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Sample records for adopt healthier behaviors

  1. Identifying Male College Students' Perceived Health Needs, Barriers to Seeking Help, and Recommendations To Help Men Adopt Healthier Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Jon; McCrae, Byron P.; Frank, Joanne; Dochnahl, Annie; Pickering, Tony; Harrison, Brent; Zakrzewski, Mark; Wilson, Kirsten

    2000-01-01

    Information from focus groups identified college males' health concerns, barriers to seeking help, and recommendations to help them adopt healthier lifestyles. Respondents were aware of their health needs, identifying both physical and emotional concerns, but rarely addressed them. Alcohol and substance abuse were the main concerns. Socialization…

  2. An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon

    2011-12-01

    How does the composition of a population affect the adoption of health behaviors and innovations? Homophily--similarity of social contacts--can increase dyadic-level influence, but it can also force less healthy individuals to interact primarily with one another, thereby excluding them from interactions with healthier, more influential, early adopters. As a result, an important network-level effect of homophily is that the people who are most in need of a health innovation may be among the least likely to adopt it. Despite the importance of this thesis, confounding factors in observational data have made it difficult to test empirically. We report results from a controlled experimental study on the spread of a health innovation through fixed social networks in which the level of homophily was independently varied. We found that homophily significantly increased overall adoption of a new health behavior, especially among those most in need of it. PMID:22144624

  3. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  4. Motivating Women to Adopt Positive Financial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Megan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    In a strengths-based study, 17 women ages 25 to 54 participated in focus groups to identify their motivations for positive financial behavior change. Performing a thematic analysis of data, evidence shows they progressed through the Transtheoretical Model stages of change. Emotion, family influence, and life transitions helped participants…

  5. Behavior Problems in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems were investigated in 342 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not consistent, responsive caregiving. Results indicated that attention and externalizing problems were the most prevalent types of behavior problems in the sample as a…

  6. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  7. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  8. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  9. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption. PMID:24818433

  10. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  11. Physicians' adoption of information technology: a consumer behavior approach.

    PubMed

    Eger, M S; Godkin, R L; Valentine, S R

    2001-01-01

    Studies report physician resistance to information technology in a time when the practice of medicine could benefit from technological support. Anecdotally, it is suspected that lack of training, discomfort with technological innovations, a perceived shift in the doctor/patient relationship, or medical/legal issues may account for this circumstance. Empirical studies attribute this lag to age, personality factors, behavioral issues, and occupational influences. This paper integrates the information technology and consumer behavior literatures to discuss physicians' acceptance, adoption, and application of IT. PMID:11873454

  12. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages

  13. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  14. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  15. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood. PMID:23408036

  16. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  17. Safer and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    During the early 20th century, contaminated food, milk, and water caused many foodborne infections, including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, botulism, and scarlet fever. In 1906, Upton Sinclair described in his novel The Jungle the unwholesome working environment in the Chicago meat-packing industry and the unsanitary conditions under which food was produced. Public awareness dramatically increased and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Once the sources and characteristics of foodborne diseases were identified--long before vaccines or antibiotics--they could be controlled by handwashing, sanitation, refrigeration, pasteurization, and pesticide application. Healthier animal care, feeding, and processing also improved food supply safety. In 1900, the incidence of typhoid fever was approximately 100 per 100,000 population; by 1920, it had decreased to 33.8, and by 1950, to 1.7 (Figure 1). During the 1940s, studies of autopsied muscle samples showed that 16% of persons in the United States had trichinellosis; 300-400 cases were diagnosed every year, and 10-20 deaths occurred. Since then, the rate of infection has declined markedly; from 1991 through 1996, three deaths and an average of 38 cases per year were reported. PMID:12432905

  18. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally A.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally adopted individuals show earlier puberty than nonadopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from adopted domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained…

  19. Healthier Cleaning & Maintenance: Practices and Products for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Association for Superintendents of School Buildings and Grounds, Albany.

    This paper helps all those concerned with keeping schools clean and properly maintained in adopting healthier cleaning and maintenance practices and promoting the purchase and use of environmentally preferable products which perform well and are cost effective. It explains how children are exposed to toxic chemicals in school cleaning and…

  20. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  1. Adopted Children's Problem Behavior Is Significantly Related to Their Ego Resiliency, Ego Control, and Sociometric Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffer, Femmie; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many studies have documented that adopted children are at higher risk for behavior problems, but less is known about the correlates of their problem behavior. Method: The correlates of parent-reported and teacher-reported problem behavior in 7-year-old internationally adopted children (N = 176) were investigated by examining these…

  2. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  3. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children

