual contact apart from this exposure. In all cases in which follow-up was available, empirical treatment achieved a complete clinical resolution. Haemophilus spp was considered a pathogen in at least 6.8% of the patients from the evaluated area. It affected men regardless their sexual orientation or HIV status. Unprotected oral sex could play a role in its transmission. The limitations of the study (small sample size and lack of a representative control group) do not allow to prove the true pathogenic role of Haemophilus spp in acute urethritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Characterization of nasopharyngeal isolates of type b Haemophilus influenzae from Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Kandarpa K.; Das, Bimal K.; Bewal, Ramesh K.; Kapil, Arti; Arora, N.K.; Sood, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of mortality and morbidity among young children in developing countries. Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance especially production of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) has made treatment and management of H. influenzae infection more difficult. Nasopharyngeal H. influenzae isolates are excellent surrogate for determination of antibiotic resistance prevalent among invasive H. influenzae isolates. In this study, we characterized nasopharyngeal H. influenzae isolates obtained from healthy school going children in Delhi. Methods: Nasopharyngeal H. influenzae isolates were collected from healthy school going children and subjected to serotyping, fimbrial typing and antibiogram profiling. ESBL production was recorded using phenotypic as well as molecular methods. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of 13 representative nasopharyngeal H. influenzae isolates was performed as per guidelines. Results: A significant proportion (26 of 80, 32.5%) of nasopharyngeal isolates of H. influenzae were identified as serotype b. Fimbrial gene (hifA) was detected in 23 (28.75%) isolates. Resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics (Amp, Tet, Chloro, Septran, Cephalexin) were observed to be high among the nasopharyngeal commensal H. influenzae. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production was observed in a five (6.25%) isolates by both double disk diffusion and molecular typing. MLST identified several novel alleles as well as novel sequence types. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed high resistance against common antibiotics and detection of ESBL in nasopharyngeal H. influenzae isolates collected from normal healthy school going children in Delhi. Detection of H. influenzae type b capsular gene and the presence of fimbrial gene (hif A) suggest virulence potential of these isolates. Discovery of novel alleles and presence of new sequence types (STs) among nasopharyngeal H

  9. Pilus-Mediated Adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to Human Respiratory Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Kubiet, Martin; Ramphal, Reuben; Weber, Allan; Smith, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, especially the nontypeable strains, are among the most common pathogens encountered in patients with chronic lung disease and otitis media. We and others have demonstrated that respiratory isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae bind to human mucins, but the mechanism of binding is not entirely clear. We have therefore examined the role of pili in the adherence of both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae to human respiratory mucins. We used isogenic H. influenzae strains with a mutation in the structural gene for pilin (hifA), a laboratory H. influenzae strain transformed with a type b pilus gene cluster (from strain C54), antibodies raised against H. influenzae HifA, and Escherichia coli strains carrying a cloned type b pilus gene cluster (from strain AM30) in these studies. All bacteria lacking HifA or the pilus gene cluster had decreased adherence of piliated H. influenzae to mucins, and Fab fragments of anti-HifA antibodies inhibited the adherence. E. coli strains carrying the cloned type b pilus gene cluster were six to seven times more adhesive than strains carrying the vector. The role of other putative adhesins was not examined and thus cannot be excluded, but these studies support a role for pili in the binding of H. influenzae to human respiratory mucins. PMID:10816486

  10. Haemophilus haemolyticus Interaction with Host Cells Is Different to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Prevents NTHi Association with Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Janessa L.; Prosser, Amy; Corscadden, Karli J.; de Gier, Camilla; Richmond, Peter C.; Zhang, Guicheng; Thornton, Ruth B.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the upper respiratory tract and contributes to a significant burden of respiratory related diseases in children and adults. Haemophilus haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal that can be misidentified as NTHi due to high levels of genetic relatedness. There are reports of invasive disease from H. haemolyticus, which further blurs the species boundary with NTHi. To investigate differences in pathogenicity between these species, we optimized an in vitro epithelial cell model to compare the interaction of 10 H. haemolyticus strains with 4 NTHi and 4 H. influenzae-like haemophili. There was inter- and intra-species variability but overall, H. haemolyticus had reduced capacity to attach to and invade nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar epithelial cell lines (D562 and A549) within 3 h when compared with NTHi. H. haemolyticus was cytotoxic to both cell lines at 24 h, whereas NTHi was not. Nasopharyngeal epithelium challenged with some H. haemolyticus strains released high levels of inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-8, whereas NTHi did not elicit an inflammatory response despite higher levels of cell association and invasion. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with H. haemolyticus or NTHi released similar and high levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα when compared with unstimulated cells but only NTHi elicited an IFNγ response. Due to the relatedness of H. haemolyticus and NTHi, we hypothesized that H. haemolyticus may compete with NTHi for colonization of the respiratory tract. We observed that in vitro pre-treatment of epithelial cells with H. haemolyticus significantly reduced NTHi attachment, suggesting interference or competition between the two species is possible and warrants further investigation. In conclusion, H. haemolyticus interacts differently with host cells compared to NTHi, with different immunostimulatory and cytotoxic

  11. The continuing role of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage surveillance as a mechanism for early detection of invasive disease activity.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P

    2011-12-01

    Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age worldwide. In countries that have adopted Hib vaccination schedules, invasive disease has reduced markedly. Oro-naso pharyngeal carriage is recognized as the most significant source of infection. Hib carriage is significantly associated with poverty, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation in houses, lack of running water, and high smoking rates. Additionally, many Indigenous minority groups report high rates of Hib carriage. A resurgence of Hib disease among Alaskan children in the 1990s, lead to a change in approach to eliminate Hib disease and carriage in high-risk populations. This new approach identifies strategies for eliminating Hib disease focusing on the reservoirs of colonization within families and communities. Monitoring Hib carriage continues to offer an early warning system, whereby intervention could prevent invasive disease resurgence.

  12. Detection of cryptic genospecies misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in routine clinical samples by assessment of marker genes fucK, hap, and sodC.

    PubMed

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2009-08-01

    Clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were assessed for the presence of fucK, hap, and sodC by hybridization with gene-specific probes, and isolates diverging from the expected H. influenzae genotype were characterized by phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Two of 480 isolates were finally classified as variant strains ("nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus").

  13. Detection of Cryptic Genospecies Misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in Routine Clinical Samples by Assessment of Marker Genes fucK, hap, and sodC▿

    PubMed Central

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were assessed for the presence of fucK, hap, and sodC by hybridization with gene-specific probes, and isolates diverging from the expected H. influenzae genotype were characterized by phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Two of 480 isolates were finally classified as variant strains (“nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus”). PMID:19535530

  14. The Alaska Haemophilus influenzae type b experience: lessons in controlling a vaccine-preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Rosalyn; Hammitt, Laura; Hennessy, Thomas; Bulkow, Lisa; DeByle, Carolynn; Parkinson, Alan; Cottle, Tammy E; Peters, Helen; Butler, Jay C

    2006-08-01

    Before 1991, Alaska Native children experienced one of the highest rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. H influenzae type b vaccine has led to a near-elimination of invasive H influenzae type b disease in the United States. We describe challenges encountered in controlling H influenzae type b disease in Alaska and update the current status of H influenzae disease and carriage in Alaska as lessons to other populations. We reviewed data from statewide H influenzae disease surveillance conducted during 1980-2004. Vaccine coverage data were based on audits from tribal facilities and the National Immunization Survey. H influenzae type b colonization data were based on 6 carriage studies. After universal infant vaccination in 1991, H influenzae type b disease among Alaska Native and non-Native children < 5 years of age decreased by 94% and 96%, respectively. After a 1996 change in H influenzae type b vaccine from polyribosylribitol phosphate-outer membrane protein conjugate vaccine to H influenzae type b oligosaccharide-CRM197 vaccine, the incidence of H influenzae type b disease increased in rural Alaska Natives from 19.8 to 91.1 cases per 100000 per year < 5 years of age. During 2001-2004, with use of polyribosylribitol phosphate-outer membrane protein conjugate vaccine, the rate of H influenzae type b disease in Alaska Native and non-Native children aged < 5 years decreased to 5.4 and 0 per 100000 per year, respectively. In postvaccine studies, H influenzae type b carriage has decreased in Alaska Native children < 5 years of age. H influenzae type b vaccination has resulted in a dramatic decrease in invasive H influenzae type b disease in Alaska; however, despite high rates of H influenzae type b vaccine coverage, H influenzae type b disease rates among rural Alaska Native children < 5 years of age remain higher than the rates among non-Native Alaska and other US children. Equity in disease rates may not be achieved in indigenous populations with

  15. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  16. Haemophilus influenzae LicB contributes to lung damage in an aged mice co-infection model.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Jessica; Osharovich, Sofya; Storm, Julie; Durning, Graham; McAuliffe, Timothy; Fan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) decoration of lipopolysaccharides is an important virulence strategy adopted by Haemophilus influenzae to establish a niche on the mucosal surface and to promote adherence to the host cells. The incorporation of ChoP on the LPS surface involves the lic1 operon, which consists of the licA, licB, licC, and licD genes. Among which, licB is a choline transporter gene required for acquisition of choline from environmental sources. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of the licB gene in an aged mice infection model. Due to immediate clearance of H. influenzae upon infection in mice, we employed influenza A virus and H. influenzae co-infection model. Our data showed that in the co-infection model, the secondary bacterial infection with a very low H. influenzae concentration of 100 colony forming unit is lethal to the aged mice. Although we did not observe any differences in weight loss between parent and licB mutant strains during the course of infection, a significant reduction of lung tissue damage was observed in the licB mutant infected aged mice. These results suggest that the licB gene is a virulence factor during H. influenzae infection in the lung in aged mice, possibly due to the increased binding to the host cell receptor via ChoP expression on the bacterial surface. In addition, when aged mice and mature mice were compared in the challenge experiments, we did not observe any protective immunity in the co-infection model suggesting the detrimental effects of the secondary bacterial infection on the aged mice in contrast to obvious immune-protections observed in the mature mice. The results of our experiments also implied that the co-infection model with influenza A virus and H. influenzae may be employed as a model system to study H. influenzae pathogenesis in vivo in aged mice.

  17. Characterization of the IgD binding site of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae serotype b.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Martin; Hallström, Teresia; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2007-05-15

    Encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae is a causative agent of invasive disease, such as meningitis and septicemia. Several interactions exist between H. influenzae and the human host. H. influenzae has been reported to bind IgD in a nonimmune manner, but the responsible protein has not yet been identified. To define the binding site on IgD for H. influenzae, full-length IgD and four chimeric IgDs with interspersed IgG sequences and Ag specificity for dansyl chloride were expressed in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of recombinant IgD to a panel of encapsulated H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) and nontypeable strains were investigated using a whole cell ELISA and flow cytometry. IgD binding was detected in 50% of the encapsulated Hib strains examined, whereas nontypeable H. influenzae did not interact with IgD. Finally, mapping experiments using the chimeric IgD/IgG indicated that IgD CH1 aa 198-224 were involved in the interaction between IgD and H. influenzae. Thus, by using recombinant IgD and chimeras with defined Ag specificity, we have confirmed that Hib specifically binds IgD, and that this binding involves the IgD CH1 region.

  18. Nasopharyngeal and Adenoid Colonization by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and the Ability of Bacterial Isolates to Biofilm Production.

    PubMed

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Haemophili are pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria often colonizing the upper respiratory tract mucosa. The prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae (with serotypes distribution), and H. parainfluenzae in the nasopharynx and/or the adenoid core in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis undergoing adenoidectomy was assessed. Haemophili isolates were investigated for their ability to biofilm production.Nasopharyngeal swabs and the adenoid core were collected from 164 children who underwent adenoidectomy (2-5 years old). Bacteria were identified by the standard methods. Serotyping of H. influenzae was performed using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Biofilm formation was detected spectrophotometrically using 96-well microplates and 0.1% crystal violet.Ninety seven percent (159/164) children who underwent adenoidectomy were colonized by Haemophilus spp. The adenoid core was colonized in 99.4% (158/159) children, whereas the nasopharynx in 47.2% (75/159) children (P < 0.0001). In 32% (51/159) children only encapsulated (typeable) isolates of H. influenzae were identified, in 22.6% (36/159) children only (nonencapsulated) H. influenzae NTHi (nonencapsulated) isolates were present, whereas 7.5% (12/159) children were colonized by both types. 14.5% (23/159) children were colonized by untypeable (rough) H. influenzae. In 22% (35/159) children H. influenzae serotype d was isolated. Totally, 192 isolates of H. influenzae, 96 isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 14 isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were selected. In 20.1% (32/159) children 2 or 3 phenotypically different isolates of the same species (H. influenzae or H. parainfluenzae) or serotypes (H. influenzae) were identified in 1 child. 67.2% (129/192) isolates of H. influenzae, 56.3% (54/96) isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 85.7% (12/14) isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were positive for biofilm production. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0029) among H. parainfluenzae biofilm producers and

  19. Nasopharyngeal and Adenoid Colonization by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and the Ability of Bacterial Isolates to Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Haemophili are pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria often colonizing the upper respiratory tract mucosa. The prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae (with serotypes distribution), and H. parainfluenzae in the nasopharynx and/or the adenoid core in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis undergoing adenoidectomy was assessed. Haemophili isolates were investigated for their ability to biofilm production. Nasopharyngeal swabs and the adenoid core were collected from 164 children who underwent adenoidectomy (2–5 years old). Bacteria were identified by the standard methods. Serotyping of H. influenzae was performed using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Biofilm formation was detected spectrophotometrically using 96-well microplates and 0.1% crystal violet. Ninety seven percent (159/164) children who underwent adenoidectomy were colonized by Haemophilus spp. The adenoid core was colonized in 99.4% (158/159) children, whereas the nasopharynx in 47.2% (75/159) children (P < 0.0001). In 32% (51/159) children only encapsulated (typeable) isolates of H. influenzae were identified, in 22.6% (36/159) children only (nonencapsulated) H. influenzae NTHi (nonencapsulated) isolates were present, whereas 7.5% (12/159) children were colonized by both types. 14.5% (23/159) children were colonized by untypeable (rough) H. influenzae. In 22% (35/159) children H. influenzae serotype d was isolated. Totally, 192 isolates of H. influenzae, 96 isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 14 isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were selected. In 20.1% (32/159) children 2 or 3 phenotypically different isolates of the same species (H. influenzae or H. parainfluenzae) or serotypes (H. influenzae) were identified in 1 child. 67.2% (129/192) isolates of H. influenzae, 56.3% (54/96) isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 85.7% (12/14) isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were positive for biofilm production. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0029) among H. parainfluenzae

  20. [Peritonitis in the course of peritoneal dialisis caused by Haemophilus influenzae with BLNAR phenotype].

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Monika; Klepacka, Joanna; Drozdz, Dorota; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Kadłubowski, Marcin; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2009-04-01

    Most common bacterial species causing peritonitis in the course of peritoneal dialysis (PDP) are coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci. Haemophilus influenzae is rarely associated with PDP. Hereby we present the first known case of APD-associated peritonitis caused by non-type able H. influenzae (NTHi) presenting the beta-lactamase negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) phenotype. An 18 year old boy who had been treated with the APD for 12 months due to SLE was admitted in good general condition with diagnosis of PDP. Standard diagnostic and therapeutical procedures were initiated. Dialysis fluid was turbid with cytosis of 435 WBC/ml. From dialysis fluid pure culture of Gram-negative coccobacillus was isolated. The isolate was identified as a BLNAR phenotype. The same bacterium was isolated from nasal swab. Blood cultures were negative. After evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility the treatment was changed for the oral ciprofloxacin. The treatment was successful. Control tests 2 days later revealed cytosis of 15 WBC/mm3 and control cultures of peritoneal fluid were negative. After two weeks of treatment the patient was discharged in a good condition. Haemophilus influenzae is a bacterium frequently colonizing the nasopharyngeal cavity. A PCR-based method allowed to classify isolates as NTHi. Infection was probably of the respiratory origin as the isolates (from peritoneal fluid and nasal swab) were undistinguishable. There are only few reports describing this species as an ethiologic agent of peritonitis. This case prove that Haemophilus species should be taken into account as a possible aethiologic agent of PDP, especially in patients on immunosupression with carrier state of H. influenzae in the upper respiratory tract. This kind of microorganism requires specific conditions during its growing in vitro. Identification of its sensitivity to antibiotics is essential in order to detect strains of BLNAR phenotype, as it is a

  1. Characterisation of invasive clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Queensland, Australia using whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V

    2017-03-06

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity. Encapsulated isolates were largely clonal, however NTHi isolates displayed high genetic variability by MLST and single nucleotide polymorphism typing with no dominant clone observed. The only mechanism for β-lactam resistance identified in the QLD isolates was β-lactamase production. No single set of virulence determinants was conclusively associated with invasive QLD NTHi isolates.

  2. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever.

    PubMed

    Cury, Gisele Cristiane Gentile; Pereira, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; Lancellotti, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenzae strains. The effect of the las transfer was capable to increase the cytokines TNFα and IL10 expression in Hec-1B cells line infected with these transformed mutants (in eight log scale of folding change RNA expression). This is the first molecular study involving the las transfer to search an elucidation of the pathogenic factors by horizontal intergeneric transfer from meningococci to H. influenzae.

  3. Iodometric Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Beta-Lactamase: Rapid Presumptive Test for Ampicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B. Wesley

    1975-01-01

    Strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b sporadically isolated from clinical specimens are ampicillin resistant due to production of a β-lactamase. This enzyme which inactivates ampicillin and penicillin G is not produced by ampicillin-susceptible strains. Various characteristics of β-lactamase production and ampicillin resistance of three H. influenzae type b isolates were investigated. A sensitive iodometric test was employed to detect β-lactamase; positive results were obtained in 5 min with 109 bacteria taken from cultures on a nutritionally adequate agar medium. This simple chemical test will enable the hospital laboratory to obtain presumptive evidence of ampicillin resistance on the same day that H. influenzae is isolated. PMID:1079712

  4. A Case of Infective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm due to Haemophilus influenzae Type B

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Toshimitsu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Infective abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is relatively rare, but a case which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B is very rare. We experienced one IAAA case due to H. influenzae type B. The patient was 69-year-old man presenting with severe abdominal and back pain and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammatory marker. The patient was found to have saccular aneurysm infrarenal aorta on computed tomography scanning. First, we started to treat him with antibiotic agent and second, we operated him at day 8 after admission with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Revascularization was made in situ reconstruction. As the result of culture with aneurysm wall, we found that the cause of this aneurysm was the infection of H. influenzae type B. As far as we know, this bacterium is scarcely reported as the cause of infective aortic aneurysms. We reported this IAAA case with the review of the English literature. PMID:23997558

  5. A Case of Infective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm due to Haemophilus influenzae Type B.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshimitsu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2012-09-01

    Infective abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is relatively rare, but a case which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B is very rare. We experienced one IAAA case due to H. influenzae type B. The patient was 69-year-old man presenting with severe abdominal and back pain and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammatory marker. The patient was found to have saccular aneurysm infrarenal aorta on computed tomography scanning. First, we started to treat him with antibiotic agent and second, we operated him at day 8 after admission with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Revascularization was made in situ reconstruction. As the result of culture with aneurysm wall, we found that the cause of this aneurysm was the infection of H. influenzae type B. As far as we know, this bacterium is scarcely reported as the cause of infective aortic aneurysms. We reported this IAAA case with the review of the English literature.

  6. Delineation of the Species Haemophilus influenzae by Phenotype, Multilocus Sequence Phylogeny, and Detection of Marker Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Overballe, Merete D.; Kilian, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    To obtain more information on the much-debated definition of prokaryotic species, we investigated the borders of Haemophilus influenzae by comparative analysis of H. influenzae reference strains with closely related bacteria including strains assigned to Haemophilus haemolyticus, cryptic genospecies biotype IV, and the never formally validated species “Haemophilus intermedius”. Multilocus sequence phylogeny based on six housekeeping genes separated a cluster encompassing the type and the reference strains of H. influenzae from 31 more distantly related strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences supported this delineation but was obscured by a conspicuously high number of polymorphic sites in many of the strains that did not belong to the core group of H. influenzae strains. The division was corroborated by the differential presence of genes encoding H. influenzae adhesion and penetration protein, fuculokinase, and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, whereas immunoglobulin A1 protease activity or the presence of the iga gene was of limited discriminatory value. The existence of porphyrin-synthesizing strains (“H. intermedius”) closely related to H. influenzae was confirmed. Several chromosomally encoded hemin biosynthesis genes were identified, and sequence analysis showed these genes to represent an ancestral genotype rather than recent transfers from, e.g., Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Strains previously assigned to H. haemolyticus formed several separate lineages within a distinct but deeply branching cluster, intermingled with strains of “H. intermedius” and cryptic genospecies biotype IV. Although H. influenzae is phenotypically more homogenous than some other Haemophilus species, the genetic diversity and multicluster structure of strains traditionally associated with H. influenzae make it difficult to define the natural borders of that species. PMID:19060144

  7. Activation of the neutrophil bactericidal activity for nontypable Haemophilus influenzae by tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin.

    PubMed

    Tan, A M; Ferrante, A; Goh, D H; Roberton, D M; Cripps, A W

    1995-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that, in vivo, activated T lymphocytes and neutrophils are important in immunity to nontypable Haemophilus influenzae. We now extend this work by showing that neutrophils pretreated with products of activated T lymphocytes or activated macrophages show significantly enhanced killing of nontypable H. influenzae. Lymphotoxin, a product of activated T lymphocytes, significantly enhanced the neutrophil-mediated killing of nontypable H. influenzae, and tumor necrosis factor, produced by activated T lymphocytes as well as macrophages stimulated by activated T lymphocytes, also significantly increased the bactericidal activity of neutrophils. These cytokine-induced effects were seen with short pretreatment times of neutrophils and were maximal by 30 min. The killing of H. influenzae by neutrophils required the presence of heat-labile opsonins. In the absence of these opsonins, both tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin were unable to promote the killing of the bacteria by neutrophils. Furthermore, the results showed that tumor necrosis factor-primed neutrophils displayed significantly increased expression of CR3 and CR4 that was associated with increased phagocytosis of complement-opsonized nontypable H. influenzae. These cytokines may play an important role in immunity toward nontypable H. influenzae by stimulating neutrophil bactericidal activity.

  8. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santana, V; Cardoso, Félix; Rodriguez, Arlene; Carmenate, Tania; Peña, Luis; Valdés, Yuri; Hardy, Eugenio; Mawas, Fatme; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Rodríguez, Maria C; Figueroa, Ignacio; Chang, Janoi; Toledo, Maria E; Musacchio, Alexis; Hernández, Ibis; Izquierdo, Mabel; Cosme, Karelia; Roy, Rene; Verez-Bencomo, V

    2004-12-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugates as vaccines have proven to be very effective in preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in industrialized countries. However, cost-effective technologies need to be developed for increasing the availability of anti-H. influenzae type b vaccines in countries from the developing world. Consequently, vaccine production with partially synthetic antigens is a desirable goal for many reasons. They may be rigidly controlled for purity and effectiveness while at the same time being cheap enough that they may be made universally available. We describe here the antigenicity and immunogenicity of several H. influenzae type b synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates in laboratory animals. The serum of H. influenzae type b-immunized animals recognized our synthetic H. influenzae type b antigens to the same extent as the native bacterial capsular polysaccharide. Compared to the anti-H. influenzae type b vaccine employed, these synthetic versions induced similar antibody response patterns in terms of titer, specificity, and functional capacity. The further development of synthetic vaccines will meet urgent needs in the less prosperous parts of the world and remains our major goal.

  9. Oldenlandia diffusa Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Ikoshi, Hideaki; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Oldenlandia diffusa has been empirically used as a therapeutic adjunct for the treatment of respiratory infections. To establish the basic evidence of its clinical usefulness, antimicrobial and biofilm inhibitory activities of an O. diffusa extract were examined against clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, a major causative pathogen of respiratory and sensory organ infections. No significant growth inhibitory activity was observed during incubation for more than 6 h after the extract addition into a culture of H. influenzae. On the other hand, biofilm formation by H. influenzae, evaluated by a crystal violet method, was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the O. diffusa extract. Furthermore, the mRNA level of the biofilm-associated gene luxS of H. influenzae significantly decreased soon after the extract addition, and the suppressive effect continued for at least 2 h. At 2 h after the addition of the O. diffusa extract, the autoinducer in the culture supernatant was also significantly reduced by the O. diffusa extract in a dose-dependent manner. These results revealed that O. diffusa extract shows inhibitory activity against luxS-dependent biofilm formation but has no antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells of H. influenzae. Thus, O. diffusa extract might be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by H. influenzae. PMID:27902758

  10. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Synthetic Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Santana, V.; Cardoso, Félix; Rodriguez, Arlene; Carmenate, Tania; Peña, Luis; Valdés, Yuri; Hardy, Eugenio; Mawas, Fatme; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Rodríguez, Maria C.; Figueroa, Ignacio; Chang, Janoi; Toledo, Maria E.; Musacchio, Alexis; Hernández, Ibis; Izquierdo, Mabel; Cosme, Karelia; Roy, Rene; Verez-Bencomo, V.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugates as vaccines have proven to be very effective in preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in industrialized countries. However, cost-effective technologies need to be developed for increasing the availability of anti-H. influenzae type b vaccines in countries from the developing world. Consequently, vaccine production with partially synthetic antigens is a desirable goal for many reasons. They may be rigidly controlled for purity and effectiveness while at the same time being cheap enough that they may be made universally available. We describe here the antigenicity and immunogenicity of several H. influenzae type b synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates in laboratory animals. The serum of H. influenzae type b-immunized animals recognized our synthetic H. influenzae type b antigens to the same extent as the native bacterial capsular polysaccharide. Compared to the anti-H. influenzae type b vaccine employed, these synthetic versions induced similar antibody response patterns in terms of titer, specificity, and functional capacity. The further development of synthetic vaccines will meet urgent needs in the less prosperous parts of the world and remains our major goal. PMID:15557635

  11. IgA1 proteases of Haemophilus influenzae: cloning and characterization in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, J; Mulks, M H; Plaut, A G; Moxon, E R; Wright, A

    1983-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of several bacterial pathogens known to release IgA1 proteases into the extracellular environment. Each H. influenzae isolate produces one of at least three distinct types of these enzymes that differ in the specific peptide bond they cleave in the hinge region of human IgA1. We have isolated the gene specifying type 1 IgA1 protease from a total genomic library of H. influenzae, subcloned it into plasmid vectors, and introduced these vectors into Escherichia coli K-12. The enzyme synthesized by E. coli was active and had the same specificity as that of the H. influenzae donor. Unlike that of the donor, E. coli protease activity accumulated in the periplasm rather than being transported extracellularly. The position of the protease gene in H. influenzae DNA and its direction of transcription was approximated by deletion mapping. Tn5 insertions, and examination of the polypeptides synthesized by minicells. A 1-kilobase probe excised from the IgA1 protease gene hybridized with DNA restriction fragments of all H. influenzae serogroups but not with DNA of a nonpathogenic H. parainfluenzae species known to be IgA1 protease negative. Images PMID:6341996

  12. PnuC and the utilization of the nicotinamide riboside analog 3-aminopyridine in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Elizabeta; Merdanovic, Melisa; Mortimer, Anne Price; Bringmann, Gerhard; Reidl, Joachim

    2004-12-01

    The utilization pathway for the uptake of NAD and nicotinamide riboside was previously characterized for Haemophilus influenzae. We now report on the cellular location, topology, and substrate specificity of PnuC. pnuC of H. influenzae is only distantly related to pnuC of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. When E. coli PnuC was expressed in an H. influenzae pnuC mutant, it was able to take up only nicotinamide riboside and not nicotinamide mononucleotide. Therefore, we postulated that PnuC transporters in general possess specificity for nicotinamide riboside. Earlier studies showed that 3-aminopyridine derivatives (e.g., 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide) are inhibitory for H. influenzae growth. By testing characterized strains with mutations in the NAD utilization pathway, we show that 3-aminopyridine riboside is inhibitory to H. influenzae and is taken up by the NAD-processing and nicotinamide riboside route. 3-Aminopyridine riboside is utilized effectively in a pnuC+ background. In addition, we demonstrate that 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide resynthesis is produced by NadR. 3-Aminopyridine riboside-resistant H. influenzae isolates were characterized, and mutations in nadR could be detected. We also tested other species of the family Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and found that 3-aminopyridine riboside does not act as a growth inhibitor; hence, 3-aminopyridine riboside represents an anti-infective agent with a very narrow host range.

  13. Duplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae That Distinguishes Fucose- and Protein D-Negative Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Camilla; Pickering, Janessa L.; Richmond, Peter C.; Thornton, Ruth B.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a specific Haemophilus influenzae quantitative PCR (qPCR) that also identifies fucose-negative and protein D-negative strains. Analysis of 100 H. influenzae isolates, 28 Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates, and 14 other bacterial species revealed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 96% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 92% to 100%) for this assay. The evaluation of 80 clinical specimens demonstrated a strong correlation between semiquantitative culture and the qPCR (P < 0.001). PMID:27335148

  14. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the type of invasive infection caused the bacteria. For example, if H. influenzae cause meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord), a person can suffer from brain damage or hearing loss. Bacteremia (blood infection) can result in loss ...

  15. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.

    PubMed

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-10-12

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation.

  16. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation. PMID:21893547

  17. The structure of Haemophilus influenzae prephenate dehydrogenase suggests unique features of bifunctional TyrA enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate and the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidative decarboxyl­ation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in tyrosine biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component (HinfPDH) of the TyrA protein from H. influenzae Rd KW20 in complex with the inhibitor tyrosine and cofactor NAD+ has been determined to 2.0 Å resolution. HinfPDH is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer consisting of an N-terminal α/β dinucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal α-helical dimerization domain. The structure reveals key active-site residues at the domain interface, including His200, Arg297 and Ser179 that are involved in catalysis and/or ligand binding and are highly conserved in TyrA proteins from all three kingdoms of life. Tyrosine is bound directly at the catalytic site, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor of HinfPDH. Comparisons with its structural homologues reveal important differences around the active site, including the absence of an α–β motif in HinfPDH that is present in other TyrA proteins, such as Synechocystis sp. arogenate dehydrogenase. Residues from this motif are involved in discrimination between NADP+ and NAD+. The loop between β5 and β6 in the N-terminal domain is much shorter in HinfPDH and an extra helix is present at the C-terminus. Furthermore, HinfPDH adopts a more closed conformation compared with TyrA proteins that do not have tyrosine bound. This conformational change brings the substrate, cofactor and active-site residues into close proximity for catalysis. An ionic network consisting of Arg297 (a key residue for tyrosine binding), a water molecule, Asp206 (from the loop between β5 and β6) and Arg365′ (from the additional C-terminal helix of the adjacent monomer) is observed that might be involved in gating the active site. PMID:20944228

  18. Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays.

    PubMed

    Binks, Michael J; Temple, Beth; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Wiertsema, Selma P; Dunne, Eileen M; Richmond, Peter C; Marsh, Robyn L; Leach, Amanda J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2012-01-01

    Unambiguous identification of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is not possible by conventional microbiology. Molecular characterisation of phenotypically defined NTHi isolates suggests that up to 40% are Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hh); however, the genetic similarity of NTHi and Hh limits the power of simple molecular techniques such as PCR for species discrimination. Here we assess the ability of previously published and novel PCR-based assays to identify true NTHi. Sixty phenotypic NTHi isolates, classified by a dual 16S rRNA gene PCR algorithm as NTHi (n = 22), Hh (n = 27) or equivocal (n = 11), were further characterised by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and recA genes then interrogated by PCR-based assays targeting the omp P2, omp P6, lgtC, hpd, 16S rRNA, fucK and iga genes. The sequencing data and PCR results were used to define NTHi for this study. Two hpd real time PCR assays (hpd#1 and hpd#3) and the conventional iga PCR assay were equally efficient at differentiating study-defined NTHi from Hh, each with a receiver operator characteristic curve area of 0.90 [0.83; 0.98]. The hpd#1 and hpd#3 assays were completely specific against a panel of common respiratory bacteria, unlike the iga PCR, and the hpd#3 assay was able to detect below 10 copies per reaction. Our data suggest an evolutionary continuum between NTHi and Hh and therefore no single gene target could completely differentiate NTHi from Hh. The hpd#3 real time PCR assay proved to be the superior method for discrimination of NTHi from closely related Haemophilus species with the added potential for quantification of H. influenzae directly from specimens. We suggest the hpd#3 assay would be suitable for routine NTHi surveillance and to assess the impact of antibiotics and vaccines, on H. influenzae carriage rates, carriage density, and disease.

  19. Photodynamic Action on Native and Denatured Transforming Deoxyribonucleic Acid from Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    León, Manuel Ponce-De; Cabrera-Juárez, Emiliano

    1970-01-01

    The photodynamic inactivation of native or denatured transforming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Haemophilus influenzae is described. The inactivation at the same pH was higher for denatured than native DNA. At acidic pH, the inactivation both for native and denatured DNA was faster than at alkaline pH. The guanine content of photoinactivated native DNA at neutral pH was less than untreated DNA. The inactivation of biological activity was more extensive than the alteration of guanine. The absorption spectrum of photoinactivated native or denatured DNA was only slightly different than the control DNA at the different experimental conditions. PMID:5309576

  20. [Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes from deep sites in sick children].

    PubMed

    Gatti, B M; Ramirez Gronda, G A; Etchevarría, M; Vescina, C M; Varea, A M; González Ayala, S E

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is the causative agent of several human diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, celulitis, and osteoarthritis. We investigated the isolation of Hi serotypes from sterile sites in sick children. One hundred and seventy nine strains from 146 patients were studied, period 1996-2002, at the Microbiology Laboratory, Hospital de Niños Superiora Sor María Ludovica, Argentina. The serotype distribution was:1 a, 112 b,1 c,1 d, 4 e, 3 f y 24 no typable. Since the beginning of universal Hi b vaccination in 1998, we have observed the fast decrease of serotype b and a relative increase of other serotypes.

  1. Phylogenetic relationship of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Kamsani, Nurul H; Ahmad, Norazah; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains poorly understood. We therefore sought to determine the genetic relationship of 25 NTHi isolated from various states in Malaysia using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of isolates were obtained from sputum. There were 24 novel sequence types (STs). Eight isolates were single-locus variants, the remainder being singletons. Clustering was not based on clinical site of isolation or geographical origin. Despite the limited number of isolates examined in this study, we demonstrate that NTHi isolates in Malaysia are diverse and warrant further investigation.

  2. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; de Moraes, Suzana Alves; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE). Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002), using regression forecasting (RF) by dividing the time series into two periods: (a) historical (1983-1998) and (b) validation (1999-2002). Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.

  3. Similarity in properties and mapping of three Rec mutants of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, J; Setlow, J K

    1976-01-01

    Three Rec- mutants of Haemophilus influenzae have been studied with respect to their transformability, ultraviolet and mitomycin C sensitivities, spontaneous and ultraviolet-induced deoxyribonucleic acid breakdown, inducibility of lysogens, and the linkage of the three mutations to a streptomycin resistance marker. The data indicate that the three mutations cause the same phenotypic changes, and that they are all on the same gene. Transformability of the mutants is different when two different media are used for competence development, although transformability with the two competence methods is not different in a Rec- strain that is mutant at another gene. PMID:1084339

  4. Interspecies transfer of the penicillin-binding protein 3-encoding gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus can confer reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Tristram, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  5. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase conferred CTX resistance on both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. A nitrocefin hydrolysis assay showed TEM-15 to be a less efficient enzyme compared to TEM-1. TEM-15 and PBP3 substitutions impose an additive effect on resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The effect of PBP3 substitutions on beta-lactam resistance in H. parainfluenzae can be addressed by transfer of ftsI genes in vitro.

  6. Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Finney, Lydia J; Ritchie, Andrew; Pollard, Elizabeth; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is common both in stable patients and during acute exacerbations. The most frequent bacteria detected in COPD patients is Haemophilus influenzae, and it appears this organism is uniquely adapted to exploit immune deficiencies associated with COPD and to establish persistent infection in the lower respiratory tract. The presence of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD is termed colonization; however, there is increasing evidence that this is not an innocuous phenomenon but is associated with airway inflammation, increased symptoms, and increased risk for exacerbations. In this review, we discuss host immunity that offers protection against H. influenzae and how disturbance of these mechanisms, combined with pathogen mechanisms of immune evasion, promote persistence of H. influenzae in the lower airways in COPD. In addition, we examine the role of H. influenzae in COPD exacerbations, as well as interactions between H. influenzae and respiratory virus infections, and review the role of treatments and their effect on COPD outcomes. This review focuses predominantly on data derived from human studies but will refer to animal studies where they contribute to understanding the disease in humans.

  7. Flagellar expression in clinical isolates of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Martínez de la Peña, Claudia Fabiola; Martinez-Garcia, Julieta; Flores, Norarizbeth Lara; Cruz, Elías Campos de la; González-Posos, Sirenia; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal organism found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. When H. influenzae becomes a pathogen, these bacteria can move out of their commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and bronchitis in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. However, H. influenzae is currently considered a non-flagellate bacterium. In this study, 90 clinical isolates of H. influenzae strains (typeable and non-typeable) showed different degrees of the swarm-motility phenotype in vitro.Keys findings. One of these strains, NTHi BUAP96, showed the highest motility rate and its flagella were revealed using transmission electron microscopy and Ryu staining. Moreover, the flagellar genes fliC and flgH exhibited high homology with those of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Furthermore, Western blot analysis, using anti-flagellin heterologous antibodies from E. coli, demonstrated cross-reaction with a protein present in NTHi BUAP96. This study provides, for the first time, information on flagellar expression in H. influenzae, representing an important finding related to its evolution and pathogenic potential.

  8. Development of immunochromatographic colloidal gold test strip for rapid detection of Haemophilus influenzae in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Kong, M M; Yang, B; Gong, C J; Wang, H; Li, X; Zhao, K S; Li, J J; Wu, F; Liu, X; Hu, Z

    2017-05-12

    A simple and fast test strip for simultaneous detection of Haemophilus influenzae, based on the theory of colloidal gold immunochromatography was developed. In this study, monodispersional colloidal gold and gold-labelled polyclonal antibody (AbP6Line) specific to the linear antigenic determinant OMP6 of H. influenzae were prepared, and identified by UV-visible spectroscopy (200-700 nm) and transmission electron microscopy. The test strip was assembled on a plastic backing containing a sample pad, a conjugate pad, an absorbent pad and a nitrocellulose membrane, on which test and control lines were stuck. The strip showed us specific recognization of H. influenzae and did not identify other common respiratory pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Legionella pneumophila. It was shown that the detection limit of the test strip was as low as 1 × 10(6) CFU per ml and the whole process can be completed within 10 min. The strips could be stored at 4°C for at least 6 months without losing sensitivity or specificity. The test strip was specific, simple and convenient for rapid detection of H. influenzae presenting good stability and reproducibility. The test strip provides a simple, convenient and specific tool for the on-site surveillance and diagnosis of H. influenzae infection in clinical samples. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Lydia J; Ritchie, Andrew; Pollard, Elizabeth; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is common both in stable patients and during acute exacerbations. The most frequent bacteria detected in COPD patients is Haemophilus influenzae, and it appears this organism is uniquely adapted to exploit immune deficiencies associated with COPD and to establish persistent infection in the lower respiratory tract. The presence of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD is termed colonization; however, there is increasing evidence that this is not an innocuous phenomenon but is associated with airway inflammation, increased symptoms, and increased risk for exacerbations. In this review, we discuss host immunity that offers protection against H. influenzae and how disturbance of these mechanisms, combined with pathogen mechanisms of immune evasion, promote persistence of H. influenzae in the lower airways in COPD. In addition, we examine the role of H. influenzae in COPD exacerbations, as well as interactions between H. influenzae and respiratory virus infections, and review the role of treatments and their effect on COPD outcomes. This review focuses predominantly on data derived from human studies but will refer to animal studies where they contribute to understanding the disease in humans. PMID:25342897

  10. The role of the RNA chaperone Hfq in Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The RNA binding protein Hfq of Haemophilus influenzae is highly homologous to Hfq from other bacterial species. In many of these other bacteria, Hfq affects the expression of a broad range of genes and enhances the ability to respond to stressful environments. However, the role of Hfq in H. influenzae is unknown. Results Deletion mutants of hfq were generated in the nontypeable H. influenzae strains R2866 and 86-028NP to assess the role of Hfq in these well characterized but genotypically and phenotypically divergent clinical isolates. A deletion mutation of hfq had no effect on growth of H. influenzae in nutrient rich media and had no effect on survival in several stressful conditions in vitro. However, the mutation resulted in a reduced ability to utilize heme from hemoglobin. The mutant and wild type strains were assessed for virulence and competitive fitness in models of invasive disease and otitis media. In the chinchilla model of otitis media, the hfq mutant of 86-028NP exhibited impaired competitive fitness when compared to its wild type progenitor but exhibited no apparent defect in virulence. In the infant rat model, deletion of hfq in R2866 resulted in reduced bacterial titers in blood and a shorter duration of infection when compared to the wild type strain in the competitive fitness study. Conclusion We conclude that Hfq is involved in the utilization of essential nutrients and facilitates infection by H. influenzae. PMID:23767779

  11. What the pediatrician should know about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gilsdorf, Janet R

    2015-06-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) live exclusively in the pharynges of humans and are increasingly recognized as pathogens that cause both localized infections of the respiratory tract (middle ear spaces, sinuses, and bronchi) and systemic infections such as bacteraemia and pneumonia. Only one vaccine antigen of NTHi, Protein D, has been extensively studied in humans and its efficacy in preventing NTHi otitis media is modest. Recent genetic analyses reveal that NTHi are closely related to Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hh), previously thought to be a non-pathogenic commensal of the pharynx. This review discusses the differences between the pathogenic potential of encapsulated and non-typeable Hi. In addition, information on the lifestyles and bacterial characteristics of NTHi and Hh as they pertain to their pathogenic capacities and the value of the Haemophilus taxonomy to clinicians are presented. Further, the epidemiology and mechanisms of NTHi antibiotic resistance, which include production of β-lactamase and alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3, are reviewed, as are the challenges of vaccine antigen discovery in NTHi.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection.

  13. Genome-Scale Approaches to Identify Genes Essential for Haemophilus influenzae Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sandy M. S.; Akerley, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacterium that has no identified natural niche outside of the human host. It primarily colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucosa in an asymptomatic mode, but has the ability to disseminate to other anatomical sites to cause otitis media, upper, and lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and meningitis. To persist in diverse environments the bacterium must exploit and utilize the nutrients and other resources available in these sites for optimal growth/survival. Recent evidence suggests that regulatory factors that direct such adaptations also control virulence determinants required to resist and evade immune clearance mechanisms. In this review, we describe the recent application of whole-genome approaches that together provide insight into distinct survival mechanisms of H. influenzae in the context of different sites of pathogenesis. PMID:22919615

  14. Connection between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Nyberg, Solja T; Bergman, Miika; Voipio, Tinna; Paakkari, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2008-07-01

    The association between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among the major respiratory tract pathogens was investigated by comparing regional consumption of the drug to regional resistance in the following year in 21 central hospital districts in Finland. A total of 23,530 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 28,320 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 14,138 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were tested for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptibility during the study period (1998-2004). Among the S. pneumoniae isolates, a statistically significant connection was found between regional consumption and resistance. No statistically significant connection was found between regional trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. According to our results, it seems that only in pneumococci can the development of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance be influenced by restricting its use. However, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains an important antimicrobial agent because of its reasonable price. Hence, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among these pathogens needs continuous monitoring.

  15. Connection between Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Use and Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Bergman, Miika; Voipio, Tinna; Paakkari, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    The association between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among the major respiratory tract pathogens was investigated by comparing regional consumption of the drug to regional resistance in the following year in 21 central hospital districts in Finland. A total of 23,530 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 28,320 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 14,138 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were tested for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptibility during the study period (1998-2004). Among the S. pneumoniae isolates, a statistically significant connection was found between regional consumption and resistance. No statistically significant connection was found between regional trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. According to our results, it seems that only in pneumococci can the development of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance be influenced by restricting its use. However, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains an important antimicrobial agent because of its reasonable price. Hence, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among these pathogens needs continuous monitoring. PMID:18443116

  16. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  17. A basis for vaccine development: Comparative characterization of Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Roier, Sandro; Blume, Thomas; Klug, Lisa; Wagner, Gabriel E; Elhenawy, Wael; Zangger, Klaus; Prassl, Ruth; Reidl, Joachim; Daum, Günther; Feldman, Mario F; Schild, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical and bilayered particles that are naturally released from the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. They have been proposed to possess several biological roles in pathogenesis and interbacterial interactions. Additionally, OMVs have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae, a human pathogen of the respiratory tract. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding OMV biogenesis, protein sorting into OMVs, OMV size and quantity, as well as OMV composition in H. influenzae. Thus, this study comprehensively characterized and compared OMVs and OMs derived from heterologous encapsulated as well as nonencapsulated H. influenzae strains. Semiquantitative immunoblot analysis revealed that certain OM proteins are enriched or excluded in OMVs suggesting the presence of regulated protein sorting mechanisms into OMVs as well as interconnected OMV biogenesis mechanisms in H. influenzae. Nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, as well as protein and lipooligosaccharide quantifications demonstrated that heterologous H. influenzae strains differ in their OMV size and quantity. Lipidomic analyses identified palmitic acid as the most abundant fatty acid, while phosphatidylethanolamine was found to be the most dominant phospholipid present in OMVs and the OM of all strains tested. Proteomic analysis confirmed that H. influenzae OMVs contain vaccine candidate proteins as well as important virulence factors. These findings contribute to the understanding of OMV biogenesis as well as biological roles of OMVs and, in addition, may be important for the future development of OMV based vaccines against H. influenzae infections. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Haemophilus influenzae Strain 375 from the Middle Ear of a Pediatric Patient with Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sunita; Balashov, Sergey; Viadas, Cristina; Grassa, Christopher J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Garmendia, Junkal

    2014-01-01

    Originally isolated from a pediatric patient with otitis media, Haemophilus influenzae strain 375 (Hi375) has been extensively studied as a model system for intracellular invasion of airway epithelial cells and other pathogenesis traits. Here, we report its complete genome sequence and methylome. PMID:25477405

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Haemophilus influenzae Strain 375 from the Middle Ear of a Pediatric Patient with Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Sinha, Sunita; Balashov, Sergey; Viadas, Cristina; Grassa, Christopher J; Ehrlich, Garth D; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J; Garmendia, Junkal

    2014-12-04

    Originally isolated from a pediatric patient with otitis media, Haemophilus influenzae strain 375 (Hi375) has been extensively studied as a model system for intracellular invasion of airway epithelial cells and other pathogenesis traits. Here, we report its complete genome sequence and methylome. Copyright © 2014 Mell et al.

  20. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    SciTech Connect

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E. )

    1990-02-01

    (35S)penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42{degrees}C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation.

  1. Biotypes and serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with meningitis in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, I M; Vieira, M F

    1993-01-01

    A total of 1,094 Haemophilus influenzae isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were examined by biochemical and serological means. Most of them belonged to biotype I (70.9%) and to serotype b (99.4%). The relationship of biotypes I and II to the ages of the patients was shown to be significant (P < 0.001). PMID:8458978

  2. The Lung Immune Response to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (Lung Immunity to NTHi).

    PubMed

    King, Paul T; Sharma, Roleen

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable or nontypeable strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. The typeable strains (such as type b) are an important cause of systemic infection, whilst the nontypeable strains (designated as NTHi) are predominantly respiratory mucosal pathogens. NTHi is present as part of the normal microbiome in the nasopharynx, from where it may spread down to the lower respiratory tract. In this context it is no longer a commensal and becomes an important respiratory pathogen associated with a range of common conditions including bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, and particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NTHi induces a strong inflammatory response in the respiratory tract with activation of immune responses, which often fail to clear the bacteria from the lung. This results in recurrent/persistent infection and chronic inflammation with consequent lung pathology. This review will summarise the current literature about the lung immune response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, a topic that has important implications for patient management.

  3. [Brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type E in a pediatric patient suffering from Apert syndrome].

    PubMed

    Isasmendi, Adela M; Pinheiro, José L; Escudé, Natalia García; Efrón, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Hernández, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type e in a 12 year-old patient suffering from Apert syndrome. Apert syndrome is characterized by the premature closure of cranial sutures. In 2010 the patient suffered head trauma in the frontal area with cranial fracture and a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In February 2013 he was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizure with deteriorating mental status/progressive sensory impairment. The computerized axial tomographic scan showed a right frontal lesion, perilesional edema, mild ventricular dilatation and pansinusitis. A brain abscess was diagnosed and drained. The clinical sample was then cultured. A gram negative coccobacillus was isolated and identified as Haemophilus influenzae serotype e. Empirical treatment was started with meropenem (120 mg/kg/day) and vancomycin (60 mg/kg/day), which was later switched to ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and metronidazole (500 mg/8 h) after culture results arrived. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition.

  4. Natural immunity to Haemophilus influenzae type B in children of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ocaktan, Esin; Ozyurda, Ferda; Akar, Nejat

    2004-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection has a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in children under 5 years of age. The incidence of Hib disease in Turkey is not known, and Hib vaccine is not included in the National Immunization Program. The aim of this study was to determine the natural immunity to Hib of children 6-60 months of age living in the Park Health Center region of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 270 children were selected by layered random sampling method, and 242 of them (89.6%) participated in the study. A questionnaire was given to the parents of the children who were included in the study and blood samples were taken from those children. Anti-Hib IgG antibody (anti-PRP) level was determined in the serum by using anti-Haemophilus influenzae IgG EIA kit and anti-PRP antibody levels of 0.15 microg/mL and over were accepted as the natural immunity. Natural immunity was determined in 65.3% of the children. A relationship was determined statistically between the history of disease with possible Hib agent and with natural immunity. The exposure rate of children with Hib was higher than expected, even in children who were just a few months old. Our data revealed that multicentric, national studies should be done to define the burden of Hib disease before making a decision for Hib vaccine to be included in the National Immunization Program.

  5. Evaluation of introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae vaccine in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed

    Yohou, Kévin Sylvestre; Aka, Nicaise Lepri; Noufe, Soualihou; Douba, Alfred; Assi Assi, Bernard; Dagnan, Simplice N Cho

    2016-11-25

    Introduction: Côte d’Ivoire introduced the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine into the EPI in March 2009. Following this introduction, an evaluation was conducted in 2012 in order to evaluate the vaccine introduction process. Methods: Data collection methods consisted of document review, structured interviews and direct observation. This study collected information from six health region officials, 12 health districts and 36 healthcare institutions. Seventy-two mothers or child carers were also interviewed. Collected data were processed and analysed by Excel, Epi Info and SPSS. Results: A vaccine introduction plan was developed, but was not communicated at the operational level. The planned training for district health care providers was conducted eighteen months after introduction of the vaccine. None of the vaccinating centres had communication support about the new vaccine. Temperature recording was regularly performed in 92% of district deposits and 68% of vaccinating centres. Deteriorated vaccines were observed in 6% of vaccinating centres. Only 3.5% of parents had been informed about introduction of the vaccine. Increased immunization coverage for the third dose of pentavalent vaccine was observed in one half of health districts. Conclusion: Evaluation of the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine highlightsthe strengths and weaknesses of the health system and provides lessons for the introduction of other vaccines into the expanded programme on immunization.

  6. “BLACK LIGHT” INACTIVATION OF TRANSFORMING DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FROM HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Juárez, Emiliano

    1964-01-01

    Cabrera-Juárez, Emiliano (Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F., Mexico). “Black light” inactivation of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid from Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol. 87:771–778. 1964.—The biological activity (intrinsic genetic markers or nitrous acid mutable regions) of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Haemophilus influenzae has been inactivated by “black light” (BL) by two mechanisms: (i) photodynamic action (oxygen-dependent) and (ii) “BL inactivation” (oxygen-independent). The BL inactivation is greater in denatured than in native DNA, and it is dependent on the pH. It does not depend on the temperature, and the damage produced is stable. The effective wavelength of inactivation is between 330 and 360 mμ. The BL inactivation is not reactivated by photoreactivating enzyme or nitrous acid. The BL and ultraviolet inactivations are additive, suggesting that the changes produced by BL and ultraviolet irradiation on transforming DNA are different. T2 phage was also inactivated by BL. The nature of the photochemical changes produced in DNA by BL is not known. PMID:14139527

  7. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae exposure on Staphylococcus aureus tympanostomy tube attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Esin, Lara; Antonelli, Patrick J; Ojano-Dirain, Carolyn

    2015-02-01

    Tympanostomy tube (TT) biofilm formation may lead to sequelae. To determine whether the acute pathogen Haemophilus influenzae promotes TT attachment and biofilm formation by the chronic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Controlled, in vitro microbiological study at an academic research laboratory using TTs treated with 0 (untreated), 10, or 3000 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ethylene oxide and TTs with and without prior H influenzae exposure. Fluoroplastic TTs (18 per treatment) were cultured with H influenzae. The TTs were gas-sterilized or exposed to 0, 10, or 3000 µg/mL ciprofloxacin. One-third of the TTs from each treatment group underwent H influenzae counts or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Another one-third were used for an S aureus attachment assay. The remainder, as well as TTs not exposed to H influenzae, were cultured with S aureus and then treated with oxacillin to kill planktonic S aureus. S aureus counts and SEM were performed. Attachment and biofilm formation of S aureus on TTs assessed by quantitative bacterial counts and SEM. Mean (SD) H influenzae counts were lower on TTs treated with 3 mg/mL than with 10 µg/mL ciprofloxacin (2.06 × 103 [1.00 × 103] vs 4.21 × 105 [1.67 × 105]; P < .001). Mean (SD) S aureus attachment was higher on TTs with untreated preexisting H influenzae (8.88 × 105 [3.20 × 105]; P < .001) and lower on TTs with prior exposure to H influenzae treated with 10 (3.43 × 104 [2.10 × 104]; P = .006) or 3000 µg/mL ciprofloxacin (6.41 × 102 [3.59 × 102]; P < .001). S aureus biofilm formation was similar across groups, except TTs with prior exposure to H influenzae treated with ciprofloxacin 3 mg/mL, which had significantly less (9.30 × 101 [3.51 × 102]; P < .001). Exposure to live H influenzae may promote S aureus attachment on TTs. Treatment of H influenzae on TTs with ciprofloxacin, 3 mg/mL, as found in ototopical therapy, may reduce subsequent S aureus

  8. First Whole-Genome Sequence of a Haemophilus influenzae Type e Strain Isolated from a Patient with Invasive Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present era of conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, non-vaccine-preventable strains are of concern. Here, we report the first whole-genome sequence of an invasive H. influenzae type e strain. This genomic information will enable further investigations on encapsulated non-type b H. influenzae strains. PMID:28360180

  9. Vaccine Candidates against Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Vaziri, Farzam; Rahimi-Jamnani, Fatemeh; Afrough, Parviz; Rahbar, Mohammad; Satarian, Fereshteh; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2017-01-01

    Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults. Such bacteria express several outer membrane proteins, some of which have been studied as candidates for vaccine development. Due to the lack of effective vaccines as well as the spread and prevalence of NTHi worldwide, there is an urgent need to design and develop effective vaccine candidates against these strains. PMID:28088130

  10. Expression of hBD-2 induced by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenwei; Lei, Han

    2012-10-01

    Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with high activity and broad spectrum activity. hBD-2 expression may be highly elevated by microorganisms and inflammation. We reported that the majority of common vaccines used, including 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine, could induce the expression of hBD-2 in epithelial cells. Among them, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was effective at a lower concentration (0.5 µg/ml), while Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine were effective at the concentration of 1 µg/ml. However, bacteriostatic experiments revealed that the split influenza virus vaccine was capable of inducing the highest antimicrobial activity. The medium of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine treatment group had a higher antimicrobial activity than the medium of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine treatment group. The transcriptional regulator of hBD-2, that is, the NF-κB subunit, had a high level of activity, while the normal epithelial cells showed barely detectable activity, indicating that these vaccines have potential for clinical application.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae adherent to contact lenses associated with production of acute ocular inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaridurg, P R; Willcox, M D; Sharma, S; Gopinathan, U; Janakiraman, D; Hickson, S; Vuppala, N; Sweeney, D F; Rao, G N; Holden, B A

    1996-01-01

    Ten episodes of adverse responses to contact lens wear, including contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE), in which Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from contact lenses and/or from one of the external ocular sites at the time of the event, are described. All episodes occurred in patients wearing disposable hydrogel lenses on a 6-night extended-wear schedule. Two of the patients had recurrent episodes. H. influenzae was usually isolated in large numbers, and other bacteria or fungi colonizing the contact lens or the external ocular surface were usually present in low numbers. Those patients who were colonized with H. influenzae were more than 100 times as likely to have had a CLARE or infiltrative response than those subjects who were not colonized with this bacterium. H. influenzae colonization of the contact lens and eye may be subsequent to colonization of the nasopharynx because four of the seven patients presented with fever at the time of the event, with concurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Contact lens wearers should be made aware of the potential risk of CLARE associated with the wearing of contact lenses for extended periods during and subsequent to upper respiratory tract infection. PMID:8880493

  12. A Thermostabilized, One-Step PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Khazani, Nur Amalina; Noor, Nik Zuraina Nik Mohd; Yean Yean, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two common pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections. The identification of these pathogens using conventional molecular diagnostic tests requires trained personnel, cold-chain transportation, and storage-dependance, which does not render them user-friendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, cold-chain-free, one-step multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the php gene of K. pneumoniae (202 bp) and p6 gene of H. influenzae (582 bp). In addition, the specific primer to amplify glm gene of Helicobacter pylori (105 bp) was included as an internal amplification control. Subsequently, the designed primers and all PCR reagents were thermostabilized by lyophilization. The stability of the thermostabilized PCR was evaluated using the Q10 method. The sensitivity and specificity of performances for thermostabilized PCR were evaluated using 127 clinical isolates and were found to be 100% sensitive and specific. The thermostabilized PCR mix was found to be stable for 30 days and the Q10 accelerated stability was found to be 3.02 months. A cold-chain-free, PCR assay for easy, rapid, and simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae was successfully developed in this study. PMID:28386286

  13. Functional Annotation of Conserved Hypothetical Proteins from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaaz, Mohd; Md. ImtaiyazHassan; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae, causes bacteremia, pneumonia and acute bacterial meningitis in infants. The emergence of multi-drug resistance H. influenzae strain in clinical isolates demands the development of better/new drugs against this pathogen. Our study combines a number of bioinformatics tools for function predictions of previously not assigned proteins in the genome of H. influenzae. This genome was extensively analyzed and found 1,657 functional proteins in which function of 429 proteins are unknown, termed as hypothetical proteins (HPs). Amino acid sequences of all 429 HPs were extensively annotated and we successfully assigned the function to 296 HPs with high confidence. We also characterized the function of 124 HPs precisely, but with less confidence. We believed that sequence of a protein can be used as a framework to explain known functional properties. Here we have combined the latest versions of protein family databases, protein motifs, intrinsic features from the amino acid sequence, pathway and genome context methods to assign a precise function to hypothetical proteins for which no experimental information is available. We found these HPs belong to various classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, carriers, receptors, signal transducers, binding proteins, virulence and other proteins. The outcome of this work will be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and in finding novel therapeutic targets for H. influenzae. PMID:24391926

  14. Lipopolysaccharide subtypes of Haemophilus influenzae type b from an outbreak of invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J; Pichichero, M E

    1984-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were obtained during an outbreak of invasive H. influenzae type b disease and were classified by the electrophoretic profile of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS was extracted by a rapid micromethod and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The isolates could be divided into 1 of 14 subtypes based on the profile of two to four bands. No subtype was predominant. However, all isolates obtained from duplicate sites of the same individual were of the same subtype. Isolates obtained from two patients (6 weeks apart) who attended the same day-care center differed in LPS subtype but were identical in their major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from healthy children, their immediate families, and employees of the day-care center. Of 13 H. influenzae isolates examined from these contacts, only 1 was type b, which was obtained from a day-care worker and had the same LPS subtype and major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile as one of the disease isolates. The remaining nasopharyngeal isolates were untypable, and most, but not all, were different in LPS pattern. Thus, LPS subtyping of H. influenzae type b may be useful in examining the predominance or transmission of a strain during an outbreak and may distinguish some strains not differentiated by outer membrane protein pattern. Images PMID:6333433

  15. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Manitoba and the Keewatin District, NWT: potential for mass vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, G W; Rutherford, B E; Malazdrewicz, R; MacFarlane, N; Pillay, N; Tate, R B; Nicolle, L E; Postl, B D; Stiver, H G

    1988-01-01

    A community-based surveillance study of all central nervous system infections was carried out in Manitoba and the Keewatin District, NWT, between Apr. 1, 1981, and Mar. 31, 1984. There were 201 cases of bacterial meningitis in Manitoba over the study period, 81 (40%) caused by Haemophilus influenzae; all but one isolate tested were type b (Hib). There were nine cases of H. influenzae meningitis in the Keewatin District. The overall annual incidence rate of H. influenzae meningitis in Manitoba was 2.5/100,000; for children under 5 years the rate was 32.1/100,000. For the Keewatin District the corresponding rates were 69.6/100,000 and 530/100,000. A total of 85% and 100% of the cases of H. influenzae meningitis occurred by 24 months of age in Manitoba and the Keewatin District respectively. The age at onset was earlier in native Indian children (22 cases) and Inuit children (9 cases) than in non-native children (59 cases) (p less than 0.005); thus, vaccine prevention of Hib meningitis will likely be more difficult in native Indian and Métis children. Without evaluating the increased potential of H. influenzae vaccines to prevent nonmeningitic forms of disease, we concluded that mass childhood vaccination with polyribosylribitolphosphate (PRP) vaccine is not warranted in Manitoba or the Keewatin District. Immunogenicity studies suggest that administration of conjugated Hib vaccines such as PRP-D in infancy may prevent approximately one-third to two-thirds of cases of H. influenzae meningitis; these vaccines warrant consideration for use in mass childhood vaccination programs. PMID:3262404

  16. Involvement of HxuC Outer Membrane Protein in Utilization of Hemoglobin by Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Leslie D.; Love, Robert P.; Guinn, Sarah E.; Gilep, Andrei; Usanov, Sergei; Estabrook, Ronald W.; Hrkal, Zbynek; Hansen, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae can utilize different protein-bound forms of heme for growth in vitro. A previous study from this laboratory indicated that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strain N182 expressed three outer membrane proteins, designated HgbA, HgbB, and HgbC, that bound hemoglobin or hemoglobin-haptoglobin and were encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) that contained a CCAA nucleotide repeat. Testing of mutants expressing the HgbA, HgbB, and HgbC proteins individually revealed that expression of any one of these proteins was sufficient to allow wild-type growth with hemoglobin. In contrast, mutants that expressed only HgbA or HgbC grew significantly better with hemoglobin-haptoglobin than did a mutant expressing only HgbB. Construction of an isogenic hgbA hgbB hgbC mutant revealed that the absence of these three gene products did not affect the ability of NTHI N182 to utilize hemoglobin as a source of heme, although this mutant was severely impaired in its ability to utilize hemoglobin-haptoglobin. The introduction of a tonB mutation into this triple mutant eliminated its ability to utilize hemoglobin, indicating that the pathway for hemoglobin utilization in the absence of HgbA, HgbB, and HgbC involved a TonB-dependent process. Inactivation in this triple mutant of the hxuC gene, which encodes a predicted TonB-dependent outer membrane protein previously shown to be involved in the utilization of free heme, resulted in loss of the ability to utilize hemoglobin. The results of this study reinforce the redundant nature of the heme acquisition systems expressed by H. influenzae. PMID:11254593

  17. Characterization of antigens from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae recognized by human bactericidal antibodies. Role of Haemophilus outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gnehm, H E; Pelton, S I; Gulati, S; Rice, P A

    1985-01-01

    Major outer membrane antigens, proteins, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae were characterized and examined as targets for complement-dependent human bactericidal antibodies. Outer membranes from two nontypable H. influenzae isolates that caused otitis media and pneumonia (middle ear and transtracheal aspirates) were prepared by shearing organisms in EDTA. These membranes were compared with membranes prepared independently by spheroplasting and lysozyme treatment of whole cells and found to have: similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of the proteins; identical densities (rho = 1.22 g/cm3); and minimal d-lactose dehydrogenase activity indicating purity from cytoplasmic membranes. Outer membranes were solubilized in an LPS-disaggregating buffer and proteins were separated from LPS by molecular sieve chromatography. The SDS-PAGE patterns of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from the two strains differed in the major band although other prominent bands appeared similar in molecular weight. LPS prepared by hot phenol water extraction of each of the strains contained 45% (pneumonia isolate) and 60% (otitis isolate) lipid (wt/wt), 49% and 50% carbohydrate (wt/wt), respectively, and less than 1%, 3-deoxy-manno octulosonic acid. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) purified from normal human serum (NHS) plus complement was bactericidal for both strains. Purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from NHS killed the middle ear isolate and immune convalescent IgM from the serum of the patient with pneumonia killed his isolate. NHS or convalescent serum were absorbed with OMPs and LPS (0.6-110 micrograms) from each of the strains and immune specific inhibition of bactericidal antibody activity by each antigen was determined. OMPs from the pulmonary isolate inhibited bactericidal antibody activity directed against the isolate in both NHS (1.5 microgram of antigen) and immune serum (0.75 microgram of antigen). OMPs (60

  18. Biologic activities of antibody to a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein of Haemophilus influenzae against multiple clinical isolates of H. influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Green, B A; Quinn-Dey, T; Zlotnick, G W

    1987-01-01

    A peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein of about 15 kilodaltons was purified from the outer membranes of Haemophilus influenzae by using nondenaturing detergents. To assess its vaccine potential, rabbit antiserum to the purified protein was obtained. The antiserum was specific for the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein in whole cell lysates of H. influenzae and was bactericidal for H. influenzae types a, b, d, e, and f and for 181 of 182 H. influenzae type b clinical strains isolated in widely dispersed geographic areas. The antibody protected infant rats from challenge with each of five clinical H. influenzae type b isolates and was additive to and did not interfere with bactericidal and protective activities of antibody against the type b capsule. These data indicate that the purified peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein is a potentially valuable vaccine candidate for H. influenzae type b disease and may enhance the effectiveness of preexisting anticapsular antibody. Images PMID:3316025

  19. Molecular Surveillance of True Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: An Evaluation of PCR Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Binks, Michael J.; Temple, Beth; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Wiertsema, Selma P.; Dunne, Eileen M.; Richmond, Peter C.; Marsh, Robyn L.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Unambiguous identification of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is not possible by conventional microbiology. Molecular characterisation of phenotypically defined NTHi isolates suggests that up to 40% are Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hh); however, the genetic similarity of NTHi and Hh limits the power of simple molecular techniques such as PCR for species discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we assess the ability of previously published and novel PCR-based assays to identify true NTHi. Sixty phenotypic NTHi isolates, classified by a dual 16S rRNA gene PCR algorithm as NTHi (n = 22), Hh (n = 27) or equivocal (n = 11), were further characterised by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and recA genes then interrogated by PCR-based assays targeting the omp P2, omp P6, lgtC, hpd, 16S rRNA, fucK and iga genes. The sequencing data and PCR results were used to define NTHi for this study. Two hpd real time PCR assays (hpd#1 and hpd#3) and the conventional iga PCR assay were equally efficient at differentiating study-defined NTHi from Hh, each with a receiver operator characteristic curve area of 0.90 [0.83; 0.98]. The hpd#1 and hpd#3 assays were completely specific against a panel of common respiratory bacteria, unlike the iga PCR, and the hpd#3 assay was able to detect below 10 copies per reaction. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest an evolutionary continuum between NTHi and Hh and therefore no single gene target could completely differentiate NTHi from Hh. The hpd#3 real time PCR assay proved to be the superior method for discrimination of NTHi from closely related Haemophilus species with the added potential for quantification of H. influenzae directly from specimens. We suggest the hpd#3 assay would be suitable for routine NTHi surveillance and to assess the impact of antibiotics and vaccines, on H. influenzae carriage rates, carriage density, and disease. PMID:22470516

  20. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Childhood Invasive Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Disease in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah; Vickers, Anna; Ladhani, Shamez N; Flynn, Sally; Platt, Steven; Ramsay, Mary E; Litt, David J; Slack, Mary P E

    2016-03-01

    In countries with established Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) immunization programs, nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) is now responsible for nearly all invasive H. influenzae cases across all age groups. Public Health England (PHE) conducts enhanced national surveillance of invasive H. influenzae disease in England and Wales. Invasive NTHi isolates submitted to Public Health England from children of ages 1 month to 10 years during 2003-2010 were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Detailed clinical information was obtained for all laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive NTHi disease in children during 2009-2013. In England and Wales, there were 7797 cases of invasive H. influenzae disease diagnosed during 2000-2013 and 1585 (20%) occurred in children aged 1 month to 10 years, where NTHi was responsible for 31-51 cases (incidence, 0.53-0.92/100,000) annually. Detailed clinical follow-up of 214 confirmed NTHi cases diagnosed in this age-group during 2009-2013 revealed that 52% (n = 111) occurred in <2-year-old and 52% (n=110) had comorbidity. Bacteremic pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation (n = 99, 46%), 16% (n = 34) required intensive care and 11% (n = 23) died. Characterization by biotyping and MLST of 316 NTHi strains from children with invasive disease during 2003-2010 revealed a genetically heterogeneous population (155 MLSTs) with diverse biotypes and no association with comorbidity status, clinical disease or outcome. The high level of genetic diversity in invasive NTHi strains highlights the difficulties in developing an effective vaccine against this pathogen.

  1. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults ≥65 Years, United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Blain, Amy; MacNeil, Jessica; Wang, Xin; Bennett, Nancy; Farley, Monica M; Harrison, Lee H; Lexau, Catherine; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Susan; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Clark, Thomas; Cohn, Amanda; Briere, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, H influenzae epidemiology has shifted. In the United States, the largest burden of disease is now in adults aged ≥65 years. However, few data exist on risk factors for disease severity and outcome in this age group. A retrospective case-series review of invasive H influenzae infections in patients aged ≥65 years was conducted for hospitalized cases reported to Active Bacterial Core surveillance in 2011. There were 299 hospitalized cases included in the analysis. The majority of cases were caused by nontypeable H influenzae, and the overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 19.5%. Three or more underlying conditions were present in 63% of cases; 94% of cases had at least 1. Patients with chronic heart conditions (congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and/or atrial fibrillation) (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.46), patients from private residences (OR, 8.75; 95% CI, 2.13-35.95), and patients who were not resuscitate status (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.66) were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.71-8.22) and do not resuscitate status (OR, 12.94; 95% CI, 4.84-34.55) were significantly associated with death. Within this age group, burden of disease and CFR both increased significantly as age increased. Using ICU admission as a proxy for disease severity, our findings suggest several conditions increased risk of disease severity and patients with severe disease were more likely to die. Further research is needed to determine the most effective approach to prevent H influenzae disease and mortality in older adults.

  2. Identification, Distribution, and Expression of Novel Genes in 10 Clinical Isolates of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kai; Antalis, Patricia; Gladitz, John; Sayeed, Sameera; Ahmed, Azad; Yu, Shujun; Hayes, Jay; Johnson, Sandra; Dice, Bethany; Dopico, Richard; Keefe, Randy; Janto, Benjamin; Chong, William; Goodwin, Joseph; Wadowsky, Robert M.; Erdos, Geza; Post, J. Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hu, Fen Z.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that Haemophilus influenzae, as a species, possesses a much greater number of genes than that found in any single H. influenzae genome. This supragenome is distributed throughout naturally occurring infectious populations, and new strains arise through autocompetence and autotransformation systems. The effect is that H. influenzae populations can readily adapt to environmental stressors. The supragenome hypothesis predicts that significant differences exist between and among the genomes of individual infectious strains of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). To test this prediction, we obtained 10 low-passage NTHi clinical isolates from the middle ear effusions of patients with chronic otitis media. DNA sequencing was performed with 771 clones chosen at random from a pooled genomic library. Homology searching demonstrated that ∼10% of these clones were novel compared to the H. influenzae Rd KW20 genome, and most of them did not match any DNA sequence in GenBank. Amino acid homology searches using hypothetical translations of the open reading frames revealed homologies to a variety of proteins, including bacterial virulence factors not previously identified in the NTHi isolates. The distribution and expression of 53 of these genes among the 10 strains were determined by PCR- and reverse transcription PCR-based analyses. These unique genes were nonuniformly distributed among the 10 isolates, and transcription of these genes in planktonic cultures was detected in 50% (177 of 352) of the occurrences. All of the novel sequences were transcribed in one or more of the NTHi isolates. Seventeen percent (9 of 53) of the novel genes were identified in all 10 NTHi strains, with each of the remaining 44 being present in only a subset of the strains. These genic distribution analyses were more effective as a strain discrimination tool than either multilocus sequence typing or 23S ribosomal gene typing methods. PMID:15908377

  3. Haemophilus influenzae OxyR: Characterization of Its Regulation, Regulon and Role in Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, Paul W.; Morton, Daniel J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Cole, Brett K.; Mussa, Huda J.; McGhee, Phillip A.; Bauer, Chee Yoon S.; Springer, Jennifer M.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2012-01-01

    To prevent damage by reactive oxygen species, many bacteria have evolved rapid detection and response systems, including the OxyR regulon. The OxyR system detects reactive oxygen and coordinates the expression of numerous defensive antioxidants. In many bacterial species the coordinated OxyR-regulated response is crucial for in vivo survival. Regulation of the OxyR regulon of Haemophilus influenzae was examined in vitro, and significant variation in the regulated genes of the OxyR regulon among strains of H. influenzae was observed. Quantitative PCR studies demonstrated a role for the OxyR-regulated peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin as a mediator of the OxyR response, and also indicated OxyR self-regulation through a negative feedback loop. Analysis of transcript levels in H. influenzae samples derived from an animal model of otitis media demonstrated that the members of the OxyR regulon were actively upregulated within the chinchilla middle ear. H. influenzae mutants lacking the oxyR gene exhibited increased sensitivity to challenge with various peroxides. The impact of mutations in oxyR was assessed in various animal models of H. influenzae disease. In paired comparisons with the corresponding wild-type strains, the oxyR mutants were unaffected in both the chinchilla model of otitis media and an infant model of bacteremia. However, in weanling rats the oxyR mutant was significantly impaired compared to the wild-type strain. In contrast, in all three animal models when infected with a mixture of equal numbers of both wild-type and mutant strains the mutant strain was significantly out competed by the wild-type strain. These findings clearly establish a crucial role for OxyR in bacterial fitness. PMID:23226321

  4. Antibodies from multiple sclerosis patients preferentially recognize hyperglucosylated adhesin of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Testa, Chiara; Eilam, Raya; Aharoni, Rina; Nuti, Francesca; Rossi, Giada; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Lolli, Francesco; Rovero, Paolo; Imperiali, Barbara; Papini, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases, there have been proposals that exogenous “molecular triggers”, i.e., specific this should be ‘non-self antigens’ accompanying infectious agents, might disrupt control of the adaptive immune system resulting in serious pathologies. The etiology of the multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. However, epidemiologic data suggest that exposure to infectious agents may be associated with increased MS risk and progression may be linked to exogenous, bacterially-derived, antigenic molecules, mimicking mammalian cell surface glycoconjugates triggering autoimmune responses. Previously, antibodies specific to a gluco-asparagine (N-Glc) glycopeptide, CSF114(N-Glc), were identified in sera of an MS patient subpopulation. Since the human glycoproteome repertoire lacks this uniquely modified amino acid, we turned our attention to bacteria, i.e., Haemophilus influenzae, expressing cell-surface adhesins including N-Glc, to establish a connection between H. influenzae infection and MS. We exploited the biosynthetic machinery from the opportunistic pathogen H. influenzae (and the homologous enzymes from A. pleuropneumoniae) to produce a unique set of defined glucosylated adhesin proteins. Interestingly we revealed that a hyperglucosylated protein domain, based on the cell-surface adhesin HMW1A, is preferentially recognized by antibodies from sera of an MS patient subpopulation. In conclusion the hyperglucosylated adhesin is the first example of an N-glucosylated native antigen that can be considered a relevant candidate for triggering pathogenic antibodies in MS. PMID:28008952

  5. [Haemophilus influenzae: phenotype characteristics of strains isolated in 12 Catalan hospitals over one year].

    PubMed

    Latorre, Cristina; Sanfeliu, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antigenic and biochemical characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility, and mechanisms for acquiring resistance of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in several Catalan hospitals, to determine the current situation regarding this microorganism in our area. Serotype, biotype and betalactamase production, as well as susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, clarithromycin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin) were determined in 497 H. influenzae strains isolated from 1 May 1999 to 30 April 2000 in 12 Catalan hospitals. Among the total, 97.5% of strains were nontypable and 50% of the encapsulated strains were serotype b (all isolated from children under 5 years old). There was a predominance of biotype II, though no age or pathologic tropism was found among any of the biotypes. Our series confirms the previously reported trend to decreasing betalactamase mediated ampicillin resistance in our area, mainly in strains from pediatric patients. More betalactamase negative ampicillin-resistant strains (BLNAR) were isolated in children than in adults. One ciprofloxacin-resistant strain was detected. Infections caused by encapsulated H. influenzae strains are infrequent in our area and the relative importance of serotype b is decreasing. Mechanisms for acquiring ampicillin resistance other than betalactamase production are emerging. Surveillance of ciprofloxacin susceptibility is required to predict therapeutic failures with this quinolone.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae surface fibril (Hsf) is a unique twisted hairpin-like trimeric autotransporter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Jubair, Tamim Al; Mörgelin, Matthias; Sundin, Anders; Linse, Sara; Nilsson, Ulf J; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The Haemophilus surface fibril (Hsf) is an extraordinary large (2413 amino acids) trimeric autotransporter, present in all encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae. It contributes to virulence by directly functioning as an adhesin. Furthermore, Hsf recruits the host factor vitronectin thereby inhibiting the host innate immune response resulting in enhanced survival in serum. Here we observed by electron microscopy that Hsf appears as an 100 nm long fibril at the bacterial surface albeit the length is approximately 200 nm according to a bioinformatics based model. To unveil this discrepancy, we denaturated Hsf at the surface of Hib by using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Partial denaturation induced in the presence of GuHCl unfolded the Hsf molecules, and resulted in an increased length of fibres in comparison to the native trimeric form. Importantly, our findings were also verified by E. coli expressing Hsf at its surface. In addition, a set of Hsf-specific peptide antibodies also indicated that the N-terminal of Hsf is located near the C-terminal at the base of the fibril. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Hsf is not a straight molecule but is folded and doubled over. This is the first report that provides the unique structural features of the trimeric autotransporter Hsf.

  7. Modeling insights into Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, transmission, and vaccine programs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael L; Rose, Charles E; Cohn, Amanda; Coronado, Fatima; Clark, Thomas A; Wenger, Jay D; Bulkow, Lisa; Bruce, Michael G; Messonnier, Nancy E; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    In response to the 2007-2009 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage in the United States, we developed a flexible model of Hib transmission and disease for optimizing Hib vaccine programs in diverse populations and situations. The model classifies population members by age, colonization/disease status, and antibody levels, with movement across categories defined by differential equations. We implemented the model for the United States as a whole, England and Wales, and the Alaska Native population. This model accurately simulated Hib incidence in all 3 populations, including the increased incidence in England/Wales beginning in 1999 and the change in Hib incidence in Alaska Natives after switching Hib vaccines in 1996. The model suggests that a vaccine shortage requiring deferral of the booster dose could last 3 years in the United States before loss of herd immunity would result in increasing rates of invasive Hib disease in children <5 years of age.

  8. [Haemophilus influenzae b: a review on the determinants of pathogenicity and immune response to the infection].

    PubMed

    Gómez de León, P; Cabrera-Contreras, R; Cravioto, A

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is still one of the main causes of diverse invasive diseases in children in México. Epidemiologic data indicate that these processes affect primarily the central nervous system and the respiratory tract. Several factors are involved in the expression of infectious disease by this organism, among them the pathogenic determinants of the parasite and those related with resistance in the host. Occurrence of disease is usually the result of the interaction between these determinants. Knowledge of these pathogenic determinants of the parasite and of factors involved in the immune response of the host have allowed an understanding of the infectious process and have directed research in a least three areas: 1) identification of bacterial membrane fractions related with diagnosis of the disease, 2) screening for immunogenic components in the bacterias as vaccine candidates to be used in the prevention of the disease and, 3) the planning of appropriate alternatives for specific antimicrobial therapy.

  9. Expression and Purification of Haemophilus influenzae Rhomboid Intramembrane Protease GlpG for Structural Studies.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Pankaj; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2014-04-01

    Rhomboid proteases are membrane-embedded proteases that cleave peptide bonds of transmembrane proteins. They play a variety of roles in cell signaling events. The rhomboid protease GlpG from Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlpG) is a canonical form of rhomboid protease having six transmembrane segments. In this unit, detailed protocols are presented for optimization of hiGlpG expression using the araBAD promotor system in the pBAD vector. The parameters for optimization include concentration of inducing agent, induction temperature, and time. Optimization of these key factors led to the development of a protocol yielding 1.6 to 2.5 mg/liter protein purified after ion metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Further purification can include size exclusion chromatography (SEC).

  10. Indirect protection obtained by Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: analysis in a structured population model.

    PubMed Central

    Leino, T.; Takala, T.; Auranen, K.; Mäkelä, P. H.; Takala, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    We used a structured population model to study factors determining the magnitude of indirect protection in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination. On a simulation platform mimicking the population of Finland, a Hib transmission and immunity model, including cross-reactive bacterial encounters, was formulated. Utilizing different vaccination coverages and vaccine types we could study how fast the incidence of Hib disease declined due to direct and indirect vaccination effects. With the Finnish vaccination schedule we could reproduce the observed disappearance of Hib cases. Our results show that an indirect effect was already significant with a relatively low vaccine coverage, even with a vaccine only partly reducing carriage acquisition. This suggests that the vaccination schedule and vaccine to be used should be chosen to result, in addition to immunological memory, in high antibody concentrations, sufficient to reduce carriage, the latter being the main factor behind successful elimination of transmission and disease. PMID:15473160

  11. Bacterial vaccines and serotype replacement: lessons from Haemophilus influenzae and prospects for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitch, M.

    1999-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines have reduced the incidence of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae, type b (Hib), in industrialized countries and may be highly effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the serotype specificity of these vaccines has led to concern that their use may increase carriage of and disease from serotypes not included in the vaccine. Replacement has not occurred with the use of Hib vaccines but has occurred in trials of pneumococcal vaccines. Mathematical models can be used to elucidate these contrasting outcomes, predict the conditions under which serotype replacement is likely, interpret the results of conjugate vaccine trials, design trials that will better detect serotype replacement (if it occurs), and suggest factors to consider in choosing the serotype composition of vaccines. PMID:10341170

  12. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the role of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid in biology

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an exclusive human pathogen, which has evolved a number of unique mechanisms to survive within the human environment. An important part of this is the ability of the organism to take up and incorporate sialic acid into its surface structures. This protects the organism against host adaptive and innate immune factor as well as serving as a mechanism for sustaining itself within biofilms. Recent evidence suggests that this also may be the source of the evolution of human antibodies to non-human sialic acid structures, which can lead to inflammation in the host. In very rare instances, evolution of antibodies to sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) mimics of human antigens can result in autoimmune disease. PMID:22919611

  13. Haemophilus influenzae Porin Contributes to Signaling of the Inflammatory Cascade in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Massimiliano; D'Amico, Michele; Gorga, Fernanda; Di Filippo, Clara; D'Isanto, Marina; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Longanella, Anna; Tortora, Annalisa

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we observed that the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) porin, among the different surface bacterial components, is involved in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that inoculation of Hib porin into the fourth cerebral ventricle causes the simultaneous expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) at 6 h after inoculation. At 24 h, the expression of MIP-2 decreases while the expression of IL-1α and TNF-α increases. The mRNA expression of IL-1α, TNF-α, and MIP-2 is correlated with injury to the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by the appearance of serum proteins and leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid and by the increase in brain water content. PMID:11119509

  14. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Ochoa, Cesar E; Sethi, Sanjay; Dickey, Burton F

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. Among smokers with COPD, even following withdrawal of cigarette smoke, inflammation persists and lung function continues to deteriorate. One possible explanation is that bacterial colonization of smoke-damaged airways, most commonly with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), perpetuates airway injury and inflammation. Furthermore, COPD has also been identified as an independent risk factor for lung cancer irrespective of concomitant cigarette smoke exposure. In this article, we review the role of NTHi in airway inflammation that may lead to COPD progression and lung cancer promotion. PMID:21407824

  15. Anomalies in the Sedimentation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid from Haemophilus influenzae in Alkaline Sucrose Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, George J.

    1972-01-01

    Difficulties were experienced in obtaining reproducible results for the sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients of Haemophilus influenzae deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The technique of McGrath and Williams of lysing whole cells on top of an alkaline sucrose gradient was employed. The addition of 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate to the 0.2 n NaOH lysing solution and reduction of the hemin concentration in the growth medium increased the reproducibility to 100% for log-phase cells handled in a manner mimicking the handling procedure used for irradiating cells with ultraviolet light. Distributions of DNA with number average molecular weights of 200 × 106 were routinely obtained by using these modifications. PMID:4539243

  16. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Ochoa, Cesar E; Sethi, Sanjay; Dickey, Burton F

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. Among smokers with COPD, even following withdrawal of cigarette smoke, inflammation persists and lung function continues to deteriorate. One possible explanation is that bacterial colonization of smoke-damaged airways, most commonly with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), perpetuates airway injury and inflammation. Furthermore, COPD has also been identified as an independent risk factor for lung cancer irrespective of concomitant cigarette smoke exposure. In this article, we review the role of NTHi in airway inflammation that may lead to COPD progression and lung cancer promotion.