    PubMed Central

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the USA, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he/she knows who his/her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with non-adopted children. Objectives This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 non-adopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the non-adopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher’s report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Conclusion Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  4. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally-adopted individuals show earlier puberty than non-adopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained by differences in pubertal timing. Relative to nonadopted controls (n = 153), domestically-adopted girls (n = 121) had earlier menarche, earlier sexual initiation, and more conduct disorder symptoms. Age at menarche partially mediated the relation of adoptive status to sexual initiation, but not to conduct disorder symptoms. Extending findings from international adoptees, results show that domestic adoption is also linked to earlier puberty, and suggest early puberty as one mechanism linking adoption to problematic outcomes. PMID:23335840

  5. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  6. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  7. Behavior Problems in Postinstitutionalized Romanian Adoptees: Explanatory Parameters in the Adoptive Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    We examined behavior problems in 80 adolescents (39 male; mean age = 15.74 years) adopted in early childhood by Canadians from globally depriving Romanian institutions. Overall, rates of clinically significant behavior problems were comparable to rates found in younger postinstitutionalized adopted children. The association between duration of…

  8. Adoption of innovations from applied behavioral research: “Does anybody care?”

    PubMed Central

    Stolz, Stephanie B.

    1981-01-01

    Applied behavioral researchers develop useful innovative technologies experimentally, and yet few of these technologies enjoy widespread adoption by our society. This paper analyzes several instances in which government agencies adopted behavioral technology, identifies 10 manipulable variables that could increase the rate of adoption of such technological innovations, and relates them to the field of knowledge diffusion. Unifying theory and experimental analysis are lacking in that field, yet an implicit technology may exist. PMID:16795651

  9. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  10. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  11. The Effect of Placement Instability on Adopted Children's Inhibitory Control Abilities and Oppositional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin E.; Dozier, Mary; Ackerman, John; Sepulveda-Kozakowski, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relations among placement instability, inhibitory control, and caregiver-rated child behavior. The sample included 33 adopted children who had experienced placement instability, 42 adopted children who had experienced 1 stable placement, and 27 children never placed in foster care. Five- and 6-year-old children completed the…

  12. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children’s Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically-Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829

  13. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  14. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  15. Predictors and Correlates of Inattentive/Overactive Behaviors in Internationally Adopted Children.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Brooker, Brianne; Kapitula, Laura Ring; Goalen, Brooke; Gunnoe, Marjorie L

    2016-01-01

    Children adopted internationally following deprived early care have an elevated risk for difficulties with inattention/overactivity (Kreppner et al., 2001 ). The current study sought to identify predictors of inattention/overactivity and child and adoptive family challenges that co-occur with inattention/overactivity difficulties in a sample of internationally adopted children. Forty-eight children (mean age at adoption = 57.98 months, SD = 47.7 months) were examined at 3 yearly assessments, which included semistructured interviews, parent ratings, and neuropsychological assessment with children. Results revealed that older age at adoption, longer time in the adoptive home, and smaller family size were associated with greater parent-rated difficulties with inattention/overactivity. Additionally, greater inattention/overactivity difficulties were associated with poorer expressive language and reading performance, poorer child emotional-behavioral outcomes, and poorer adoptive family functioning. Given the increase in difficulties over time in the adoptive home, longer-term follow-up may be helpful to ensure appropriate intervention. Additionally, interventions may need to be more comprehensive given the connection between inattentive/overactive behaviors and other areas of functioning. PMID:26979800

  16. Examining Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Broadband in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Selamat, Mohamad H.; Wahab, Muhammad S. Abd; Samsudin, Mohd A. Mat; Lal, Banita

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the adoption of broadband Internet in a developing country context by focusing upon Malaysia. The data relating to these factors was collected using a survey approach. The findings of this paper suggest that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence are significant factors for explaining the behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet by Malaysian accountants. The paper proceeds to outline the research limitations, theoretical contributions, and implications for practice.

  17. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  18. Health Tip: Exercise for A Healthier Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158255.html Health Tip: Exercise for a Healthier Heart Activity helps protect against ... 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- It's common knowledge that exercise helps you shed pounds. But it also can ...

  19. DANCE Your Way to Healthier Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthier Lungs Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... Reduce environmental hazards by Coping with Indoor Air Pollution and by Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air ...