  17. Modeling Insights into Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease, Transmission, and Vaccine Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Charles E.; Cohn, Amanda; Coronado, Fatima; Clark, Thomas A.; Wenger, Jay D.; Bulkow, Lisa; Bruce, Michael G.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the 2007–2009 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage in the United States, we developed a flexible model of Hib transmission and disease for optimizing Hib vaccine programs in diverse populations and situations. The model classifies population members by age, colonization/disease status, and antibody levels, with movement across categories defined by differential equations. We implemented the model for the United States as a whole, England and Wales, and the Alaska Native population. This model accurately simulated Hib incidence in all 3 populations, including the increased incidence in England/Wales beginning in 1999 and the change in Hib incidence in Alaska Natives after switching Hib vaccines in 1996. The model suggests that a vaccine shortage requiring deferral of the booster dose could last 3 years in the United States before loss of herd immunity would result in increasing rates of invasive Hib disease in children <5 years of age. PMID:22257582

  18. Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates with Plasmid pB1000 Bearing blaROB-1: Fitness Cost and Interspecies Dissemination▿

    PubMed Central

    San Millan, Alvaro; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Escudero, Jose Antonio; Hidalgo, Laura; Gutierrez, Belen; Carrilero, Laura; Campos, Jose; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid pB1000 is a mobilizable replicon bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase gene that we have recently described in Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida animal isolates. Here we report the presence of pB1000 and a derivative plasmid, pB1000′, in four Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates of human origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed unrelated patterns in all strains, indicating that the existence of pB1000 in H. influenzae isolates is not the consequence of clonal dissemination. The replicon can be transferred both by transformation and by conjugation into H. influenzae, giving rise to recipients resistant to ampicillin and cefaclor (MICs, ≥64 μg/ml). Stability experiments showed that pB1000 is stable in H. influenzae without antimicrobial pressure for at least 60 generations. Competition experiments between isogenic H. influenzae strains with and without pB1000 revealed a competitive disadvantage of 9% per 10 generations for the transformant versus the recipient. The complete nucleotide sequences of nine pB1000 plasmids from human and animal isolates, as well as the epidemiological data, suggest that animal isolates belonging to the Pasteurellaceae act as an antimicrobial resistance reservoir for H. influenzae. Further, since P. multocida is the only member of this family that can colonize both humans and animals, we propose that P. multocida is the vehicle for the transport of pB1000 between animal- and human-adapted members of the Pasteurellaceae. PMID:20086141

  19. Rethinking the benefits and costs of childhood vaccination: the example of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Friedman, Abigail; Levine, Orin S; O'Brien, Jennifer; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Walker, Damian

    2011-03-16

    Economic evaluations of health interventions, such as vaccinations, are important tools for informing health policy. Approaching the analysis from the appropriate perspective is critical to ensuring the validity of evaluation results for particular policy decisions. Using the example of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination, we demonstrate that past economic evaluations have mostly adopted narrow evaluation perspectives, focusing primarily on health gains, health-care cost savings, and reductions in the time costs of caring, while usually ignoring other important benefits including outcome-related productivity gains (improved economic productivity due to prevention of mental and physical disabilities), behavior-related productivity gains (economic growth due to fertility reductions as vaccination improves child survival), and community externalities (herd immunity and prevention of antibiotic resistance). We further show that potential cost reductions that could be attained through changes in the delivery of the Hib vaccine have also generally been ignored in economic evaluations. Future economic evaluations of childhood vaccinations should take full account of benefits and costs, so that policymakers have sufficient information to make well-informed decisions on vaccination implementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shielding of a lipooligosaccharide IgM epitope allows evasion of neutrophil-mediated killing of an invasive strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Langereis, Jeroen D; Weiser, Jeffrey N

    2014-07-22

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-β1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-β1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-β1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. Importance: Neutrophils are white blood cells that specialize in killing pathogens and are recruited to sites of inflammation. However, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils in the middle ear cavity and lungs of patients with

  1. Maturation of molybdoenzymes and its influence on the pathogenesis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Dhouib, Rabeb; Pg Othman, Dk S. M.; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hansbro, Phil M.; Hanson, Jeffrey O.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Kappler, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear molybdenum enzymes of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family occur exclusively in prokaryotes, and a loss of some these enzymes has been linked to a loss of bacterial virulence in several cases. The MobA protein catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the molybdenum guanine dinucleotide (MGD) cofactor that is exclusive to enzymes of the DMSO reductase family. MobA has been proposed as a potential target for control of virulence since its inhibition would affect the activities of all molybdoenzymes dependent upon MGD. Here, we have studied the phenotype of a mobA mutant of the host-adapted human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. H. influenzae causes and contributes to a variety of acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, and several enzymes of the DMSO reductase family are conserved and highly expressed in this bacterium. The mobA mutation caused a significant decrease in the activities of all Mo-enzymes present, and also resulted in a small defect in anaerobic growth. However, we did not detect a defect in in vitro biofilm formation nor in invasion and adherence to human epithelial cells in tissue culture compared to the wild-type. In a murine in vivo model, the mobA mutant showed only a mild attenuation compared to the wild-type. In summary, our data show that MobA is essential for the activities of molybdenum enzymes, but does not appear to affect the fitness of H. influenzae. These results suggest that MobA is unlikely to be a useful target for antimicrobials, at least for the purpose of treating H. influenzae infections. PMID:26594204

  2. Allosteric reversion of Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase via a proline shift.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katherine M; Million-Perez, H Rachael; Merkhofer, Richard; Nicholson, Hilary; Rowlett, Roger S

    2015-01-20

    Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) has been reverse-engineered in the allosteric site region to resemble the nonallosteric Pisum sativum enzyme in order to identify critical features of allostery and intersusbunit communication. Three variants (W39V/G41A, P48S/A49P, and W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P) were identified, through a comparison with a crystal structure of nonallosteric P. sativum β-carbonic anhydrase (PSCA, PDB 1EKJ ), to potentially revert HICA to a nonallosteric enzyme. The W39V/G41A and P48S/A49P mutations decreased the apparent kcat/Km proton dependence from 4 to 2 and 1, respectively, increasing the overall maximal kcat/Km to 16 ± 2 μM(-1) s(-1) (380% of wild type) and 17 ± 3 μM(-1) s(-1) (405% of wild type). The pKa values of the metal-bound water molecule based on the pH-rate profile kinetics (8.32 ± 0.04 for W39V/G41A and 8.3 ± 0.1 for P48S/A49P) were also slightly higher than that for the wild-type enzyme (7.74 ± 0.04). The P48S/A49P variant has lost all pH-rate cooperativity. The W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P variant's kinetics were unusual and were fit with a log-linear function with a slope 0.9 ± 0.2. The crystal structure of the W39V/G41A variant revealed an active site very similar to the T-state wild-type oligomer with bicarbonate trapped in the escort site. By contrast, the X-ray crystal structure of a proline shift variant (P48S/A49P) reveals that it has adopted an active site conformation nearly identical to that of nonallosteric β-carbonic anhydrase (R-state) for one chain, including a tight association with the dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices; the second chain in the asymmetric unit is associated in a biologically relevant oligomer, but it adopts a T-state conformation that is not capped by dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices. The hybrid R/T nature of HICA P48S/A49P structurally recapitulates the interruption of pH-rate cooperativity observed for this variant. Comparison of the conformations of the R and T chains of P48S/A49P

  3. Biofilm formation by Haemophilus influenzae isolated from adeno-tonsil tissue samples, and its role in recurrent adenotonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Galli, J; Calò, L; Ardito, F; Imperiali, M; Bassotti, E; Fadda, G; Paludetti, G

    2007-01-01

    Summary Aim of the present study was to identify bacterial biofilms in tissue samples obtained from paediatric patients undergoing surgical treatment, for chronic and recurrent adeno-tonsillitis, not responding to repeated cycles of selective medical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment and to assay the ability of Haemophilus influenzae strains, most frequently identified in the culture examinations, to grow as biofilm in vitro. Overall, 25 surgical specimens (15 adenoids, 10 tonsils) were examined from the upper respiratory tract, from 15 paediatric patients (mean age 6 years). All patients were affected by recurrent and/or chronic adenoiditis and adenotonsillitis unresponsive to selective antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Tissues were cultured using conventional methods and subjected to scanning electron microscopy for detection of biofilm. Haemophilus influenzae strains, were cultured on 96-sterile well polystyrene microtitre plates (CELLSTAR-greiner bio-one) and stained with 1% crystal violet to quantify biofilm production. Bacterial cocci attached to the tissue surface and organized in colonies, with a morphology consistent with bacterial coccoid biofilms, were observed in all adenoid (15/15) and in 6/10 tonsil samples. Haemophilus influenzae isolates from 12/25 (48%) of our tissue samples scored a percent transmittance (%Tbloc) > 50, displaying a high capacity to form biofilms (level 4). In conclusion identification of bacterial biofilms in chronic and/or recurrent paediatric upper airway inflammatory processes and the capacity to produce biofilm in vitro, demonstrated by Haemophilus influenzae (the most frequently identified bacteria in our samples), could be related to the aetiopathogenic role of biofilms in chronic inflammatory mucosal reactions and to the resistance of these infections to selective antibiotic therapy. PMID:17883191

  4. Characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae invasive isolates from Portugal following routine childhood vaccination against H. influenzae serotype b (2002-2010).

    PubMed

    Bajanca-Lavado, M P; Simões, A S; Betencourt, C R; Sá-Leão, R

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to characterize Haemophilus influenzae invasive isolates recovered in Portugal over a 9-year period (2002-2010) following the inclusion of H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccination in the National Immunization Program (NIP) in the year 2000 and compare the results with those obtained in a similar study from the pre-vaccination era (1989-2001) previously described by us. As part of a laboratory-based passive surveillance system, 144 invasive isolates obtained in 28 Portuguese hospitals were received at the National Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Respiratory Infections and were characterized. Capsular types and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. The ftsI gene encoding PBP3 was sequenced for β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates. Genetic relatedness among isolates was examined by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST). Most isolates (77.1%) were non-capsulated, a significant increase compared to the pre-vaccination era (19.0%, p < 0.001). Serotype b strains decreased significantly (from 81.0 to 13.2%, p < 0.001) and serotype f increased significantly (from 0.8 to 6.9%, p = 0.03). Ten percent of the isolates were β-lactamase producers, a value lower than that previously observed (26.9%, p = 0.005). Eight percent of all isolates were BLNAR. A high genetic diversity among non-capsulated isolates was found. By contrast, capsulated isolates were clonal. The implementation of Hib vaccination has resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of serotype b H. influenzae invasive disease isolates. Most episodes of invasive disease occurring in Portugal are now due to fully susceptible, highly diverse, non-capsulated strains. Given the evolving dynamics of this pathogen and the increase in non-type b capsulated isolates, continuous surveillance is needed.

  5. Non typable-Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation and acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NT-Hi) infection is frequently associated with acute otitis media (AOM) treatment failure, recurrence or chronic otitis media. Persistence of otopathogens in a biofilm-structured community was implicated in these situations. Here, we compared biofilm production by H. influenzae strains obtained by culture of middle ear fluid (MEF) from children with AOM treatment failure and by strains isolated from nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from healthy children or those with AOM (first episode or recurrence). We aimed to evaluate an association of clinical signs and in vitro biofilm formation and establish risk factors of carrying a biofilm-producing strain. Methods We used a modification of the microtiter plate assay with crystal violet staining to compare biofilm production by 216 H. influenzae strains: 41 in MEF from children with AOM treatment failure (group MEF), 43 in NP samples from healthy children (NP group 1), 88 in NP samples from children with a first AOM episode (NP group 2, n = 43) or recurrent (NP group 3, n = 45) and 44 in NP samples from children with AOM associated with conjunctivitis (NP group 4). Results At all, 106/216 (49%) H. influenzae strains produced biofilm as did 26/43 (60.5%) in NP samples from healthy children. Biofilm production in MEF samples and NP samples did not significantly differ (40.5% vs 60.5%, 55.8%, 56.8% and 31.1% for NP groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only presence of conjunctivitis was significantly associated with low biofilm production (OR = 0.3, CI [0.16-0.60], p = 0.001). The ampicillin resistance of H. influenzae produced by penicillin-binding protein modification was significantly associated with low biofilm production (p = 0.029). Conclusion We found no association of biofilm production and AOM treatment failure or recurrence. Biofilm production was low from H. influenzae strains associated with conjunctivitis-otitis syndrome

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Nontypeable Strains of Haemophilus influenzae, C188, R535, and 1200, Isolated from Different Types of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhouib, Rabeb; Nair, Remya Purushothaman; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a persistent human respiratory pathogen known to be involved in a range of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Here, we report the genome sequences of three H. influenzae strains isolated from sputum, otitis media, and blood. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences in the gene contents including the presence of genes mediating antibiotic resistance. PMID:28336588

  7. Increase in Quinolone Resistance in a Haemophilus influenzae Strain Isolated from a Patient with Recurrent Respiratory Infections Treated with Ofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Ruiz, Joaquim; Sanchez, Ferran; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; de Anta, M. Teresa Jimenez; Prats, Guillem

    1999-01-01

    The increase in the level of quinolone resistance of Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates during ofloxacin therapy of a patient with recurrent respiratory infections was investigated. The first isolate (MIC of ciprofloxacin of 2 μg/ml) and the second isolate (MIC of 32 μg/ml) belonged to the same clone, as shown by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the increase in the resistance level was associated with a substitution in Ser-84 to Arg in the ParC protein. These results emphasize the potential risk of development of quinolone-resistant H. influenzae during fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with recurrent respiratory infection. PMID:9869583

  8. Clinical features fail to distinguish respiratory infections caused by Branhamella catarrhalis from those caused by Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Forward, Kevin Roy

    1992-01-01

    Branhamella catarrhalis is being isolated with increasing frequency from patients with symptoms and signs of respiratory tract infection. Records of 77 patients were reviewed to define the spectrum of respiratory illness and to compare clinical and laboratory features with those of respiratory infection due to Haemophilus influenzae. Both B catarrhalis and H influenzae caused respiratory infection predominantly in elderly males with underlying heart or lung disease. There were no clinical or laboratory features aside from sputum Gram stain and culture which differentiated the two groups. Although fewer than one-half of each group received antibiotics, no patient developed progressive respiratory disease. PMID:22451757

  9. Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zulz, Tammy; DeByle, Carolynn; Singleton, Ros; Hurlburt, Debby; Bruden, Dana; Rudolph, Karen; Hennessy, Thomas; Klejka, Joseph; Wenger, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    Before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, rates of Hib disease in Alaska’s indigenous people were among the highest in the world. Vaccination reduced rates dramatically; however, invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease has emerged. Cases of invasive disease were identified through Alaska statewide surveillance during1983–2011. Of 866 isolates analyzed for serotype, 32 (4%) were Hia. No Hia disease was identified before 2002; 32 cases occurred during 2002–2011 (p<0.001). Median age of case-patients was 0.7 years; 3 infants died. Incidence of Hia infection (2002–2011) among children <5 years was 5.4/100,000; 27 cases occurred in Alaska Native children (18/100,000) versus 2 cases in non-Native children (0.5/100,000) (risk ratio = 36, p<0.001). From 12/2009 to 12/2011, 15 cases of Hia disease occurred in southwestern Alaska (in children <5 years, rate = 204/100,000). Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children. PMID:23735653

  10. Haemophilus influenzae serotype a invasive disease, Alaska, USA, 1983-2011.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael G; Zulz, Tammy; DeByle, Carolynn; Singleton, Ros; Hurlburt, Debby; Bruden, Dana; Rudolph, Karen; Hennessy, Thomas; Klejka, Joseph; Wenger, Jay D

    2013-06-01

    Before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, rates of Hib disease in Alaska's indigenous people were among the highest in the world. Vaccination reduced rates dramatically; however, invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease has emerged. Cases of invasive disease were identified through Alaska statewide surveillance during 1983-2011. Of 866 isolates analyzed for serotype, 32 (4%) were Hia. No Hia disease was identified before 2002; 32 cases occurred during 2002-2011 (p<0.001). Median age of case-patients was 0.7 years; 3 infants died. Incidence of Hia infection (2002-2011) among children <5 years was 5.4/100,000; 27 cases occurred in Alaska Native children (18/100,000) versus 2 cases in non-Native children (0.5/100,000) (risk ratio = 36, p<0.001). From 12/2009 to 12/2011, 15 cases of Hia disease occurred in southwestern Alaska (in children <5 years, rate = 204/100,000). Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence of the pilin gene from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, T; Grass, S; Munson, R

    1991-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37 adheres to human buccal epithelial cells and exhibits mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. An isogenic variant of this strain which was deficient in hemagglutination was isolated. A protein with an apparent molecular weight of 22,000 was present in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel profile of sarcosyl-insoluble proteins from the hemagglutination-proficient strain but was absent from the profile of the isogenic hemagglutination-deficient variant. A monoclonal antibody which reacts with the hemagglutination-proficient isolate but not with the hemagglutination-deficient isolate has been characterized. This monoclonal antibody was employed in an affinity column for purification of the protein as well as to screen a genomic library for recombinant clones expressing the gene. Several clones which contained overlapping genomic fragments were identified by reaction with the monoclonal antibody. The gene for the 22-kDa protein was subcloned and sequenced. The gene for the type b pilin from H. influenzae type b strain MinnA was also cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence of the strain MinnA gene was identical to that reported previously for two other type b strains. The DNA sequence of the strain M37 gene is 77% identical to that of the type b pilin gene, and the derived amino acid sequence is 68% identical to that of the type b pilin. Images PMID:1673447

  12. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-protein conjugates

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for covalently bonding Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HIB Ps) to several proteins. The method is efficient and relies upon the use of adipic dihydrazide as a spacer between the capsular polysaccharide and the carrier protein. In contrast to the poor immunogenicity of the purified HIB Ps in mice and rabbits, the HIB Ps-protein conjugates induced serum anti-type b antibodies having bactericidal activity at levels shown to be protective in humans when low doses were injected subcutaneously in a saline solution. The antibody response in mice was related to the dose of the conjugates, increased with the number of injections, and could be primed by the previous injection of the carrier protein. The HIB Ps- protein conjugates were immunogenic in three different mouse strains. The importance of the carrier molecule for the enhanced immunogenicity of the HIB Ps-protein conjugates was shown by the failure of HIB Ps hybrids prepared with either the homologous polysaccharide or pneumococcus type 3 polysaccharide to induce antibodie in mice. Rabbits injected with the HIB Ps-protein conjugates emulsified in Freund's adjuvant produced high levels of serum anti-type b antibodies which induced a bactericidal effect upon H. influenzae type b organisms. It is proposed that the HIB Ps component of the polysaccharide protein conjugates has been converted to a thymic-dependent immunogen. This method may be used to prepare protein-polysaccharide conjugates with HIB Ps and other polysaccharides to be considered for human use. PMID:6967514

  13. Serum resistance and phase variation of a nasopharyngeal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolate.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Durakovic, Sanel; Glaser, Philippe; Tutz, Sarah; Schild, Stefan; Reidl, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Haemophilus influenzae harbours a complex array of factors to resist human complement attack. As non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains do not possess a capsule, their serum resistance mainly depends on other mechanisms including LOS decoration. In this report, we describe the identification of a highly serum resistant, nasopharyngeal isolate (NTHi23) by screening a collection of 77 clinical isolates. For NTHi23, we defined the MLST sequence type 1133, which matches the profile of a previously published invasive NTHi isolate. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that NTHi23 shares several complement evading mechanisms with invasive disease isolates. These mechanisms include the functional expression of a retrograde phospholipid trafficking system and the presumable decoration of the LOS structure with sialic acid. By screening the NTHi23 population for spontaneous decreased serum resistance, we identified a clone, which was about 10(3)-fold more sensitive to complement-mediated killing. Genome-wide analysis of this isolate revealed a phase variation in the N'-terminal region of lpsA, leading to a truncated version of the glycosyltransferase (LpsA). We further showed that a NTHi23 lpsA mutant exhibits a decreased invasion rate into human alveolar basal epithelial cells. Since only a small proportion of the NTHi23 population expressed the serum sensitive phenotype, resulting from lpsA phase-off, we conclude that the nasopharyngeal environment selected for a population expressing the intact and functional glycosyltransferase.

  14. Evidence for covalent attachment of phospholipid to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, J S; Doelling, V W; Graveline, J F; McCoy, D W

    1985-01-01

    Cells of Haemophilus influenzae type b were grown in a liquid medium containing [3H]palmitate or [14C]ribose or both for two generations of exponential growth. Radiolabeled type-specific capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), was purified from the culture supernatant by Cetavlon precipitation, ethanol fractionation, and hydroxylapatite and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The doubly labeled ( [3H]palmitate and [14C]ribose) PRP preparation was found to coelute in a single peak from a Sepharose 4B column, suggesting that both precursors were incorporated into the purified PRP. A singly labeled ( [3H]palmitate) purified PRP preparation was found to be quantitatively immune precipitated by human serum containing antibody against PRP. The radioactivity of this preparation could not be dissociated from PRP by treatment with chloroform-methanol, 6 M urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or Zwittergent. Only after acid, alkaline, or phospholipase A2 treatment of PRP labeled with [3H]palmitate or [3H]palmitate and [14C]ribose followed by chloroform-methanol extraction could most of the 3H-radioactivity be recovered in the organic phase. The chloroform-soluble acid-hydrolyzed or phospholipase A2-treated product was identified as palmitic acid after thin-layer chromatography. These results strongly suggest that a phospholipid moiety is covalently associated with the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide PRP. Images PMID:3926752

  15. Evidence for covalent attachment of phospholipid to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, J.S.; Doelling, V.W.; Graveline, J.F.; McCoy, D.W.

    1985-08-01

    Cells of Haemophilus influenzae type b were grown in a liquid medium containing (TH)palmitate or ( UC)ribose or both for two generations of exponential growth. Radiolabeled type-specific capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), was purified from the culture supernatant by Cetavlon precipitation, ethanol fractionation, and hydroxylapatite and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The doubly labeled ( (TH)palmitate and ( UC)ribose) PRP preparation was found to coelute in a single peak from a Sepharose 4B column, suggesting that both precursors were incorporated into the purified PRP. A singly labeled ( (TH)palmitate) purified PRP preparation was found to be quantitatively immune precipitated by human serum containing antibody against PRP. Only after acid, alkaline, or phospholipase A2 treatment of PRP labeled with (TH)palmitate or (TH)palmitate and ( UC)ribose followed by chloroform-methanol extraction could most of the TH-radioactivity be recovered in the organic phase. The chloroform-soluble acid-hydrolyzed or phospholipase A2-treated product was identified as palmitic acid after thin-layer chromatography. These results strongly suggest that a phospholipid moiety is covalently associated with the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide PRP.

  16. Susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae to chloramphenicol and eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Thirumoorthi, M C; Kobos, D M; Dajani, A S

    1981-01-01

    We examined the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ticarcillin, cefamandole, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceforanide, and moxalactam for 100 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 25 of which produced beta-lactamase. Susceptibility was not influenced by the capsular characteristic of the organism. The mean minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefamandole, ticarcillin, and ampicillin for beta-lactamase-producing strains were 3-, 120-, and 400-fold higher than their respective mean minimal inhibitory concentrations for beta-lactamase-negative strains. No such difference was noted for the other antibiotics. We performed time-kill curve studies, using chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, and moxalactam with two concentrations of the antimicrobial agents (4 or 20 times the minimal inhibitory concentrations) and two inoculum sizes (10(4) or 10(6) colony-forming units per ml). The inoculum size had no appreciable effect on the rate of killing of beta-lactamase-negative strains. The rates at which beta-lactamase-producing strains were killed by chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, and moxalactam was not influenced by the inoculum size. Whereas cefamandole in high concentrations was able to kill at 10(6) colony-forming units/ml of inoculum, it had only a temporary inhibiting effect at low drug concentrations. Methicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor CP-45,899 were able to neutralize the inactivation of cefamandole by a large inoculum of beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae. PMID:6974541

  17. Porin OmpP2 of Haemophilus influenzae shows specificity for nicotinamide-derived nucleotide substrates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christian; Maier, Elke; Kemmer, Gabrielle; Blass, Julia; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Benz, Roland; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-07-04

    Haemophilus influenzae has an absolute requirement for NAD (factor V) because it lacks all biosynthetic enzymes necessary for de novo synthesis of that cofactor. Therefore, growth in vitro requires the presence of NAD itself, NMN, or nicotinamide riboside (NR). To address uptake abilities of these compounds, we investigated outer membrane proteins. By analyzing ompP2 knockout mutants, we found that NAD and NMN uptake was prevented, whereas NR uptake was not. Through investigation of the properties of purified OmpP2 in artificial lipid membrane systems, the substrate specificity of OmpP2 for NAD and NMN was determined, with KS values of approximately 8 and 4mm, respectively, in 0.1 m KCl, whereas no interaction was detected for the nucleoside NR and other purine or pyrimidine nucleotide or nucleoside species. Based on our analysis, we assume that an intrinsic binding site within OmpP2 exists that facilitates diffusion of these compounds across the outer membrane, recognizing carbonyl and exposed phosphate groups. Because OmpP2 was formerly described as a general diffusion porin, an additional property of acting as a facilitator for nicotinamide-based nucleotide transport may have evolved to support and optimize utilization of the essential cofactor sources NAD and NMN in H. influenzae.

  18. Clinical effects of clarithromycin on persistent inflammation following Haemophilus influenzae-positive acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Iino, Yukiko; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Toshinori; Kakizaki, Keiko; Miyazawa, Tetsuo; Kakuta, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Additional treatment with clarithromycin (CAM) reduced persistent middle ear inflammation after acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Haemophilus influenzae in children. CAM is a treatment option for persistent inflammation following AOM and to prevent continuing otitis media with effusion. We conducted a clinical study to evaluate a new method of treatment for persistent inflammation after AOM in children. H. influenzae-infected children with AOM were treated acutely with antimicrobial agents, after which those still demonstrating effusion of the middle ear cavity received additional treatment with carbocysteine (S-CMC) alone or S-CMC combined with clarithromycin (CAM) for 1 week. The two regimens were compared in terms of clinical effects. After the initial acute treatment, many patients still showed abnormal otoscopic findings. At the completion of additional treatment, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups. However, 1 week after completion of additional treatment, the prevalence of a diminished light reflex was significantly lower in the CAM + S-CMC group than in the S-CMC group (p = 0.017). The prevalence of redness of the tympanic membrane also tended to be lower in the combined treatment group than in those receiving a single drug (p = 0.097).

  19. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation in vitro under stationary conditions.

    PubMed

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Andrzejczuk, Sylwia; Plech, Tomasz; Malm, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae, upper respiratory tract microbiota representatives, are able to colonize natural and artificial surfaces as biofilm. The aim of the present study was to assay the effect of ten 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on planktonic or biofilm-forming haemophili cells in vitro under stationary conditions on the basis of MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) and MBICs (minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations). In addition, anti-adhesive properties of these compounds were examined. The reference strains of H. parainfluenzae and H. influenzae were included. The broth microdilution microtiter plate (MTP) method with twofold dilution of the compounds, or ciprofloxacin (reference agent) in 96-well polystyrene microplates, was used. The optical density (OD) reading was made spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 570 nm (OD570) both to measure bacterial growth and to detect biofilm-forming cells under the same conditions with 0.1% crystal violet. The following values of parameters were estimated for 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids - MIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 0.125-8, depending on the compound, and for ciprofloxacin - MIC = 0.03-0.06 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-0.12 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 1-2. The observed strong anti-adhesive properties (95-100% inhibition) of the tested compounds were reversible during long-term incubation at subinhibitory concentrations. Thus, 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids may be considered as starting compounds for designing improved agents not only against planktonic but also against biofilm-forming Haemophilus spp. cells.

  20. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption–ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:25883794

  1. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  2. Bacterial Lysis through Interference with Peptidoglycan Synthesis Increases Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Merlos, Alexandra; Viñas, Miguel; de Jonge, Marien I.; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation. The growth and biofilm formation of 4,172 transposon mutants were determined, and the involvement of the identified genes in biofilm formation was validated in in vitro experiments. Here, we present experimental data showing that increased bacterial lysis, through interference with peptidoglycan synthesis, results in elevated levels of extracellular DNA, which increased biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics, known to interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis, but such an effect does not appear with other classes of antibiotics. These results indicate that treatment with β-lactam antibiotics, especially for β-lactam-resistant NTHi isolates, might increase resistance to antibiotics by increasing biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Most, if not all, bacteria form a biofilm, a multicellular structure that protects them from antimicrobial actions of the host immune system and affords resistance to antibiotics. The latter is especially disturbing with the increase in multiresistant bacterial clones worldwide. Bacterial biofilm formation is a multistep process that starts with surface adhesion, after which attached bacteria divide and give rise to biomass. The actual steps required for Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation are largely not known. We show that interference with peptidoglycan biosynthesis increases biofilm formation because of the release

  3. Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1μM as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival.

  4. Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 μM as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

  5. Preparation of human hyperimmune globulin to Haemophilus influenzae b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Siber, G R; Ambrosino, D M; McIver, J; Ervin, T J; Schiffman, G; Sallan, S; Grady, G F

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in exploring the feasibility of passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy of serious infections caused by common encapsulated bacteria, we have immunized healthy adults with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, 14-valent pneumococcal vaccine, and meningococcal group A and C vaccine; collected plasma by repeated pheresis; and purified a hyperimmune globulin termed bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin by the cold-ethanol fractionation method of Cohn and Oncley. Specific antibacterial antibody concentrations were measured in individual donors before and after immunization. In addition, antibody concentrations were measured in plasma pools prepared from immunized donors and from unimmunized controls and in the immunoglobulin-containing Cohn-Oncley fractions II and III derived from the respective plasma pools. A comparison of Cohn-Oncley fractions II, which contain primarily immunoglobulin G and which are used therapeutically as immune globulin, revealed that antibody to H. influenzae type b was enriched 15.3-fold and that antibody to meningococcal serogroups and pneumococcal types was enriched a mean of 4.4-fold (range, 1.2- to 9.9-fold). Enrichment of antibacterial antibody in Cohn fraction III, which contains substantial amounts of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A in addition to immunoglobulin G, closely paralleled that in fraction II. Only antibodies to pneumococcal types 1 and 7 were increased disproportionately in fraction III. Based on the clinical experience that conventional immune serum globulin at a dose of 100 mg/kg protects agammaglobulinemic patients for ca. 1 month, we estimate that bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin, in similar dosage, will provide protection from systemic H. influenzae type b infection for 4 to 6 months and from pneumococcal and meningococcal infections for 3 to 4 months. PMID:6429048

  6. Efficacy of Human Hyperimmune Globulin in Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease in Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, Donna; Schreiber, John R.; Daum, Robert S.; Siber, George R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the protective efficacy of human hyperimmune globulin to Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in an infant rat model, we compared hyperimmune globulin containing 600 μg of anti-polyribophosphate (PRP) antibody per ml to conventional immune globulin containing 66 μg of anti-PRP antibody per ml. The hyperimmune globulin was fractionated from the pooled plasma of 55 adult donors immunized with PRP, the capsular polysaccharide of H. influenzae type b. The disappearance of passively administered antibody was biphasic, with a linear first-order disappearance curve during the first 7 days. The initial half-life for anti-PRP antibody was 2.38 days in rats nasally colonized but not detectably bacteremic with H. influenzae type b and significantly longer (half-life, 10.3 days; P < 0.01) in noncolonized animals. Hyperimmune globulin afforded 10 times the protection of conventional globulin against bacteremia and meningitis. Globulin depleted of anti-PRP antibody offered no protection. The initial serum antibody levels and the levels during the 8-day observation period predicted protection. Rats maintaining serum antibody levels greater or equal to 50 ng/ml to day 8 had a 10% bacteremia and 5% meningitis incidence in contrast with 95% bacteremia (P < 0.001) and 55% meningitis (P < 0.001) in rats with less than 50 ng of anti-PRP antibody per ml. We conclude that studies of the pharmacology and efficacy of hyperimmune globulin are warranted in high-risk children unable to respond to active immunization. PMID:6601060

  7. Typing of urogenital, maternal, and neonatal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in correlation with clinical source of isolation and evidence for a genital specificity of H. influenzae biotype IV.

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, R; Musser, J M; Mellouet, M; Sizaret, P Y; Selander, R K; Goudeau, A

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 6 years, 114 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were isolated from genital, mother-infant, or neonatal infections. Their serotypes, biotypes, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and outer membrane protein (OMP) electrophoretic patterns were characterized and correlated with the various clinical outcomes. Genital H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae appeared to behave mostly as opportunistic pathogens; for instance, 62% of the cases of endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease were related to the presence of an intrauterine device. However, as seen clearly in one case, the strains may be sexually transmitted. The analysis of OMP patterns proved to be a very convenient method to seek evidence for the sexual origin of the infection. H. influenzae was more often involved in complicated genital infections than was H. parainfluenzae. Nontypeable and biotype II H. influenzae strains were the more frequent isolates, except in pelvic inflammatory diseases, in which biotype I prevailed, and in mother-infant infections, in which one-fourth of the cases were due to biotype IV. Characterization of H. influenzae isolates did not support a general concept of specific genital strains. However, strains of biotype IV clearly stood out with two characteristics: (i) a peritrichous fimbriation and (ii) a very peculiar homogeneous OMP pattern comprising an OMP of molecular weight approximately 18,000 unique to this biotype. These characteristics were also found in H. influenzae biotype IV strains isolated from genital infections in the United States and used as controls. H. influenzae biotype IV strains may thus correspond to a group somewhat adapted to the genital tract. Images PMID:2584379

  8. Laboratory characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Nunavut, Canada, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Li, Y. Anita; Mullen, Angie; Baikie, Maureen; Whyte, Kathleen; Shuel, Michelle; Tyrrell, Gregory; Rotondo, Jenny A. L.; Desai, Shalini; Spika, John

    2016-01-01

    Background With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. Objective This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. Methods Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility. Results Of the 89 invasive H. influenzae cases identified from 2000 to 2012, 71 case isolates were available for study. There were 43 serotype a (Hia), 12 Hib, 2 Hic, 1 Hid, 1 Hie, 2 Hif and 10 were non-typeable (NT). All 43 Hia were biotype II, sequence type (ST)-23. Three related STs were found among the Hib isolates: ST-95 (n=9), ST-635 (n=2) and ST-44 (n=1). Both Hif belonged to ST-124 and the 2 Hic were typed as ST-9. The remaining Hid (ST-1288) and Hie (ST-18) belonged to 2 separate clones. Of the 10 NT strains, 3 were typed as ST-23 and the remaining 7 isolates each belonged to a unique ST. Eight Hib and 1 NT-Hi were found to be resistant to ampicillin due to β-lactamase production. No resistance to other antibiotics was detected. Conclusion During the period of 2000–2012, Hia was the predominant serotype causing invasive disease in Nunavut. This presents a public health concern due to an emerging clone of Hia as a cause of invasive H. influenzae disease and the lack of published guidelines for the prophylaxis of contacts. The clonal nature of Hia could be the result of spread within an isolated population, and/or unique characteristics of this strain to cause invasive disease. Further study of Hia in other populations may provide important information on this emerging pathogen. No antibiotic resistance was detected among Hia isolates; a

  9. HrrF is the Fur-regulated small RNA in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Santana, Estevan A; Harrison, Alistair; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth D; Kelly, Benjamin J; White, Peter; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.

  10. Changes in the prevalence and biofilm formation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae from the respiratory microbiota of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Rybojad, Paweł; Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Żbikowska, Anna; Malm, Anna

    2016-08-26

    Healthy condition and chronic diseases may be associated with microbiota composition and its properties. The prevalence of respiratory haemophili with respect to their phenotypes including the ability to biofilm formation in patients with sarcoidosis was assayed. Nasopharynx and sputum specimens were taken in 31 patients with sarcoidosis (average age 42.6 ± 13), and nasopharynx specimens were taken in 37 healthy people (average age 44.6 ± 11.6). Haemophili were identified by API-NH microtest and by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. Biofilm was visualised by crystal violet staining and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The statistical analysis was performed with Statgraphics Plus for Windows. In total, 30/31 patients with sarcoidosis and 31/37 healthy people were colonized by Haemophilus influenzae (6/30 vs. 1/31) and Haemophilus parainfluenzae (28/30 vs. 31/31) in the nasopharynx. The overall number of nasopharyngeal haemophili isolates was 59 in patients with sarcoidosis and 67 in healthy volunteers (H. influenzae 6/59 vs. 1/67, P = 0.05; H. parainfluenzae 47/59 vs. 65/67, P = 0.0032). Moreover, the decreased number of H. parainfluenzae biofilm-producing isolates was shown in nasopharyngeal samples in patients with sarcoidosis as compared to healthy people (19/31 vs. 57/65, P = 0.006), especially with respect to isolates classified as strong and very strong biofilm-producers (8/31 vs. 39/65, P = 0.002). The obtained data suggest that the qualitative and quantitative changes within the respiratory microbiota concerning the overall prevalence of H. influenzae together with the decreased number of H. parainfluenzae strains and the decreased rate of H. parainfluenzae biofilm-producing isolates as compared to healthy people may be associated with sarcoidosis.

  11. Effect of Fluoroquinolones and Macrolides on Eradication and Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Tsuji, Brian T.; Gent, Janneane F.; Kong, Yong; Holden, Patricia N.; Sethi, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of antibiotics on eradication of carriage and development of resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our goals were to assess antibiotic susceptibilities, prevalence of resistance genes, and development of resistance in H. influenzae and to evaluate the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone administration on H. influenzae eradication. Data were from a 15-year longitudinal study of COPD. Genome sequence data were used to determine genotype and identify resistance genes. MICs of antibiotics were determined by reference broth microdilution. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic use and H. influenzae eradication. We examined 267 H. influenzae isolates from 77 individuals. All newly acquired H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Five of 27 (19%) strains developed 4-fold increases in azithromycin MICs and reached or exceeded the susceptibility breakpoint (≤4 μg/ml) during exposure. H. influenzae isolates were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin (MIC90s of 0.015, 0.015, and 0.06, respectively); there were no mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions. Fluoroquinolone administration was associated with increased H. influenzae eradication compared to macrolides (odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67 to 104.09). There was no difference in H. influenzae eradication when comparing macrolide administration to no antibiotic (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.43 to 8.30). Fluoroquinolones are effective in eradicating H. influenzae in individuals with COPD. Macrolides are ineffective in eradicating H. influenzae, and their use in COPD patients may lead to decreased macrolide susceptibility and resistance. PMID:27139476

  12. Diversion of the host humoral response: a novel virulence mechanism of Haemophilus influenzae mediated via outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Deknuydt, Florence; Nordström, Therése; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Haemophilus influenzae frequently causes infections in humans. In parallel with all Gram-negative bacteria, H. influenzae has the capacity to release OMV. The production of these nanoparticles is an intriguing and partly unexplored phenomenon in pathogenesis. Here, we investigated how purified human peripheral blood B lymphocytes respond to OMV derived from unencapsulated, i.e., NTHi and the nonpathogenic Haemophilus parainfluenzae. We found that H. influenzae OMV directly interacted with the IgD BCR, as revealed by anti-IgD pAb and flow cytometry. Importantly, H. influenzae OMV-induced cellular activation via IgD BCR cross-linking and TLR9 resulted in a significant proliferative response. OMV isolated from the related species H. parainfluenzae did not, however, interact with B cells excluding that the effect by H. influenzae OMV was linked to common membrane components, such as the LOS. We also observed an up-regulation of the cell surface molecules CD69 and CD86, and an increased IgM and IgG secretion by B cells incubated with H. influenzae OMV. The Igs produced did not recognize H. influenzae, suggesting a polyclonal B cell activation. Interestingly, the density of the cell surface receptor TACI was increased in the presence of OMV that sensitized further the B cells to BAFF, resulting in an enhanced IgG class-switch. In conclusion, the ability of NTHi OMV to activate B cells in a T cell-independent manner may divert the adaptive humoral immune response that consequently promotes bacterial survival within the human host. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Kirsebom, Leif A; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 10(4) DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization.

  14. Expression of IgA Proteases by Haemophilus influenzae in the Respiratory Tract of Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Jones, Megan M.; Sethi, Sanjay; Kong, Yong; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Immunoglobulin (Ig)A proteases of Haemophilus influenzae are highly specific endopeptidases that cleave the hinge region of human IgA1 and also mediate invasion and trafficking in human respiratory epithelial cells, facilitating persistence of H. influenzae. Little is known about the expression of IgA proteases in clinical settings of H. influenzae infection. Methods. We identified and characterized IgA protease genes in H. influenzae and studied their expression and proteolytic specificity, in vitro and in vivo in 169 independent strains of H. influenzae collected longitudinally over 10 years from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results. The H. influenzae pangenome has 2 alleles of IgA protease genes; all strains have igaA, and 40% of strains have igaB. Each allele has 2 variants with differing proteolytic specificities for human IgA1. A total of 88% of 169 strains express IgA protease activity. Expression of the 4 forms of IgA protease varies among strains. Based on the presence of IgA1 fragments in sputum samples, each of the different forms of IgA protease is selectively expressed in the human airways during infection. Conclusions. Four variants of IgA proteases are variably expressed by H. influenzae during infection of the human airways. PMID:25995193

  15. Expression of IgA Proteases by Haemophilus influenzae in the Respiratory Tract of Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Kirkham, Charmaine; Jones, Megan M; Sethi, Sanjay; Kong, Yong; Pettigrew, Melinda M

    2015-12-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)A proteases of Haemophilus influenzae are highly specific endopeptidases that cleave the hinge region of human IgA1 and also mediate invasion and trafficking in human respiratory epithelial cells, facilitating persistence of H. influenzae. Little is known about the expression of IgA proteases in clinical settings of H. influenzae infection. We identified and characterized IgA protease genes in H. influenzae and studied their expression and proteolytic specificity, in vitro and in vivo in 169 independent strains of H. influenzae collected longitudinally over 10 years from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The H. influenzae pangenome has 2 alleles of IgA protease genes; all strains have igaA, and 40% of strains have igaB. Each allele has 2 variants with differing proteolytic specificities for human IgA1. A total of 88% of 169 strains express IgA protease activity. Expression of the 4 forms of IgA protease varies among strains. Based on the presence of IgA1 fragments in sputum samples, each of the different forms of IgA protease is selectively expressed in the human airways during infection. Four variants of IgA proteases are variably expressed by H. influenzae during infection of the human airways. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Molecular insights of co-trimoxazole resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zain, Z; Kamsani, N H; Ahmad, N

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades, co-trimoxazole (SXT), an antibacterial combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, has been used for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection due to Haemophilus influenzae. The usage of this antibiotic has become less important due to emergence of SXT-resistant strains worldwide. Most reports associate SXT resistance to the presence of variants of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) dfrA genes which are responsible for trimethoprim resistance; while the sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance are due to sulfonamide (SUL) genes sul1 and sul2 and/or mutation in the chromosomal (folP) gene encoding dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS). This study aims to detect and analyse the genes that are involved in SXT resistance in H. influenzae strains that were isolated in Malaysia. Primers targeting for variants of dfrA, fol and sul genes were used to amplify the genes in nine SXT-resistant strains. The products of amplification were sequenced and multiple alignments of the assembled sequences of the local strains were compared to the sequences of other H. influenzae strains in the Genbank. Of the five variants of the dhfA genes, dfrA1 was detected in three out of the nine strains. In contrast to intermediate strains, at least one variant of folP genes was detected in the resistant strains. Multiple nucleotide alignment of this gene revealed that strain H152 was genetically different from the others due to a 15-bp nucleotide insert in folP gene. The sequence of the insert was similar to the insert in folP of H. influenzae strain A12, a strain isolated in United Kingdom. None of the strains had sul1 gene but sul2 gene was detected in four strains. Preliminary study on the limited number of samples shows that the TMP resistance was attributed to mainly to dfrA1 and the SMX was due to folP genes. Presence of sul2 in addition to folP in seven strains apparently had increased their level of resistance. A strain that lacked sul1 or sul2 gene, its resistance

  17. Characterization of the rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae and behavior of the gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Setlow, J K; Spikes, D; Griffin, K

    1988-01-01

    The rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a shuttle vector that replicates in Escherichia coli as well as in H. influenzae. The plasmid, called pRec1, complemented the defects of a rec-1 mutant in repair of UV damage, transformation, and ability of prophage to be induced by UV radiation. Although UV resistance and recombination were caused by pRec1 in E. coli recA mutants, UV induction of lambda and UV mutagenesis were not. We suggest that the ability of the H. influenzae Rec-1 protein to cause cleavage of repressors but not the recombinase function differs from that of the E. coli RecA protein. PMID:3045079

  18. Non-Type b Haemophilus influenzae Invasive Infections in North Dakota and South Dakota, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Antony, Stephanie; Kaushik, Ashlesha; Mauriello, Clifford; Chatterjee, Archana

    2017-09-01

    Reports of children with non-type b Haemophilus influenzae infection in the United States in recent years have been limited. Here, we report the spectrum and severity of disease associated with invasive non-type b H influenzae infection in 17 patients at 2 tertiary-care children's hospitals over a 2-year period. Meningitis was the most common diagnosis. The majority of the patients had neurologic sequelae, and 1 patient died. The high proportions of hospitalization, intensive care utilization, and neurologic complications reveal that non-type b H influenzae infection was associated with significant morbidity in this pediatric population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological study of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in Portugal. The Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bajanca-Lavado, M P; Casin, I; Vaz Pato, M V

    1996-10-01

    In the course of a multicentric surveillance study, nine laboratories sent 375 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to the Sector de Resistência aos Antibióticos (SRA) from the National Institute of Health in Lisbon, between 1 January and 31 December 1992. The majority of the H. influenzae isolates were from the respiratory tract (84.8%); only 5.1% were of invasive origin. Overall resistance for ampicillin was 11.7%, tetracycline 3.7%, and chloramphenicol 2.4%. All isolates tested were fully susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Multiresistance was rare, occurring only in 2.4% of the isolates, although 50% of the ampicillin resistant strains had at least one additional resistance marker. Forty two isolates (11.2%) produced a TEM-1 type beta-lactamase, as shown by isoelectric focusing. beta-lactamase production was not detected in two of the ampicillin resistant strains. Fifteen of the 42 beta-lactamase producing strains (35.7%) contained detectable DNA plasmid: nine harboured large plasmids with an apparent molecular mass of 45 or 54 kb depending on their resistance phenotype and six harboured a small plasmid of 5 kb. In order to study transfer of resistance in both ampicillin and multiresistant strains conjugation experiments were performed for 14 isolates, seven of which harboured a large plasmid and seven had no detectable plasmid DNA. All 14 transferred their resistance phenotype but only a single large plasmid could be demonstrated in ten transconjugants. Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmids from six representative transconjugants, isolated in different hospitals, revealed that there was no dissemination of a single R plasmid, which suggests an independent process of acquisition of resistance genes.