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Waldman, Irwin D

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of 51 twin and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior. The best fitting model included moderate proportions of variance due to additive genetic influences (.32), nonadditive genetic influences (.09), shared environmental influences (.16), and nonshared environmental influences (.43). The magnitude of familial influences (i.e., both genetic and shared environmental influences) was lower in parent-offspring adoption studies than in both twin studies and sibling adoption studies. Operationalization, assessment method, zygosity determination method, and age were significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior, but there were no significant differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences for males and females. PMID:12002699

  1. Adopting Health Behavior Change Theory throughout the Clinical Practice Guideline Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccato, Natalie E.; Ferris, Lorraine E.; Manuel, Douglas; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a theoretical framework throughout the clinical practice guideline (CPG) process (development, dissemination, implementation, and evaluation) can be useful in systematically identifying, addressing, and explaining behavioral influences impacting CPG uptake and effectiveness. This article argues that using a theoretical framework should…

  2. The Behavioral Development of Korean Children in Institutional Care and International Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.; Seol, Kyoung Ok; Sung, Miyoung; Miller, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the behavioral development of 4- to 8-year-old South Korean children placed in institutional care (n = 230) or adopted internationally (n = 382), with age of entry, parental status, reason for institutionalization, and postinstitutionalization parental contact as risk factors for institutionalized children.…

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Internationally Adopted Chinese Children: Communication and Symbolic Behavior Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuoh, Hisako

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of internationally adopted children to another culture and language has not been studied extensively. This study followed four infant girls from China during the 1st year postadoption, measuring vocabulary, gestural, social, communication, and symbolic behavior development each month. The children were also tested at 2 and 3 years…

  4. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  5. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  6. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  7. The "voice" has it: screen reader adoption and switching behavior among vision impaired persons in India.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ted; Pal, Joyojeet; Cutrell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a mixed methods study of screen reader use and switching behavior among people with vision impairments in India. We examine loyalty and experimentation with screen readers and find that the main drivers of adoption for early users differ significantly from the factors that drive continued use by advanced users. We discuss the factor that emerges as one of the strongest stated drivers of early adoption, text-to-speech "voice" quality, particularly a "human-sounding voice" as one of the key features differentiating free/open source products from more expensive proprietary products. While the initial preferences are driven by voice quality, application support becomes more important over time as users speed up their sound settings and become more comfortable with the resultant non-human-sounding speech. We discuss these findings from two theoretical perspectives--first, through the application of the economics of behavior switching, and second, vis-à-vis novice and expert approaches toward new product adoption. We argue that these findings further our understanding of initial user comfort related to assistive technology adoption, and the impact of early technology choices on long-term technology switching behavior. PMID:24620705

  8. Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Competitive Beverage and Food Guidelines: Do Elementary School Administrators Know about Them and Do They Report Implementing Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The availability of competitive foods in schools is a modifiable factor in efforts to prevent childhood obesity. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation launched the Healthy Schools Program in 2006 to encourage schools to create healthier food environments, including the adoption of nutritional guidelines for competitive beverages and…

  9. "Fitness Freaks": A Healthier Lifestyle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the lifestyles of young people are affected by health and fitness considerations. An analysis of data from 3253 Health Related Behavior Questionnaires, completed by fourth-year secondary school pupils is presented. (IAH)

  10. MEDLINE on the Internet: "Healthier" than Before?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines some of the many Internet/World Wide Web versions of MEDLINE and reports whether the file is "healthier" now than it was before. Describes two search examples and two non-National Library of Medicine Web MEDLINE sites. Notes that for MEDLINE searching, the user should pick a couple of sites and perform a personal comparisons and…

  11. Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the calories you expend each day. USE THE NUTRITION FACTS LABEL TO EAT HEALTHIER Check the serving ...

  12. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  13. Gender-Typed Play Behavior in Early Childhood: Adopted Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Smith, JuilAnna Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-typed play of young children varies as a function of family structure. Using a sample of 126 couples (44 lesbian couples, 34 gay male couples, and 48 heterosexual couples) located throughout the United States, with an adopted child between the age of 2 and 4 years old (mean = 2.5 years), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior utilizing the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993). Findings revealed that the perceived play behaviors of boys and girls in same-gender parent families were more similar (i.e., less gender-stereotyped) than the perceived play behavior of boys and girls in heterosexual-parent families (which were more divergent; that is, gender-stereotyped). Sons of lesbian mothers were less masculine in their play behavior than sons of gay fathers and sons of heterosexual parents. Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents. PMID:23420542

  14. Gender-Typed Play Behavior in Early Childhood: Adopted Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kashy, Deborah A; Smith, Juilanna Z

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether the gender-typed play of young children varies as a function of family structure. Using a sample of 126 couples (44 lesbian couples, 34 gay male couples, and 48 heterosexual couples) located throughout the United States, with an adopted child between the age of 2 and 4 years old (mean = 2.5 years), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior utilizing the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993). Findings revealed that the perceived play behaviors of boys and girls in same-gender parent families were more similar (i.e., less gender-stereotyped) than the perceived play behavior of boys and girls in heterosexual-parent families (which were more divergent; that is, gender-stereotyped). Sons of lesbian mothers were less masculine in their play behavior than sons of gay fathers and sons of heterosexual parents. Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents. PMID:23420542

  15. Influence of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Toddler Behaviors: An Emerging Developmental Cascade of Genetic and Environmental Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, Caroline K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers’ behavior problems through the longitudinal and multi-generational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9-months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways. PMID:20883583

  16. Adoption, Reach, Implementation, and Maintenance of a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Sabo, Roy T.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Ory, Marcia G.; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines recommend screening patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health concerns. Health risk assessments can systematically identify patient needs and trigger care. This study seeks to evaluate whether primary care practices can routinely implement such assessments into routine care. METHODS As part of a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial, 9 diverse primary care practices implemented My Own Health Report (MOHR)—an electronic or paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment and feedback system paired with counseling and goal setting. We observed how practices integrated MOHR into their workflows, what additional practice staff time it required, and what percentage of patients completed a MOHR assessment (Reach). RESULTS Most practices approached (60%) agreed to adopt MOHR. How they implemented MOHR depended on practice resources, informatics capacity, and patient characteristics. Three practices mailed patients invitations to complete MOHR on the Web, 1 called patients and completed MOHR over the telephone, 1 had patients complete MOHR on paper in the office, and 4 had staff help patients complete MOHR on the Web in the office. Overall, 3,591 patients were approached and 1,782 completed MOHR (Reach = 49.6%). Reach varied by implementation strategy with higher reach when MOHR was completed by staff than by patients (71.2% vs 30.2%, P <.001). No practices were able to sustain the complete MOHR assessment without adaptations after study completion. Fielding MOHR increased staff and clinician time an average of 28 minutes per visit. CONCLUSIONS Primary care practices can implement health behavior and mental health assessments, but counseling patients effectively requires effort. Practices will need more support to implement and sustain assessments. PMID:25384814

  17. Preparing for a healthier older age.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Angie

    2006-01-01

    People are living longer and if they are to enjoy a healthier old age it is important that they start preparing themselves for this during middle age. Many diseases are at least partly preventable by diet and exercise, so understanding the practicalities of good nutrition and the need to achieve and maintain a healthy weight is vital. Health professionals should use every opportunity to get this message across in their contacts with middle aged and older people. This article explains the key nutritional and physiological points and includes specific practical tips for burning off calories and reducing calorie intake. PMID:16550807

  18. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child…

  19. Factors related to adopting healthy behaviors by patients with tuberculosis in Isfahan: Application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Maryam; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Alahverdipoor, Hamid; Hasanzade, Akbar; Farid, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. It is one of the most common infectious diseases largely resulting from the patient's lifestyle. The purpose of the present study is to investigate factors related with adopting health behaviors by patients with tuberculosis based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients with tuberculosis. Data was collected using a 47-item, self-designed, questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 73.9. The Pearson test was used to study the correlation between independent variables and adopting a healthy behavior. Results: The mean score for adopting healthy behaviors by patients was 87.52 ± 13.8. The Pearson correlation test indicated a statistically significant relation between adopting healthy behaviors and scores of knowledge (P < 0.001, r = 0.536), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), perceived benefits (P < 0.001, r = 0.347), and perceived barriers (P = 0.046, r = 0.143). Conclusion: Direct relationship was found between adoptinga healthy behavior and scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived benefit. Although the results of this study can be the basis of educational interventions, any generalizations should be performed cautiously. PMID:25250352

  20. Effects of Self-Efficacy and Response Efficacy Messages in Health News: Changing Health Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Cortney Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is now the second leading cause of death for Americans, behind heart disease. By current estimates, up to two thirds of cancer diagnoses could be avoided or prevented with behavior changes such as the adoption of healthier lifestyles. One way that individuals learn about cancer is through the news media. Of all of the sources of health…

  1. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  2. Social communication network analysis of the role of participatory research in the adoption of new fish consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna

    2012-08-01

    The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to

  3. Pricing health behavior interventions to promote adoption: lessons from the marketing and business literature.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M

    2014-06-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  4. The “voice” has it: screen reader adoption and switching behavior among vision impaired persons in India