  20. Characterization of a Ferrous Iron-Responsive Two-Component System in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Kendra H.; O'Connor, Lauren H.; Burpo, Nicole; Kohler, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly found in the human upper respiratory tract, has only four identified two-component signal transduction systems. One of these, an ortholog to the QseBC (quorum-sensing Escherichia coli) system, was characterized. This system, designated firRS, was found to be transcribed in an operon with a gene encoding a small, predicted periplasmic protein with an unknown function, ygiW. The ygiW-firRS operon exhibited a unique feature with an attenuator present between ygiW and firR that caused the ygiW transcript level to be 6-fold higher than the ygiW-firRS transcript level. FirRS induced expression of ygiW and firR, demonstrating that FirR is an autoactivator. Unlike the QseBC system of E. coli, FirRS does not respond to epinephrine or norepinephrine. FirRS signal transduction was stimulated when NTHI cultures were exposed to ferrous iron or zinc but was unresponsive to ferric iron. Notably, the ferrous iron-responsive activation only occurred when a putative iron-binding site in FirS and the key phosphorylation aspartate in FirR were intact. FirRS was also activated when cultures were exposed to cold shock. Mutants in ygiW, firR, and firS were attenuated during pulmonary infection, but not otitis media. These data demonstrate that the H. influenzae strain 2019 FirRS is a two-component regulatory system that senses ferrous iron and autoregulates its own operon. PMID:22961857

  1. Molecular Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Tirado-Vélez, José Manuel; Calatayud, Laura; Tubau, Fe; Garmendia, Junkal; Ardanuy, Carmen; Marti, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common cause of respiratory infections in adults, who are frequently treated with fluoroquinolones. The aims of this study were to characterize the genotypes of fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates and their mechanisms of resistance. Among 7,267 H. influenzae isolates collected from adult patients from 2000 to 2013, 28 (0.39%) were ciprofloxacin resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. In addition, a nalidixic acid screening during 2010 to 2013 detected five (0.23%) isolates that were ciprofloxacin susceptible but nalidixic acid resistant. Sequencing of their quinolone resistance-determining regions and genotyping by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing of the 25 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates available and all 5 nalidixic acid-resistant isolates were performed. In the NTHi isolates studied, two mutations producing changes in two GyrA residues (Ser84, Asp88) and/or two ParC residues (Ser84, Glu88) were associated with increased fluoroquinolone MICs. Strains with one or two mutations (n = 15) had ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin MICs of 0.12 to 2 μg/ml, while those with three or more mutations (n = 15) had MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml. Long persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was observed in three chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. High genetic diversity was observed among fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates. Although fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat respiratory infections, the proportion of resistant NTHi isolates remains low. The nalidixic acid disk test is useful for detecting the first changes in GyrA or in GyrA plus ParC among fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains that are at a potential risk for the development of resistance under selective pressure by fluoroquinolone treatment. PMID:25385097

  2. Heterogeneity in tandem octanucleotides within Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene losA affects serum resistance.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Alice L; Bonthuis, Paul J; Geelhood, Jennifer L; Nelson, Kevin L; McCrea, Kirk W; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Smith, Arnold L

    2006-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is subject to phase variation mediated by changes in the length of simple sequence repeat regions within several genes, most of which encode either surface proteins or enzymes involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The translational repeat regions that have been described thus far all consist of tandemly repeated tetranucleotides. We describe an octanucleotide repeat region within a putative LPS biosynthetic gene, losA. Approximately 20 percent of nontypeable H. influenzae strains contain copies of losA and losB in a genetic locus flanked by infA and ksgA. Of 30 strains containing losA at this site, 24 contained 2 tandem copies of the octanucleotide CGAGCATA, allowing full-length translation of losA (on), and 6 strains contained 3, 4, 6, or 10 tandem copies (losA off). For a serum-sensitive strain, R3063, with losA off (10 repeat units), selection for serum-resistant variants yielded a heterogeneous population in which colonies with increased serum resistance had losA on (2, 8, or 11 repeat units), and colonies with unchanged sensitivity to serum had 10 repeats. Inactivation of losA in strains R3063 and R2846 (strain 12) by insertion of the cat gene decreased the serum resistance of these strains compared to losA-on variants and altered the electrophoretic mobility of LPS. We conclude that expression of losA, a gene that contributes to LPS structure and affects serum resistance, is determined by octanucleotide repeat variation.

  3. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Trafny, Elżbieta A; Olszewska-Sosińska, Olga; Antos-Bielska, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Krystyna; Stępińska, Małgorzata; Lau-Dworak, Magdalena; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of the major pathogenic bacteria in upper respiratory tract of children. In this study, the presence of various H. influenzae genotypes were followed-up for at least 13 weeks, starting from one week before surgery. Forty-one children with chronic adenoid hypertrophy were prospectively enrolled to the study. The consecutive swabs of adenoid and tonsils, two before adenotonsillectomy and two after the surgery together with homogenates of adenotonsillar tissues and lysates of the CD14(+) cells fraction were acquired from 34 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Up to ten isolates from each patient at each collection period were genotyped using a PFGE method and their capsular type and antibiotic susceptibility was determined. Of the 1001 isolates examined, we identified 325 isolates grouped into 16 persistent genotypes, which colonized throats for more than seven weeks and were not eliminated by the surgery. The other 506 isolates grouped into 48 transient genotypes that had been eliminated by the surgery. The resistance to ampicillin were found in 23.8% of the transient strains, and 4.7% of the newly acquired strains following the surgical intervention. In contrast, none of the persistent strains were resistant to ampicillin; however, these strains showed apparently higher level of resistance to co-trimoxazole when compared to transient strains. The transient and persistent strains did not significantly differ in bacterial viability in the biofilms formed in vitro. Some of the strains were identified in two or three different patients and were considered as the strains circulating in the region between 2010 and 2012.

  4. The genome-scale metabolic extreme pathway structure in Haemophilus influenzae shows significant network redundancy.

    PubMed

    Papin, Jason A; Price, Nathan D; Edwards, Jeremy S; Palsson B, Bernhard Ø

    2002-03-07

    Genome-scale metabolic networks can be characterized by a set of systemically independent and unique extreme pathways. These extreme pathways span a convex, high-dimensional space that circumscribes all potential steady-state flux distributions achievable by the defined metabolic network. Genome-scale extreme pathways associated with the production of non-essential amino acids in Haemophilus influenzae were computed. They offer valuable insight into the functioning of its metabolic network. Three key results were obtained. First, there were multiple internal flux maps corresponding to externally indistinguishable states. It was shown that there was an average of 37 internal states per unique exchange flux vector in H. influenzae when the network was used to produce a single amino acid while allowing carbon dioxide and acetate as carbon sinks. With the inclusion of succinate as an additional output, this ratio increased to 52, a 40% increase. Second, an analysis of the carbon fates illustrated that the extreme pathways were non-uniformly distributed across the carbon fate spectrum. In the detailed case study, 45% of the distinct carbon fate values associated with lysine production represented 85% of the extreme pathways. Third, this distribution fell between distinct systemic constraints. For lysine production, the carbon fate values that represented 85% of the pathways described above corresponded to only 2 distinct ratios of 1:1 and 4:1 between carbon dioxide and acetate. The present study analysed single outputs from one organism, and provides a start to genome-scale extreme pathways studies. These emergent system-level characterizations show the significance of metabolic extreme pathway analysis at the genome-scale.

  5. Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Puig, Carmen; Tirado-Vélez, José Manuel; Calatayud, Laura; Tubau, Fe; Garmendia, Junkal; Ardanuy, Carmen; Marti, Sara; de la Campa, Adela G; Liñares, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common cause of respiratory infections in adults, who are frequently treated with fluoroquinolones. The aims of this study were to characterize the genotypes of fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates and their mechanisms of resistance. Among 7,267 H. influenzae isolates collected from adult patients from 2000 to 2013, 28 (0.39%) were ciprofloxacin resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. In addition, a nalidixic acid screening during 2010 to 2013 detected five (0.23%) isolates that were ciprofloxacin susceptible but nalidixic acid resistant. Sequencing of their quinolone resistance-determining regions and genotyping by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing of the 25 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates available and all 5 nalidixic acid-resistant isolates were performed. In the NTHi isolates studied, two mutations producing changes in two GyrA residues (Ser84, Asp88) and/or two ParC residues (Ser84, Glu88) were associated with increased fluoroquinolone MICs. Strains with one or two mutations (n = 15) had ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin MICs of 0.12 to 2 μg/ml, while those with three or more mutations (n = 15) had MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml. Long persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was observed in three chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. High genetic diversity was observed among fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates. Although fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat respiratory infections, the proportion of resistant NTHi isolates remains low. The nalidixic acid disk test is useful for detecting the first changes in GyrA or in GyrA plus ParC among fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains that are at a potential risk for the development of resistance under selective pressure by fluoroquinolone treatment.

  6. Role of the electrochemical proton gradient in genetic transformation of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, W; Kooistra, J; Hellingwerf, K J; Konings, W N

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of homologous DNA by Haemophilus influenzae was studied as a function of the proton motive force in completely competent cultures in the pH range of 6 to 8. The composition and magnitude of the proton motive force were varied by using the ionophores valinomycin and nigericin (in the presence of various potassium ion concentrations) and by using protonophores. No interaction of the ionophores with the DNA transformation system itself was observed. Either component of the proton motive force, the electrical potential or the pH gradient, can drive the uptake of DNA, and the extent of the uptake of DNA is ultimately determined by the total proton motive force. The transformation frequency increases with the proton motive force, which reaches a maximum value at around -130 mV. These results are consistent with an electrogenic proton-DNA symport mechanism, but direct evidence for such a system is not available. The proton motive force was followed during competence development of H. influenzae at pH 8. In the initial phase (up to 50 min), the proton motive force remained constant at about -90 mV, whereas the transformation frequency rose steeply. In the second phase, the proton motive force increased. The transformation frequency in this phase increased with the proton motive force, as in completely competent cultures. These observations and the observed inhibition by NAD of both the proton motive force and the transformation frequency indicate that structural components of the competent state are formed in the initial phase of competence development, whereas the second phase is characterized by an increase of the proton motive force. PMID:6321440

  7. Structure of the outer membrane translocator domain of the Haemophilus influenzae Hia trimeric autotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Guoyu; Surana, Neeraj K; St Geme, Joseph W; Waksman, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Autotransporter proteins are defined by the ability to drive their own secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. The Hia autotransporter of Haemophilus influenzae belongs to the trimeric autotransporter subfamily and mediates bacterial adhesion to the respiratory epithelium. In this report, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal end of Hia, corresponding to the entire Hia translocator domain and part of the passenger domain (residues 992–1098). This domain forms a β-barrel with 12 transmembrane β-strands, including four strands from each subunit. The β-barrel has a central channel of 1.8 nm in diameter that is traversed by three N-terminal α-helices, one from each subunit. Mutagenesis studies demonstrate that the transmembrane portion of the three α-helices and the loop region between the α-helices and the neighboring β-strands are essential for stability of the trimeric structure of the translocator domain, and that trimerization of the translocator domain is a prerequisite for translocator activity. Overall, this study provides important insights into the mechanism of translocation in trimeric autotransporters. PMID:16688217

  8. Modelling the impact of vaccination on curtailing Haemophilus influenzae serotype 'a'.

    PubMed

    Konini, Angjelina; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2015-12-21

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen transmitted via direct contacts with an infectious individual. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of Hia, and the disease is treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis. With ongoing efforts for the development of an anti-Hia protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine, we sought to investigate the effect of vaccination on curtailing Hia infection. We present the first stochastic model of Hia transmission and control dynamics, and parameterize it using available estimates in the literature. Since both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity wane with time, model simulations show three important results. First, vaccination of only newborns cannot eliminate the pathogen from the population, even when a booster program is implemented with a high coverage. Second, achieving and maintaining a sufficiently high level of herd immunity for pathogen elimination requires vaccination of susceptible individuals in addition to a high vaccination coverage of newborns. Third, for a low vaccination rate of susceptible individuals, a high coverage of booster dose may be needed to raise the level of herd immunity for Hia eradication. Our findings highlight the importance of vaccination and timely boosting of the individual׳s immunity within the expected duration of vaccine-induced protection against Hia. When an anti-Hia vaccine becomes available, enhanced surveillance of Hia incidence and herd immunity could help determine vaccination rates and timelines for booster doses necessary to eliminate Hia from affected populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Atack, John M.; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Fox, Kate L.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Brockman, Kenneth L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Smith, Arnold L.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system. PMID:26215614

  10. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal and haemophilus influenzae diseases in northwestern ontario, canada (2010-2015).

    PubMed

    Eton, Vic; Schroeter, Annette; Kelly, Len; Kirlew, Michael; Tsang, Raymond S W; Ulanova, Marina

    2017-09-22

    North American Indigenous populations experience a high burden of invasive bacterial infections. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) have multiple antigenic variants, the existing vaccines cannot prevent all cases. This study addresses current epidemiology of invasive Hi and pneumococcal disease (IPD) in a region of Northwestern Ontario, Canada with a relatively high (82%) Indigenous population. Data were retrieved from retrospective chart review at a hospital servicing a population of 29,000 (82% Indigenous), during January 2010-July 2015. Ten cases of invasive Hi disease and 37 cases of IPD were identified. Incidence of both in the study population (6.3 and 23.1/100,000/year, respectively) exceeded national rates (1.6 and 9.0/100,000/year). Hi serotype a (Hia) was the most common (50%), followed by non-typeable Hi (20%). In adults, 77% of IPD were caused by serotypes included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. All paediatric IPD cases were caused by serotypes not included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The case-fatality rates were 10% for invasive Hi and 2.7% for IPD. Most cases exhibited substantial co-morbidity. In Northwestern Ontario, invasive Hia disease incidence exceeds that of Hib in the pre-Hib vaccine era. This provides strong support for the development of a new Hia vaccine. Improved pneumococcal vaccination of high-risk adults in the region is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M.; Kerwin, James; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24 hr biofilms, two were found only in 96 hr biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or were cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation. PMID:24942343

  12. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Induces Sustained Lung Oxidative Stress and Protease Expression

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul T.; Sharma, Roleen; O’Sullivan, Kim; Selemidis, Stavros; Lim, Steven; Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Lo, Camden; Prasad, Jyotika; Callaghan, Judy; McLaughlin, Peter; Farmer, Michael; Steinfort, Daniel; Jennings, Barton; Ngui, James; Broughton, Bradley R. S.; Thomas, Belinda; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hickey, Michael; Holmes, Peter W.; Hansbro, Philip; Bardin, Philip G.; Holdsworth, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a prevalent bacterium found in a variety of chronic respiratory diseases. The role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation is not well defined. In this study we examined the effect of NTHi on two important lung inflammatory processes 1), oxidative stress and 2), protease expression. Bronchoalveolar macrophages were obtained from 121 human subjects, blood neutrophils from 15 subjects, and human-lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines from 16 subjects. Cells were stimulated with NTHi to measure the effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular trap formation. We also measured the production of the oxidant, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the lungs of mice infected with this bacterium. NTHi induced widespread production of 3-NT in mouse lungs. This bacterium induced significantly increased ROS production in human fibroblasts, epithelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils; with the highest levels in the phagocytic cells. In human macrophages NTHi caused a sustained, extracellular production of ROS that increased over time. The production of ROS was associated with the formation of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures which co-expressed the protease metalloproteinase-12. The formation of the macrophage extracellular trap-like structures was markedly inhibited by the addition of DNase. In this study we have demonstrated that NTHi induces lung oxidative stress with macrophage extracellular trap formation and associated protease expression. DNase inhibited the formation of extracellular traps. PMID:25793977

  13. Loss of plasmids containing cloned inserts coding for novobiocin resistance or novobiocin sensitivity in Haemophilus influenzae

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, J.K.; Spikes, D.; Ledbetter, M.

    1984-06-01

    Plasmids pNov1 and pNov1s, coding for resistance and sensitivity to novobiocin, respectively, were readily lost from wild-type Haemophilus influenzae but retained in a strain lacking an inducible defective prophage. The plasmid loss could be partly or wholly eliminated by a low-copy-number mutation in the plasmid or by the presence of certain antibiotic resistance markers in the host chromosome. Release of both phage HP1c1, measured by plaque assay, and defective phage, measured by electron microscopy, was increased when the plasmids were present. The frequency of recombination between pNov1 and the chromosome, causing the plasmid to be converted to pNov1s, could under some circumstances be decreased from the normal 60 to 70% to below 10% by the presence of a kanamycin resistance marker in the chromosome. This suggested that a gene product coded for by the plasmid, the expression of which was affected by the kanamycin resistance marker, was responsible for the high recombination frequency. Evidence was obtained from in vitro experiments that the gene product was a gyrase.

  14. Spectrum and burden of severe Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, H.

    1999-01-01

    The validity of the commonly held view that Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases are rare in Asia is challenged in this article by a thorough analysis of the data available, often in languages other than English. The entire spectrum of Hib disease, not only meningitis, was taken into account, and over 100 reports from 25 countries were explored. Hib was the leading agent among nontuberculous childhood meningitis cases in two-thirds of 48 studies from 22 countries. Data from six countries showed that all the classical manifestations of invasive Hib diseases are also found in Asia, except epiglottitis, which was nearly absent. In Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China Hib disease is rare, but otherwise the incidences seemed not to deviate much from those in Europe until recently, around 25 per 100,000 for meningitis and at least 40 per 100,000 per year for the classical Hib manifestations combined at age 0-4 years. In total, more than 200,000 cases of Hib disease are estimated to occur annually in Asia. Because nonbacteraemic Hib pneumonia remains mostly undetected, the total burden is probably significantly greater. The issue will be fully elucidated only by prospective epidemiological and clinical studies, but awaiting them should not delay large-scale vaccinations against Hib throughout Asia. PMID:10612883

  15. SAFETY OF A CRM197-CONJUGATED HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE IN KOREAN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Guadagno, Alana; Costantini, Marco; Baehner, Frank; Kim, Yeon Ho; Ahn, Seung In; Son, Ki Hyuk; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of meningitis and pneumonia with high morbidity and mortality rates in young children. The introduction of effective and well-tolerated conjugate Hib vaccines, has nearly eradicated this disease in many countries. We investigated the safety of the Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine in a multi-center post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study. Korean children (N = 764) aged 1-33 months were enrolled when receiving a routine primary immunization or a booster vaccine with Hib PRP-CRM197 and solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded using a diary card for 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. In this study, AEs were reported by 66% of subjects but were generally mild, with 42% of subjects reporting solicited AEs and 46% reporting unsolicited AEs. Among the unsolicited AEs, 98% were determined to be unrelated to the study vaccine. The studied Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine was well tolerated by the study group and found to have a similar safety profile to that reported in other clinical studies. This vaccine is suitable for routine immunization against Hib disease among Korean children. AEs due to this vaccine will continue to be monitored.

  16. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae Causing Invasive Disease in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Grau, Imma; Tubau, Fe; Calatayud, Laura; Pallares, Roman; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) has changed since the introduction of the Hi type b (Hib) vaccine. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and molecular epidemiology of Hi invasive disease in adults. Methods Clinical data of the 82 patients with Hi invasive infections were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotyping, and genotyping were studied (2008–2013). Results Men accounted for 63.4% of patients (whose mean age was 64.3 years). The most frequent comorbidities were immunosuppressive therapy (34.1%), malignancy (31.7%), diabetes, and COPD (both 22%). The 30-day mortality rate was 20.7%. The majority of the strains (84.3%) were nontypeable (NTHi) and serotype f was the most prevalent serotype in the capsulated strains. The highest antimicrobial resistance was for cotrimoxazole (27.1%) and ampicillin (14.3%). Twenty-three isolates (32.9%) had amino acid changes in the PBP3 involved in resistance. Capsulated strains were clonal and belonged to clonal complexes 6 (serotype b), 124 (serotype f), and 18 (serotype e), whereas NTHi were genetically diverse. Conclusions Invasive Hi disease occurred mainly in elderly and those with underlying conditions, and it was associated with a high mortality rate. NTHi were the most common cause of invasive disease and showed high genetic diversity. PMID:25379704

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Causing Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Calatayud, Laura; Martí, Sara; Tubau, Fe; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes a variety of respiratory infections. The objectives of the study were to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility, to characterize the β-lactam resistance, and to establish a genetic characterization of NTHi isolates. Ninety-five NTHi isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution, and the ftsI gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, PBP3) was PCR amplified and sequenced. Thirty (31.6%) isolates were non-susceptible to ampicillin (MIC≥2 mg/L), with 10 of them producing β-lactamase type TEM-1 as a resistance mechanism. After ftsI sequencing, 39 (41.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in PBP3, with Asn526→ Lys being the most common (69.2%). Eighty-four patients were successfully treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. Eight patients died due either to aspiration or complication of their comorbidities. In conclusion, NTHi causing CAP in adults shows high genetic diversity and is associated with a high rate of reduced susceptibility to ampicillin due to alterations in PBP3. The analysis of treatment and outcomes demonstrated that NTHi strains with mutations in the ftsI gene could be successfully treated with ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones. PMID:24349303

  18. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  19. Reliability of Haemophilus influenzae biofilm measurement via static method, and determinants of in vitro biofilm production.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Najla A; Tristram, Stephen; Narkowicz, Christian K; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2016-12-01

    Information is lacking regarding the precision of microtitre plate (MTP) assays used to measure biofilm. This study investigated the precision of an MTP assay to measure biofilm production by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and the effects of frozen storage and inoculation technique on biofilm production. The density of bacterial final growth was determined by absorbance after 18-20 h incubation, and biofilm production was then measured by absorbance after crystal violet staining. Biofilm formation was categorised as high and low for each strain. For the high biofilm producing strains of NTHi, interday reproducibility of NTHi biofilm formation measured using the MTP assay was excellent and met the acceptance criteria, but higher variability was observed in low biofilm producers. Method of inoculum preparation was a determinant of biofilm formation with inoculum prepared directly from solid media showing increased biofilm production for at least one of the high producing strains. In general, storage of NTHi cultures at -80 °C for up to 48 weeks did not have any major effect on their ability to produce biofilm.

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of the noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae: adaptation and pathogenesis in the human airways.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Junkal; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Moleres, Javier; Puig, Carmen; Bengoechea, José A

    2012-12-01

    The human respiratory tract contains a highly adapted microbiota including commensal and opportunistic pathogens. Noncapsulated or nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a human-restricted member of the normal airway microbiota in healthy carriers and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The duality of NTHi as a colonizer and as a symptomatic infectious agent is closely related to its adaptation to the host, which in turn greatly relies on the genetic plasticity of the bacterium and is facilitated by its condition as a natural competent. The variable genotype of NTHi accounts for its heterogeneous gene expression and variable phenotype, leading to differential host-pathogen interplay among isolates. Here we review our current knowledge of NTHi diversity in terms of genotype, gene expression, antigenic variation, and the phenotypes associated with colonization and pathogenesis. The potential benefits of NTHi diversity studies discussed herein include the unraveling of pathogenicity clues, the generation of tools to predict virulence from genomic data, and the exploitation of a unique natural system for the continuous monitoring of long-term bacterial evolution in human airways exposed to noxious agents. Finally, we highlight the challenge of monitoring both the pathogen and the host in longitudinal studies, and of applying comparative genomics to clarify the meaning of the vast NTHi genetic diversity and its translation to virulence phenotypes.

  1. A novel branching pattern in the lipopolysaccharide expressed by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 1232.

    PubMed

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Li, Jianjun; Hood, Derek W; Moxon, E Richard; Schweda, Elke K H

    2013-08-30

    We report the novel branching pattern in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expressed by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strain 1232. The strain expressed the β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-[α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→7)]-d-α-d-Hepp-(1→6)-β-d-Glcp chain linked to the proximal heptose (HepI) of the conserved triheptosyl inner-core moiety of NTHi LPS: l-α-d-HepIIIp-(1→2)-[PEtn→6]-l-α-d-HepIIp-(1→3)-l-α-d-HepIp-(1→5)-[PPEtn→4]-α-Kdop-(2→6)-lipid A. The structure has been elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS(n)) on O-deacylated LPS and core oligosaccharide (OS) materials, as well as HPLC-ESI-MS(n) on permethylated, dephosphorylated OS. It was also found that a tetrasaccharide unit bearing sialic acid [α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-GlcNAcp-(1→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→] could substitute O-4 of the β-d-Glcp linked to HepI. In addition, the distal heptose (HepIII) was substituted by PCho→6-β-d-Galp-(1→ at the O-2 position.

  2. Transcriptome signature in young children with acute otitis media due to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keyi; Chen, Linlin; Kaur, Ravinder; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. In our recent paper in Microbes and Infection we described the transcriptome signature elicited from PBMCs at onset of AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the current study we found very different results with NTHi AOM infections; 5.1% of 29 187 genes were differentially regulated by more than 2-fold at the onset of AOM compared with the pre-infection healthy state in the same children. Among the 1487 transcripts, 100 genes associated with the immune defense response were specifically analyzed. About half of the differentially regulated genes associated with antibacterial activity and the cell-mediated immune response were activated and half were suppressed. The important signatures for NTHi in children suggested that the balance of the immune response was toward suppression. Moreover, 90% of the genes associated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine response were down-regulated. The genes associated with the classic complement pathway were down-regulated, although the alternative complement pathway genes were up-regulated. These results provide the first human transcriptome data identifying gene expression in the immune response to be predominantly down-regulated at the onset of AOM due to NTHi.

  3. Ampicillin resistance of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Germany 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lâm, Thiên-Trí; Claus, Heike; Elias, Johannes; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    In this retrospective study covering a four-year observation period (2009-2012) the prevalence of aminopenicillin resistance of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) in Germany was analyzed. The main resistance mechanism against aminopenicillins is conferred by β-lactamase production, which can be inhibited by clavulanate or sulbactam. Apart from that, β-lactamase negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) has been reported due to mutations in the penicillin-binding protein PBP3. The prevalence of BLNAR varies considerably in different countries. Representative data from Germany have not been reported. We analyzed 704 culture positive cases with bacteraemia or detection of Hi in cerebrospinal fluid; 82 isolates (11.6%) were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin. Among these isolates, 65 (79.3%) showed β-lactamase production, and 17 isolates (20.7%) were phenotypic BLNAR Hi. The proportion of ampicillin resistant isolates remained stable over the observation period. Analysis of the PBP3 sequences of 133 isolates with different susceptibility phenotypes including susceptible, BLNAR, and β-lactamase positive isolates, revealed a high genetic diversity. Previously described PBP3 mutations were associated to elevated MIC values, albeit not exclusively, since few highly susceptible strains were found to be positive for the mutations. Furthermore, since ampicillin susceptible strains with elevated MIC values frequently harboured these mutations, prediction of the resistance phenotype using ftsI sequencing appears to be impossible.

  4. Role of the nuclease of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in dispersal of organisms from biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cho, Christine; Chande, Aroon; Gakhar, Lokesh; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Ketterer, Margaret; Shao, Jian; Gotoh, Kenji; Foster, Eric; Hunt, Jason; O'Brien, Erin; Apicella, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) forms biofilms in the middle ear during human infection. The biofilm matrix of NTHI contains extracellular DNA. We show that NTHI possesses a potent nuclease, which is a homolog of the thermonuclease of Staphylococcus aureus. Using a biofilm dispersal assay, studies showed a biofilm dispersal pattern in the parent strain, no evidence of dispersal in the nuclease mutant, and a partial return of dispersion in the complemented mutant. Quantitative PCR of mRNA from biofilms from a 24-h continuous flow system demonstrated a significantly increased expression of the nuclease from planktonic organisms compared to those in the biofilm phase of growth (P < 0.042). Microscopic analysis of biofilms grown in vitro showed that in the nuclease mutant the nucleic acid matrix was increased compared to the wild-type and complemented strains. Organisms were typically found in large aggregates, unlike the wild-type and complement biofilms in which the organisms were evenly dispersed throughout the biofilm. At 48 h, the majority of the organisms in the mutant biofilm were dead. The nuclease mutant formed a biofilm in the chinchilla model of otitis media and demonstrated a propensity to also form similar large aggregates of organisms. These studies indicate that NTHI nuclease is involved in biofilm remodeling and organism dispersal.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae resides in tonsils and uses immunoglobulin D binding as an evasion strategy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kalpana; Nordström, Therése; Mörgelin, Matthias; Brant, Marta; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes respiratory tract infections and is also considered to be a commensal, particularly in preschool children. Tonsils from patients (n = 617) undergoing tonsillectomy due to chronic infection or hypertrophy were examined. We found that 51% of tonsils were positive for Hi, and in 95% of cases analyzed in detail (n = 39) Hi resided intracellularly in the core tonsillar tissue. Patients harbored several intracellular unique strains and the majority were nontypeable Hi (NTHi). Interestingly, the isolated NTHi bound soluble immunoglobulin (Ig) D at the constant heavy chain domain 1 as revealed by recombinant IgD/IgG chimeras. NTHi also interacted with B lymphocytes via the IgD B-cell receptor, resulting in internalization of bacteria, T-cell-independent activation via Toll-like receptor 9, and differentiation into non-NTHi-specific IgM-producing cells. Taken together, IgD-binding NTHi leads to an unspecific immune response and may support the bacteria to circumvent the host defense.

  6. Antisera Against Certain Conserved Surface-Exposed Peptides of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Are Protective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause significant disease, including otitis media in children, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and invasive disease in susceptible populations. No vaccine is currently available to prevent NTHi disease. The interactions of NTHi and the human host are primarily mediated by lipooligosaccharide and a complex array of surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) that act as receptors, sensors and secretion systems. We hypothesized that certain SEPs are present in all NTHi strains and that a subset of these may be antibody accessible and represent protective epitopes. Initially we used 15 genomic sequences available in the GenBank database along with an additional 11 genomic sequences generated by ourselves to identify the core set of putative SEPs present in all strains. Using bioinformatics, 56 core SEPs were identified. Molecular modeling generated putative structures of the SEPs from which potential surface exposed regions were defined. Synthetic peptides corresponding to ten of these highly conserved surface-exposed regions were used to raise antisera in rats. These antisera were used to assess passive protection in the infant rat model of invasive NTHi infection. Five of the antisera were protective, thus demonstrating their in vivo antibody accessibility. These five peptide regions represent potential targets for peptide vaccine candidates to protect against NTHi infection. PMID:26390432

  7. Extensive cotransformation of natural variation into chromosomes of naturally competent Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Lee, Jae Yun; Firme, Marlo; Sinha, Sunita; Redfield, Rosemary J

    2014-04-16

    Naturally competent bacterial species actively take up environmental DNA and can incorporate it into their chromosomes by homologous recombination. This can bring genetic variation from environmental DNA to recipient chromosomes, often in multiple long "donor" segments. Here, we report the results of genome sequencing 96 colonies of a laboratory Haemophilus influenzae strain, which had been experimentally transformed by DNA from a diverged clinical isolate. Donor segments averaged 6.9 kb (spanning several genes) and were clustered into recombination tracts of ~19.5 kb. Individual colonies had replaced from 0.1 to 3.2% of their chromosomes, and ~1/3 of all donor-specific single-nucleotide variants were present in at least one recombinant. We found that nucleotide divergence did not obviously limit the locations of recombination tracts, although there were small but significant reductions in divergence at recombination breakpoints. Although indels occasionally transformed as parts of longer recombination tracts, they were common at breakpoints, suggesting that indels typically block progression of strand exchange. Some colonies had recombination tracts in which variant positions contained mixtures of both donor and recipient alleles. These tracts were clustered around the origin of replication and were interpreted as the result of heteroduplex segregation in the original transformed cell. Finally, a pilot experiment demonstrated the utility of natural transformation for genetically dissecting natural phenotypic variation. We discuss our results in the context of the potential to merge experimental and population genetic approaches, giving a more holistic understanding of bacterial gene transfer.

  8. Extensive Cotransformation of Natural Variation into Chromosomes of Naturally Competent Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Lee, Jae Yun; Firme, Marlo; Sinha, Sunita; Redfield, Rosemary J.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally competent bacterial species actively take up environmental DNA and can incorporate it into their chromosomes by homologous recombination. This can bring genetic variation from environmental DNA to recipient chromosomes, often in multiple long “donor” segments. Here, we report the results of genome sequencing 96 colonies of a laboratory Haemophilus influenzae strain, which had been experimentally transformed by DNA from a diverged clinical isolate. Donor segments averaged 6.9 kb (spanning several genes) and were clustered into recombination tracts of ~19.5 kb. Individual colonies had replaced from 0.1 to 3.2% of their chromosomes, and ~1/3 of all donor-specific single-nucleotide variants were present in at least one recombinant. We found that nucleotide divergence did not obviously limit the locations of recombination tracts, although there were small but significant reductions in divergence at recombination breakpoints. Although indels occasionally transformed as parts of longer recombination tracts, they were common at breakpoints, suggesting that indels typically block progression of strand exchange. Some colonies had recombination tracts in which variant positions contained mixtures of both donor and recipient alleles. These tracts were clustered around the origin of replication and were interpreted as the result of heteroduplex segregation in the original transformed cell. Finally, a pilot experiment demonstrated the utility of natural transformation for genetically dissecting natural phenotypic variation. We discuss our results in the context of the potential to merge experimental and population genetic approaches, giving a more holistic understanding of bacterial gene transfer. PMID:24569039

  9. Defining the DNA uptake specificity of naturally competent Haemophilus influenzae cells.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Hall, Ira M; Redfield, Rosemary J

    2012-09-01

    Some naturally competent bacteria exhibit both a strong preference for DNA fragments containing specific 'uptake sequences' and dramatic overrepresentation of these sequences in their genomes. Uptake sequences are often assumed to directly reflect the specificity of the DNA uptake machinery, but the actual specificity has not been well characterized for any bacterium. We produced a detailed analysis of Haemophilus influenzae's uptake specificity, using Illumina sequencing of degenerate uptake sequences in fragments recovered from competent cells. This identified an uptake motif with the same consensus as the motif overrepresented in the genome, with a 9 bp core (AAGTGCGGT) and two short flanking T-rich tracts. Only four core bases (GCGG) were critical for uptake, suggesting that these make strong specific contacts with the uptake machinery. Other core bases had weaker roles when considered individually, as did the T-tracts, but interaction effects between these were also determinants of uptake. The properties of genomic uptake sequences are also constrained by mutational biases and selective forces acting on USSs with coding and termination functions. Our findings define constraints on gene transfer by natural transformation and suggest how the DNA uptake machinery overcomes the physical constraints imposed by stiff highly charged DNA molecules.

  10. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Auckland children during the Hib vaccination era: 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Leung, Bonnie; Taylor, Susan; Drinkovic, Dragana; Roberts, Sally; Carter, Phil; Best, Emma

    2012-11-09

    To characterise Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease in the era of Hib vaccination, in children of the greater Auckland region of New Zealand. Identification of sterile site culture positive Hib via the Auckland hospital laboratories databases and national laboratory surveillance database in the time period; 1995 to 2009. There were a total of 26 cases in the Auckland Region. Over the 15-year period, the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease was 0.61 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.4-0.9) for children aged under 15 years and 1.65 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) for children aged under 5 years. Ninety-two percent were under 5 years and 54% were under 1 year. Sixty percent of the children were of Maori and Pacific ethnicity. The predominant diagnosis was meningitis, accounting for 15 cases (60%). There were no fatalities. Forty-eight percent of affected children were completely unimmunised with the Hib vaccine which has been fully funded on the National Immunisation Schedule since 1994. Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, the disease rates have greatly reduced in the Auckland region. Although ethnic disparities have improved amongst the cases that occur, immunisation rates in cases are low and infants remain most at risk. Current emphasis on intensifying immunisation programmes to achieve higher vaccination rates and timeliness of delivery will help in efforts to achieve elimination of the disease in New Zealand.

  11. Insights on persistent airway infection by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Christian P; Gallo, Mary C; Murphy, Timothy F

    2017-06-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacterial cause of infection of the lower airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection of the COPD airways causes acute exacerbations, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. NTHi has evolved multiple mechanisms to establish infection in the hostile environment of the COPD airways, allowing the pathogen to persist in the airways for months to years. Persistent infection of the COPD airways contributes to chronic airway inflammation that increases symptoms and accelerates the progressive loss of pulmonary function, which is a hallmark of the disease. Persistence mechanisms of NTHi include the expression of multiple redundant adhesins that mediate binding to host cellular and extracellular matrix components. NTHi evades host immune recognition and clearance by invading host epithelial cells, forming biofilms, altering gene expression and displaying surface antigenic variation. NTHi also binds host serum factors that confer serum resistance. Here we discuss the burden of COPD and the role of NTHi infections in the course of the disease. We provide an overview of NTHi mechanisms of persistence that allow the pathogen to establish a niche in the hostile COPD airways. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Interleukin-22 protects against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae infection: alteration during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sharan, R; Perez-Cruz, M; Kervoaze, G; Gosset, Pierre; Weynants, V; Godfroid, F; Hermand, P; Trottein, F; Pichavant, M; Gosset, P

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major health problem becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A large part of these disorders is associated with acute exacerbations resulting from infection by bacteria, such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these exacerbations is still elusive. We demonstrate herein that NTHi infection of mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), an experimental model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), not only causes acute pulmonary inflammation but also impairs the production of interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine with potential anti-bacterial activities. We also report that mice lacking IL-22, as well as mice exposed to CS, have a delayed clearance of NTHi bacteria and display enhanced alveolar wall thickening and airway remodeling compared with controls. Supplementation with IL-22 not only boosted bacterial clearance and the production of anti-microbial peptides but also limited lung damages induced by infection both in IL-22(-/-) and CS-exposed mice. In vitro exposure to CS extract altered the NTHi-induced IL-22 production by spleen cells. This study shows for the first time that a defect in IL-22 is involved in the acute exacerbation induced by NTHi infection during experimental COPD and opens the way to innovative therapeutic strategies.

  13. Relative Contributions of Lipooligosaccharide Inner and Outer Core Modifications to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Pau; Viadas, Cristina; Euba, Begoña; Hood, Derek W.; Barberán, Montserrat; Gil, Carmen; Grilló, María Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx that causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Existing evidence associates lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with disease, but the specific and relative contributions of NTHi LOS modifications to virulence properties of the bacterium have not been comprehensively addressed. Using NTHi strain 375, an isolate for which the detailed LOS structure has been determined, we compared systematically a set of isogenic mutant strains expressing sequentially truncated LOS. The relative contributions of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, the triheptose inner core, oligosaccharide extensions on heptoses I and III, phosphorylcholine, digalactose, and sialic acid to NTHi resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), self-aggregation, biofilm formation, cultured human respiratory epithelial infection, and murine pulmonary infection were assessed. We show that opsX, lgtF, lpsA, lic1, and lic2A contribute to bacterial resistance to AMP; lic1 is related to NTHi self-aggregation; lgtF, lic1, and siaB are involved in biofilm growth; opsX and lgtF participate in epithelial infection; and opsX, lgtF, and lpsA contribute to lung infection. Depending on the phenotype, the involvement of these LOS modifications occurs at different extents, independently or having an additive effect in combination. We discuss the relative contribution of LOS epitopes to NTHi virulence and frame a range of pathogenic traits in the context of infection. PMID:23980106

  14. Evidence for a Bicarbonate “Escort” Site in Haemophilus influenzae β-Carbonic Anhydrase†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Roger S.; Hoffmann, Katherine M.; Failing, Hannah; Mysliwiec, Margaret M.; Samardzic, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) allosteric site variants V47A and G41A were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. These variants have kcat/Km values similar to wild-type enzyme, and exhibit a similar dramatic decrease in catalytic activity at pH values below 8.0. However, both HICA-G41A and -V47A were serendipitously found to bind sulfate ion or bicarbonate ion near pairs of Glu50 and Arg64 residues located on the dimerization interface. In the case of HICA-V47A, bicarbonate ions simultaneously bind to both the dimerization interface and the allosteric sites. For HICA-G41A, 2 of 12 chains in the asymmetric unit bind bicarbonate ion exclusively at the dimerization interface, while the remaining 10 chains bind bicarbonate ion exclusively at the allosteric site. We propose that the new anion binding site along the dimerization interface of HICA is an “escort” site that represents an intermediate along the ingress/egress route of bicarbonate ion to/from the allosteric binding site. The structural evidence for sulfate binding at the “escort” site suggests that the mechanism of sulfate activation of HICA is the result of sulfate ion competing for bicarbonate at the “escort” site, preventing passage of bicarbonate from bulk solution to its allosteric site. PMID:20359198

  15. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of a Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis prevention programme in The Philippines.

    PubMed

    Limcangco, M R; Armour, C L; Salole, E G; Taylor, S J

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae in children under 5 years of age. Vaccines which can prevent this infection are available. To evaluate the costs and benefits of a 3-dose immunisation schedule in Manila, Philippines. Government and societal perspectives. A cost-benefit analysis based on a birth cohort of 100,000 children. The state of health of the cohort with and without a Hib immunisation programme was modelled over a 5-year period. A survey of medical records of patients with Hib in Manila provided data on the extent and cost of sequelae following infection. A 3-dose Hib vaccination programme given at ages 2, 3 and 4 months. The model predicted that vaccinating children against Hib meningitis would prevent 553 cases per year in a birth cohort of 100,000, at a cost of 56,200 Philippine pesos (PHP) [$US1,605; 1998 exchange rate] per case (base case assumptions of 90% vaccine efficacy rate, 95 per 100,000 Hib incidence rate, 85% vaccination coverage). Results from the cost-benefit analyses indicated that the saving to the government would be around PHP39 million ($US1.11 million), and the saving to society would be PHP255 million ($US7.28 million). There would be a positive economic benefit for the Philippine government and for the Filipino society if a Hib vaccination programme was introduced in Manila.

  17. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Tyler C; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L

    2015-06-23

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO₂ from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin.

  18. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  19. Relative contributions of lipooligosaccharide inner and outer core modifications to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morey, Pau; Viadas, Cristina; Euba, Begoña; Hood, Derek W; Barberán, Montserrat; Gil, Carmen; Grilló, María Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2013-11-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx that causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Existing evidence associates lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with disease, but the specific and relative contributions of NTHi LOS modifications to virulence properties of the bacterium have not been comprehensively addressed. Using NTHi strain 375, an isolate for which the detailed LOS structure has been determined, we compared systematically a set of isogenic mutant strains expressing sequentially truncated LOS. The relative contributions of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, the triheptose inner core, oligosaccharide extensions on heptoses I and III, phosphorylcholine, digalactose, and sialic acid to NTHi resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), self-aggregation, biofilm formation, cultured human respiratory epithelial infection, and murine pulmonary infection were assessed. We show that opsX, lgtF, lpsA, lic1, and lic2A contribute to bacterial resistance to AMP; lic1 is related to NTHi self-aggregation; lgtF, lic1, and siaB are involved in biofilm growth; opsX and lgtF participate in epithelial infection; and opsX, lgtF, and lpsA contribute to lung infection. Depending on the phenotype, the involvement of these LOS modifications occurs at different extents, independently or having an additive effect in combination. We discuss the relative contribution of LOS epitopes to NTHi virulence and frame a range of pathogenic traits in the context of infection.

  20. Gyrase activity and number of copies of the gyrase B subunit gene in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Juárez, E; Setlow, J K

    1985-01-01

    Gyrase activities in extracts of various strains of Haemophilus influenzae can differ by more than an order of magnitude (J. K. Setlow, E. Cabrera-Juárez, W. L. Albritton, D. Spikes, and A. Mutschler, J. Bacteriol. 164:525-534, 1985). Measurements of in vitro activity and copy number indicated that most of these differences arose from variations in the number of copies of the gene for the gyrase B subunit, with some strains containing multicopy plasmids coding for that subunit. The quantitative relationship between gyrase and copy number depended on the mutations in the plasmids and in the host. The gyrase and copy number were considerably lower in plasmid-bearing strains carrying the prophage HP1c1. Two mutations affecting gyrase that are apparently regulatory caused an increase in gyrase without a concomitant increase in copy number. The possibility that the in vivo gyrase activity did not reflect the in vitro data was explored by measurement of alkaline phosphatase and ATPase activity in the extracts. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased with increasing gyrase activity measured in vitro, but ATPase activity did not. We conclude that extra supercoiling enhanced transcription of the alkaline phosphatase gene but not the ATPase gene and that it is unlikely that there is much discrepancy between gyrase activity assayed in vitro and the activity in the cell. PMID:2997116

  1. Mechanisms of clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae from cigarette smoke-exposed mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, G J; Zavitz, C C J; Bauer, C M T; Stämpfli, M R

    2010-11-01

    Inflammation is prevalent in all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and, furthermore, individuals undergo periods of exacerbation, during which pulmonary inflammation increases, often a result of bacterial infection. The present study investigates the in vivo consequences of cigarette smoke exposure on bacterial challenge with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). BALB/c and C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke once or twice daily for a total period of 8 weeks. Exacerbated inflammation was observed in cigarette smoke-exposed compared to room-air-exposed mice following challenge with live or heat-inactivated NTHi. Accelerated clearance of live NTHi from cigarette smoke-exposed mice was independent of the establishment of chronic inflammation or direct toxic effects of cigarette smoke components on bacteria. Mechanistically, a cell-free factor in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contributed to accelerated clearance following passive transfer to naive mice. Further investigation demonstrated increased titres of immunoglobulin A in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but not the blood, of cigarette smoke-exposed mice, including increased titres of NTHi-specific immunoglobulin A, whereas heavy chain joining element (J(H))(-/-) B-cell-deficient cigarette smoke-exposed mice did not demonstrate decreased bacterial burden following challenge. The present results demonstrate that cigarette smoke exposure results in exacerbated inflammation following challenge with NTHi, as well as increased titres of antibodies that contribute to bacterial clearance.

  2. Repair of Single-Strand Deoxyribonucleic Acid Breaks in Ultraviolet Light-Irradiated Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, George J.; Barnhart, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The wild-type strain and mutants of Haemophilus influenzae, sensitive or resistant to ultraviolet light (UV) as defined by colony-forming ability, were examined for their ability to perform the incision and rejoining steps of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) dark repair process. Although UV-induced pyrimidine dimers are excised by the wild-type Rd and a resistant mutant BC200, the expected single-strand DNA breaks could not be detected on alkaline sucrose gradients. Repair of the gap resulting from excision must be rapid when experimental conditions described by us are employed. Single-strand DNA breaks were not detected in a UV-irradiated sensitive mutant (BC100) incapable of excising pyrimidine dimers, indicating that this mutant may be defective in a dimer-recognizing endonuclease. No single-strand DNA breaks were detected in a lysogen BC100(HP1c1) irradiated with a UV dose large enough to induce phage development in 80% of the cells. PMID:4540247

  3. Cost benefit analysis of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination programme in Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, G M; Kassis, I; Dagan, R

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The recent availability of Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) conjugate vaccines prompted an examination of the costs and benefits of four and three dose HIB prevention programmes targeting all newborns in Israel. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--A four dose programme would reduce the number of childhood (aged 0-13) HIB cases from 184.2 to 31.3 per year, yielding a benefit ($1.03 million) to cost ($3.55 million) ratio of just 0.29/l for health services only, based on a vaccine price of $7.74 per dose. When benefits resulting from a reduction in mild handicaps and severe neurological sequelae are included, the benefit ($4.48 million) to cost ratio rises to 1.26/l and it reaches 1.45/l when the $0.66 million indirect benefits of reduced work absences and mortality are also included. Break even vaccine costs are $2.24 when health service benefits only are considered and $11.21 when all the benefits are included. CONCLUSION--In the absence of other projects with higher benefit to cost ratios, Israel should start to provide a nationwide HIB vaccination programme since the monetary benefits to society of such a programme will exceed the costs to society. A barrier to implementation may occur, however, because the costs of the programme exceed the benefits to the health services alone. PMID:8120505

  4. Differential uptake and processing of a Haemophilus influenzae P5-derived immunogen by chinchilla dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago; Munson, Robert S; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2008-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation and modulation of immune responses after immunization via their ability to process and present antigen to naive T cells. We wanted to examine the role of DCs in the development of protective immunity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced experimental otitis media (OM) after intranasal immunization of chinchillas with an NTHI P5-derived synthetic peptide immunogen called LB1. As chinchilla DCs have not been described, we adapted well-established protocols to induce the differentiation of chinchilla bone marrow precursor cells into DCs, which resulted in cells that were morphologically and phenotypically similar to DCs of other species. In vitro, chinchilla DCs readily internalized LB1, upregulated expression of the maturation markers CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class II, and presented processed LB1 to primed CD3+ T cells, which resulted in antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. In vivo, LB1-activated DCs trafficked from the chinchilla nasal cavity primarily to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues and were detected in close proximity to CD3+ T cells within this lymphoid aggregate. These data are the first to characterize chinchilla DCs and their functional properties. Furthermore, they suggest an important role for chinchilla DCs in the development of protective immunity against experimental NTHI-induced OM after intranasal immunization.

  5. In vitro selection of resistance in haemophilus influenzae by 4 quinolones and 5 beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catherine; Kosowska, Klaudia; Bozdogan, Bülent; Credito, Kim; Dewasse, Bonifacio; McGhee, Pamela; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-05-01

    We tested abilities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefdinir to select resistant mutants in 5 beta-lactamase positive and 5 beta-lactamase negative Haemophilus influenzae strains by single and multistep methodology. In multistep tests, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefpodoxime exposure did not cause >4-fold minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase after 50 days. One mutant selected by cefdinir had one amino acid substitution (Gly490Glu) in PBP3 and became resistant to cefdinir. Cefixime exposure caused 8-fold MIC-increase in 1 strain with TEM but the mutant remained cefixime susceptible and had no alteration in PBP3 or TEM. Among 10 strains tested, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin caused >4-fold MIC increase in 6, 6, 5, and 2 strain, respectively. Despite the increases in quinolone MICs, none of the mutants became resistant to quinolones by established criteria. Quinolone selected mutants had quindone resistance-determining region (QRDR) alterations in GyrA, GyrB, ParC, ParE. Four quinolone mutants had no QRDR alterations. Among beta-lactams cefdinir and cefixime selected one mutant each with higher MICs however amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cefpodoxime exposure did not select resistant mutants.

  6. Structural basis for haem piracy from host haemopexin by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Zambolin, Silvia; Clantin, Bernard; Chami, Mohamed; Hoos, Sylviane; Haouz, Ahmed; Villeret, Vincent; Delepelaire, Philippe

    2016-05-18

    Haemophilus influenzae is an obligate human commensal/pathogen that requires haem for survival and can acquire it from several host haemoproteins, including haemopexin. The haem transport system from haem-haemopexin consists of HxuC, a haem receptor, and the two-partner-secretion system HxuB/HxuA. HxuA, which is exposed at the cell surface, is strictly required for haem acquisition from haemopexin. HxuA forms complexes with haem-haemopexin, leading to haem release and its capture by HxuC. The key question is how HxuA liberates haem from haemopexin. Here, we solve crystal structures of HxuA alone, and HxuA in complex with the N-terminal domain of haemopexin. A rational basis for the release of haem from haem-haemopexin is derived from both in vivo and in vitro studies. HxuA acts as a wedge that destabilizes the two-domains structure of haemopexin with a mobile loop on HxuA that favours haem ejection by redirecting key residues in the haem-binding pocket of haemopexin.

  7. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  8. Structural basis for haem piracy from host haemopexin by Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Zambolin, Silvia; Clantin, Bernard; Chami, Mohamed; Hoos, Sylviane; Haouz, Ahmed; Villeret, Vincent; Delepelaire, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an obligate human commensal/pathogen that requires haem for survival and can acquire it from several host haemoproteins, including haemopexin. The haem transport system from haem-haemopexin consists of HxuC, a haem receptor, and the two-partner-secretion system HxuB/HxuA. HxuA, which is exposed at the cell surface, is strictly required for haem acquisition from haemopexin. HxuA forms complexes with haem-haemopexin, leading to haem release and its capture by HxuC. The key question is how HxuA liberates haem from haemopexin. Here, we solve crystal structures of HxuA alone, and HxuA in complex with the N-terminal domain of haemopexin. A rational basis for the release of haem from haem-haemopexin is derived from both in vivo and in vitro studies. HxuA acts as a wedge that destabilizes the two-domains structure of haemopexin with a mobile loop on HxuA that favours haem ejection by redirecting key residues in the haem-binding pocket of haemopexin. PMID:27188378

  9. Resistance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms is independent of biofilm size.

    PubMed

    Reimche, Jennifer L; Kirse, Daniel J; Whigham, Amy S; Swords, W Edward

    2017-02-01

    The inflammatory middle ear disease known as otitis media can become chronic or recurrent in some cases due to failure of the antibiotic treatment to clear the bacterial etiological agent. Biofilms are known culprits of antibiotic-resistant infections; however, the mechanisms of resistance for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we utilized in vitro static biofilm assays to characterize clinical strain biofilms and addressed the hypothesis that biofilms with greater biomass and/or thickness would be more resistant to antimicrobial-mediated eradication than thinner and/or lower biomass biofilms. Consistent with previous studies, antibiotic concentrations required to eliminate biofilm bacteria tended to be drastically higher than concentrations required to kill planktonic bacteria. The size characterizations of the biofilms formed by the clinical isolates were compared to their minimum biofilm eradication concentrations for four antibiotics. This revealed no correlation between biofilm thickness or biomass and the ability to resist eradication by antibiotics. Therefore, we concluded that biofilm size does not play a role in antibiotic resistance, suggesting that reduction of antibiotic penetration may not be a significant mechanism for antibiotic resistance for this bacterial opportunist. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Displays a Prevalent Surface Structure Molecular Pattern in Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Silvia; Hood, Derek W.; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Morey, Pau; Servin, Alain; Liñares, Josefina; Oliver, Antonio; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2011-01-01

    Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram negative pathogen that causes acute respiratory infections and is associated with the progression of chronic respiratory diseases. Previous studies have established the existence of a remarkable genetic variability among NTHi strains. In this study we show that, in spite of a high level of genetic heterogeneity, NTHi clinical isolates display a prevalent molecular feature, which could confer fitness during infectious processes. A total of 111 non-isogenic NTHi strains from an identical number of patients, isolated in two distinct geographical locations in the same period of time, were used to analyse nine genes encoding bacterial surface molecules, and revealed the existence of one highly prevalent molecular pattern (lgtF+, lic2A+, lic1D+, lic3A+, lic3B+, siaA−, lic2C+, ompP5+, oapA+) displayed by 94.6% of isolates. Such a genetic profile was associated with a higher bacterial resistance to serum mediated killing and enhanced adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:21698169

  11. Variation in metabolic enzyme activity of persistent Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Möller, L V; Grasselier, H; Dankert, J; van Alphen, L

    1996-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae organisms were isolated from sputum specimens prospectively collected from 40 patients with cystic fibrosis during 2 years to study variations in the metabolic enzyme activities of persistent H. influenzae strains as determined by biotyping. In total, 97 distinct H. influenzae strains without variations in their major outer membrane protein (MOMP) patterns and 73 MOMP variants derived from 30 of these distinct strains were obtained. Twelve distinct strains and 42 MOMP variant strains were isolated at multiple time points during the study period, indicating the persistence of these strains. Among the 54 persistent H. influenzae strains, 22 (41%) strains with stable MOMP compositions showed random variations in biotypes. In 39 of 103 (38%) H. influenzae strains, biotype changes coincided with MOMP variations. Biotype variations were the result of both the loss and the acquisition of enzyme activities. The results of the study indicate that changes in metabolic enzyme activity occur randomly during the persistence of H. influenzae organisms in cystic fibrosis patients, irrespective of MOMP variations.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae responds to glucocorticoids used in asthma therapy by modulation of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Earl, Chris S; Keong, Teh Wooi; An, Shi-qi; Murdoch, Sarah; McCarthy, Yvonne; Garmendia, Junkal; Ward, Joseph; Dow, J Maxwell; Yang, Liang; O'Toole, George A; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are used as a main treatment to reduce airway inflammation in people with asthma who suffer from neutrophilic airway inflammation, a condition frequently associated with Haemophilus influenzae colonization. Here we show that glucocorticosteroids have a direct influence on the behavior of H. influenzae that may account for associated difficulties with therapy. Using a mouse model of infection, we show that corticosteroid treatment promotes H. influenzae persistence. Transcriptomic analysis of bacteria either isolated from infected mouse airway or grown in laboratory medium identified a number of genes encoding regulatory factors whose expression responded to the presence of glucocorticosteroids. Importantly, a number of these corticosteroid-responsive genes also showed elevated expression in H. influenzae within sputum from asthma patients undergoing steroid treatment. Addition of corticosteroid to H. influenzae led to alteration in biofilm formation and enhanced resistance to azithromycin, and promoted azithromycin resistance in an animal model of respiratory infection. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that H. influenzae can respond directly to corticosteroid treatment in the airway potentially influencing biofilm formation, persistence and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment.

  13. Increase in Genetic Diversity of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype b (Hib) Strains after Introduction of Hib Vaccination in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schouls, Leo M.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Pol, Ingrid; Schot, Corrie; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Vauterin, Paul; Wilderbeek, Dorus; Witteveen, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in The Netherlands in the number of cases of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib). To study a possible change in the Hib population that could explain the rise in incidence, a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) was developed to genotype H. influenzae isolates. The MLVA enabled the differentiation of H. influenzae serotype b strains with higher discriminatory power than multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLVA profiles of noncapsulated H. influenzae and H. influenzae serotype f strains were more heterogeneous than serotype b strains and were distinct from Hib, although some overlap occurred. The MLVA was used to genotype a collection of 520 H. influenzae serotype b strains isolated from patients in The Netherlands with invasive disease. The strains were collected from 1983 from 2002, covering a time period of 10 years before and 9 years after the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the Dutch national vaccination program. MLVA revealed a sharp increase in genetic diversity of Hib strains isolated from neonates to 4-year-old patients after 1993, when the Hib vaccine was introduced. Hib strains isolated from patients older than 4 years in age were genetically diverse, and no significant change in diversity was seen after the introduction of the vaccine. These observations suggest that after the introduction of the Hib vaccine young children no longer constitute the reservoir for Hib and that they are infected by adults carrying genetically diverse Hib strains. PMID:15956392

  14. Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination.

    PubMed

    Adam, H J; Richardson, S E; Jamieson, F B; Rawte, P; Low, D E; Fisman, D N

    2010-05-28

    The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections was evaluated in Ontario between 1989 and 2007 to assess the impact of the introduction of the conjugate H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine in the early 1990 s on Hib and non-Hib serotypes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts as well as the possibility of "strain replacement" with non-vaccine H. influenzae strains. Data were collected by the provincial Public Health Laboratories-Toronto, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, which performed almost all serotyping on invasive (blood, CSF, other sterile sites) H. influenzae strains isolated in the province during the study period. Temporal trends for Hib, other typeable strains, and non-typeable H. influenzae were evaluated by Poisson regression, controlling for the specimen submissions. Prior to infant Hib vaccination, the most commonly observed serotype was serotype b (64.9%). Subsequently, 70.3%, 13.6%, and 9.4% of isolates were non-typeable, serotype f, and serotype b, respectively. Infant Hib vaccination resulted in a decrease in Hib incidence in all age groups (pooled IRR 0.432) and marked increases of non-typeable and serotype f H. influenzae in children aged <5 years (IRR 2.4 and 3.0, respectively). Vaccination against Hib has altered the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae infections in Ontario. Prevention of invasive Hib disease was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated age groups. Invasive H. influenzae infection now commonly presents as sepsis due to non-typeable H. influenzae in older individuals. However, strain replacement of Hib with serotype f and non-typeable strains in children under 5 years was documented.

  15. N-Nitrosocarbaryl-induced mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae strains deficient in repair and recombination.

    PubMed

    Beattie, K L

    1975-02-01

    Mutagenesis was studied in repair- and recombination-deficient strains of Haemophilus influenzae after treatment with N-nitrosocarbaryl (NC). Three different strains of H. influenzae carrying mutations affecting excision-repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers exhibited normal repair of premutational lesions (as detected by decreased mutation yield resulting from post-treatment DNA synthesis delay) and normal nonreplicative mutation fixation. This indicated that neither of these phenomena are caused by the smae repair mechanism that removes UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA. The recombination-deficient mutant recI is apparently deficient in the replication-dependent mode of NC-induced mutation fixation. This conclusion is based on the following results: (I) NC-induced mutagenesis is lower in the recI strain than in rec+ cells. (2) Repair of premutational lesions (which depends on the existence of replication-dependent mutation fixation for its detection) was not detected in the recI strain. (3) When nonreplicative mutation fixation and final mutation frequency were measured in the same experiment, about I/4 to I/3 of the final mutation yield could be accounted for by nonreplicative mutation fixation in the rec+ strain, whereas all of the mutation could be accounted for in the recI strain by the nonreplicative mutation fixation. (4) When mutation fixation in strain dna9 recI was followed at the permissive (36 degrees) and nonpermissive (41 degrees) temperatures, it became apparent that in the recI strain replication-dependent mutation fixation occurs at early times, but these newly fixed mutations are unstable and disappear at later times, leaving only the mutations fixed by the nonreplicative process. The recI strain exhibits normal repair of NC-induced single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds in the DNA labeled before treatment, but is slow in joining discontinuties present in DNA synthesized after treatment. The results are consistent with the idea that

  16. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  17. Optimising the use of conjugate vaccines to prevent disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Caroline L; McVernon, Jodie; Ramsay, Mary E; Whitney, Cynthia G; Mulholland, E Kim; Goldblatt, David; Hombach, Joachim; Kieny, Marie-Paule

    2008-08-18

    Conjugate vaccines exist that offer protection against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and selected serogroups/serotypes of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. These vaccines are not only able to prevent serious disease, but they also provide protection against asymptomatic carriage. The resulting herd immunity effects have been striking, and have played an important role in the public health success of conjugate vaccination programmes. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the current evidence on conjugate vaccines and to identify important areas for further study, in order to inform the debate regarding the best use of these vaccines.

  18. HPAEC-PAD method for the analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Alex; van der Put, Robert M F; Beurret, Michel

    2013-09-01

    A gradient method has been devised for the rapid analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). As compared with published procedures, peak shape and sensitivity were significantly improved with this approach, analysis time was short and there was little interference from impurities. The limits of detection and quantification were established with a purified reference polysaccharide. We propose this method as a practical alternative for the analysis of minute amounts of Hib polysaccharide, which can be lower than with the conventional approaches.

  19. The first reported case of possible Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine failure from Kuwait and literature-review.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Prashant; Al-Obaid, Ina'am Ahmad; Omar, Nehad Gamal Al-Deen

    2014-01-01

    A 17-month-old vaccinated Kuwaiti boy presented with meningitis. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular antigen was detected in his blood, CSF and urine. The microorganism failed to grow in culture. This case represents the first report of possible Hib vaccine failure from Kuwait. This report examines the possible reasons for this failure by reviewing the literature and emphasizes the need to broaden the definition of vaccine failure with the aim of optimizing the timing of the vaccine booster dose for prematurely born children and establishing continuous surveillance for Hib vaccine failure.

  20. Genetic control of prophage induction in Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to psoralen plus near-uv light

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.; Notani, N.K.

    1980-09-01

    Prophage S2 could be induced by psoralen plus near-uv light (PNUV) from a wild-type strain of Haemophilus influenzae, from uv light-sensitive strains uvr-1 and uvr-2, and PNUV-sensitive strains PSO1 and PSO7, but not from a recombination-deficient strain, rec-1. The levels of prophage induction were comparable in the wild type and an ATP-dependent DNase-deficient strain, KW31, even though the PNUV-induced degradation in the latter strain was considerably lower. Prophage induction could be observed even with chloramphenicol present before, during, and 30 min after PNUV treatment.

  1. Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone with CP-45,899 against large inocula of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P K; Washington, J A

    1981-01-01

    Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone, alone and in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor CP-45,899, was tested against inocula of 10(7) colony-forming units of beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b per ml. Of 19 strains tested, 10 required greater than or equal to 64 microgram of cefoperazone per ml for killing, whereas no strains were killed by less than 64 microgram of CP-45,899 per ml. Synergy occurred with the combination of 4 microgram of each agent per ml against 9 of the 10 cefoperazone-resistant strains. PMID:6269484

  2. Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-03-01

    Although Haemophilus influenzae is a common etiologic agent of pneumonia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the characteristics of this pneumonia have not been adequately assessed. We have prospectively studied features of H. influenzae pneumonia in 26 consecutive HIV-infected inpatients. Most of these patients were severely immunosuppressed; 73.1% had a CD4+ cell count <100/microL. A subacute clinical presentation was observed in 27% of the patients and was associated with a higher degree of immunosuppression (P=.04). Bilateral lung infiltrates were noted radiographically in 57.7% of the cases. The mortality attributable to H. influenzae pneumonia was 11.5%. Thus, pneumonia caused by H. influenzae affects mainly patients with advanced HIV disease, and since its clinical and radiological features may be diverse, this etiology should be considered when pneumonia occurs in patients with advanced HIV infection. The mortality rate associated with H. influenzae pneumonia is not higher than that occurring in the general population.

  3. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  4. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  6. HPAEC-PAD quantification of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide in upstream and downstream samples.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Robert M F; de Haan, Alex; van den IJssel, Jan G M; Hamidi, Ahd; Beurret, Michel

    2015-11-27

    Due to the rapidly increasing introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and other conjugate vaccines worldwide during the last decade, reliable and robust analytical methods are needed for the quantitative monitoring of intermediate samples generated during fermentation (upstream processing, USP) and purification (downstream processing, DSP) of polysaccharide vaccine components. This study describes the quantitative characterization of in-process control (IPC) samples generated during the fermentation and purification of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), derived from Hib. Reliable quantitative methods are necessary for all stages of production; otherwise accurate process monitoring and validation is not possible. Prior to the availability of high performance anion exchange chromatography methods, this polysaccharide was predominantly quantified either with immunochemical methods, or with the colorimetric orcinol method, which shows interference from fermentation medium components and reagents used during purification. Next to an improved high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method, using a modified gradient elution, both the orcinol assay and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses were evaluated. For DSP samples, it was found that the correlation between the results obtained by HPAEC-PAD specific quantification of the PRP monomeric repeat unit released by alkaline hydrolysis, and those from the orcinol method was high (R(2)=0.8762), and that it was lower between HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC results. Additionally, HPSEC analysis of USP samples yielded surprisingly comparable results to those obtained by HPAEC-PAD. In the early part of the fermentation, medium components interfered with the different types of analysis, but quantitative HPSEC data could still be obtained, although lacking the specificity of the HPAEC-PAD method. Thus, the HPAEC

  7. Ferric Uptake Regulator and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Estevan A.; Szelestey, Blake R.; Newsom, David E.; White, Peter; Mason, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microorganism of the human nasopharynx, and yet is also an opportunistic pathogen of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Host microenvironments influence gene expression patterns, likely critical for NTHi persistence. The host sequesters iron as a mechanism to control microbial growth, and yet iron limitation influences gene expression and subsequent production of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. Careful regulation of iron uptake, via the ferric uptake regulator Fur, is essential in multiple bacteria, including NTHi. We hypothesized therefore that Fur contributes to iron homeostasis in NTHi, is critical for bacterial persistence, and likely regulates expression of virulence factors. Toward this end, fur was deleted in the prototypic NTHi clinical isolate, 86-028NP, and we assessed gene expression regulated by Fur. As expected, expression of the majority of genes that encode proteins with predicted roles in iron utilization was repressed by Fur. However, 14 Fur-regulated genes encode proteins with no known function, and yet may contribute to iron utilization or other biological functions. In a mammalian model of human otitis media, we determined that Fur was critical for bacterial persistence, indicating an important role for Fur-mediated iron homeostasis in disease progression. These data provide a profile of genes regulated by Fur in NTHi and likely identify additional regulatory pathways involved in iron utilization. Identification of such pathways will increase our understanding of how this pathogen can persist within host microenvironments, as a common commensal and, importantly, as a pathogen with significant clinical impact. PMID:23381990

  8. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique CA; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. FINDINGS From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine. PMID:28225904

  9. Transformed Recombinant Enrichment Profiling Rapidly Identifies HMW1 as an Intracellular Invasion Locus in Haemophilus influenza

    PubMed Central

    Moleres, Javier; Sinha, Sunita; Fernández-Calvet, Ariadna; Porsch, Eric A.; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Garmendia, Junkal

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species actively take up and recombine homologous DNA into their genomes, called natural competence, a trait that offers a means to identify the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation. Here, we describe “transformed recombinant enrichment profiling” (TREP), in which natural transformation is used to generate complex pools of recombinants, phenotypic selection is used to enrich for specific recombinants, and deep sequencing is used to survey for the genetic variation responsible. We applied TREP to investigate the genetic architecture of intracellular invasion by the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae, a trait implicated in persistence during chronic infection. TREP identified the HMW1 adhesin as a crucial factor. Natural transformation of the hmw1 operon from a clinical isolate (86-028NP) into a laboratory isolate that lacks it (Rd KW20) resulted in ~1,000-fold increased invasion into airway epithelial cells. When a distinct recipient (Hi375, already possessing hmw1 and its paralog hmw2) was transformed by the same donor, allelic replacement of hmw2AHi375 by hmw1A86-028NP resulted in a ~100-fold increased intracellular invasion rate. The specific role of hmw1A86-028NP was confirmed by mutant and western blot analyses. Bacterial self-aggregation and adherence to airway cells were also increased in recombinants, suggesting that the high invasiveness induced by hmw1A86-028NP might be a consequence of these phenotypes. However, immunofluorescence results found that intracellular hmw1A86-028NP bacteria likely invaded as groups, instead of as individual bacterial cells, indicating an emergent invasion-specific consequence of hmw1A-mediated self-aggregation. PMID:27124727

  10. Response to conjugate pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in asplenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, A; de Weerdt, O; van Velzen-Blad, H; Biesma, D H; Rijkers, G T

    2011-01-17

    We determined the immunogenicity of conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines by quantitative analysis of the antibody response in asplenic patients. To that end, we vaccinated 92 patients with a conjugated Hib vaccine and 54 received two doses of conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), followed at six months by a plain polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). Antibody concentrations were measured before and three weeks after vaccination. After one dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 46% of the patients reached the antibody threshold of ≥ 1.0 μg/mL for all 7 tested vaccine serotypes. This percentage rose to 54% after the second dose of PCV7 and did not increase further after PPV23. Over 90% of patients had antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL for at least 5 out of the 7 conjugated pneumococcal serotypes after 2 doses of PCV7. For serotypes, included in the PPV23 vaccine only, 25% (PPS3)-100% (PPS19A) of the patients reached antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL after one dose of PPV23. For Hib, 97% of the patients reached the threshold concentration of ≥ 1.0 μg/mL after one dose of vaccine. It can be concluded that the majority of asplenic patients had a sufficient response to conjugated vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hib, reflected by a ≥ 1.0 μg/mL antibody response. Inclusion of conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines might be of additional value in the vaccination schedule for asplenic patients because of their high immunogenicity.

  11. Fate of Donor Deoxyribonucleic Acid in a Highly Transformation-Deficient Strain of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1974-01-01

    A transformation-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae (efficiency of transformation 104-fold less than that of the wild type), designated TD24, was isolated by selection for sensitivity to mitomycin C. In its properties the mutant was equivalent to recA type mutants of Escherichia coli. The TD24 mutation was linked with the str-r marker (about 30%) and only weakly linked with the nov-r2.5 marker. The uptake of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was normal in the TD24 strain, but no molecules with recombinant-type activity (molecules carrying both the donor and the resident marker) were formed. In the mutant the intracellular presynaptic fate of the donor DNA was the same as that in the transformation-proficient (wild-type) strain, and the radioactive label of the donor DNA associated covalently with the recipient chromosome in about the same quantity as in the wild type. However, many fewer donor atoms were associated with segments of the mutant's recipient chromosome as compared with segments of the wild-type chromosome. In the mutant the association was accompanied by complete loss of donor marker activity. The lack of donor marker activity of the donor-recipient complex of DNA isolated from the mutant was not due to lack of uptake of the complex by the second recipient and its inability to associate with the second recipient's chromosome. Because the number of donor-atom-carrying resident molecules was higher than could be accounted for by the lengths of presynaptic donor molecules, we favor the idea that the association of donor DNA atoms with the mutant chromosome results from local DNA synthesis rather than from dispersive integration of donor DNA by recombination. PMID:4546806

  12. Otitis media associated polymorphisms in the hemin receptor HemR of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    LaCross, Nathan C.; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonize the human pharynx asymptomatically, and are also an important cause of otitis media (OM). Previous studies have demonstrated that some genes are more prevalent in OM-causing NTHi strains than in commensal strains, suggesting a role in virulence. These studies, however, are unable to investigate the possible associations between gene polymorphisms and disease. This study examined amino acid polymorphisms and sequence diversity in a potential virulence gene, the hemin receptor hemR, from a previously characterized NTHi strain collection containing both commensal and OM organisms to identify possible associations between the polymorphisms and otitis media. The full open reading frame of hemR was sequenced from a total of 146 NTHi isolates, yielding a total of 47 unique HemR amino acid sequences. The predicted structure of HemR showed substantial similarity to a class of monomeric TonB dependent, ligand-gated channels involved in iron acquisition in other gram negative bacteria. Fifteen amino acid polymorphisms were significantly more prevalent at the 90% confidence level among commensal compared to OM isolates. Upon controlling for the confounding effect of population structure, over half of the polymorphism-otitis media relationships lost statistical significance, emphasizing the importance of assessing the effect of population structure in association studies. The seven polymorphisms that retained significance were dispersed throughout the protein in various functional and structural domains, including the signal peptide, N-terminal plug domain, and intra- and extracellular loops. The alternate amino acid of only one of these seven polymorphisms was more common among OM isolates, demonstrating a strong trend toward the consensus sequence among disease causing NTHi. We hypothesize that variability at these positions in HemR may result in a reduced ability to acquire iron, rendering NTHi with such versions of the gene

  13. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  14. Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2012-07-13

    This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Azithromycin Susceptibility and Administration Efficacy for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Euba, Begoña; Moleres, Javier; Viadas, Cristina; Barberán, Montserrat; Caballero, Lucía; Grilló, María-Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Liñares, Josefina; Leiva, José

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). COPD is an inflammatory disease of the airways, and exacerbations are acute inflammatory events superimposed on this background of chronic inflammation. Azithromycin (AZM) is a macrolide antibiotic with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and a clinically proven potential for AECOPD prevention and management. Relationships between AZM efficacy and resistance by NTHI and between bactericidal and immunomodulatory effects on NTHI respiratory infection have not been addressed. In this study, we employed two pathogenic NTHI strains with different AZM susceptibilities (NTHI 375 [AZM susceptible] and NTHI 353 [AZM resistant]) to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of AZM on the NTHI-host interplay. At the cellular level, AZM was bactericidal toward intracellular NTHI inside alveolar and bronchial epithelia and alveolar macrophages, and it enhanced NTHI phagocytosis by the latter cell type. These effects correlated with the strain MIC of AZM and the antibiotic dose. Additionally, the effect of AZM on NTHI infection was assessed in a mouse model of pulmonary infection. AZM showed both preventive and therapeutic efficacies by lowering NTHI 375 bacterial counts in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and by reducing histopathological inflammatory lesions in the upper and lower airways of mice. Conversely, AZM did not reduce bacterial loads in animals infected with NTHI 353, in which case a milder anti-inflammatory effect was also observed. Together, the results of this work link the bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects of AZM and frame the efficacy of this antibiotic against NTHI respiratory infection. PMID:25712355

  16. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein P6 of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Michel, Lea Vacca; Snyder, Joy; Schmidt, Rachel; Milillo, Jennifer; Grimaldi, Kyle; Kalmeta, Breanna; Khan, M Nadeem; Sharma, Sharad; Wright, Leslie Kate; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-07-01

    The majority of outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria are tethered to the membrane via an attached lipid moiety and oriented facing in toward the periplasmic space; a few lipoproteins have been shown to be surface exposed. The outer membrane lipoprotein P6 from the Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is surface exposed and a leading vaccine candidate for prevention of NTHi infections. However, we recently found that P6 is not a transmembrane protein as previously thought (L. V. Michel, B. Kalmeta, M. McCreary, J. Snyder, P. Craig, M. E. Pichichero, Vaccine 29:1624-1627, 2011). Here we pursued studies to show that P6 has a dual orientation, existing infrequently as surface exposed and predominantly as internally oriented toward the periplasmic space. Flow cytometry using three monoclonal antibodies with specificity for P6 showed surface staining of whole NTHi cells. Confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that antibodies targeted surface-exposed P6 of intact NTHi cells and not internal P6 in membrane-compromised or dead cells. Western blots of two wild-type NTHi strains and a mutant NTHi strain that does not express P6 showed that P6 antibodies do not detect a promiscuous epitope on NTHi. Depletion of targets to nonlipidated P6 significantly decreased bactericidal activity of human serum. Protease digestion of surface-exposed P6 demonstrated that P6 is predominantly internally localized in a manner similar to its homologue Pal in Escherichia coli. We conclude that P6 of NTHi is likely inserted into the OM in two distinct orientations, with the predominant orientation facing in toward the periplasm.

  17. A chalcone with potent inhibiting activity against biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Baothong, Sudarat; Khetkam, Pichit; Chokchaisiri, Suwadee; Suksamrarn, Apichart

    2014-10-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), an important human respiratory pathogen, frequently causes biofilm infections. Currently, resistance of bacteria within the biofilm to conventional antimicrobials poses a major obstacle to effective medical treatment on a global scale. Novel agents that are effective against NTHi biofilm are therefore urgently required. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic chalcones with various chemical substituents were evaluated in vitro for their antibiofilm activities against strong biofilm-forming strains of NTHi. Of the test chalcones, 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, its mean minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 ) being 16 μg/mL (71.35 μM), or approximately sixfold more active than the reference drug, azithromycin (MBIC50 419.68 μM). The inhibitory activity of chalcone 8, which is a chemically modified chalcone, appeared to be superior to those of the natural chalcones tested. Significantly, chalcone 8 inhibited biofilm formation by all studied NTHi strains, indicating that the antibiofilm activities of this compound occur across multiple strong-biofilm forming NTHi isolates of different clinical origins. According to antimicrobial and growth curve assays, chalcone 8 at concentrations that decreased biofilm formation did not affect growth of NTHi, suggesting the biofilm inhibitory effect of chalcone 8 is non-antimicrobial. In terms of structure-activity relationship, the possible substituent on the chalcone backbone required for antibiofilm activity is discussed. These findings indicate that 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) has powerful antibiofilm activity and suggest the potential application of chalcone 8 as a new therapeutic agent for control of NTHi biofilm-associated infections.

  18. Detailed structural features of lipopolysaccharide glycoforms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 2019.

    PubMed

    Engskog, Mikael K R; Deadman, Mary; Li, Jianjun; Hood, Derek W; Schweda, Elke K H

    2011-07-15

    We have investigated the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strain 2019, a prototype strain that is used for studies of NTHi biology and disease. Analysis of LPS from wild type and lex2B, lpt3 and pgm mutant strains using NMR techniques and ESI-MS on O-deacylated LPS and core oligosaccharide material (OS), as well as ESI-MS(n) on permethylated dephosphorylated OS, confirmed the previously established structure in which lactose is linked to the proximal heptose (HepI) of the conserved triheptosyl inner-core moiety, l-α-D-Hepp-(1→2)-[PEtn→6]-l-α-D-Hepp-(1→3)-l-α-D-Hepp-(1→5)-[PPEtn→4]-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A. Importantly, our data provide further structural detail whereby extensions from the middle heptose (HepII) are now characterized as β-D-Galp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3 and truncated versions thereof. PEtn substitutes O-3 of the distal heptose (HepIII) of the inner-core moiety. This PEtn substituent was absent in the lpt3 mutant indicating that Lpt3 is the transferase required to add PEtn to the distal heptose. Interestingly, in the lex2B mutant strain HepIII was found to be substituted at O-2 by β-D-Glcp which, in turn, can be further extended. Contrary to previous findings, LPS of the pgm mutant strain contained minor glycoforms having β-D-Glcp linked to O-4 of HepI and also glycoforms with an additional PEtn which could be assigned to HepIII. Acetate groups and one glycine residue further substitute HepIII in NTHi 2019. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Kress-Bennett, Jennifer M.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A.; Powell, Evan; Longwell, Mark J.; Hillman, Todd; Blackwell, Tenisha; Byers, Barbara; Mell, Joshua C.; Post, J. Christopher; Hu, Fen Z.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Janto, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi) emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs). Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf) and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4) (KO) resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites. PMID:26977929

  20. Transformed Recombinant Enrichment Profiling Rapidly Identifies HMW1 as an Intracellular Invasion Locus in Haemophilus influenza.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Viadas, Cristina; Moleres, Javier; Sinha, Sunita; Fernández-Calvet, Ariadna; Porsch, Eric A; St Geme, Joseph W; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J; Garmendia, Junkal

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial species actively take up and recombine homologous DNA into their genomes, called natural competence, a trait that offers a means to identify the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation. Here, we describe "transformed recombinant enrichment profiling" (TREP), in which natural transformation is used to generate complex pools of recombinants, phenotypic selection is used to enrich for specific recombinants, and deep sequencing is used to survey for the genetic variation responsible. We applied TREP to investigate the genetic architecture of intracellular invasion by the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae, a trait implicated in persistence during chronic infection. TREP identified the HMW1 adhesin as a crucial factor. Natural transformation of the hmw1 operon from a clinical isolate (86-028NP) into a laboratory isolate that lacks it (Rd KW20) resulted in ~1,000-fold increased invasion into airway epithelial cells. When a distinct recipient (Hi375, already possessing hmw1 and its paralog hmw2) was transformed by the same donor, allelic replacement of hmw2AHi375 by hmw1A86-028NP resulted in a ~100-fold increased intracellular invasion rate. The specific role of hmw1A86-028NP was confirmed by mutant and western blot analyses. Bacterial self-aggregation and adherence to airway cells were also increased in recombinants, suggesting that the high invasiveness induced by hmw1A86-028NP might be a consequence of these phenotypes. However, immunofluorescence results found that intracellular hmw1A86-028NP bacteria likely invaded as groups, instead of as individual bacterial cells, indicating an emergent invasion-specific consequence of hmw1A-mediated self-aggregation.

  1. Epitope-specific immune recognition of the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein 26.

    PubMed

    Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Novotny, Laura A; Massa, Helen M; Ulett, Glen C; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Kyd, Jennelle M; Cripps, Allan W

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies using rodent respiratory infection models of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection have established the 26-kDa outer membrane protein of the bacterium, OMP26, as a potential vaccine antigen for NTHi. This study undertook a comprehensive immunological identification of OMP26 T- and B-cell epitopes. A series of OMP26 peptides were constructed and regions of the OMP26 antigen involved in recognition by lymphocyte receptors and induction of acquired immune responses were identified. The dominant T-cell epitopes for OMP26 were located toward the C-terminus between amino acid residues 95 and 197 (T3+T4 region) as mapped using antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assays. The newly identified T-cell epitopes exhibited strong capacity for efficient T-cell activation, suggesting that, compared with other OMP26 regions; epitopes within the T3+T4 region have the highest affinity for binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. In contrast, the predominant B-cell epitopes of OMP26 were located more centrally within the molecule between amino acid residues 45 and 145 (T2+T3 region) as determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance assays. The T2+T3 region was immunodominant in several species including chinchilla, mice and rats when assessed using both mucosal and parenteral immunization regimes. In addition, the antibodies directed against the T2+T3 region bound to intact NTHi cell surface, according to flow cytometry. Collectively, these results specifically locate the amino acid sequences containing the OMP26 T- and B-cell epitopes, which, as newly mapped antigenic epitopes for lymphocyte recognition, will be useful to improve existing NTHi vaccine strategies. Comprehensive definition of the minimum epitope length required for optimal B- and T-cell responses requires further study.

  2. Natural immunity against Haemophilus influenza type B in splenectomised Beta-thalassaemia children.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Davami, Mohammad Hasan; Zabetian, Hassan; Yousefi, Alireza; Madani, Abdolhossien

    2014-11-01

    Patients with beta-thalassaemia major and asplenia have an increased risk of encapsulated bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) antibody concentrations in beta-thalassaemia patients with or without spleens. The Hib antibody concentrations were investigated in 850 patients with thalassaemia major, of whom 437 had undergone splenectomy. Hib antibody levels equal or greater than 1.0 μg mL(-1) were classified as long-term protection, those between 0.15 and less than 1.0 μg mL(-1) as short-term protection and those less than 0.15 μg mL(-1) as no protection. The mean Hib antibody level was lower in asplenic subjects than in non splenectomised subjects (0.39 ± 0.5 vs. 1.08 ± 0.55 μg mL(-1), p < 0.001). The protective antibody level prevalence in asplenic patients was significantly lower than that in patients with spleens (32.3% vs. 85.7%, p < 0.001). Protection against Hib decreased as the time interval after splenectomy increased from 57.2% at a less than 60 months interval to 10.8% at a greater than 120 months interval (p = 0.001). Nearly 30% of the 437 splenectomised subjects had long-term protection against Hib, whereas 64.4% of the 413 non splenectomised subjects had long-term protection (p < 0.001). Asplenic subjects had lower Hib antibody levels than non splenectomised subjects. Additionally, the antibody levels decreased as the time interval increased after splenectomy. A Hib vaccine recommendation for splenectomised thalassaemia major seems essential.