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Joyojeet; Cutrell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a mixed methods study of screen reader use and switching behavior among people with vision impairments in India. We examine loyalty and experimentation with screen readers and find that the main drivers of adoption for early users differ significantly from the factors that drive continued use by advanced users. We discuss the factor that emerges as one of the strongest stated drivers of early adoption, TTS “voice” quality, particularly a “human-sounding voice” as one of the key features differentiating free/open source (FOSS) products from more expensive proprietary products. While the initial preferences are driven by voice quality, application support becomes more important over time as users speed up their sound settings and become more comfortable with the resultant non-human-sounding speech. We discuss these findings from two theoretical perspectives – first, through the application of the economics of behavior switching, and second, vis-à-vis novice and expert approaches toward new product adoption. We argue that these findings further our understanding of initial user comfort related to assistive technology adoption, and the impact of early technology choices on long-term technology switching behavior. PMID:24620705

  5. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  6. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  7. The Behavioral Intentions of Hong Kong Primary Teachers in Adopting Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gary K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of educational technology by Hong Kong primary school teachers has been realized by the government's long-term support to the technology infrastructure, professional training, technical support, and development of teaching resources in local primary schools. However, the high adoption rate may not reflect the willingness of teachers to…

  8. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  9. An Analysis of ODL Student Perception and Adoption Behavior Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khor, Ean Teng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study aiming on investigating ODL students' perception and adoption of SCORM Compliant Learning Object (SCLO). With the increasing use of SCLO in recent years, a better understanding and implementation of effective instructional resources is necessary to meet the diverse needs of ODL students and enhance their…

  10. Will a Sit-Stand Desk Make You Healthier?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157829.html Will a Sit-Stand Desk Make You Healthier? Study ... this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not be available after 06/15/2016) By ...

  11. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Biology of Aging Heath and Aging Biology of Aging Preface The National Institute on Aging ( ... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ...

  12. Adoption of preventive behaviors in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a multiethnic perspective

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Kang, Minah; Ward, Johanna R M; Kahn, Emily B; Maddox, Kathryn EW; Lubell, Keri M; Tucker, Myra; Ben-Porath, Eran N

    2015-01-01

    Background As public health leaders prepare for possible future influenza pandemics, the rapid spread of 2009 H1N1 influenza highlights the need to focus on measures the public can adopt to help slow disease transmission. Such measures may relate to hygiene (e.g., hand washing), social distancing (e.g., avoiding places where many people gather), and pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., vaccination). Given the disproportionate impact of public health emergencies on minority communities in the United States, it is important to understand whether there are differences in acceptance across racial/ethnic groups that could lead to targeted and more effective policies and communications. Objectives This study explores racial/ethnic differences in the adoption of preventive behaviors during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Patients/Methods Data are from a national telephone poll conducted March 17 to April 11, 2010, among a representative sample of 1123 white, 330 African American, 317 Hispanic, 268 Asian, and 262 American Indian/Alaska Native adults in the USA. Results People in at least one racial/ethnic minority group were more likely than whites to adopt several behaviors related to hygiene, social distancing, and healthcare access, including increased hand washing and talking with a healthcare provider (P-values <0·05). Exceptions included avoiding others with influenza-like illnesses and receiving 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations. After we controlled the data for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, healthcare access, and illness- and vaccine-related attitudes, nearly all racial/ethnic differences in behaviors persisted. Conclusions Minority groups appear to be receptive to several preventive behaviors, but barriers to vaccination are more pervasive. PMID:25688806

  13. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  14. When Teachers Adopt Environmental Behaviors in the Aim of Protecting the Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Doyon, Andre; Langis, Joanne; Vasseur, Liette; Ouellet, Eileen; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Boudreau, Gaston; Martin, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The authors invited teachers participating in a climate change education course to voluntarily demonstrate new environmental behaviors. They were interviewed and described the process of change they experienced. Facilitating professional development activities were participation in a community of change, construction of knowledge of climate…

  15. Partners in Health: A Conceptual Framework for the Role of Community Health Workers in Facilitating Patients' Adoption of Healthy Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Van Devanter, Nancy; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    We formulated a conceptual framework that begins to answer the national call to improve health care access, delivery, and quality by explaining the processes through which community health workers (CHWs) facilitate patients’ adoption of healthy behaviors. In September 2011 to January 2012, we conducted a qualitative study that triangulated multiple data sources: 26 in-depth interviews, training documents, and patient charts. CHWs served as partners in health to immigrant Filipinos with hypertension, leveraging their cultural congruence with intervention participants, employing interpersonal communication techniques to build trust and rapport, providing social support, and assisting with health behavior change. To drive the field forward, this work can be expanded with framework testing that may influence future CHW training and interventions. PMID:25790405

  16. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Channanamchery, Radhika; Singh, R. K.; Kethineni, Udaya Bhaskar; Ram, H.; Prasad, S. Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of ₹ 39436 and the gross and net returns were ₹ 73300 and ₹ 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production. PMID:27478865