  3. Structural Requirements of the Major Protective Antibody to Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Hougs, Lotte; Juul, Lars; Svejgaard, Arne; Barington, Torben

    1999-01-01

    Protective antibodies to the important childhood pathogen Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are directed against the capsular polysaccharide (HibCP). Most of the antibody is encoded by a well-defined set of (“canonical”) immunoglobulin genes, including the Vκ A2 gene, and expresses an idiotypic marker (HibId-1). In comparison to noncanonical antibodies, the canonical antibody is generally of higher avidity, shows higher levels of in vitro bactericidal activity, and is more protective in infant rats. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we here characterize canonical HibCP antibodies expressed as antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) in Escherichia coli, define amino acids involved in antigen binding and idiotype expression, and propose a three-dimensional structure for the variable domains. We found that canonical Fabs, unlike a noncanonical Fab, bound effectively to HibCP in the absence of somatic mutations. Nevertheless, pronounced mutation-based affinity maturation was demonstrated in vivo. An almost perfect correlation was found between unmutated gene segments that mediated binding in vitro and those encoding canonical HibCP antibodies in vivo. Thus, the Vκ A2a gene could be replaced by the A2c gene but not by the highly homologous sister gene, A18b, corresponding to the demonstrated usage of A2c but not of A18b in vivo. Similarly, only Jκ1 and Jκ3, which predominate in the response in vivo, were able to facilitate binding in vitro. These findings suggest that the restricted immunoglobulin gene usage in HibCP antibodies reflects strict structural demands ensuring relatively high affinity prior to somatic mutations—requirements met by only a limited spectrum of immunoglobulin gene combinations. PMID:10225914

  4. Functional capacities of clonal antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, M H; Kim, K H; Anderson, P; Hetherington, S V; Park, M K

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important pathogen for young children, and children can be protected with antibodies (Abs) to Hib polysaccharide (PS) capsule, a linear polymer of ribosyl ribitol phosphate. The structure of anti-Hib-PS Abs has been well characterized at the molecular level; about two-thirds of anti-Hib-PS Abs use a V kappa gene named A2, and the remaining anti-Hib-PS Abs use one of many other VL genes. In order to understand the structural basis for the variability in the function of these Abs, we prepared 18 clonally pure Abs from adults and studied their affinity, avidity, bactericidal potency in vitro, and ability to reduce bacteremia in newborn rats. Affinities and avidities were determined as the inverse of the concentrations of short (3 repeating units) and long (20 repeating units) ligands which could bind 50% of anti-Hib-PS Ab in solution, respectively. No significant correlations between the protection of newborn rats and affinity (r = 0.02) or avidity (r = 0.16) were observed. The amount of Ab required to kill 50% of bacteria in vitro decreased with avidity (r = -0.32), as expected. However, Abs with high affinity were unexpectedly found to have less bactericidal activity (r = 0.38). This suggests that avidity may be a better predictor of Ab function than affinity. Affinity and avidity results were negatively correlated (r = 0.76, P = 0.0022), and Abs that had A2 V kappa gene products had higher avidity (P < 0.05) and lower affinity (P = 0.06) than Abs that had other VL genes. A possible explanation of these observations is that the epitope for Abs with the A2 gene is within the Hib-PS chain itself, whereas the epitope for Abs with a non-A2 gene is the terminus of Hib-PS. PMID:7622221

  5. Effect of piliation on interactions of Haemophilus influenzae type b with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, M F; Anderson, D C; Barrish, J; Mason, E O; Kaplan, S L

    1985-01-01

    Piliated, adherent (P+) and nonpiliated, nonadherent (P-) strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were compared with respect to their ability to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemiluminescence (CL) and superoxide (O2-) generation and their susceptibility to phagocytosis by PMNs. P+ strains opsonized in normal human serum (NHS) induced significantly greater CL than did P- strains (500 X 10(5) +/- 112 X 10(5) versus 242 X 10(5) +/- 65 X 10(5) total counts per 60 min; P less than 0.001) when reacted with normal PMNs. Contributions of immunoglobulin and complement to CL activity in these mixtures were shown by findings of lower overall levels of CL when hypogammaglobulinemic serum or heat-inactivated NHS was used to opsonize either P+ or P- organisms. Results obtained with mixtures of hypogammaglobulinemic plus adsorbed heat-inactivated NHS (with P+ or P- organisms) suggested a role for an antipilus antibody in the enhancement of CL by these strains. NHS-opsonized P+ strains also induced significantly greater (P less than 0.002) O2- generation than did P- strains (2.83 +/- 0.08 versus 1.94 +/- 0.14 nmol of ferricytochrome c reduced per 10 min/10(6) PMN). Comparable ingestion of P+ or P- strains opsonized in NHS by PMNs was demonstrated by a radiolabeled uptake technique and transmission electron microscopy, and primary granule release (beta-glucuronidase) was comparable during ingestion of P+ or P- strains. The basis for the observed enhanced capacity of P+ Hib to stimulate PMN oxidative metabolism as compared with P- organisms is uncertain. Possible clinical implications of these findings deserve further study. Images PMID:2857685

  6. Prokaryotic High-Level Expression System in Producing Adhesin Recombinant Protein E of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Minoo; Bouzari, Saeed; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jafari, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesion protein E (PE) of Haemophilus influenzae is a 16 - 18 kDa protein with 160 amino acids which causes adhesion to epithelial cells and acts as a major factor in pathogenesis. Objectives: In this study, we performed cloning, expression and purification of PE as a candidate antigen for vaccine design upon further study. Materials and Methods: At first, the pe gene of NTHi ATCC 49766 strain (483 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, to sequence the resulted amplicon, it was cloned into TA vector (pTZ57R/T). In the next step, the sequenced gene was sub-cloned in pBAD/gIII A vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli TOP10. For overexpression, the recombinant bacteria were grown in broth medium containing arabinose and the recombinant protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography (Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid) (Ni-NTA agarose). Finally, the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAG) and confirmed by western blotting. Results: The cloned gene was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The sequenced gene was searched for homology in GenBank and 99% similarity was found to the already deposited genes in GenBank. Then we obtained PE using Ni-NTA agarose with up to 7 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The pe gene was successfully cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Finally, PE was obtained with high concentration. Due to high homology and similarity among the pe gene from NTHi ATCC 49766 and other NTHi strains in GenBank, we believe that the protein is a universal antigen to be used as a vaccine design candidate and further studies to evaluate its immunogenicity is underway. PMID:26034537

  7. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein E binds vitronectin and is important for serum resistance.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Teresia; Blom, Anna M; Zipfel, Peter F; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2009-08-15

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly causes local disease in the upper and lower respiratory tract and has recently been shown to interfere with both the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. The terminal pathway of the complement system is regulated by vitronectin that is a component of both plasma and the extracellular matrix. In this study, we identify protein E (PE; 16 kDa), which is a recently characterized ubiquitous outer membrane protein, as a vitronectin-binding protein of NTHi. A PE-deficient NTHi mutant had a markedly reduced survival in serum compared with the PE-expressing isogenic NTHi wild type. Moreover, the PE-deficient mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to both soluble and immobilized vitronectin. In parallel, PE-expressing Escherichia coli bound soluble vitronectin and adhered to immobilized vitronectin compared with controls. Surface plasmon resonance technology revealed a K(D) of 0.4 microM for the interaction between recombinant PE and immobilized vitronectin. Moreover, the PE-dependent vitronectin-binding site was located at the heparin-binding domains of vitronectin and the major vitronectin-binding domain was found in the central core of PE (aa 84-108). Importantly, vitronectin bound to the surface of NTHi 3655 reduced membrane attack complex-induced hemolysis. In contrast to incubation with normal human serum, NTHi 3655 showed a reduced survival in vitronectin-depleted human serum, thus demonstrating that vitronectin mediates a protective role at the bacterial surface. Our findings show that PE, by binding vitronectin, may play an important role in NTHi pathogenesis.

  8. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae clearance by alveolar macrophages is impaired by exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Regueiro, Verónica; Morey, Pau; Hood, Derek W; Saus, Carles; Sauleda, Jaume; Agustí, Alvar G N; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2009-10-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that causes respiratory infections and is associated with progression of respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoke is a main risk factor for development of respiratory infections and chronic respiratory diseases. Glucocorticoids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs, are still the most common therapy for these diseases. Alveolar macrophages are professional phagocytes that reside in the lung and are responsible for clearing infections by the action of their phagolysosomal machinery and promotion of local inflammation. In this study, we dissected the interaction between NTHI and alveolar macrophages and the effect of cigarette smoke on this interaction. We showed that alveolar macrophages clear NTHI infections by adhesion, phagocytosis, and phagolysosomal processing of the pathogen. Bacterial uptake requires host actin polymerization, the integrity of plasma membrane lipid rafts, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade. Parallel to bacterial clearance, macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) upon NTHI infection. In contrast, exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, although NTHI-induced TNF-alpha secretion was not abrogated. Mechanistically, our data showed that CSE reduced PI3K signaling activation triggered by NTHI. Treatment of CSE-exposed cells with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone reduced the amount of TNF-alpha secreted upon NTHI infection but did not compensate for CSE-dependent phagocytic impairment. The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke was observed in macrophage cell lines and in human alveolar macrophages obtained from smokers and from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique Ca; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-02-16

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine.

  10. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique Ca; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine.

  11. Economic evaluations of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chongmelaxme, Bunchai; Hammanee, Maythika; Phooaphirak, Wariya; Kotirum, Surachai; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, but China and Thailand have not used Hib vaccination in their national immunization programs. This systematic review aimed to update published economic evaluations of Hib vaccinations and to determine factors that potentially affected their cost-effectiveness. Searches were performed from the inception until December 2015 using 13 databases: CAB direct; CEA registry; EconLit; EMBASE; E-library; NHSEED; PAHO; POPLINE; PubMed; Redalyc project; RePEc; SciELO; and WHOLIS. Reference lists of relevant studies and grey literature were also searched. Full economic evaluations of Hib vaccination with results of costs and outcomes were included. The WHO checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Data from eligible studies were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Out of 830 articles, 27 were included. Almost half of the studies (12/27) were conducted in high-income countries. Twelve studies (12/27) investigated the Hib vaccine as an addition to the existing vaccination program. Most studies (17/27) examined a 3-dose schedule of Hib vaccine. Nineteen studies (19/27) reported the model used, where all were decision tree models. Most of the studies (23/27) demonstrated an economic value of Hib vaccination programs, key influential parameters being incidence rates of Hib disease and vaccine price. Hib vaccination programs are mostly found to be cost-effective across geographic regions and country income levels, and Hib vaccination is recommended for inclusion into all national immunization programs. The findings are expected to support policy-makers for making decisions on allocating limited resources of the Hib vaccination program effectively.

  12. Prospective safety monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae type b and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Junichiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Imuta, Naoko; Minami, Taketsugu; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Objective severe adverse events included anaphylactoid reaction, encephalitis/encephalopathy, neurological events, severe focal reactions, systemic eruption/urticaria, fever above 39℃ within 2 days after inoculation, and other complications requiring hospitalization. The incidences of these events for PRP-T and PCV7 administration were 0.68% (76/11,197) and 0.92% (28/3,049), respectively. No deaths or subsequent complications were reported during the course of the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events between the single and co-administration groups for both vaccines: PRP-T, 0.55% (31/5,662) versus 0.81% (45/5,535; P = 0.11); PCV7, 0.88% (11/1,247) versus 0.94% (17/1,802; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of vaccines including PRP-T and/or PCV7 does not increase the incidence of severe adverse events in Japanese children.

  13. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Clearance by Alveolar Macrophages Is Impaired by Exposure to Cigarette Smoke ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Regueiro, Verónica; Morey, Pau; Hood, Derek W.; Saus, Carles; Sauleda, Jaume; Agustí, Alvar G. N.; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2009-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that causes respiratory infections and is associated with progression of respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoke is a main risk factor for development of respiratory infections and chronic respiratory diseases. Glucocorticoids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs, are still the most common therapy for these diseases. Alveolar macrophages are professional phagocytes that reside in the lung and are responsible for clearing infections by the action of their phagolysosomal machinery and promotion of local inflammation. In this study, we dissected the interaction between NTHI and alveolar macrophages and the effect of cigarette smoke on this interaction. We showed that alveolar macrophages clear NTHI infections by adhesion, phagocytosis, and phagolysosomal processing of the pathogen. Bacterial uptake requires host actin polymerization, the integrity of plasma membrane lipid rafts, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade. Parallel to bacterial clearance, macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon NTHI infection. In contrast, exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, although NTHI-induced TNF-α secretion was not abrogated. Mechanistically, our data showed that CSE reduced PI3K signaling activation triggered by NTHI. Treatment of CSE-exposed cells with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone reduced the amount of TNF-α secreted upon NTHI infection but did not compensate for CSE-dependent phagocytic impairment. The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke was observed in macrophage cell lines and in human alveolar macrophages obtained from smokers and from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:19620348

  14. An unusual case of chronic prostatitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in an elderly Saudi patient: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohizea, Maha M.; Alotaibi, Fawzia E.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae has been reported on rare occasions as the cause of prostatitis and urinary tract infections. Here, we report a rare case of chronic prostatitis in a 52-year-old male with benign prostatic hypertrophy and discuss the possible underestimation of the true incidence of H. influenzae in genitourinary infections. This organism was identified only by its growth on chocolate agar, a medium that is not commonly used for urine cultures. PMID:25374472

  15. Necrotizing fasciitis of lower extremity caused by Haemophilus influenzae in a healthy adult with a closed lisfranc injury.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R Wesley; Casillas, Mark M; Almaguer, Enrique C

    2014-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare bacterial infection with an incidence of approximately 0.4 cases per 100,000 population. Although the majority of cases of necrotizing fasciitis are polymicrobial, a systematic review of the literature found only 7 reports of Haemophilus influenzae as the causal agent, and only 1 incidence of H influenzae causing the infection in a healthy adult. This report documents the unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult with a history of smoking as her only risk factor. The patient presented with a seemingly innocuous low-grade Lisfranc injury. Our case illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical management and medical treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

  16. Genomic Sequence of an Otitis Media Isolate of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Comparative Study with H. influenzae Serotype d, Strain KW20

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Dyer, David W.; Gillaspy, Allison; Ray, William C.; Mungur, Rachna; Carson, Matthew B.; Zhong, Huachun; Gipson, Jenny; Gipson, Mandy; Johnson, Linda S.; Lewis, Lisa; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Munson, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the Institute for Genomic Research completed the genome sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. Although extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, these data have not provided significant insight into disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae, as serotype d strains are not pathogens. In contrast, strains of nontypeable H. influenzae are the primary pathogens of chronic and recurrent otitis media in children. In addition, these organisms have an important role in acute otitis media in children as well as other respiratory diseases. Such strains must therefore contain a gene repertoire that differs from that of strain Rd. Elucidation of the differences between these genomes will thus provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of nontypeable H. influenzae. The genome of a representative nontypeable H. influenzae strain, 86-028NP, isolated from a patient with chronic otitis media was therefore sequenced and annotated. Despite large regions of synteny with the strain Rd genome, there are large rearrangements in strain 86-028NP's genome architecture relative to the strain Rd genome. A genomic island similar to an island originally identified in H. influenzae type b is present in the strain 86-028NP genome, while the mu-like phage present in the strain Rd genome is absent from the strain 86-028NP genome. Two hundred eighty open reading frames were identified in the strain 86-028NP genome that were absent from the strain Rd genome. These data provide new insight that complements and extends the ongoing analysis of nontypeable H. influenzae virulence determinants. PMID:15968074

  17. Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children < 5 years of age. Methods Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures) were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes). Results Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes); at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis) was cultured from 65.9% (60/91) of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes) and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes) were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes) were non-capsulated (NTHi) and 31.4% (11/35 episodes) were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples). NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7%) from recurrent episodes. Conclusions We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM. PMID:22335965

  18. Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carriage by Haemophilus influenzae in Healthy Children: A Study in the Mediterranean Coast Region.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Romero, María Del Mar; Espejo-García, María Pilar; Alfayate-Miguelez, Santiago; Ruiz-López, Francisco José; Zapata-Hernandez, David; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Ana Josefa

    2017-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, a colonizer of the nasopharynx, in children causes mainly otitis and sinusitis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization by H. influenzae, and the secondary objectives were to identify risk factors associated with H. influenzae colonization and its antibiotic susceptibility. A prospective, multicenter study of nasopharyngeal carriers of H. influenzae was conducted in the pediatric consulting rooms of 10 primary healthcare centers in Murcia (Spain). The study consisted of 404 healthy children less than 5 years of age and was carried out during winter (January-March) and summer (July-September) of 2015. A nasopharyngeal sample was collected from each child, and an epidemiologic survey was completed by a pediatrician. In total, 112 (27.7%) children had colonization by H. influenzae, with 73.2% of cases in winter and 26.8% of cases in summer (P < 0.001). The median (interquartile range) age in months of the colonized children (13 months, 12-47.5) was lower than that of the noncolonized children (46 months, 12-49) (P < 0.001). All H. influenzae found were nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). Among 112 isolates, 20% were ampicillin resistant, of which 10% produced β-lactamase, and 9% were ampicillin resistant and did not produce β-lactamase. A logistic regression analysis showed that young age (odds ratio: 0.98) and the winter period (odds ratio: 3.41; P < 0.001) were risk factors for colonization by NTHi. Colonization by NTHi is high in this Mediterranean coast region with remarkable ampicillin resistant. Younger age and the winter period were facilitating factors.

  19. Complete Deletion of the Fucose Operon in Haemophilus influenzae Is Associated with a Cluster in Multilocus Sequence Analysis-Based Phylogenetic Group II Related to Haemophilus haemolyticus: Implications for Identification and Typing

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Camilla; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhemolytic variants of Haemophilus haemolyticus are difficult to differentiate from Haemophilus influenzae despite a wide difference in pathogenic potential. A previous investigation characterized a challenging set of 60 clinical strains using multiple PCRs for marker genes and described strains that could not be unequivocally identified as either species. We have analyzed the same set of strains by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MLSA unambiguously allocated all study strains to either of the two species, while identification by 16S rRNA sequence was inconclusive for three strains. Notably, the two methods yielded conflicting identifications for two strains. Most of the “fuzzy species” strains were identified as H. influenzae that had undergone complete deletion of the fucose operon. Such strains, which are untypeable by the H. influenzae multilocus sequence type (MLST) scheme, have sporadically been reported and predominantly belong to a single branch of H. influenzae MLSA phylogenetic group II. We also found evidence of interspecies recombination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus within the 16S rRNA genes. Establishing an accurate method for rapid and inexpensive identification of H. influenzae is important for disease surveillance and treatment. PMID:26378279

  20. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  1. Complete Deletion of the Fucose Operon in Haemophilus influenzae Is Associated with a Cluster in Multilocus Sequence Analysis-Based Phylogenetic Group II Related to Haemophilus haemolyticus: Implications for Identification and Typing.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Nonhemolytic variants of Haemophilus haemolyticus are difficult to differentiate from Haemophilus influenzae despite a wide difference in pathogenic potential. A previous investigation characterized a challenging set of 60 clinical strains using multiple PCRs for marker genes and described strains that could not be unequivocally identified as either species. We have analyzed the same set of strains by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MLSA unambiguously allocated all study strains to either of the two species, while identification by 16S rRNA sequence was inconclusive for three strains. Notably, the two methods yielded conflicting identifications for two strains. Most of the "fuzzy species" strains were identified as H. influenzae that had undergone complete deletion of the fucose operon. Such strains, which are untypeable by the H. influenzae multilocus sequence type (MLST) scheme, have sporadically been reported and predominantly belong to a single branch of H. influenzae MLSA phylogenetic group II. We also found evidence of interspecies recombination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus within the 16S rRNA genes. Establishing an accurate method for rapid and inexpensive identification of H. influenzae is important for disease surveillance and treatment.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years at -70 °C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) if thawing is avoided during re-culture.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Beissbarth, J; Leach, A J

    2015-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae remains a major cause of disease worldwide requiring continued study. Recently, isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but not H. influenzae, were reported to survive long-term ultra-freeze storage in STGGB. We show that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years when thawing is avoided.

  3. Species-independent pharmacodynamics of gemifloxacin and ciprofloxacin with Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in an in vitro dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Yury A; Vostrov, Sergey N; Lubenko, Irene Yu; Zinner, Stephen H; Firsov, Alexander A

    2002-09-01

    To demonstrate the antimicrobial effects of the different pharmacokinetics of gemifloxacin and ciprofloxacin, the pharmacodynamics of gemifloxacin and ciprofloxacin were studied using two clinical isolates each of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of gemifloxacin (single dose, half-life 7.4 h) and ciprofloxacin (two 12-h doses, half-life 4 h) were simulated in an in vitro dynamic model over 8-fold ranges of the area under the curve (AUC)-to-MIC ratio: from 56 to 466 and 112-932 h, respectively. With each quinolone, log-linear relationships were established between the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (I(E)) and AUC/MIC. The I(E)-log AUC/MIC plots were bacterial strain- and species-independent and the gemifloxacin and ciprofloxacin plots were not superimposable. To generalize the findings obtained with the studied organisms, the effects of gemifloxacin and ciprofloxacin on hypothetical strains of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis with MICs equal to the respective MIC(90)s were predicted. Based on these predictions, the AUC/MIC(90)s of 320 mg gemifloxacin (800 h with H. influenzae and 400 h with M. catarrhalis) may be 31-34% more efficient than those of 2 x 500 mg ciprofloxacin (730 and 365 h, respectively). These data suggest greater efficacy of gemifloxacin against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis relative to ciprofloxacin at clinically achievable AUC/MIC ratios. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy

  4. A discrete role for FNR in the transcriptional response to moderate changes in oxygen by Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Donald; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Bent, Stephen J; Kidd, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    The survival by pathogenic bacteria within the specific conditions of an anatomical niche is critical for their persistence. These conditions include the combination of toxic chemicals, such as reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), with factors relevant to cell growth, such as oxygen. Haemophilus influenzae senses oxygen levels largely through the redox state of the intracellular fumarate-nitrate global regulator (FNR). H. influenzae certainly encounters oxygen levels that fluctuate, but in reality, these would rarely reach a state that results in FNR being fully reduced or oxidized. We were therefore interested in the response of H. influenzae to ROS and RNS at moderately high or low oxygen levels and the corresponding role of FNR. At these levels of oxygen, even though the growth rate of an H. influenzae fnr mutant was similar to wild type, its ROS and RNS tolerance was significantly different. Additionally, the subtle changes in oxygen did alter the whole cell transcriptional profile and this was different between the wild type and fnr mutant strains. It was the changed whole cell profile that impacted on ROS/RNS defence, but surprisingly, the FNR-regulated, anaerobic nitrite reductase (NrfA) continued to be expressed and had a role in this phenotype.

  5. Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Mölling, Paula; Herrmann, Björn

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.

  6. Destabilization of tetranucleotide repeats in Haemophilus influenzae mutants lacking RnaseHI or the Klenow domain of PolI.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Christopher D; Sweetman, Wendy A; Moxon, E Richard

    2005-01-01

    A feature of Haemophilus influenzae genomes is the presence of several loci containing tracts of six or more identical tetranucleotide repeat units. These repeat tracts are unstable and mediate high frequency, reversible alterations in the expression of surface antigens. This process, termed phase variation (PV), enables H.influenzae to rapidly adapt to fluctuations in the host environment. Perturbation of lagging strand DNA synthesis is known to destabilize simple sequence repeats in yeast and Escherichia coli. By using a chromosomally located reporter construct, we demonstrated that the mutation of an H.influenzae rnhA (encoding RnaseHI) homologue increases the mutation rates of tetranucleotide repeats approximately 3-fold. Additionally, deletion of the Klenow domain of DNA polymerase I (PolI) resulted in a approximately 35-fold increase in tetranucleotide repeat-mediated PV rates. Deletion of the PolI 5'>3' exonuclease domain appears to be lethal. The phenotypes of these mutants suggest that delayed or mutagenic Okazaki fragment processing destabilizes H.influenzae tetranucleotide repeat tracts.

  7. Destabilization of tetranucleotide repeats in Haemophilus influenzae mutants lacking RnaseHI or the Klenow domain of PolI

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Christopher D.; Sweetman, Wendy A.; Moxon, E. Richard

    2005-01-01

    A feature of Haemophilus influenzae genomes is the presence of several loci containing tracts of six or more identical tetranucleotide repeat units. These repeat tracts are unstable and mediate high frequency, reversible alterations in the expression of surface antigens. This process, termed phase variation (PV), enables H.influenzae to rapidly adapt to fluctuations in the host environment. Perturbation of lagging strand DNA synthesis is known to destabilize simple sequence repeats in yeast and Escherichia coli. By using a chromosomally located reporter construct, we demonstrated that the mutation of an H.influenzae rnhA (encoding RnaseHI) homologue increases the mutation rates of tetranucleotide repeats ∼3-fold. Additionally, deletion of the Klenow domain of DNA polymerase I (PolI) resulted in a ∼35-fold increase in tetranucleotide repeat-mediated PV rates. Deletion of the PolI 5′>3′ exonuclease domain appears to be lethal. The phenotypes of these mutants suggest that delayed or mutagenic Okazaki fragment processing destabilizes H.influenzae tetranucleotide repeat tracts. PMID:15653640

  8. Antibody response to the patient's own Haemophilus influenzae isolate can support the aetiology in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Strålin, Kristoffer; Holmberg, Hans; Olcén, Per

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the clinical importance of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from sputum samples, an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assay was developed, using the patient's own isolate as the antigen. The method was tested on samples from six patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and H. influenzae isolated from blood (n=2), sputum (n=3) or both (n=1), and on two healthy adults with H. influenzae isolated from the nasopharynx. Between acute and convalescent sera, a four-fold IgG antibody increase was achieved in five of six LRTI patients, including the three blood culture-positive patients. One LRTI patient and the two asymptomatic carriers showed stable antibody levels against their own isolate. Although small, the study indicates that indirect IF can be a promising tool for determining whether a H. influenzae strain represents the probable cause of infection or just a strain colonising the airways. More extensive studies should be performed in order to establish the usefulness of the assay.

  9. Haemophilus influenzae protein E recognizes the C-terminal domain of vitronectin and modulates the membrane attack complex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Jalalvand, Farshid; Mörgelin, Matthias; Zipfel, Peter; Blom, Anna M; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2011-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae protein E (PE) is a 16 kDa adhesin that induces a pro-inflammatory immune response in lung epithelial cells. The active epithelial binding region comprising amino acids PE 84-108 also interferes with complement-mediated bacterial killing by capturing vitronectin (Vn) that prevents complement deposition and formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Here, the interaction between PE and Vn was characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Protein E variants were produced both in soluble forms and in surface-expressed molecules on Escherichia coli. Mutations within PE(84-108) in the full-length molecule revealed that K85 and R86 residues were important for the Vn binding. Bactericidal activity against H. influenzae was higher in human serum pre-treated with full-length PE as compared with serum incubated with PE(K85E, R86D) , suggesting that PE quenched Vn. A series of truncated Vn molecules revealed that the C-terminal domain comprising Vn(353-363) harboured the major binding region for PE. Interestingly, MAC deposition was significantly higher on mutants devoid of PE due to a decreased Vn-binding capacity when compared with wild-type H. influenzae. Our results define a fine-tuned interaction between H. influenzae and the innate immune system, and identify the mode of control of the MAC that is important for pathogen complement evasion.

  10. Microbiological Characterization of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital, South India

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Padmaja Ananth; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Shaw, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haemophilus influenzae is responsible for wide range of localized and invasive lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) with the highest burden of disease in low and middle income countries. Aim The aim of the present study was to characterize the H.influenzae isolates from suspected LRTI. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted over a period of one and half years (December 2012 to May 2014) including patients with LRTI. H.influenzae was isolated from lower respiratory specimens following standard procedures. Complete characterization of the isolates was performed by bio typing, capsular serotyping, molecular genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The predisposing factors and clinical presentation were studied in the infected patients. Results A total of 8995 samples were received during the study period, out of which growth was significantly observed in 2848 (31.7%) samples. Among the various respiratory pathogens, H.influenzae was isolated from 175 (6.14%) patients. Majority (78.9%) of the patients presented with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The isolates most frequently were of Biotype II (35.42%). Only four of the 50 isolates subjected to capsular serotyping were typeable and were of type b, e and f. All the 50 isolates tested were found to be non-typeable by PCR for capsular genotyping. Maximum resistance was found against ampicillin (9.71%). Conclusion H.influenzae was found to be a significant cause of LRTI. Majority of the isolates were found to be non typeable strains. Non typeable H. influenzae isolates should not be neglected as they can colonize the respiratory tract in COPD patients and can lead to biofilm formation and treatment failure. PMID:27437218

  11. Relationships between Mucosal Antibodies, Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) Infection and Airway Inflammation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephen; Thomas, Steve; Leung, Stephanie; Cox, Karen; Pascal, Thierry G.; Ostridge, Kristoffer; Welch, Lindsay; Tuck, Andrew C.; Clarke, Stuart C.; Gorringe, Andrew; Wilkinson, Tom M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a key pathogen in COPD, being associated with airway inflammation and risk of exacerbation. Why some patients are susceptible to colonisation is not understood. We hypothesised that this susceptibility may be due to a deficiency in mucosal humoral immunity. The aim of our study (NCT01701869) was to quantify the amount and specificity of antibodies against NTHi in the lungs and the associated risk of infection and inflammation in health and COPD. Phlebotomy, sputum induction and bronchoscopy were performed on 24 mild-to-moderate COPD patients and 8 age and smoking-matched controls. BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage) total IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgM and IgA concentrations were significantly increased in COPD patients compared to controls. NTHi was detected in the lungs of 7 of the COPD patients (NTHi+ve—29%) and these patients had a higher median number of previous exacerbations than NTHi-ve patients as well as evidence of increased systemic inflammation. When comparing NTHi+ve versus NTHi-ve patients we observed a decrease in the amount of both total IgG1 (p = 0.0068) and NTHi-specific IgG1 (p = 0.0433) in the BAL of NTHi+ve patients, but no differences in total IgA or IgM. We observed no evidence of decreased IgG1 in the serum of NTHi+ve patients, suggesting this phenomenon is restricted to the airway. Furthermore, the NTHi+ve patients had significantly greater levels of IL-1β (p = 0.0003), in BAL than NTHi-ve COPD patients.This study indicates that the presence of NTHi is associated with reduced levels and function of IgG1 in the airway of NTHi-colonised COPD patients. This decrease in total and NTHI-specific IgG1 was associated with greater systemic and airway inflammation and a history of more frequent exacerbations and may explain the susceptibility of some COPD patients to the impacts of NTHi. PMID:27898728

  12. Relationships between Mucosal Antibodies, Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) Infection and Airway Inflammation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Staples, Karl J; Taylor, Stephen; Thomas, Steve; Leung, Stephanie; Cox, Karen; Pascal, Thierry G; Ostridge, Kristoffer; Welch, Lindsay; Tuck, Andrew C; Clarke, Stuart C; Gorringe, Andrew; Wilkinson, Tom M A

    2016-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a key pathogen in COPD, being associated with airway inflammation and risk of exacerbation. Why some patients are susceptible to colonisation is not understood. We hypothesised that this susceptibility may be due to a deficiency in mucosal humoral immunity. The aim of our study (NCT01701869) was to quantify the amount and specificity of antibodies against NTHi in the lungs and the associated risk of infection and inflammation in health and COPD. Phlebotomy, sputum induction and bronchoscopy were performed on 24 mild-to-moderate COPD patients and 8 age and smoking-matched controls. BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage) total IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgM and IgA concentrations were significantly increased in COPD patients compared to controls. NTHi was detected in the lungs of 7 of the COPD patients (NTHi+ve-29%) and these patients had a higher median number of previous exacerbations than NTHi-ve patients as well as evidence of increased systemic inflammation. When comparing NTHi+ve versus NTHi-ve patients we observed a decrease in the amount of both total IgG1 (p = 0.0068) and NTHi-specific IgG1 (p = 0.0433) in the BAL of NTHi+ve patients, but no differences in total IgA or IgM. We observed no evidence of decreased IgG1 in the serum of NTHi+ve patients, suggesting this phenomenon is restricted to the airway. Furthermore, the NTHi+ve patients had significantly greater levels of IL-1β (p = 0.0003), in BAL than NTHi-ve COPD patients.This study indicates that the presence of NTHi is associated with reduced levels and function of IgG1 in the airway of NTHi-colonised COPD patients. This decrease in total and NTHI-specific IgG1 was associated with greater systemic and airway inflammation and a history of more frequent exacerbations and may explain the susceptibility of some COPD patients to the impacts of NTHi.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuc; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Anh, Dang Duc; Franzini, Luisa; Chan, Wenyaw; Swint, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background With GAVI support, Vietnam introduced Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in 2010 without evidence on cost-effectiveness. We aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccine from societal and governmental perspectives. Method We constructed a decision-tree cohort model to estimate the costs and effectiveness of Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for the 2011 birth cohort. The disease burden was estimated from local epidemiologic data and literature. Vaccine delivery costs were calculated from governmental reports and 2013 vaccine prices. A prospective cost-of-illness study was conducted to estimate treatment costs. The human capital approach was employed to estimate productivity loss. The incremental costs of Hib vaccine were divided by cases, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted. We used the WHO recommended cost-effectiveness thresholds of an intervention being highly cost-effective if incremental costs per DALY were below GDP per capita. Result From the societal perspective, incremental costs per discounted case, death and DALY averted were US$ 6,252, US$ 26,476 and US$ 1,231, respectively; the break-even vaccine price was US$ 0.69/dose. From the governmental perspective, the results were US$ 6,954, US$ 29,449, and US$ 1,373, respectively; the break-even vaccine price was US$ 0.48/dose. Vietnam's GDP per capita was US$ 1,911 in 2013. In deterministic sensitivity analysis, morbidity and mortality parameters were among the most influential factors. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, Hib vaccine had an 84% and 78% probability to be highly cost-effective from the societal and governmental perspectives, respectively. Conclusion Hib vaccine was highly cost-effective from both societal and governmental perspectives. However, with GAVI support ending in 2016, the government will face a six-fold increase in its vaccine budget at the 2013 vaccine price. The variability of vaccine market prices adds an element of uncertainty

  14. Construction of non-polar mutants in Haemophilus influenzae using FLP recombinase technology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Erin; Ye, Fang; Baker, Beth D; Munson, Robert S

    2008-11-11

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a gram-negative bacterium that causes otitis media in children as well as other infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract in children and adults. We are employing genetic strategies to identify and characterize virulence determinants in NTHi. NTHi is naturally competent for transformation and thus construction of most mutants by common methodologies is relatively straightforward. However, new methodology was required in order to construct unmarked non-polar mutations in poorly expressed genes whose products are required for transformation. We have adapted the lambda red/FLP-recombinase-mediated strategy used in E. coli for use in NTHi. A cassette containing a spectinomycin resistance gene and an rpsL gene flanked by FRT sites was constructed. A PCR amplicon containing 50 base pairs of DNA homologous to the 5' and 3' ends of the gene to be disrupted and the cassette was generated, then recombineered into the target NTHi gene, cloned on a plasmid, using the lambda recombination proteins expressed in E. coli DY380. Thus, the gene of interest was replaced by the cassette. The construct was then transformed into a streptomycin resistant NTHi strain and mutants were selected on spectinomycin-containing growth media. A plasmid derived from pLS88 with a temperature sensitive replicon expressing the FLP recombinase gene under the control of the tet operator/repressor was constructed. This plasmid was electroporated into the NTHi mutant at the permissive temperature and FLP expression was induced using anhydrotetracycline. The recombinase recognizes the FRT sites and eliminates the antibiotic cassette by site-specific recombination, creating the unmarked non-polar mutation. The plasmid is cured by growth of cells at the restrictive temperature. The products of the genes in the NTHi pilABCD operon are required for type IV pilus biogenesis and have a role in transformation. We demonstrated the utility of our methodology by

  15. Capsule Gene Analysis of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae: Accuracy of Serotyping and Prevalence of IS1016 among Nontypeable Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Satola, Sarah W.; Collins, Julie T.; Napier, Ruth; Farley, Monica M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of serologic capsule typing by analyzing capsule genes and related markers among invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates before and after the introduction of H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines. Three hundred and sixty invasive H. influenzae isolates were collected as part of Active Bacterial Core surveillance within the Georgia Emerging Infections Program between 1 January 1989 and 31 July 1998. All isolates were biotyped, serotyped by slide agglutination serotyping (SAST), and evaluated using PCR capsule typing. Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) isolates were probed with Hib cap-gene-containing plasmid pUO38 and with IS1016; a subset was examined with phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) genotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Discrepancies between SAST and PCR capsule typing were found for 64/360 (17.5%) of the isolates; 48 encapsulated by SAST were NTHi by PCR, 8 NTHi by SAST were encapsulated by PCR, 6 encapsulated by SAST were a different capsule type by PCR, and 2 encapsulated by SAST were capsule-deficient Hib variants (Hib-minus). None of the PCR-confirmed NTHi isolates demonstrated homology with residual capsule gene sequences; 19/201 (9.5%) had evidence of IS1016, an insertion element associated with division I H. influenzae capsule serotypes. The majority of IS1016-positive NTHi were biotypes I and V and showed some genetic relatedness by PFGE. In conclusion, PCR capsule typing was more accurate than SAST and Hib-minus variants were rare. IS1016 was present in 9.5% of NTHi isolates, suggesting that this subset may be more closely related to encapsulated organisms. A better understanding of NTHi may contribute to vaccine development. PMID:17699642

  16. Association of IS1016 with the hia adhesin gene and biotypes V and I in invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Satola, Sarah W; Napier, Brooke; Farley, Monica M

    2008-11-01

    A subset of invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains has evidence of IS1016, an insertion element associated with division I H. influenzae capsule serotypes. We examined IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected as part of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance within the Georgia Emerging Infections Program for the presence or absence of hmw1 and hmw2 (two related adhesin genes that are common in NTHI but absent in encapsulated H. influenzae) and hia (homologue of hsf, an encapsulated H. influenzae adhesin gene). Isolates were serotyped using slide agglutination, confirmed as NTHI strains using PCR capsule typing, and biotyped. Two hundred twenty-nine invasive NTHI isolates collected between August 1998 and December 2006 were screened for IS1016; 22/229 (9.6%) were positive. Nineteen of 201 previously identified IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected between January 1989 and July 1998 were also examined. Forty-one IS1016-positive and 56 randomly selected IS1016-negative invasive NTHI strains were examined. The hia adhesin was present in 39 of 41 (95%) IS1016-positive NTHI strains and 1 of 56 (1.8%) IS1016-negative NTHI strains tested; hmw (hmw1, hmw2, or both) was present in 50 of 56 (89%) IS1016-negative NTHI isolates but in only 5 of 41 (12%; all hmw2) IS1016-positive NTHI isolates. IS1016-positive NTHI strains were more often biotype V (P < 0.001) or biotype I (P = 0.04) than IS1016-negative NTHI strains, which were most often biotype II. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the expected genetic diversity of NTHI with some clustering based on IS1016, hmw or hia, and biotypes. A significant association of IS1016 with biotypes V and I and the presence of hia adhesins was found among invasive NTHI. IS1016-positive NTHI strains may represent a unique subset of NTHI strains, with characteristics more closely resembling those of encapsulated H. influenzae.

  17. lpt6, a Gene Required for Addition of Phosphoethanolamine to Inner-Core Lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. Claire; Hood, Derek W.; Randle, Gaynor A.; Makepeace, Katherine; Cox, Andrew D.; Li, Jianjun; Chalmers, Ronald; Richards, James C.; Moxon, E. Richard

    2004-01-01

    We previously described a gene, lpt3, required for the addition of phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) at the 3 position on the β-chain heptose (HepII) of the inner-core Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but it has long been recognized that the inner-core LPS of some strains possesses PEtn at the 6 position (PEtn-6) on HepII. We have now identified a gene, lpt6 (NMA0408), that is required for the addition of PEtn-6 on HepII. The lpt6 gene is located in a region previously identified as Lgt-3 and is associated with other LPS biosynthetic genes. We screened 113 strains, representing all serogroups and including disease and carriage strains, for the lpt3 and lpt6 genes and showed that 36% contained both genes, while 50% possessed lpt3 only and 12% possessed lpt6 only. The translated amino acid sequence of lpt6 has a homologue (72.5% similarity) in a product of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome sequence. Previous structural studies have shown that all H. influenzae strains investigated have PEtn-6 on HepII. Consistent with this, we found that, among 70 strains representing all capsular serotypes and nonencapsulated H. influenzae strains, the lpt6 homologue was invariably present. Structural analysis of LPS from H. influenzae and N. meningitidis strains where lpt6 had been insertionally inactivated revealed that PEtn-6 on HepII could not be detected. The translated amino acid sequences from the N. meningitidis and H. influenzae lpt6 genes have conserved residues across their lengths and are part of a family of proven or putative PEtn transferases present in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:15466050

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae Causing Acute Otitis Media in Japanese Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ogawa, Miho; Shimojima, Masahiro; Ozawa, Daiki; Inomata, Shinya; Tanouchi, Ayako; Kaku, Mitsuo; Katori, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a particularly important cause of acute otitis media (AOM). There is a high prevalence of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains in Japanese children, which is associated with recurrent AOM and prolonged treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, mechanisms of ampicillin resistance and molecular epidemiology of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae strains causing AOM in Japanese children. One hundred fifty-seven strains of H. influenzae isolated from the middle ear fluid of pediatric patients (aged 0-3 years) with AOM from various areas of Japan were studied. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile, genes encoding β-lactamase and alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 were investigated. Genetic relatedness among ampicillin-resistant isolates was examined by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 157 isolates, 108 (68.8%) demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, including 95 (60.5%) of β-lactamase-nonproducing isolates and 13 (8.3%) of β-lactamase-producing isolates. All BLNAR (minimum inhibitory concentration of ampicillin ≥ 4 mg/L) isolates had amino acid substitutions related to ampicillin resistance. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated genetic diversity although there were 2 clusters of highly resistant isolates with identical STs (sequence types; ST161 and 549). Alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 represented the most prevalent mechanism of ampicillin resistance among H. influenzae isolates causing AOM in Japanese children. BLNAR isolates from children with AOM demonstrated genetic diversity. This study identified for the first time ST clones associated with BLNAR H. influenzae causing AOM in Japanese children.

  19. Differential susceptibility of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype a and serotype b to ampicillin and other commonly prescribed antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shuel, M; Whyte, K; Drew, T; Wylie, J; Lefebvre, B; Hoang, L; Tsang, R S W

    2014-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) has become an important pathogen in the post-H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine era. Antibiotic resistance in H. influenzae is a global phenomenon, but few studies have looked at antibiotic resistance profiles with regard to serotype. Invasive Hia (n = 157), noninvasive Hia (n = 2) and invasive Hib (n = 42) collected over the last two decades from three Canadian Provinces were examined for resistance to several commonly prescribed antibiotics, and sequence types (STs) were determined by MLST. Only 1·9% of Hia showed antibiotic resistance, while 31% of Hib were resistant to one or more antibiotic. Resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was observed, with β-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance being the most common. Nine STs were identified for Hia with 7 STs belonging to the same clonal complex. Ten STs were observed in Hib strains, and all of them belonged to a single clonal complex. A possible correlation between sequence type and ampicillin resistance was observed for Hib, while no correlations were observed for Hia. Despite H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine programs, invasive disease due to Hib still exists in Canada and is either second or third most common behind nontypeable and/or serotype a (Hia). Many previous studies on antibiotic resistance have focussed on respiratory isolates, and few have looked at resistance with regard to serotype. This study analysed antibiotic resistance in invasive Hia and Hib collected over 20 years from three provinces, and results found that significantly more Hib showed resistance compared to Hia. This provides a small snapshot of H. influenzae disease in Canada and highlights the importance to continually monitor antibiotic resistance profiles. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister

  20. Neonatal, urogenital isolates of biotype 4 nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae express a variant P6 outer membrane protein molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, T F; Kirkham, C; Sikkema, D J

    1992-01-01

    The P6 outer membrane protein is a highly conserved molecule which is present on the surface of all strains of Haemophilus influenzae. Sixty strains of nontypeable H. influenzae which caused invasive disease or colonized the female urogenital tract were studied with monoclonal antibodies 7F3 and 4G4, which recognize different surface-exposed epitopes on the P6 molecule. All 60 strains expressed the epitope recognized by 4G4, whereas 47 of 60 strains expressed the epitope recognized by antibody 7F3. The 7F3-nonreactive strains were all biotype 4 and were recovered from the blood of neonates or postpartum women or from the female urogenital tract. The P6 genes from two 7F3-nonreactive strains were cloned, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. Analysis of amino acid sequences, immunoassays with synthetic peptides, and site-directed mutation of the P6 gene indicate that the epitope recognized by antibody 7F3 is conformational and that the sequence Asp-Ile-Thr is critical in maintaining the conformation of the epitope. We conclude that the unusually virulent clone family of biotype 4 strains of nontypeable H. influenzae express a variant P6 molecule which has an alteration in a highly conserved surface-exposed epitope. Images PMID:1373403

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae --internal quality control as a quality tool on a national level.