  17. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  18. Agent Based Modeling of Air Carrier Behavior for Evaluation of Technology Equipage and Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Hasan, Shahab; Rosenbaum, Rebecca L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework to assist policymakers in identifying impacts on the U.S. air transportation system (ATS) of potential policies and technology related to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This framework, called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS), integrates multiple models into a single process flow to best simulate responses by U.S. commercial airlines and other ATS stakeholders to NextGen-related policies, and in turn, how those responses impact the ATS. Development of this framework required NASA and LMI to create an agent-based model of airline and passenger behavior. This Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS) models airline decisions about tactical airfare and schedule adjustments, and strategic decisions related to fleet assignments, market prices, and equipage. AIRLINE-EVOS models its own heterogeneous population of passenger agents that interact with airlines; this interaction allows the model to simulate the cycle of action-reaction as airlines compete with each other and engage passengers. We validated a baseline configuration of AIRLINE-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments. These experiments demonstrated AIRLINE-EVOS's capabilities in responding to an input price shock in fuel prices, and to equipage challenges in a series of analyses based on potential incentive policies for best equipped best served, optimal-wind routing, and traffic management initiative exemption concepts..

  19. Better Nutrition Every Day: How to Make Healthier Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... and soda. “Healthier diets don’t have to cost more, provided that you have the right attitude, make the right food choices, and try to cook at home,” says Dr. Adam Drewnowski, a nutrition expert at the University of Washington in Seattle. With some planning, he ...

  20. But Is It Nutritious? Computer Analysis Creates Healthier Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Kathleen A.; Aumann, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized menu-planning method, "Nutrient Standard Menu Planning" (NSMP), uses today's technology to create healthier menus. Field tested in 20 California school districts, the advantages of NSMP are cost effectiveness, increased flexibility, greater productivity, improved public relations, improved finances, and improved student health. (MLF)

  1. A Tool for Creating Healthier Workplaces: The Conducivity Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The conducivity process, a methodology for creating healthier workplaces by promoting conducive production, is illustrated through the use of the "conducivity game" developed in the NordNet Project in Sweden, which was an action research project to test a job redesign methodology. The project combined the "conducivity" hypotheses about a…

  2. The Integrated Curriculum of "Planned Approach to Healthier Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbery, Monica; Gast, Julie; Smith, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Planned Approach to Healthier Schools (PATHS) is a multicomponent school program that aims to establish and sustain a social norm consistent with physical activity and healthy nutrition in the school community. The PATHS components include: (1) a professional development and wellness program for faculty and staff; (2) ongoing social-marketing…

  3. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  4. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages. PMID:11066716

  5. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    PubMed

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed. PMID:26526244

  6. Genetic Influence on Tester-Rated Infant Temperament as Assessed by Bayley's Infant Behavior Record: Nonadoptive and Adoptive Siblings and Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braungart, Julia M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) assessed the temperament of 95 nonadoptive and 80 adoptive sibling pairs at 1 and 2 years of age. Data from this and an earlier similar study of identical and fraternal twins yielded evidence for genetic influence for IBR factors of extraversion, activity, and task orientation. (BC)

  7. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  8. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  9. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  10. Do the Instructors Differ in Their Behavioral Intention to Adopt E-Learning Based on Age, Gender, and Internet Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine if there are differences of the age, gender, and internet experience on behavioural intention to adopt e-learning of the instructors in Jordanian universities. The paper takes a social, and technical approach in its investigation by using a research model based on the ANOVA and t-test Analysis to identify if…

  11. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  12. Report finds Medicare HMO members are younger, healthier and lower cost than FFS seniors.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Data File: Are managed seniors healthier than those in fee for service? A recent study by the U.S. General Accounting Office looks at disenrollment rates and costs of chronically ill Medicare HMO members in California. The findings support the much-disputed theory that seniors enrolled in HMOs are younger, healthier, and lower cost. PMID:10175566

  13. Unemployment, measured and perceived decline of economic resources: contrasting three measures of recessionary hardships and their implications for adopting negative health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Economic downturns could have long-term impacts on population health if they promote changes in health behaviors, but the evidence for whether people are more or less likely to adopt negative health behaviors in economically challenging times has been mixed. This paper argues that researchers need to draw more careful distinctions amongst different types of recessionary hardships and the mechanisms that may underlie their associations with health behaviors. We focus on unemployment experience, measured decline in economic resources, and perceived decline in economic resources, all of which are likely to occur more often during recessions, and explore whether their associations with health behaviors are consistent or different. We use population-based longitudinal data collected by the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study in the wake of the Great Recession in the United States. We evaluate whether those who had experienced each of these three hardships were more likely to adopt new negative health behaviors, specifically cigarette smoking, harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption, or marijuana consumption. We find that, net of controls and the other two recessionary hardships, unemployment experience was associated with increased hazard of starting marijuana use. Measured decline in economic resources was associated with increased hazard of cigarette smoking and lower hazard of starting marijuana use. Perceived decline in economic resources was linked to taking up harmful and hazardous drinking. Our results suggest heterogeneity in the pathways that connect hardship experiences and different health behaviors. They also indicate that relying on only one measure of hardship, as many past studies have done, could lead to an incomplete understanding of the relationship between economic distress and health behaviors. PMID:24530614

  14. Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knabe, Ann Peru

    2012-01-01

    This study used Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to research public relations faculty intentions of teaching online. All of the main predictor variables (Subjective Norms, Attitude toward the Act and Perceived Behavioral Control) were statistically significant at varying degrees in predicting intent to teach public relations online. Of the…

  15. Toward a healthier city: nutrition standards for New York City government.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J; Silver, Lynn D; Angell, Sonia Y

    2014-04-01

    Poor diet is a leading cause of disability, death, and rising health care costs. Government agencies can have a large impact on population nutrition by adopting healthy food purchasing policies. In 2007, New York City (NYC) began developing a nutrition policy for all foods purchased, served, or contracted for by City agencies. A Food Procurement Workgroup was created with representatives from all City agencies that engaged in food purchasing or service, and the NYC Health Department served as technical advisor. The NYC Standards for Meals/Snacks Purchased and Served (Standards) became a citywide policy in 2008. The first of its kind, the Standards apply to more than 3,000 programs run by 12 City agencies. This paper describes the development process and initial implementation of the Standards. With more than 260 million meals and snacks per year covered, the Standards increase demand for healthier products, model healthy eating, and may also affect clients' food choices beyond the institutional environment. Our experience suggests that implementation of nutrition standards across a wide range of diverse agencies is feasible, especially when high-level support is established and technical assistance is available. Healthy procurement policies can ensure that food purchased by a jurisdiction supports its public health efforts. PMID:24650846

  16. The impacts of a health belief model-based educational program on adopting self-care behaviors in pemphigus vulgaris patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Roya; Tol, Azar; Moradi, Azita; Baikpour, Masoud; Hossaini, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic disease and regarding its autoimmune nature, patients need to adopt self-care behaviors. This study aimed to assess the impacts of an educational program based on health belief model (HBM) on adopting self-care behaviors among patients with PV referred to Razi Hospital. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients with PV were randomized in an educational intervention study in two groups in 2013–2014. The intervention group attended a 6 months self-care educational program in a specialized outpatient clinic, in addition to the regular care presented for both groups. To collect information about demographic characteristics, PV-related variables, and HBM constructs items, a self-designed questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Increase in perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits score were significantly higher in intervention group compared with controls when adjusting for the difference in baseline scores of these HBM constructs and house ownership and employment status distribution in two groups using ANCOVA (P < 0.001). Furthermore, after intervention, the decrease in perceived barriers’ scores was significantly more than controls (P < 0.001), However, the decrease in cues to action score was not found significant (P = 0.380). Discussion: The results of this study show the effects of an HBM-based educational program as a tertiary preventive measure on adopting self-care behaviors in patients that can help them achieve self-efficacy in controlling their disease and enhancing their treatment process. PMID:27462647

  17. Behavioral Change Theories Can Inform the Prediction of Young Adults' Adoption of a Plant-Based Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyker, Brett A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), this study (1) examines links between stages of change for following a plant-based diet (PBD) and consuming more fruits and vegetables (FV); (2) tests an integrated theoretical model predicting intention to follow a PBD; and (3) identifies associated…

  18. Encouraging Teens To Adopt a Safe, Healthy Lifestyle: A Foundation for Improving Future Adult Behaviors. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    By envisioning adolescence as an ideal time to promote good physical health, it is possible to save lives and set in motion a lifetime of good health outcomes. To identify programs that promote health, this brief summarizes experimental studies of health-related behaviors, and reviews more than 230 research studies to identify factors associated…

  19. Micro-marketing healthier choices: effects of personalized ordering suggestions on restaurant purchases.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of the Nutricate receipt, which makes personalized recommendations to switch from unhealthy to healthier items at a restaurant chain. We find that the receipts shifted the mix of items purchased toward the healthier alternatives. For example, the share of adult main dishes requesting "no sauce" increased by 6.8 percent, the share of kids' meals with apples (instead of fries) rose by 7.0 percent and the share of breakfast sandwiches without sausage increased by 3.8 percent. The results illustrate the potential of emerging information technologies, which allow retailers to tailor product marketing to individual consumers, to generate healthier choices. PMID:25544398