    PubMed

    Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Nissinen, Antti; Huovinen, Pentti; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of the quality and conformity of antimicrobial resistance data is important for comparing resistance rates regionally and over time. In this study, we have evaluated these features of the Finnish national susceptibility surveillance data for two respiratory tract pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. For this purpose internal quality control results for two isolates (S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and H. influenzae ATCC 49247) were analyzed from 21 clinical microbiology laboratories over a 3-year period. The results show that standardization of the susceptibility testing methods has proceeded well. The number of protocols used for susceptibility testing has declined (from seventeen methods to two with S. pneumoniae and from eleven to three with H. influenzae) and the reproducibility is good. Nevertheless, we noticed that a few laboratories test and report susceptibility results without defined break-points and even include antimicrobials with questionable therapeutic effect. Another non-compliance with the standard was a lack of a regular control system to verify the attainment of the intended quality of results in some laboratories. Interlaboratory analysis of quality control results is a good way to evaluate the quality and conformity of national resistance data. Finnish laboratories have produced very reproducible and accurate susceptibility results in the pre-EUCAST period, which ended in 2011.

  2. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes.

  3. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. PMID:26014114

  4. Elicitation of Epithelial Cell-Derived Immune Effectors by Outer Membrane Vesicles of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Samantha W.; Kuehn, Meta J.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by all Gram-negative microorganisms studied to date. The contributions of OMVs to biological processes are diverse and include mediation of bacterial stress responses, selective packaging and secretion of virulence determinants, modulation of the host immune response, and contributions to biofilm formation and stability. First characterized as transformasomes in Haemophilus, these membranous blebs facilitate transfer of DNA among bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), an opportunistic pathogen of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, produces OMVs in vivo, but there is a paucity of information regarding both the composition and role of OMVs during NTHI colonization and pathogenesis. We demonstrated that purified NTHI vesicles are 20 to 200 nm in diameter and contain DNA, adhesin P5, IgA endopeptidase, serine protease, and heme utilization protein, suggesting a multifaceted role in virulence. NTHI OMVs can bind to human pharyngeal epithelial cells, resulting in a time- and temperature-dependent aggregation on the host cell surface, with subsequent internalization. OMVs colocalize with the endocytosis protein caveolin, indicating that internalization is mediated by caveolae, which are cholesterol-rich lipid raft domains. Upon interaction with epithelial cells, NTHI OMVs stimulate significant release of the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Thus, we demonstrated that NTHI OMVs contain virulence-associated proteins that dynamically interact with and invade host epithelial cells. Beyond their ability to mediate DNA transfer in Haemophilus, OMV stimulation of host immunomodulatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide release supports a dynamic role for vesiculation in NTHI pathogenesis and clinically relevant disease progression. PMID:21875967

  5. [Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction technique for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae].

    PubMed

    Margall, N; Majó, M; Sánchez, F; Roig, C; Latorre, C; Fontanals, D; Domínguez, A; Lobera, E; Sanfeliu, I; Prats, G

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS), most frequently caused by Neisseria meningitidis in our setting. Microbiologic diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is not enough sensitive because its efficiency can be affected by the therapeutic regimen given to the patient. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can provide a more sensitive diagnosis and allow us to get an earlier result. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR technique for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by N. meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Ninety-six patients who were attended because of suspected bacterial meningitis on the Hospital de Sant Joan de Déu, Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí and Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, and had negative results by conventional laboratory methods, were selected for the study. A total of 99 cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) were obtained and evaluated for PCR. DNA extracts of the CSF samples were amplified by universal primers. Amplification products were hybridized with specific probes for Haemophilus genus and N. meningitidis. Positive and negative controls were included to asses the reliability of PCR. Eight of the 99 CSF samples (8%) were positive by PCR and subsequent hybridization with the specific probe of N. meningitidis. None of the amplicons hybridized with the probe of Haemophilus genus. Thirteen percent of the patients (8/59) with clinical suspicious of non-neonatal sepsis or meningitis were diagnosed by PCR, amongst them, 36% of the cases (4/11) with initial diagnosis of meningococcal sepsis or meningitis. The sensitivity and the specificity of the PCR technique afford a complementary method to conventional ones, in special for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis in the group of pediatric patients.

  6. Relationship between clinical site of isolation and ability to form biofilms in vitro in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Najla A; Jacobson, Glenn A; Tristram, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a range of infections, including various lower respiratory infections, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There is some debate as to whether or not NTHi produces biofilms and, if so, whether or not this is relevant to pathogenesis. Although many studies have examined the association between in vitro biofilm formation and isolates from a specific infection type, few have made comparisons from isolates from a broad range of isolates grouped by clinical source. In our study 50 NTHi from different clinical sources, otitis media, conjunctivitis, lower respiratory tract infections in both cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients, and nasopharyngeal carriage, plus 10 nasopharyngeal isolates of the commensal Haemophilus haemolyticus were tested for the ability to form biofilm by using a static microtitre plate crystal violet assay. A high degree of variation in biofilm forming ability was observed across all isolates, with no statistically significant differences observed between the groups, with the exception of the isolates from conjunctivitis. These isolates had uniformly lower biofilm forming ability compared with isolates from the other groups (p < 0.005).

  7. Recurrent meningitis due to pneumococci and non-typable Haemophilus influenzae in a child with a Mondini malformation.

    PubMed

    Valmari, P; Palva, A

    1986-01-01

    An eight-year-old boy with a congenital inner ear malformation and recurrent otitis media had three episodes of bacteriologically confirmed meningitis within seven months. The first episode was caused by pneumococci, the other two by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae. All episodes were characterized by an abrupt onset. The CSF cultures were positive within 0.5 to 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Despite misleading laboratory studies, surgical exploration revealed a CSF fistula associated to the inner ear anomaly. No further episodes occurred after the fistula was closed. Careful roentgenographic evaluation, including recently introduced special computed tomography (CT) methods, is indicated in recurrent meningitis. In addition, such evaluations should be considered even after the first episode, when special clinical features suggest a CSF fistula. Such features include an extremely rapid onset and detection of common non-invasive bacteria as causative agents, as illustrated by the present case.

  8. The effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in a high risk population measured using immunization register data.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, P.; Krause, V.; Boslego, J. W.; Coplan, P. M.; Dargan, J. M.; Kaplan, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia has had historically very high incidence rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in children less than 5 years of age, with the burden of disease greatest among Aboriginal infants less than 12 months. This study documents the impact of conjugate Hib vaccines introduced in 1993. Immunization rates were monitored using an existing immunization register, and case finding was done retrospectively using hospital and laboratory records. Following the vaccine introduction, the incidence fell abruptly to a seventh of its pre-vaccination level, in both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The effectiveness of PRP-OMPC (PedvaxHIB) was 97.5% and the overall effectiveness of the vaccination programme was 86.3%. The study shows Hib immunization as an effective intervention while discussing continuing needs for Hib control in high risk populations. It also illustrates the benefit of immunization registers in the evaluation of immunization programmes and assessment of vaccine effectiveness. PMID:11293680

  9. The effects of disodium cromoglycate on enhanced adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to A549 cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Chie; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ogita, Junko; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

    2009-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) secondary infection often complicates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Previous studies have revealed that RSV infections enhance NTHi adherence to airway epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and corticosteroids, which are frequently used for the treatment of wheezing often related to RSV infections, on the adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells. DSCG inhibited enhanced adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells, whereas dexamethasone (Dex) and fluticasone propionate (Fp) did not. DSCG suppressed the expression of ICAM-1, which is one of the NTHi receptors. Furthermore, DSCG exhibited an inhibitory effect on RSV infections. It is suggested that DSCG exerts an anti-RSV effect, and consequently attenuates the expression of NTHi receptors.

  10. Significance of tagI and mfd genes in the virulence of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Spricigo, Denis A; Cortés, Pilar; Moranta, David; Barbé, Jordi; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Lagostera, Montserrat

    2014-09-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunist pathogen well adapted to the human upper respiratory tract and responsible for many respiratory diseases. In the human airway, NTHi is exposed to pollutants, such as alkylating agents, that damage its DNA. In this study, we examined the significance of genes involved in the repair of DNA alkylation damage in NTHi virulence. Two knockout mutants, tagI and mfd, encoding N³-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I and the key protein involved in transcription-coupled repair, respectively, were constructed and their virulence in a BALB/c mice model was examined. This work shows that N³-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I is constitutively expressed in NTHi and that it is relevant for its virulence.

  11. [Real-time PCR detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Vacková, Z; Lžičařová, D; Stock, N K; Kozáková, J

    2015-10-01

    The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic. Clinical specimens are, in particular, cerebrospinal fluid, anti-coagulated blood or serum and, exceptionally, post-mortem specimens. The NRL has implemented molecular diagnosis of these bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis and sepsis from clinical specimens since 1999. The first diagnostic method was semi-nested PCR followed by electrophoretic analysis. In 2014, a molecular qualitative real-time PCR assay was implemented.

  12. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  13. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Clones Associated with Invasive Disease a Decade after Introduction of H. influenzae Serotype b Vaccination in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Accogli, Marisa; Pardini, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has changed the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease, with a shift in the predominant serotype from Hib to nonencapsulated H. influenzae (ncHi). The objective of this study was to identify the genotypes/clones associated with invasive H. influenzae disease in Italy. Eighty-seven H. influenzae strains isolated in the years 2009 to 2011 within the National Surveillance of Invasive Bacterial Disease program were analyzed. Strains were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Genetic polymorphisms in the blaTEM gene promoter region as well as the occurrence of both adhesin genes (hmwA and hia) and the IgA1 protease-encoding gene (igaB) were also investigated. Of 87 strains, 67 were ncHi and 20 were encapsulated. Eleven strains were β-lactamase positive, harboring the blaTEM gene. Most blaTEM genes (10/11) were associated with a Pdel promoter region exhibiting a 135-bp deletion; the remaining strain possessed the Pa/Pb overlapping promoter. MLST analysis showed that encapsulated isolates were clonal, with each serotype sharing a few related sequence types (STs). Forty-six different STs were identified among the 67 ncHi strains. Despite this heterogeneity, a group of closely related STs (ST103, ST139, and ST145) encompassed almost 25% of all ncHi strains and 45.5% of the β-lactamase producers carrying the Pdel promoter. These major ST clones were found to be associated with the hmwA gene but not with the igaB gene. To conclude, although the heterogeneity of the ncHi population was confirmed, diffusion of major successful ST clones was documented. PMID:23761663

  14. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae clones associated with invasive disease a decade after introduction of H. influenzae serotype b vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Accogli, Marisa; Pardini, Manuela; Cerquetti, Marina

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has changed the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease, with a shift in the predominant serotype from Hib to nonencapsulated H. influenzae (ncHi). The objective of this study was to identify the genotypes/clones associated with invasive H. influenzae disease in Italy. Eighty-seven H. influenzae strains isolated in the years 2009 to 2011 within the National Surveillance of Invasive Bacterial Disease program were analyzed. Strains were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Genetic polymorphisms in the bla(TEM) gene promoter region as well as the occurrence of both adhesin genes (hmwA and hia) and the IgA1 protease-encoding gene (igaB) were also investigated. Of 87 strains, 67 were ncHi and 20 were encapsulated. Eleven strains were β-lactamase positive, harboring the bla(TEM) gene. Most bla(TEM) genes (10/11) were associated with a Pdel promoter region exhibiting a 135-bp deletion; the remaining strain possessed the Pa/Pb overlapping promoter. MLST analysis showed that encapsulated isolates were clonal, with each serotype sharing a few related sequence types (STs). Forty-six different STs were identified among the 67 ncHi strains. Despite this heterogeneity, a group of closely related STs (ST103, ST139, and ST145) encompassed almost 25% of all ncHi strains and 45.5% of the β-lactamase producers carrying the Pdel promoter. These major ST clones were found to be associated with the hmwA gene but not with the igaB gene. To conclude, although the heterogeneity of the ncHi population was confirmed, diffusion of major successful ST clones was documented.

  15. Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis: Is there a re-emergence? 24 years of experience in a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Angela; Martínez, Ana C; Juarez, María Del V; Lución, María F; Burgo, Candela; Della Latta, María P; Rapapor, Solana; Romanin, Viviana; Turco, Marisa

    2017-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) used to be the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children younger than 5 years old. Following the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the immunization schedule (1998), its incidence reduced significantly but it has increased over the last years. The objectives of this study included describing the characteristics and analyzing the epidemic curve of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) meningitis by comparing the pre- and postimmunization periods. Time-series study. All patients hospitalized with Hib meningitis at Hospital de Niños "R. Gutiérrez" (January 1992-May 2016). Hospitalization rates were compared before (pre-immunization) and after (post-immunization) the introduction of the Hib vaccine. The post-immunization period was divided into three similar periods. Eighty-five patients with Hib meningitis were admitted (73.3% in the pre-immunization period). No differences were observed in relation to the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of cases in both periods. Pre-immunization: 10.5 cases/year; postimmunization: 0.7 cases/year. As of 2014, the rate has increased. Lethality rate: 4.8% (all preimmunization). Post-immunization data (n= 15): 40% had completed their primary immunization schedule, 40% were delayed on the immunization schedule for their age. Overall reduction in the hospital rate of Hib meningitis by 89.8% (95% confidence interval: -82.79-93.96%, p < 0.001) in the post-immunization period. The analysis of the different post-immunization periods shows a decline in reduction over time. A very significant reduction in hospitalizations due to Hib meningitis was observed after the Hib vaccine was introduced; however, over the past years, the number of cases has increased although no changes have been observed in patient characteristics.

  16. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    PubMed

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in the oropharynx of young children and molecular epidemiology of the isolates after fifteen years of H. influenzae type b vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giufrè, Maria; Daprai, Laura; Cardines, Rita; Bernaschi, Paola; Ravà, Lucilla; Accogli, Marisa; Raponi, Massimiliano; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-11-17

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important pathogen able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Colonization of the upper respiratory tract is a risk factor for developing disease. This study aimed to investigate the oropharyngeal carriage rate of H. influenzae in young children in two Italian cities, 15 years after H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination was introduced. Antibiotic resistant traits and genotypes of the colonizing H. influenzae isolates were investigated. Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from 717 healthy children aged <6 years (June 2012-July 2013). Potential risk factors for H. influenzae colonization were investigated. H. influenzae isolates from carriage were characterized by PCR capsular typing, ampicillin susceptibility testing, resistance-associated gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For comparison purposes, 38 non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) isolates from invasive disease were genotyped by MLST. The overall H. influenzae carriage rate was 14.1% (101/717). Age, study site, presence of young siblings, and complete Hib vaccination status were independently associated with colonization. Of 101 isolates, 98 were NTHi, 2 were type e and 1 was type f. The overall ampicillin resistance rate was 15.8% (16/101). Resistance was mediated by TEM-1 β-lactamase production in half of isolates (n=8) or modifications in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 in the other half (n=8). Several substitutions were discovered in PBP3 including the Asn526Lys change. Seventy-six different STs were identified among 98 NTHi isolates from carriage, with only 4 STs (ST12, ST57, ST238, ST1238) encompassing ≥ 3 isolates. Comparison of carriage and disease isolates found that several STs were shared between the two sources, although none of the major disease-associated STs were observed in carriage isolates. NTHi is the predominant serotype in carriage. The importance of monitoring both NTHi colonization rate and circulating genotypes should be

  18. Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Teo, Edward; Lockhart, Kathleen; Purchuri, Sai Navya; Pushparajah, Jennifer; Cripps, Allan W; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-06-19

    Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis. To assess the effectiveness of an oral, whole-cell NTHi vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in adults. To assess the effectiveness of NTHi vaccine in reducing NTHi colonising the respiratory tract during recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), CINAHL (1981 to January 2017), LILACS (1985 to January 2017), and Web of Science (1955 to January 2017). We also searched trials registries and contacted authors of trials requesting unpublished data. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine in adults with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds. The selection criteria considered populations aged less than 65 years and those older than 65 years. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of

  19. Characterization of transferrin binding proteins 1 and 2 in invasive type b and nontypeable strains of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Gray-Owen, S D; Schryvers, A B

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae has the ability to obtain iron from human transferrin via two bacterial cell surface transferrin binding proteins, Tbp1 and Tbp2. Although a wide array of strains have been shown to express these receptor proteins, two studies have recently identified a series of isolates which appeared to lack the ability to bind transferrin. Included in this group were the members of a cryptic genospecies of nontypeable biotype IV strains which appear to possess a tropism for female urogenital tissues and are major etiologic agents of neonatal and postpartum bacteremia due to H. influenzae. The present study employed oligonucleotide primers specific for genes encoding the Tbp proteins of a type b biotype I strain of H. influenzae to probe the genomic DNAs of isolates from the previous studies. The tbpA and tbpB genes which encode Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively, were detected in all of the strains tested either by PCR amplification directly or by Southern hybridization analysis. All of the strains displayed a transferrin binding phenotype, and affinity isolation of receptor proteins with transferrin-conjugated Sepharose recovered Tbp1 and/or Tbp2 from 11 of 14 strains, including 2 of the nontypeable biotype IV strains. In addition, all of the strains were capable of growing on human transferrin specifically, indicating that the mechanism of iron assimilation from transferrin is functional and is not siderophore mediated. These results confirm the presence of tbp genes in all of the invasive H. influenzae isolates characterized to date, suggesting that Tbp-mediated iron acquisition is important in disease which initiates from either the respiratory or urogenital mucosa. PMID:7558284

  20. Bacteriological Efficacies of Three Macrolides Compared with Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Valerie; Thorburn, Christine E.; Knott, Sarah J.; Woodnutt, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Comparative antibacterial efficacies of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were examined against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, with amoxicillin-clavulanate used as the active control. In vitro, the macrolides at twice their MICs and at concentrations achieved in humans were bacteriostatic or reduced the numbers of viable S. pneumoniae slowly, whereas amoxicillin-clavulanate showed a rapid antibacterial effect. Against H. influenzae, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and clarithromycin plus 14-hydroxy clarithromycin at twice their MICs produced a slow reduction in bacterial numbers, whereas azithromycin was bactericidal. Azithromycin at the concentrations achieved in the serum of humans was bacteriostatic, whereas erythromycin and clarithromycin were ineffective. In experimental respiratory tract infections in rats, clarithromycin (equivalent to 250 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (equivalent to 500 plus 125 mg b.i.d., respectively) were highly effective against S. pneumoniae, but azithromycin (equivalent to 500 and 250 mg once daily) was significantly less effective (P < 0.01). Against H. influenzae, clarithromycin treatment (equivalent to 250 or 500 mg b.i.d.) was similar to no treatment and was significantly less effective than amoxicillin-clavulanate treatment (P < 0.01). Azithromycin demonstrated significant in vivo activity (P < 0.05) but was significantly less effective than amoxicillin-clavulanate (P < 0.05). Overall, amoxicillin-clavulanate was effective in vitro and in vivo. Clarithromycin and erythromycin were ineffective in vitro and in vivo against H. influenzae, and azithromycin (at concentrations achieved in humans) showed unreliable activity against both pathogens. These results may have clinical implications for the utility of macrolides in the empiric therapy of respiratory tract infections. PMID:9835514

  1. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile. Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was collected by tympanocentesis or by otorrhea for identification and serotyping of bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was tested using E-test (etrack: 112671). Of 160 children (mean age 27.10 ± 15.83 months) with AOM episodes, 164 MEF samples (1 episode each from 156 children; 2 episodes each from 4 children) were collected. Nearly 30% of AOM episodes occurred in children aged 12 to 23 months. Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each). AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile. PMID:28178138

  2. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was collected by tympanocentesis or by otorrhea for identification and serotyping of bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was tested using E-test (etrack: 112671).Of 160 children (mean age 27.10 ± 15.83 months) with AOM episodes, 164 MEF samples (1 episode each from 156 children; 2 episodes each from 4 children) were collected. Nearly 30% of AOM episodes occurred in children aged 12 to 23 months. Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each).AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile.

  3. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae using degenerate primers to target the capsule transport gene bexA.

    PubMed

    Law, Dennis K S; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2013-05-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that uses degenerate primers and a dual-labelled probe was developed to detect the bexA gene of Haemophilus influenzae, including those belonging to non-b serotypes as well as clonal division II strains. This assay is sensitive and specific, detecting 20 copies of the gene, but negative with a variety of bacteria associated with meningitis and bacteremia or septicemia.

  4. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  5. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  6. A functional tonB gene is required for both virulence and competitive fitness in a chinchilla model of Haemophilus influenzae otitis media.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel J; Hempel, Randy J; Seale, Thomas W; Whitby, Paul W; Stull, Terrence L

    2012-06-25

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. An insertional mutation in tonB was constructed and the impact of the mutation on virulence and fitness in a chinchilla model of otitis media was determined. The tonB insertion mutant strain was significantly impacted in both virulence and fitness as compared to the wildtype strain in this model. The tonB gene of H. influenzae is required for the establishment and maintenance of middle ear infection in this chinchilla model of bacterial disease.

  7. A functional tonB gene is required for both virulence and competitive fitness in a chinchilla model of Haemophilus influenzae otitis media

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. Methods An insertional mutation in tonB was constructed and the impact of the mutation on virulence and fitness in a chinchilla model of otitis media was determined. The tonB insertion mutant strain was significantly impacted in both virulence and fitness as compared to the wildtype strain in this model. Conclusions The tonB gene of H. influenzae is required for the establishment and maintenance of middle ear infection in this chinchilla model of bacterial disease. PMID:22731867

  8. Coupling of NAD+ Biosynthesis and Nicotinamide Ribosyl Transport: Characterization of NadR Ribonucleotide Kinase Mutants of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Sauer, Elizabeta; Reidl, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we characterized a pathway necessary for the processing of NAD+ and for uptake of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in Haemophilus influenzae. Here we report on the role of NadR, which is essential for NAD+ utilization in this organism. Different NadR variants with a deleted ribonucleotide kinase domain or with a single amino acid change were characterized in vitro and in vivo with respect to cell viability, ribonucleotide kinase activity, and NR transport. The ribonucleotide kinase mutants were viable only in a nadV+ (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) background, indicating that the ribonucleotide kinase domain is essential for cell viability in H. influenzae. Mutations located in the Walker A and B motifs and the LID region resulted in deficiencies in both NR phosphorylation and NR uptake. The ribonucleotide kinase function of NadR was found to be feedback controlled by NAD+ under in vitro conditions and by NAD+ utilization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the NR phosphorylation step is essential for both NR uptake across the inner membrane and NAD+ synthesis and is also involved in controlling the NAD+ biosynthesis rate. PMID:15968050

  9. Development and Optimization of a Homemade ELISA Kit for Detection of Antibodies Against Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Fazlolah; Fatemi, Sara; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Nikanpour, Elnaz; Malekan, Mohamad Ali; Khabiri, Ali Reza; Janani, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection has high morbidity and mortality rate, especially in children under 5 years of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is the most used method to detect antibodies against H. influenzae. Available commercial ELISA kits are expensive and not always readily available, particularly for epidemiological studies. Objectives: This study was performed to develop and optimize a homemade ELISA kit for the detection of Hib anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies in children. Materials and Methods: To develop and optimize an indirect ELISA method, pure PRP was prepared. The PRP was coupled to bovine serum albumin, using sodium periodate. Then optimal conditions for ELISA, including coating antigen concentration and peroxidase labeled conjugate concentrations, incubation temperature and incubation time, were determined. To confirm the efficacy of optimized kit, 83 serum samples from non-vaccinated children, aged less than 6 years were collected and analyzed, using homemade and commercial ELISA. Results: The optimal conditions were considered to perform ELISA. Comparison between results obtained from optimized ELISA kit and commercial ELISA kit showed a good agreement. Conclusions: Taking into account these data, we elaborated a homemade ELISA kit that is an efficacious and cost-effective substitute for commercial kit, in disease control and diagnosis. PMID:27540453

  10. Variable numbers of tandem repeat loci in genetically homogeneous Haemophilus influenzae strains alter during persistent colonisation of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Renders, N; Licciardello, L; IJsseldijk, C; Sijmons, M; van Alphen, L; Verbrugh, H; van Belkum, A

    1999-04-01

    Serial sputum isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 69) were obtained from eight patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. For two of these patients all strains were analysed for polymorphism in the major outer membrane protein profile. For all patients the strains were genetically characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. All strains were included in a survey for polymorphism in regions containing moieties of repetitive DNA as well. A single locus containing trinucleotide repeat units, three loci harbouring tetranucleotides, one region comprising pentanucleotide units and two hexanucleotide repeat unit-containing loci were analysed for repeat number variability. Most of the regions were previously shown to be directly adjacent to or even within virulence genes. All regions behaved as genuine variable number of tandem repeat loci in the sense that genetic polymorphism based on the presence of varying numbers of repeat units could be demonstrated among different strains. Interestingly, several of the repeats showed variation in the absence of the variability as assessed by major outer membrane protein or random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. These observations indicate that the repeat loci may vary independently from major chromosomal polymorphism. Consequently, H. influenzae appears to modify its virulence gene regions of the chromosome during persistent colonisation of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients.

  11. Selection against glycosylation sites in potential target proteins of the general HMWC N-glycosyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tan, Nikki Y; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Davis, Margaret R; Wong, Linette W; Naidu, Ranjitha; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2014-03-14

    The HMWABC system of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) encodes the HMWA adhesin glycoprotein, which is glycosylated by the HMWC glycosyltransferase. HMWC is a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase, homologues of which are widespread in the Pasteurellaceae. We developed an assay for nonbiased detection of glycoproteins in NTHi based on metabolic engineering of the Leloir pathway and growth in media containing radiolabelled monosaccharides. The only glycoprotein identified in NTHi by this assay was HMWA. However, glycoproteomic analyses ex vivo in Escherichia coli showed that HMWC of NTHi was a general glycosyltransferase capable of glycosylating selected asparagines in proteins other than its HMWA substrate, including Asn78 in E. coli 30S ribosomal protein S5. The equivalent residue in S5 homologues in H. influenzae or other sequenced Pasteurellaceae genomes is not asparagine, and these organisms also showed significantly fewer than expected potential sites of glycosylation in general. Expression of active HMWC in E. coli resulted in growth inhibition compared with expression of inactive enzyme, consistent with glycosylation by HMWC detrimentally affecting the function of some E. coli proteins. Together, this supports the presence of a selective pressure in the Pasteurellaceae against glycosylation sites that would be modified by the general N-glycosyltransferase activity of HMWC.

  12. Chemical evidence for covalent linkages of a semi-synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease.

    PubMed

    Seid, R C; Boykins, R A; Liu, D F; Kimbrough, K W; Hsieh, C L; Eby, R

    1989-01-01

    We have defined the nature of the covalent linkages in a Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine, designated HbOC. The conjugate was acid hydrolyzed to release a novel amino-acid derivative, N epsilon-(2-hydroxyethyl)lysine (OHEt-Lys), identifiable with an amino-acid analyzer. This amino-acid derivative was formed by reduction of Schiff bases formed between H. influenzae type b oligosaccharides (HbO) and the lysyl epsilon-amino groups of CRM197 (a non-toxic, cross-reactive variant of diphtheria toxin), followed by acid hydrolysis of HbOC. Quantification of OHEt-Lys per CRM197 molecule allowed the determination of a covalency ratio, a useful parameter for evaluating the stoichiometry and consistency of HbOC preparations. Covalent association between HbO and CRM197 was also demonstrated by the coincidence of immunoreactivity of gel-electrophoresed HbOC on a Western blot probed with anti-CRM197 and anti-saccharide antisera.

  13. Positively Selected Codons in Immune-Exposed Loops of the Vaccine Candidate OMP-P1 of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2007-01-01

    The high levels of variation in surface epitopes can be considered as an evolutionary hallmark of immune selection. New computational tools enable analysis of this variation by identifying codons that exhibit high rates of amino acid changes relative to the synonymous substitution rate. In the outer membrane protein P1 of Haemophilus influenzae, a vaccine candidate for nontypeable strains, we identified four codons with this attribute in domains that did not correspond to known or assumed B- and T-cell epitopes of OMP-P1. These codons flank hypervariable domains and do not appear to be false positives as judged from parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. Some closely spaced positively selected codons have been previously considered part of a transmembrane domain, which would render this region unsuited for inclusion in a vaccine. Secondary structure analysis, three-dimensional structural database searches, and homology modeling using FadL of E. coli as a structural homologue, however, revealed that all positively selected codons are located in or near extracellular looping domains. The spacing and level of diversity of these positively selected and exposed codons in OMP-P1 suggest that vaccine targets based on these and conserved flanking residues may provide broad coverage in H. influenzae. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-006-0021-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17479342

  14. Coupling of NAD+ biosynthesis and nicotinamide ribosyl transport: characterization of NadR ribonucleotide kinase mutants of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Sauer, Elizabeta; Reidl, Joachim

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we characterized a pathway necessary for the processing of NAD+ and for uptake of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in Haemophilus influenzae. Here we report on the role of NadR, which is essential for NAD+ utilization in this organism. Different NadR variants with a deleted ribonucleotide kinase domain or with a single amino acid change were characterized in vitro and in vivo with respect to cell viability, ribonucleotide kinase activity, and NR transport. The ribonucleotide kinase mutants were viable only in a nadV+ (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) background, indicating that the ribonucleotide kinase domain is essential for cell viability in H. influenzae. Mutations located in the Walker A and B motifs and the LID region resulted in deficiencies in both NR phosphorylation and NR uptake. The ribonucleotide kinase function of NadR was found to be feedback controlled by NAD+ under in vitro conditions and by NAD+ utilization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the NR phosphorylation step is essential for both NR uptake across the inner membrane and NAD+ synthesis and is also involved in controlling the NAD+ biosynthesis rate.

  15. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-01-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology. Images PMID:6979517

  16. Immunization with Protein D from Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) Induced Cytokine Responses and Bioactive Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi Vijeh Motlagh, Atefeh; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Abedian Kenari, Saeid; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Behrouzi, Ava; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Outer membrane protein D (PD) is a highly conserved and stable protein in the outer membrane of both encapsulated (typeable) and non-capsulated (non-typeable) strains of Haemophilus influenzae. As an immunogen, PD is a potential candidate vaccine against non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the cytokine pattern and the opsonic antibody response in a BALB/c mouse model versus PD from NTHi as a vaccine candidate. Methods Protein D was formulated with Freund’s and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) adjuvants and injected into experimental mice. Sera from all groups were collected. The bioactivity of the anti-PD antibody was determined by opsonophagocytic killing test. To evaluate the cytokine responses, the spleens were assembled, suspension of splenocytes was recalled with antigen, and culture supernatants were analyzed by ELISA for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokines. Results Anti-PD antibodies promoted phagocytosis of NTHi in both immunized mice groups (those administered PD + Freund’s and those administered PD + OMV adjuvants, 92.8% and 83.5%, respectively, compared to the control group). In addition, the concentrations of three cytokines were increased markedly in immunized mice. Conclusions We conclude that immunization with PD protects mice against NTHi. It is associated with improvements in both cellular and humoral immune responses and opsonic antibody activity. PMID:27942362

  17. A population-based survey of Haemophilus influenzae type b nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gessner, B D; Sutanto, A; Steinhoff, M; Soewignjo, S; Widjaya, A; Nelson, C; Arjoso, S

    1998-09-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence and invasive disease incidence rates are unknown in Indonesia; consequently Hib vaccine is not included in the routine vaccine schedule. To determine carriage prevalence we conducted a population-based, island-wide prospective study of a systematic sample of 484 children 0 to 2 years of age in Lombok, Indonesia. We conducted a risk factor questionnaire and determined serotypes and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. We identified 155 H. influenzae isolates, of which 22 were type b and 12 were encapsulated but not type b. The age- and population-weighted Hib carriage prevalence, adjusted for the sampling design, was 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 5.5%). Children younger than 6 months of age had a carriage prevalence less than one-half that of older children, and carriage varied within the four administrative regions of the island; otherwise no risk factors for Hib carriage were identified. All Hib specimens were sensitive to ampicillin and 20 (91%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The Hib carriage prevalence in Lombok is similar to that found in developed countries before vaccine introduction. This suggests that further studies should proceed to determine whether Lombok has invasive disease rates as high as those that justified vaccine introduction in developed countries.

  18. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Raheel Ahmed; Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Rosenfeld, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup. PMID:26064739

  19. Adhesin expression in matched nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae from children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Krasan, G P; Cutter, D; Block, S L; St Geme, J W

    1999-01-01

    The HMW1 and HMW2 proteins, Hia, and hemagglutinating pili are important adherence factors in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. To gain insight into the relative importance of these adhesins in nasopharyngeal colonization and localized respiratory tract disease, we assessed their expression in matched nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae from 17 children with acute otitis media. In all patients, including 11 with bilateral disease, the matched isolates were isogenic based on total protein profiles and genomic fingerprints. Of the nasopharyngeal isolates, 14 expressed only HMW1/HMW2-like proteins, 1 expressed only Hia, 1 expressed only pili, and 1 expressed both Hia and pili. Further analysis revealed concordance between nasopharyngeal isolates and the matched middle ear isolates for expression of the HMW1/HMW2-like proteins and Hia. In contrast, in the two children whose nasopharynges were colonized by piliated organisms, the corresponding middle ear isolates were nonpiliated and could not be enriched for piliation. Nevertheless, Southern analysis revealed that these two middle ear isolates contained all five hif genes required for pilus biogenesis and had no evidence of major genetic rearrangement. In summary, the vast majority of isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae associated with acute otitis media express HMW1/HMW2-like proteins, with expression present in both the nasopharynx and the middle ear. A smaller fraction of nasopharyngeal isolates express pili, while isogenic strains recovered from the middle ear are often refractory to enrichment for piliation. We speculate that the HMW adhesins and Hia are important at multiple steps in the pathogenesis of otitis media while pili contribute to early colonization and then become dispensable.

  20. A molecular analysis of quinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: validation of the mutations in Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hisashi; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Takuma, Takahiro; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kazuo; Niki, Yoshihito

    2014-04-01

    The mechanism of quinolone-resistance is considered to be amino acid mutations in the type II topoisomerase. We validated the genetic mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. We obtained 29 H. influenzae strains from a nationwide surveillance program in Japan (including 11 quinolone-resistant strains [moxifloxacin: MFLX or levofloxacin MIC ≥2 μg/ml]). We analyzed the sequences of the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions (QRDRs) in GyrA, GyrB, ParC and ParE. Furthermore, we induced resistance in susceptible strains by exposing them to quinolone, and investigated the relationship between mutations in the QRDRs and the MICs. Five amino acid substitutions in GyrA (at Ser84 and Asp88) and ParC (at Gly82, Ser84 and Glu88) were found to be closely related to the MICs. The strains with a MFLX MIC of 0.125-1 and 2-4 μg/ml had one and two mutations, respectively. The strains with a MFLX MIC of ≥8 μg/ml had three or more mutations. The strains with induced resistance with MFLX MICs of 0.5-1 and ≥2 μg/ml also had one and two mutations, respectively. We confirmed that these five mutations strongly contribute to quinolone resistance and found that the degree of resistance is related to the number of the mutations. In addition, the three strains of 18 susceptible strains (16.7%) also had a single mutation. These strains may therefore be in the initial stage of quinolone resistance. Currently, the frequency of quinolone-resistant H. influenzae is still low. However, as has occurred with β-lactams, an increase in quinolone use may lead to more quinolone-resistant strains.

  1. Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Geneva: serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and β-lactam resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cherkaoui, A; Diene, S M; Emonet, S; Renzi, G; Francois, P; Schrenzel, J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Geneva, Switzerland. We investigated the association between specific patterns of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (with or without β-lactamase production) and β-lactam susceptibility. Another main focus for this study was to compare the accuracy of disk diffusion and Etest methods to detect resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The antibiotic susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics of 124 H. influenzae isolates was determined by disk diffusion and Etest methods, and interpreted by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Alterations in PBP3 were investigated by sequencing the ftsI gene. Of the 124 clinical isolates analyzed, ampicillin resistance was found in 36% (45 out of 124). The rate of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 9% and 0.8%, using EUCAST and CLSI breakpoints respectively. For the 78 β-lactamase negative ampicillin-susceptible (BLNAS) isolates for which the Etest method indicated a high degree of susceptibility (MIC ≤ 1 mg/L), the disk diffusion method revealed resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 33 cases (42%). Most common amino acid substitutions were Asn526Lys and Val547Ile, followed by Asp569Ser, Ala502Val, Asp350Asn, Met377Ile, Ile449Val, and Arg517His. The patterns observed were classified into six groups (IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, III-like, and miscellaneous). Continued characterization of both invasive and respiratory H. influenzae isolates is necessary in order to observe changes in the microbiology and epidemiology of this pathogen that could lead to clinical failure when treated by empirical antibiotic therapy.

  2. Rapid Differentiation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with ClinProTools Mass Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Wong, Chun-Pong; Wong, Sally C Y; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is associated with severe invasive disease, while Haemophilus haemolyticus is considered part of the commensal flora in the human respiratory tract. Although the addition of a custom mass spectrum library into the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system could improve identification of these two species, the establishment of such a custom database is technically complicated and requires a large amount of resources, which most clinical laboratories cannot afford. In this study, we developed a mass spectrum analysis model with 7 mass peak biomarkers for the identification of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus using the ClinProTools software. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this model using 408 H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates from clinical respiratory specimens from 363 hospitalized patients and compared the identification results with those obtained with the Bruker IVD MALDI Biotyper. The IVD MALDI Biotyper identified only 86.9% of H. influenzae (311/358) and 98.0% of H. haemolyticus (49/50) clinical isolates to the species level. In comparison, the ClinProTools mass spectrum model could identify 100% of H. influenzae (358/358) and H. haemolyticus (50/50) clinical strains to the species level and significantly improved the species identification rate (McNemar's test, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of ClinProTools demonstrated an alternative way for users lacking special expertise in mass spectrometry to handle closely related bacterial species when the proprietary spectrum library failed. This approach should be useful for the differentiation of other closely related bacterial species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. A Novel, Molybdenum-Containing Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Supports Survival of Haemophilus influenzae in an In vivo Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dhouib, Rabeb; Othman, Dk. Seti Maimonah Pg; Lin, Victor; Lai, Xuanjie J.; Wijesinghe, Hewa G. S.; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Davis, Amanda; Nasreen, Marufa; Bernhardt, Paul V.; Hansbro, Philip M.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Kappler, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a host adapted human mucosal pathogen involved in a variety of acute and chronic respiratory tract infections, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, all of which rely on its ability to efficiently establish continuing interactions with the host. Here we report the characterization of a novel molybdenum enzyme, TorZ/MtsZ that supports interactions of H. influenzae with host cells during growth in oxygen-limited environments. Strains lacking TorZ/MtsZ showed a reduced ability to survive in contact with epithelial cells as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy and adherence/invasion assays. This included a reduction in the ability of the strain to invade human epithelial cells, a trait that could be linked to the persistence of H. influenzae. The observation that in a murine model of H. influenzae infection, strains lacking TorZ/MtsZ were almost undetectable after 72 h of infection, while ∼3.6 × 103 CFU/mL of the wild type strain were measured under the same conditions is consistent with this view. To understand how TorZ/MtsZ mediates this effect we purified and characterized the enzyme, and were able to show that it is an S- and N-oxide reductase with a stereospecificity for S-sulfoxides. The enzyme converts two physiologically relevant sulfoxides, biotin sulfoxide and methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), with the kinetic parameters suggesting that MetSO is the natural substrate of this enzyme. TorZ/MtsZ was unable to repair sulfoxides in oxidized Calmodulin, suggesting that a role in cell metabolism/energy generation and not protein repair is the key function of this enzyme. Phylogenetic analyses showed that H. influenzae TorZ/MtsZ is only distantly related to the Escherichia coli TorZ TMAO reductase, but instead is a representative of a new, previously uncharacterized clade of molybdenum enzyme that is widely distributed within the Pasteurellaceae family of pathogenic bacteria. It is likely that MtsZ/TorZ has a similar

  4. [In vitro resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates to the antibiotics used in therapy].

    PubMed

    Uncu, Hikmet; Colakoğlu, Sule; Turunç, Tuba; Demiroğlu, Yusuf Ziya; Arslan, Hande

    2007-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae which cause infections with high morbidity and mortality all over the world, are also the most important bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumoniae. In recent years S. pneumoniae is becoming increasingly resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to detect the in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different clinical samples to the antibiotics which are used in the therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Between the period of January 2005 to May 2006, 77 S. pneumoniae (44 sputum, 20 blood, 8 bronchoalveolar lavage, 4 pleural fluids and 1 tracheal aspirate isolate) and 31 H. influenzae (30 sputum and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage isolate) strains isolated from patients who were admitted to Baskent University Hospital, Research and Practice Center of Adana (located in southern Turkey), were included to the study. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; M100-S13) guidelines. The MIC values of S. pneumoniae which gave an inhibition zone diameter of > or =19 mm in with disc diffusion test, were detected by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Intermediate and high resistance rates of pneumococci to penicilin were found as 38.9% (30/77) and 10.4% (8/77), respectively, with a total resistance rate of 49.4%. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), erithromycin, tetracyclin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol were the other antibiotics which followed penicillin with the resistance rates of 42.8%, 37.6%, 31.1%, 23.3% and 10.3%, respectively. Amongst H. influenzae strains, one (3.2%) was found to be a beta-lactamase producer and it was resistant to both ampicillin and azitromycin. Eight (25.8%) of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to TMP/SMX, and two (6.4%) were resistant to chloramphenicol. As a result, the high penicilin and erithromycin resistance rates

  5. Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 compared to their susceptibilities to 11 other agents.

    PubMed

    Credito, K L; Lin, G; Pankuch, G A; Bajaksouzian, S; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% beta-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 microg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 microg/ml). Of the beta-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (32.0 microg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. beta-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with beta-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. beta-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide

  6. Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 Compared to Their Susceptibilities to 11 Other Agents

    PubMed Central

    Credito, Kim L.; Lin, Gengrong; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% β-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 μg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 μg/ml). Of the β-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (≤0.004 to 0.016 μg/ml), followed by cefixime and cefpodoxime (0.008 to 0.125 and ≤0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively), amoxicillin-clavulanate (0.125 to 4.0 μg/ml), and cefuroxime (0.25 to 8.0 μg/ml). Amoxicillin was only active against β-lactamase-negative strains, and cefprozil had the highest MICs of all oral cephalosporins tested (0.5 to >32.0 μg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. β-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with β-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. β-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains

  7. Haemophilus influenzae serotype b and a capsule-deficient type mutant (b-) invasive disease in a partially vaccinated child in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Nathalia G S; de Filippis, Ivano; Arruda, Tânia Catão; Real, Maria Eulália Côrte; de Jesus, Alice Batalha; de Almeida, Antonio Eugenio C C

    2013-04-01

    We report a rare case of infection by two different types of Haemophilus influenzae strains in a child who received only one dose of the H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (DTwP+Hib). The strains were recovered from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and were phenotypically identified as Hib and non-typable H. influenzae, respectively, after serological tests. The two strains were characterized by PCR capsular typing, multilocus sequence typing and PFGE. Our results suggest that the infection was caused by the bloodstream invasion by a single Hib strain, followed by the diffusion of the bacteria across the blood-brain barrier and into the CSF. The strain recovered from the CSF, however, was identified as a capsule-deficient type mutant (b(-)) strain. Despite the high efficacy of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the increase in the numbers of strains able to escape the immune system of the vaccinated population advocates continued surveillance.

  8. Distribution and relationship to serotype of Haemophilus influenzae biotypes isolated from upper respiratory tracts of children and adults in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Gratten, M; Lupiwa, T; Montgomery, J; Gerega, G

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between serotypes and biotypes of 505 carriage strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the upper respiratory tracts of well children, children with pneumonia, and healthy adults was studied. All except serotype c were significantly associated with one or two specific biotypes (P less than 0.001). No encapsulated organisms belonging to biotypes V, VI, or VII were encountered. No significant difference in the interaction of biotypes and serotypes isolated from well and sick children was present. Both encapsulated and nonserotypable biotype I H. influenzae strains were commonly carried in the upper respiratory tracts of healthy Melanesian children. The distribution of nonserotypable H. influenzae strains occurred throughout all biotypes, and the frequency of nonencapsulated biotype III and IV strains differed significantly from serotypable organisms with the same biotype (P less than 0.001). PMID:6609168

  9. High ampicillin resistance in different biotypes and serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae colonizing the nasopharynx of healthy school-going Indian children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amita; Kumar, Pradeep; Awasthi, Shally

    2006-02-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of the main causes of otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia in children, and the development of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae is a cause of serious concern. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae colonizing the nasopharynx of school-going healthy North Indian children, and to compare the distribution of different biotypes and serotype b in this population. A total of 2400 school-going healthy children from 45 rural and 45 urban schools were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the children and cultured. H. influenzae was isolated from 1001 (41.7 %) of the 2400 nasopharyngeal swabs collected. All these H. influenzae isolates were biotyped and serotyped, and their antibiotic susceptibility tested. All eight biotypes were present in this population. The most prevalent biotypes were I (19.6 %), II (16.8 %) and III (25.0 %). Of the 1001 isolates, 316 (31.6 %) were H. influenzae type b and 685 (68.4 %) were non-type b H. influenzae, and 22.9 % were resistant to ampicillin, 41.9 % to chloramphenicol, 27.5 % to erythromycin and 67.3 % to co-trimoxazole. Of the 316 H. influenzae type b isolates, 44.0 % were ampicillin resistant, while only 13.1 % non-type b H. influenzae isolates were ampicillin resistant. Of the 229 ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae isolates, 196 (85.6 %) were positive for beta-lactamase; 93.4 % (214/229) were biotypes I, II and III, of which 49 % were biotype I, 27.9 % were type II and 16.6 % were type III. Most of the strains belonging to biotypes III-VIII were ampicillin sensitive. Ampicillin resistance is significantly more common in biotype I and serotype b than in other biotypes and serotypes.

  10. Role of lgtC in Resistance of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain R2866 to Human Serum▿

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Alice L.; Allen, Simon; Ho, Derek K.; Bonthius, Paul J.; Jarisch, Justin; Nelson, Kevin L.; Tsao, David L.; Unrath, William C. T.; Watson, Michael E.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.; Smith, Arnold L.

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating a nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strain, R2866, isolated from a child with meningitis. R2866 is unusually resistant to killing by normal human serum. The serum 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for this strain is 18%, approaching that of encapsulated H. influenzae. R3392 is a derivative of R2866 that was found to have increased sensitivity to human serum (IC50, 1.5%). Analysis of tetrameric repeat regions within lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthetic genes in both strains indicated that the glycosyltransferase gene lgtC was out of frame (“off”) in most colonies of R3392 but in frame with its start codon (“on”) in most colonies of the parent. We sought antigenic and biochemical evidence for modification of the LOS structure. In a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, strain R3392 displayed reduced binding of the Galα1,4Gal-specific monoclonal antibody 4C4. Mass spectrometry analysis of LOS from strain R2866 indicated that the primary oligosaccharide glycoform contained four heptose and four hexose residues, while that of R3392 contained four heptose and three hexose residues. We conclude that the R2866 lgtC gene encodes a galactosyltransferase involved in synthesis of the 4C4 epitope, as in other strains, and that expression of lgtC is associated with the high-level serum resistance that has been observed for this strain. This is the first description of the genetic basis of high-level serum resistance in NTHI, as well as the first description of LOS composition in an NTHI strain for which the complete genome sequence has been determined. PMID:16966407

  11. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. Objectives To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. Results The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. Conclusions We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections. PMID:27630761

  12. Bifunctional catalysis by CDP-ribitol synthase: convergent recruitment of reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities in Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark P; Brown, Eric D

    2004-09-21

    CDP-ribitol synthase catalyzes the formation of CDP-ribitol from ribulose 5-phosphate, NADPH, and CTP. CDP-ribitol is an activated precursor for the synthesis of virulence-associated polysaccharides in the capsule of the Gram-negative pathogen Haemophilus influenzae and in the cell walls of Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus. We showed previously that CDP-ribitol synthase activity in H. influenzae is catalyzed by the bifunctional enzyme Bcs1 in a two-step reaction with reduction preceding cytidylyl transfer [Zolli, M., et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 5041-5048]. In the work reported here, we predicted a CDP-ribitol synthesis locus in S. aureus tandemly arranged as tarI, encoding an orthologue of the cytidylyltransferase domain of Bcs1, and tarJ, coding for an analogue of the reductase domain of Bcs1. We have shown the formation of a functional CDP-ribitol synthase complex between TarI and TarJ. Steady-state mechanistic studies of the CDP-ribitol synthases TarIJ and Bcs1 revealed that the analogous reductases and orthologous cytidylyltransferases undergo ordered mechanisms. The sequence of substrate binding and product release of the orthologous cytidylyltransferases differed. Steady-state analysis of the reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities of TarIJ indicated a 100-fold difference in the turnover where the primary reductase was rate limiting. Rapid mixing experiments revealed the presence of approximately 12 microM ribitol 5-phosphate at steady state, 100-fold lower than the observed K(m) for this intermediate. Analysis of the approach to steady state suggested that channeling was not occurring in the coupled enzyme complex and was an unlikely driving force in the convergent recruitment of reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities in the two CDP-ribitol synthases.

  13. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and viral influenza vaccinations in pregnancy for improving maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Dojo Soeandy, Chesarahmia; Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-06-09

    Infections during pregnancy confers increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the case for advocating Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and viral Influenza vaccinations in pregnancy is still debatable. To assess the impact of Hib and viral Influenza vaccinations during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes compared to placebo/control. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 January 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised controlled clinical trials (including cluster-randomised trials) and quasi-randomised trials evaluating Hib or viral influenza vaccination during pregnancy compared with no vaccination or placebo. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two trials were included this review. One (involving 213 women and 213 neonates) evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination during pregnancy and the other study (involving 2116 women and 2049 neonates) evaluated the impact of viral influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Overall, the HiB vaccination trial was judged to be at 'high risk of bias' due to inadequate randomisation while the other trial was judged to be at 'low risk of bias'. Hib vaccination during pregnancy versus placeboOne trial involving 213 women and 213 neonates evaluating the impact of Hib vaccination during pregnancy was included under this comparison. The study did not report on any of this review's prespecified primary outcomes (including mortality, respiratory tract infection and sepsis) or secondary outcomes (including adverse events) except preterm delivery. There was no clear difference between the Hib vaccination and placebo control groups in terms of preterm delivery (risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 13.86, one study, 213 participants), fetal distress (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.26, one study, 213 infants

  14. Characterization of Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Recovered from Adult Patients with Underlying Chronic Lung Disease Reveals Genotypic and Phenotypic Traits Associated with Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Mell, Joshua Chang; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Euba, Begoña; Llobet, Enrique; Gil, Carmen; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing infection in adults suffering obstructive lung diseases. Existing evidence associates chronic infection by NTHi to the progression of the chronic respiratory disease, but specific features of NTHi associated with persistence have not been comprehensively addressed. To provide clues about adaptive strategies adopted by NTHi during persistent infection, we compared sequential persistent isolates with newly acquired isolates in sputa from six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified three patients with consecutive persistent strains and three with new strains. Phenotypic characterisation included infection of respiratory epithelial cells, bacterial self-aggregation, biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Persistent isolates differed from new strains in showing low epithelial adhesion and inability to form biofilms when grown under continuous-flow culture conditions in microfermenters. Self-aggregation clustered the strains by patient, not by persistence. Increasing resistance to AMPs was observed for each series of persistent isolates; this was not associated with lipooligosaccharide decoration with phosphorylcholine or with lipid A acylation. Variation was further analyzed for the series of three persistent isolates recovered from patient 1. These isolates displayed comparable growth rate, natural transformation frequency and murine pulmonary infection. Genome sequencing of these three isolates revealed sequential acquisition of single-nucleotide variants in the AMP permease sapC, the heme acquisition systems hgpB, hgpC, hup and hxuC, the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase kdkA, the long-chain fatty acid transporter ompP1, and the phosphoribosylamine glycine ligase purD. Collectively, we frame a range of pathogenic traits and a repertoire of genetic variants in the context of

  15. Characterization of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae isolates recovered from adult patients with underlying chronic lung disease reveals genotypic and phenotypic traits associated with persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Junkal; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Mell, Joshua Chang; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Euba, Begoña; Llobet, Enrique; Gil, Carmen; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Redfield, Rosemary J; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing infection in adults suffering obstructive lung diseases. Existing evidence associates chronic infection by NTHi to the progression of the chronic respiratory disease, but specific features of NTHi associated with persistence have not been comprehensively addressed. To provide clues about adaptive strategies adopted by NTHi during persistent infection, we compared sequential persistent isolates with newly acquired isolates in sputa from six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified three patients with consecutive persistent strains and three with new strains. Phenotypic characterisation included infection of respiratory epithelial cells, bacterial self-aggregation, biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Persistent isolates differed from new strains in showing low epithelial adhesion and inability to form biofilms when grown under continuous-flow culture conditions in microfermenters. Self-aggregation clustered the strains by patient, not by persistence. Increasing resistance to AMPs was observed for each series of persistent isolates; this was not associated with lipooligosaccharide decoration with phosphorylcholine or with lipid A acylation. Variation was further analyzed for the series of three persistent isolates recovered from patient 1. These isolates displayed comparable growth rate, natural transformation frequency and murine pulmonary infection. Genome sequencing of these three isolates revealed sequential acquisition of single-nucleotide variants in the AMP permease sapC, the heme acquisition systems hgpB, hgpC, hup and hxuC, the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase kdkA, the long-chain fatty acid transporter ompP1, and the phosphoribosylamine glycine ligase purD. Collectively, we frame a range of pathogenic traits and a repertoire of genetic variants in the context of

  16. Prevention and control of haemophilus influenzae type b disease: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Briere, Elizabeth C; Rubin, Lorry; Moro, Pedro L; Cohn, Amanda; Clark, Thomas; Messonnier, Nancy

    2014-02-28

    This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations; it is intended for use by clinicians, public health officials, vaccination providers, and immunization program personnel as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a licensed conjugate Hib vaccine for infants aged 2 through 6 months (2 or 3 doses, depending on vaccine product) with a booster dose at age 12 through 15 months. ACIP also recommends vaccination for certain persons at increased risk for Hib disease (i.e., persons who have early component complement deficiencies, immunoglobulin deficiency, anatomic or functional asplenia, or HIV infection; recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant; and recipients of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms). This report summarizes current information on Hib epidemiology in the United States and describes Hib vaccines licensed for use in the United States. Guidelines for antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis of contacts of persons with Hib disease also are provided.

  17. In vitro susceptibility of 104 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to moxalactam (LY127935), ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and ticarcillin.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, E O; Kaplan, S L; Anderson, D C; Hinds, D B; Feigin, R D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 104 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric patients over a 1-year period were tested for susceptibility to moxalactam (LY127935), ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and ticarcillin. Of these strains, 30 produced beta-lactamase. LY127935 inhibited 99% of the strains at a concentration of 0.125 microgram/ml; the remaining strain was inhibited by this antibiotic at 0.25 microgram/ml. beta-Lactamase-producing strains were inhibited by ampicillin at greater than or equal to 2 microgram/ml. beta-Lactamase-negative strains were all inhibited by ampicillin at less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, except for one nontypable strain which required 2 microgram of ampicillin per ml for inhibition. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol at less than or equal to 4 microgram/ml. beta-Lactamase-producing strains were less susceptible (geometric mean = 4.702 microgram/ml) to ticarcillin than were strains which did not produce beta-lactamase (geometric mean = 0.331 microgram/ml). LY127935 susceptibility was not influenced by increasing inoculum size, as ws ampicillin susceptibility. Combinations of LY127935 and chloramphenicol or ampicillin were not antagonistic in vitro. PMID:6448579

  18. Structure of a small-molecule inhibitor complexed with GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae reveals an allosteric binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Lightle, Sandra; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Bornemeier, Dirk; Melnick, Michael; VanderRoest, Steven; McDowell, Laura

    2008-04-02

    N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is an essential enzyme in aminosugars metabolism and an attractive target for antibiotic drug discovery. GlmU catalyzes the formation of uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), an important precursor in the peptidoglycan and lipopolisaccharide biosynthesis in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here we disclose a 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlmU). The compound was identified through a high-throughput screening (HTS) configured to detect inhibitors that target the uridyltransferase active site of hiGlmU. The original HTS hit exhibited a modest micromolar potency (IC{sub 50} - 18 {mu}M in a racemic mixture) against hiGlmU and no activity against Staphylococcus aureus GlmU (saGlmU). The determined crystal structure indicated that the inhibitor occupies an allosteric site adjacent to the GlcNAc-1-P substrate-binding region. Analysis of the mechanistic model of the uridyltransferase reaction suggests that the binding of this allosteric inhibitor prevents structural rearrangements that are required for the enzymatic reaction, thus providing a basis for structure-guided design of a new class of mechanism-based inhibitors of GlmU.

  19. Evaluation of the saccharide content and stability of the first WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Bolgiano, Barbara; Rigsby, Peter; Crane, Dennis; Belgrave, Danielle; Corbel, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines (Hib) are almost entirely evaluated by physico-chemical methods to ensure the consistency of manufacture of batches. As different assays are employed for the quantification of Hib capsular polysaccharide PRP (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-D-ribitol-(1-->1)-beta-D-ribose-3-phosphate) in final formulations and bulk components, there was deemed a need for an International Standard of Hib PRP polysaccharide to be made available. Ten laboratories from 8 different countries participated in a collaborative study to determine the PRP content and assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard PRP preparation (02/208). The results illustrate that a reduction in between-laboratory variability could be achieved by use of a common reference preparation and data analysis showed no significant differences in the values obtained by the different assays: ribose, phosphorus, and high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), suggesting the suitability of the proposed reference for use across these assays for quantification of PRP content in Hib vaccines. On the basis of the results of this study, the First International Standard for PRP, NIBSC Code 02/208, has been established by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation, with a content of 4.933+/-0.267mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 7 of the participating laboratories.

  20. Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b in The Gambia: investigating the extent of protection across age groups.

    PubMed

    Idoko, O T; Roberts, E; Cox, M; Jafali, J; Njie-Jobe, J; Mackenzie, G; Ota, M O; Kampmann, B

    2014-08-06

    Following a landmark clinical trial, the vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was introduced in The Gambia in 1997. Whilst the immunogenicity of this vaccine is well established subsequent to the doses administered under the EPI schedule, little data exists assessing longevity of protection, using serology. Such data are needed however to predict the susceptibility to Hib at the population level. To determine antibody persistence in 5-6 year old fully vaccinated Gambian children compared with older children, adolescents and young adults, 427 serum samples from healthy 5-37 year old participants were tested for Hib antibodies using VaccZyme Human Anti-Hib ELISA kits. 86% of the children who had received 3 doses of Hib vaccine in infancy had Hib antibody concentrations ≥0.15 mg/l at the age of 5-6 years. This proportion was 76% for adolescents who had also largely been vaccinated and 90% for adults who had never received Hib vaccine. Although most participants had anti-Hib antibody above concentrations putatively defined as protective, significantly fewer had concentrations thought to confer long-term protection. This suggests a population with insufficient or waning antibody that may be susceptible to breakthrough disease and transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of Antibodies Specific to Tetanus Toxoid, Haemophilus influenzae Type b, and Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide in Healthy Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Uwe; Stemberg, Frank; Rieger, Christian H. L.; Büttner, Wolfgang; Borte, Michael; Schubert, Simone; Möllers, Helga; Riedel, Frank; Herz, Udo; Renz, Harald; Herzog, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Antibody levels specific for capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and for tetanus toxoid were measured in serum samples of 386 age-stratified subjects. The study group consists of healthy adult blood donors and hospitalized children undergoing elective surgery, excluding individuals with a history of infection. In children, anti-tetanus toxoid antibody levels displayed two peaks of 1.20 IU/ml (20.4 mg/liter) and 1.65 IU/ml (28.1 mg/liter) related to the schedule of routine childhood immunization in the first year and at 8 years of age. Eighty percent of the antibodies are of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype. For pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP), the specific antibody levels represent the acquisition of natural immunity. The initial concentration of 9.2 mg/liter was low in infancy (0.5 to 1 years of age) and remained low until 3 to 4 years of age (14.6 mg/liter). During this period PCP antibodies were almost 100% of the IgG2 subclass. Thereafter, IgG anti-PCP antibody titers increased steadily to adult levels (59.5 mg/liter). The data are intended to provide reference ranges to aid in the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting. PMID:12626443

  2. Levels of antibodies specific to tetanus toxoid, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Uwe; Stemberg, Frank; Rieger, Christian H L; Büttner, Wolfgang; Borte, Michael; Schubert, Simone; Möllers, Helga; Riedel, Frank; Herz, Udo; Renz, Harald; Herzog, Wilhelm

    2003-03-01

    Antibody levels specific for capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and for tetanus toxoid were measured in serum samples of 386 age-stratified subjects. The study group consists of healthy adult blood donors and hospitalized children undergoing elective surgery, excluding individuals with a history of infection. In children, anti-tetanus toxoid antibody levels displayed two peaks of 1.20 IU/ml (20.4 mg/liter) and 1.65 IU/ml (28.1 mg/liter) related to the schedule of routine childhood immunization in the first year and at 8 years of age. Eighty percent of the antibodies are of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype. For pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP), the specific antibody levels represent the acquisition of natural immunity. The initial concentration of 9.2 mg/liter was low in infancy (0.5 to 1 years of age) and remained low until 3 to 4 years of age (14.6 mg/liter). During this period PCP antibodies were almost 100% of the IgG2 subclass. Thereafter, IgG anti-PCP antibody titers increased steadily to adult levels (59.5 mg/liter). The data are intended to provide reference ranges to aid in the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting.

  3. The epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage among infants and young children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Moore, A; Sánchez, J; Kool, J; Castellanos, P L; Feris, J M; Kolczak, M; Levine, O S

    1998-09-01

    Whether herd immunity will occur with widespread Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination in developing countries is dependent on whether the vaccines are capable of reducing carriage in these settings. However, few population-based studies of Hib carriage in developing countries exist. To study Hib carriage in the Dominican Republic, we collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens from a population-based sample of 983 children 0 to 47 months old in a periurban area of Santo Domingo. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 76 (7.7%) children were positive for Hib. Hib carriage varied by age group with a low of 1.5% among 0 to 5 month olds, a peak of 12.5% in 6 to 11 month olds and prevalence rates of 6.0, 7.9 and 9.8% among 1-, 2- and 3-year-olds, respectively. Hib carriage was 51% lower among currently breast-fed 6 to 11 month olds than among those not currently breast-fed (18.2% vs. 9.0%; P=0.08). Infants and young children in Santo Domingo have high rates of Hib carriage, characterized by an early peak in carriage that corresponds with the peak of risk for Hib meningitis. The ability of Hib vaccines to diminish carriage to levels that will effectively reduce transmission and lead to herd immunity in this setting needs to be determined.

  4. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G.; Morris, Gordon A.; Almutairi, Fahad M.; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 106 g.mol−1) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 106 g.mol−1). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 106 g.mol−1), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  5. Gene Expression Changes Triggered by Exposure of Haemophilus influenzae to Novobiocin or Ciprofloxacin: Combined Transcription and Translation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gmuender, Hans; Kuratli, Karin; Di Padova, Karin; Gray, Christopher P.; Keck, Wolfgang; Evers, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The responses of Haemophilus influenzae to DNA gyrase inhibitors were analyzed at the transcriptional and the translational level. High-density microarrays based on the genomic sequence were used to monitor the expression levels of >80% of the genes in this bacterium. In parallel the proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. DNA gyrase inhibitors of two different functional classes were used. Novobiocin, as a representative of one class, inhibits the ATPase activity of the enzyme, thereby indirectly changing the degree of DNA supercoiling. Ciprofloxacin, a representative of the second class, obstructs supercoiling by inhibiting the DNA cleavage-resealing reaction. Our results clearly show that different responses can be observed. Treatment with the ATPase inhibitor Novobiocin changed the expression rates of many genes, reflecting the fact that the initiation of transcription for many genes is sensitive to DNA supercoiling. Ciprofloxacin mainly stimulated the expression of DNA repair systems as a response to the DNA damage caused by the stable ternary complexes. In addition, changed expression levels were also observed for some genes coding for proteins either annotated as “unknown function” or “hypothetical” or for proteins not directly involved in DNA topology or repair. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ297131 and AL135960.] PMID:11156613

  6. Heteroimmunization to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b induced by enteric cross-reacting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Z T; Argaman, M; Parke, J C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1975-05-01

    Cross-reacting Escherichia coli strains Easter and 89 and Bacillus pumilis fed to newborn rabbits and E. coli fed to adult rhesus monkeys did not exert untoward reactions. The E. coli regularly colonized the newborns' intestinal tract from 1 to 7 weeks. High doses of E. coli were necessary to colonize adult primates. Colonization occurred in fewer newborn rabbits and lasted only 1 to 3 weeks with B. pumilis. Colonized newborn rabbits and adult rhesus had an active Haemophilus influenzae type b (HITB) immune response. In the rabbit, colonization resulted in accelerated induction of immunoglobulin (Ig) M-. IgA-, and IgG-producing cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches after HITB challenge. E. coli-fed and control newborn primates were naturally colonized with nasopharyngeal and enteric cross-reacting bacteria and both groups rapidly developed HITB antibodies in the absence of the homologous organisms. Human newborn stool cultures, taken at the time of discharge from the nursery, showed a 0.9% carriage rate for cross-reacting E. coli. These "carrier" infants acquired HITB antibodies more rapidly than their age-matched "noncarrier" controls.

  7. The ToxAvapA toxin-antitoxin locus contributes to the survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae during infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dabin; Kordis, Alexis A; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Daines, Dayle A

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of acute and recurrent mucosal infections. One uncharacterized NTHi toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, NTHI1912-1913, is a host inhibition of growth (higBA) homologue. We hypothesized that this locus, which we designated toxAvapA, contributed to NTHi survival during infection. We deleted toxAvapA and determined that growth of the mutant in defined media was not different from the parent strain. We tested the mutant for persistence during long-term in vitro co-culture with primary human respiratory tissues, which revealed that the ΔtoxAvapA mutant was attenuated for survival. We then performed challenge studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media and determined that mutant survival was also reduced in vivo. Following purification, the toxin exhibited ribonuclease activity on RNA in vitro, while the antitoxin did not. A microarray comparison of the transcriptome revealed that the tryptophan biosynthetic regulon was significantly repressed in the mutant compared to the parent strain. HPLC studies of conditioned medium confirmed that there was no significant difference in the concentration of tryptophan remaining in the supernatant, indicating that the uptake of tryptophan by the mutant was not affected. We conclude that the role of the NTHi toxAvapA TA module in persistence following stress is multifactorial and includes effects on essential metabolic pathways.

  8. The channel-tunnel HI1462 of Haemophilus influenzae reveals differences to Escherichia coli TolC.

    PubMed

    Polleichtner, Georg; Andersen, Christian

    2006-06-01

    Efflux pumps play a major role in multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria. The TolC homologue HI1462 was identified as the single channel-tunnel in Haemophilus influenzae required to form a functional multidrug efflux pump. The outer-membrane protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and reconstituted in black lipid membranes. It exhibited a comparatively small single-channel conductance of 43 pS in 1 M KCl and is the first known TolC homologue which is anion-selective. The HI1462 structure was modelled and an arginine residue lining the tunnel entrance was identified. The channel-tunnel of a mutant with the arginine substituted by an alanine residue was cation-selective and had a sevenfold higher single-channel conductance compared to wild-type. These results confirm that the arginine is responsible for anion selectivity and forms a salt bridge with a glutamate residue of the adjacent monomer, establishing a circular network, which keeps the tunnel entrance in a tightly closed conformation. In in vivo experiments, both the wild-type HI1462 and the mutant were able to substitute for E. coli TolC in the haemolysin secretion system, but not in the AcrAB/TolC multidrug efflux pump. The structure-function relationship of HI1462 is discussed in the context of the well-studied TolC channel-tunnel of E. coli.

  9. Molecular cloning, expression, and primary sequence of outer membrane protein P2 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Tolan, R W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the porin of Haemophilus influenzae type b, designated outer membrane protein P2, was cloned, and the DNA sequence was determined. An oligonucleotide probe generated by reverse translation of N-terminal amino acid sequence data from the purified protein was used to screen genomic DNA. The probe detected a single EcoRI fragment of approximately 1,700 base pairs which was cloned to lambda gt11 and then into M13 and partially sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence indicated that we had cloned the N-terminal portion of the P2 gene. An overlapping approximately 1,600-base-pair PvuII genomic fragment was cloned into M13, and the sequence of the remainder of the P2 gene was determined. The gene for P2 was then reconstructed under the control of the T7 promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to residues 21 through 34 of the derived amino acid sequence. Thus, the protein is synthesized with a 20-amino-acid leader peptide. The Mr of the processed protein is 37,782, in good agreement with the estimate of 37,000 from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:2535836

  10. Strain-specific pulmonary defense achieved after repeated airway immunizations with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Jun; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Zhao, Jizi; Saito, Mariko; Onizuka, Shozaburo; Oma, Keita; Watanabe, Kiwao; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Oishi, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Strain-specific immune responses may play a critical role in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and the outer membrane protein P2 is one of surface antigens of NTHi, which may contribute to the strain-specific protective immunity. We examined whether repeated airway immunizations with killed-NTHi strains bearing different P2 molecules were capable of inducing protective immunity against homologous or heterologous strains in the lungs of a mouse model. Three different strains of NTHi were used in this study. Three serial intratracheal (IT) immunizations of a single strain or three different strains of NTHi led to the production of cross-reactive immunoglobulins G and A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Three serial IT immunizations with a single strain enhanced the bacterial clearance of the homologous strain in the lungs, but no enhancement of bacterial clearance was found with three serial IT immunizations of heterologous strains. The enhancement in bacterial clearance, therefore, appears to be primarily strain-specific. Enhanced bacterial clearance of a heterologous strain was also found after three serial IT immunizations of a single strain among two of the three strains employed for bacterial challenge. These findings suggest that P2 molecules and surface antigens other than P2 are involved in the development of pulmonary defense against NTHi in mice. Our data may explain, in part, why patients with COPD experience recurrent NTHi infections.

  11. Divergent Mechanisms for Passive Pneumococcal Resistance to β-Lactam Antibiotics in the Presence of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Kristin E.D.; Juneau, Richard A.; Murrah, Kyle A.; Pang, Bing; Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Richardson, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Otitis media, for which antibiotic treatment failure is increasingly common, is a leading pediatric public health problem. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media were performed using a β-lactamase-producing strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi 86-028NP) and an isogenic mutant deficient in β-lactamase production (NTHi 86-028NP bla) to define the roles of biofilm formation and β-lactamase production in antibiotic resistance. Coinfection studies were done with Streptococcus pneumoniae to determine if NTHi provides passive protection by means of β-lactamase production, biofilm formation, or both. Results. NTHi 86-028NP bla was resistant to amoxicillin killing in biofilm studies in vitro; however, it was cleared by amoxicillin treatment in vivo, whereas NTHi 86-028NP was unaffected in either system. NTHi 86-028NP protected pneumococcus in vivo in both the effusion fluid and bullar homogenate. NTHi 86-028NP bla and pneumococcus were both recovered from the surface-associated bacteria of amoxicillin-treated animals; only NTHi 86-028NP bla was recovered from effusion. Conclusions. Based on these studies, we conclude that NTHi provides passive protection for S. pneumoniae in vivo through 2 distinct mechanisms: production of β-lactamase and formation of biofilm communities. PMID:21220774

  12. Are economic evaluations of vaccines useful to decision-makers? Case study of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brinsmead, Regina; Hill, Suzanne; Walker, Damian

    2004-01-01

    In concert with efforts to increase global provision, economic evaluations of newer and relatively costly vaccines have proliferated in the medical literature. The extent to which existing vaccine evaluations are useful to decision makers is not clear. We conducted a systematic review of published economic evaluations of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, anticipating that their usefulness to past and present decision makers would be limited by the quality of the analyses and by the extent to which the results were transferable to other settings. We systematically identified economic evaluations of conjugate Hib vaccine. We appraised their quality according to a customized checklist and assessed the extent of and reasons for variability of the results. Quality assessment of the available economic evaluations disclosed a number of shortcomings, including the failure across all models to derive systematic estimates of vaccine efficacy as well as a lack of transparency in the costing of Hib disease treatment. Wide variations in results appeared to be caused primarily by epidemiologic and health system differences between settings and secondarily to methodologic differences between models. The generalizability of model results appeared low. There is scope for improving the overall quality of economic evaluations of Hib vaccination. Relevance to decision makers may also be increased by addressing local budget constraints and vaccine price. There is a need to better understand the decision process, particularly at the national level, to ensure the role of future economic evaluations as important decision tools in the implementation of new vaccines.

  13. Transcutaneous immunization as preventative and therapeutic regimens to protect against experimental otitis media due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, L A; Clements, J D; Bakaletz, L O

    2011-01-01

    We have developed three nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) adhesin-derived immunogens that are significantly efficacious against experimental otitis media (OM) due to NTHI when delivered parenterally. We now expanded our preventative immunization strategies to include transcutaneous immunization (TCI) as a less invasive, but potentially equally efficacious, regimen to prevent OM due to NTHI. Additionally, we examined the potential of TCI as a therapeutic immunization regimen to resolve ongoing experimental OM. Preventative immunization with NTHI outer membrane protein (OMP) P5- and type IV pilus-targeted immunogens, delivered with the adjuvant LT(R192G-L211A), induced significantly earlier clearance of NTHI from the nasopharynges and middle ears of challenged chinchillas compared with receipt of immunogen or adjuvant alone. Moreover, therapeutic immunization resulted in significant resolution of established NTHI biofilms from the middle ear space of animals compared with controls. These data advocate TCI with the adhesin-directed immunogens as an efficacious regimen for prevention and resolution of experimental NTHI-induced OM. PMID:21326197

  14. Outcome of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Goetghebuer, T; West, T E; Wermenbol, V; Cadbury, A L; Milligan, P; Lloyd-Evans, N; Adegbola, R A; Mulholland, E K; Greenwood, B M; Weber, M W

    2000-03-01

    In developing countries, endemic childhood meningitis is a severe disease caused most commonly by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Although many studies have shown that fatality rates associated with meningitis caused by these organisms are high in developing countries, little is known about the long-term outcome of survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of disabilities following pneumococcal and Hib meningitis in The Gambia. 257 children aged 0-12 years hospitalized between 1990 and 1995 with culture-proven S. pneumoniae (n = 134) or Hib (n = 123) meningitis were included retrospectively in the study. 48% of children with pneumococcal meningitis and 27% of children with Hib meningitis died whilst in hospital. Of the 160 survivors, 89 (55%) were followed up between September 1996 and October 1997. Of the children with pneumococcal meningitis that were traced, 58% had clinical sequelae; half of them had major disabilities preventing normal adaptation to social life. 38% of survivors of Hib meningitis had clinical sequelae, a quarter of whom had major disabilities. Major handicaps found were hearing loss, mental retardation, motor abnormalities and seizures. These data show that despite treatment with effective antibiotics, pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill many Gambian children and leave many survivors with severe sequelae. Hib vaccination is now given routinely in The Gambia; an effective pneumococcal vaccine is needed.

  15. [Study on the status of oral pharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in healthy preschool children in Fuzhou city].

    PubMed

    Lai, Guoxiang; Zhang, Hongwen; Ye, Liyan; Huang, Lianghu; Lin, Maoying; Cao, Huiqin; Chen, Xinmin

    2002-04-01

    To study the status of oral pharyngeal carriage and characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) in healthy preschool children in Fuzhou. Six hundred and three healthy children in two representative kindergartens in Fuzhou were studied as research subjects, and the rates of oral pharyngeal carriage of Hi were studied in four seasons. All Hi strains were serotyped and biotyped. The oral pharyngeal carriage of Hi in day care nursery healthy children were 36.7% in winter, 18.0% in autumn, 12.4% in summer and 10.9% in spring respectively. Serotype Hib was preponderant in autumn (6.9%). In winter, the carriage rates of NTHi and Hib were 17.1%, 5.4% respectively. The carriage rates of other serotypes were low. Biotype VII and VIII were preponderant in autumn, spring and summer but biotype VII and VIII were decreasing evidently in winter. There was evident seasonal difference in the rates of oral pharyngeal carriage and type of Hi in healthy preschool children. The carriage rate of Hi strains was high in autumn and winter. Results suggested that while the inoculation of Hib-binding bacterial vaccine was expanded the study on new bacterial vaccine of Hi still needs to be augmented.

  16. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-02-26

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution.

  17. Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kristina A; Marshall, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    The highest rates of invasive meningococcal disease occur in children under 2 years of age, yet as of early 2011 no vaccine was licensed for the youngest infants. However, a novel vaccine consisting of capsular polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y conjugated to tetanus toxoid (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is in the late stages of development. In clinical trials involving more than 7800 children, HibMenCY-TT was shown to be safe and immunogenic when administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody responses were noninferior to those elicited by licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, and most vaccinees developed bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups C and Y. The majority of subjects retained antibody responses as far as 3 years after vaccination. If licensed, HibMenCY-TT not only represents an incremental option for protection against invasive Hib, but also has the potential to prevent invasive meningococcal disease without increasing the number of injections.

  18. Experimental design to optimize an Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine made with hydrazide-derivatized tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Laferriere, Craig; Ravenscroft, Neil; Wilson, Seanette; Combrink, Jill; Gordon, Lizelle; Petre, Jean

    2011-10-01

    The introduction of type b Haemophilus influenzae conjugate vaccines into routine vaccination schedules has significantly reduced the burden of this disease; however, widespread use in developing countries is constrained by vaccine costs, and there is a need for a simple and high-yielding manufacturing process. The vaccine is composed of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein. To improve the yield and rate of the reductive amination conjugation reaction used to make this vaccine, some of the carboxyl groups of the carrier protein, tetanus toxoid, were modified to hydrazides, which are more reactive than the ε -amine of lysine. Other reaction parameters, including the ratio of the reactants, the size of the polysaccharide, the temperature and the salt concentration, were also investigated. Experimental design was used to minimize the number of experiments required to optimize all these parameters to obtain conjugate in high yield with target characteristics. It was found that increasing the reactant ratio and decreasing the size of the polysaccharide increased the polysaccharide:protein mass ratio in the product. Temperature and salt concentration did not improve this ratio. These results are consistent with a diffusion controlled rate limiting step in the conjugation reaction. Excessive modification of tetanus toxoid with hydrazide was correlated with reduced yield and lower free polysaccharide. This was attributed to a greater tendency for precipitation, possibly due to changes in the isoelectric point. Experimental design and multiple regression helped identify key parameters to control and thereby optimize this conjugation reaction.

  19. QseC controls biofilm formation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in addition to an AI-2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Unal, Can M; Singh, Birendra; Fleury, Christophe; Singh, Kalpana; Chávez de Paz, Luis; Svensäter, Gunnel; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2012-11-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common pathogen associated with diseases such as acute otitis media or exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The biofilm-forming capability substantially contributes to the persistence of NTHi. However, the regulation of biofilm formation is not completely understood. Quorum sensing regulated by autoinducer-2 produced by luxS is until now the only described regulatory mechanism. In this study, we show that the two-component signalling system QseB/C is involved in the biofilm formation of NTHi in vitro. An isogenic NTHi mutant of qseC (Hi3655KR2) showed a significant decrease in biofilm formation under static and semi-static conditions as assessed by crystal violet staining. In addition, under constant flow conditions, Hi3655KR2 formed less biofilm after 48 h. The biofilm defects were irrespective of autoinducer-2 levels. Hence, here we suggest for the first time a regulatory circuit in NTHi, which controls biofilm formation by mechanisms other than or in addition to luxS-dependent factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Coverage and causes of missed Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination in urban and rural areas of Peshawar.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Mohammad; Adil, Muhammad; Abbas, Syed Hussain; Khan, Muhammad Zia Ul Islam; Naz, Syeda Maria; Khan, Ayasha; Khan, Muhammad Usman

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Hib vaccine was introduced in 2009 in EPI programme. The purpose of this study was to find out the coverage and factors associated with non-immunization of Hib in urban and rural areas of Peshawar. Data was collected through random sampling in Peshawar University, Peshawar Saddar, Hashtnagri, Naway Kalay and Pawaka from 9th to 19th of June 2010. A questionnaire was used to interview parents of 600 children aged 1 year and below about demographics, Hib vaccination status, reasons for missed vaccination and views on immunization. Pearson's Chi-square test was used for statistical testing, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Completely vaccinated children were 64.2%, 25% not vaccinated at all, and 11% were incompletely vaccinated. The reasons for not vaccinating were lack of awareness (26%), family problem/mother busy (18%), centre too far (16.9%), wrong ideas (12.2%), fear of reaction (5.4%), child illness (8.1%) and miscellaneous causes (13.7%). Low Hib vaccination coverage in Peshawar is mainly due to low awareness among people, poor economic conditions and illiteracy.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate immunization before bone marrow harvest in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Molrine, D C; Guinan, E C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Parsons, S K; Weinstein, H J; McGarigle, C; Blanding, P; Phillips, N R; Ciamarra, A; George, S; Ambrosino, D M

    1996-06-01

    Immune reconstitution following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) is characterized by defects in B cell and T cell function and loss of specific antibody. In the late post-transplant period, patients are at risk for infections with polysaccharide encapsulated organisms and respond poorly to polysaccharide vaccines. We examined whether immunizing ABMT patients before bone marrow (BM) harvest enhanced the early recovery of specific antibody. Twelve patients were immunized before BM harvest with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate, tetanus toxoid and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Forty-one comparable ABMT patients not immunized prior to BM harvest were also studied. Following ABMT, both groups of patients were immunized with HIB-conjugate and tetanus toxoid vaccines at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and with pneumococcal vaccine at 12 and 24 months. Patients immunized before BM harvest had higher HIB antibody concentrations during the first 2 years post-transplant, the differences reaching significance at 3 months (P = 0.0001) and following the 24-month dose (P = 0.048). Tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were also significantly higher at 3 months (P = 0.001) and 6 months (P = 0.032) in patients immunized before BM harvest. There were no differences in pneumococcal antibody concentrations between the two groups. Immunization of patients before bone marrow harvest resulted in higher anti-HIB antibody concentrations following ABMT and may be an effective strategy to prevent infectious complications.

  2. Development of a diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Meyler, Kenneth L; Meehan, Mary; Bennett, Desiree; Cunney, Robert; Cafferkey, Mary

    2012-12-01

    Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, invasive H. influenzae disease has become dominated by nontypeable (NT) strains. Several widely used molecular diagnostic methods have been shown to lack sensitivity or specificity in the detection of some of these strains. Novel real-time assays targeting the fucK, licA, and ompP2 genes were developed and evaluated. The fucK assay detected all strains of H. influenzae tested (n = 116) and had an analytical sensitivity of 10 genome copies/polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This assay detected both serotype b and NT H. influenzae in 12 previously positive specimens (culture and/or bexA PCR) and also detected H. influenzae in a further 5 of 883 culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The fucK assay has excellent potential as a diagnostic test for detection of typeable and nontypeable strains of invasive H. influenzae in clinical samples of blood and CSF.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Newly Developed and Fully Automated Bacteriological Analyzer "RAISUS ANY" for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Toshio; Nomiya, Saori; Yamamoto, Yukari; Miyazawa, Miki; Ohsuga, Jun; Hisada, Akifumi; Iwawaki, Kenji; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2017-04-20

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for fastidious bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) has been performed manually. We evaluated the performance of a newly developed fully automated system for rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing "RAISUS ANY" (Nissui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.). We evaluated the performance of "RAISUS ANY" for measurement of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, in comparison with the manual method (DP34, Eiken Chem. Co., Ltd.). The repeatability of MICs was studied using the reference strain of these bacteria, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA). The comparison with the manual method for 35 and 36 clinical strains of H. influenzae and S. pneumonia showed 62.9-100% and 86.1-100% agreement, respectively. Five of 35 H. influenzae strains that showed a trailing effect were stably and accurately measured for MICs without a variation among the examiners. In conclusion, the automated system "RAISUS ANY" provided a reliable MICs data for H. influenzae and S. pneumonia, suggesting its improvement in performance and reliability for routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinical bacteriological laboratories.

  4. [Concentration of tazobactam/piperacillin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis].

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Chie; Hoshino, Tadashi; Kutsuna, Satoru; Sawada, Kyoko; Sato, Hiroko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2013-09-01

    While the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is expected to decrease with the widespread use of the Hib vaccine, the resistance of Hib has actually increased. Therefore, selection of the initial antibiotics used for treatment must be performed with resistant bacteria, including beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant H. influenzae (BLNAR), in mind. Tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) has a satisfactory minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against BLNAR and is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Although there is no insurance coverage for its use in patients with meningitis, the penetration of TAZ/PIPC into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in animal experiments promises a satisfactory result, and we have been using a combination of ceftriaxone (CTRX) and TAZ/PIPC as an initial treatment and a resistant bacteria countermeasure in patients with Hib meningitis at our hospital since 2008. We examined the concentration of TAZ/PIPC in CSF to further investigate the possibility of using TAZ/PIPC as an antibiotic treatment against bacterial meningitis. In cases treated with a 1: 8 drug formulation of TAZ/PIPC against Hib meningitis at our hospital, we used the remaining portion of a CSF sample collected after the initiation of TAZ/PIPC administration and then measured the concentrations of TAZ and PIPC in the CSF. Six specimens from 5 patients between the ages of 6 and 59 months were examined. The dosage of TAZ/PIPC was 95.7-113.6 mg/kg/dose x 3 times/day, and the CSF concentrations at 0-105 minutes after the completion of the administration were 0.319-1.32 microg/mL for TAZ and 2.54-7.74 microg/mL for PIPC. With the approved dosage, the peak concentration level during the acute period indicated a sufficient CSF concentration level for the antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibition effects against Hib. As an antibiotic treatment for H. influenzae meningitis, the combined usage of TAZ/PIPC is likely to be effective as a resistant bacteria countermeasure, in

  5. Disinfection of rigid nasal endoscopes following in vitro contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Benjamin D; Seiberling, Kristin A; Park, Francine E; Hiebert, Jared C; Chang, Dennis F

    2013-06-01

    If not adequately cleaned, rigid nasal endoscopes (RNEs) have the potential to cause iatrogenic cross-contamination. To test the efficacy of various disinfection methods in reducing bacterial load on RNEs in vitro. In vitro model. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae contamination was separately induced on RNEs in vitro. Two experimental sets were completed. The RNEs were disinfected using the following protocols: 30-second scrub with antimicrobial soap (ABS) and water, 30-second scrub with 70% isopropyl alcohol (IA), 30-second scrub with ABS followed by 30-second scrub with IA, 30-second scrub with germicidal cloth, isolated 5-minute soak in an enzymatic soap solution, 5- and 10-minute soaks in ortho-phthalaldehyde, 0.55%, solution (Cidex OPA), and isolated 30-second rinse with tap water, all with 30-second precleaning and postcleaning rinses with tap water. Two sets of experiments (experiment sets A and B) were carried out with a 30-second tap water rinse after inoculation of each RNE. This was followed by immediate cleaning in set A and a 1-hour air-dry delay in set B. Otherwise there were no differences in the disinfection protocols between sets for each method noted. Effectiveness of various disinfection protocols in cleaning rigid nasal endoscopes experimentally inoculated with bacteria commonly found in the upper aerodigestive tract. Positive cultures following disinfection indicated ineffective or incomplete disinfection. Most cleaning methods were effective in eliminating S aureus, S pneumoniae, and H influenzae from the scopes following experimental contamination. Continued growth of P aeruginosa was found after all of the disinfection trials in experiment set A with the exception of a 10-minute immersion in Cidex OPA, and in set B except for the 10-minute Cidex OPA immersion and ABS plus IA trials. Most cleaning methods used in our trials appear to properly disinfect RNEs after in vitro

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of LBVH0101, a new Haemophilus influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, compared with Hiberix™ in Korean infants and children: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chang, Sung Hee; Lee, Jina; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Su Eun; Eun, Byung Wook; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2012-02-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all countries adopt Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into routine child immunization programs to protect children from the significant burden of life-threatening pneumonia and meningitis. In this blind, comparative, randomized, phase-III Korean multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of a new H. <