  20. Micro-Marketing Healthier Choices: Effects of Personalized Ordering Suggestions on Restaurant Purchases

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the Nutricate receipt, which makes personalized recommendations to switch from unhealthy to healthier items at a restaurant chain. We find that the receipts shifted the mix of items purchased towards the healthier alternatives. For example, the share of adult main dishes requesting “no sauce” increased by 6.8 percent, the share of kids’ meals with apples (instead of fries) rose by 7.0 percent and the share of breakfast sandwiches without sausage increased by 3.8 percent. The results illustrate the potential of emerging information technologies, which allow retailers to tailor product marketing to individual consumers, to generate healthier choices. PMID:25544398

  1. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. Methods An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Results Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p < 0.0001). In the full sample, sales of healthy items did not differ across periods, whereas in the subsample, sales of healthy items increased by 30% when a signage + taste testing intervention was implemented (p < 0.01). This increase was maintained when prices of healthy items were reduced by 30%, and when all interventions were removed. When adults were alone they purchased more healthy items compared to when children were present during food purchases (p < 0.001), however parental choices were not substantially better than choices made by children alone. Conclusions This study found mixed

  2. 5 Ways to Make Foods You Love Healthier! | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Worried that cooking healthily means losing flavor? The good news is that by preparing and cooking food differently, you can make foods you love healthier and still keep all the taste. Here are some suggestions:

  3. Voluntary warnings and the limits of good prescribing behavior: the case for de-adoption of meperidine

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Falk, Jamie; Bugden, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    meperidine are using more meperidine and receiving more meperidine in each prescription. This pattern of results suggests that there may be limits to voluntary safety warnings. Policy action such as removal of medication insurance coverage may represent a logical next step to reverse or de-adopt meperidine and further enhance patient safety. PMID:26719721

  4. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. PMID:27269493

  5. Coalition for a Healthier Community: Lessons learned and implications for future work.

    PubMed

    Khare, Manorama M; Núñez, Ana E; James, Barbara F

    2015-08-01

    The Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC) initiative was implemented to improve the health and well-being of women and girls. Underpinning CHC is a gender-based focus that uses a network of community partners working collaboratively to generate relevant behavior change and improved health outcomes. Ten programs are trying to determine whether gender-focused system approaches are cost-effective ways to address health disparities in women and girls. Programs implemented through coalitions made up of academic institutions, public health departments, community-based organizations, and local, regional, and national organizations, are addressing health issues such as domestic violence, cardiovascular disease prevention, physical activity, and healthy eating. Although these programs are ongoing, they have made significant progress. Key factors contributing to their early success include a comprehensive needs assessment, robust coalitions, the diversity of populations targeted, programs based on findings of the needs assessments, evaluations taking into consideration the effect of gender, and strong academic-community partnerships. A noteworthy impact of these programs has been their ability to shape and impact public, social, and health policies at the state and local levels. However, there have been challenges associated with the implementation of such a complex program. Lessons learned are discussed in this paper. PMID:25703608

  6. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  7. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P < 0.01). Meals prepared at home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families. PMID:22457390

  8. The precaution adoption process.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

  9. The Effect of an Educational Intervention Program on the Adoption of Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors in Nurses: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of the current study revealed that the educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions. PMID:26835199

  10. Higher body mass index, less exercise, but healthier eating in married adults: Nine representative surveys across Europe.

    PubMed

    Mata, Jutta; Frank, Ronald; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies show that married individuals enjoy better health than those who were never married. This representative survey examines whether they also have a healthier body mass index (BMI) and weight-related behaviors, and tests four independent explanations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with representative samples (N = 4555) from nine European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK). On average, never married respondents had a lower BMI than married respondents (p = .048). Married individuals reported stronger preferences for organic/fair trade food and regional/unprocessed food, and paying less attention to dietary convenience or dietary fat and body weight. Importantly, married men also exercised less (all ps < .05). Despite these behavioral differences, only attention to dietary fat and body weight (p = .001) predicted BMI differently for married versus never married men. There were few country differences in the relationship between marital status and BMI. All analyses were controlled for age and socio-economic status. In conclusion, despite more favorable eating-related cognitions and behaviors, married respondents had a higher BMI than never married respondents, but differences were small. The link between marital status and BMI cannot be fully described by one single explanation. Obesity interventions may benefit from considering specific weight-related behaviors in married versus never married individuals. PMID:26079993

  11. Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

  12. Healthier Students Are Better Learners: A Missing Link in School Reforms to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article provides an introduction to the October 2011 special issue of the "Journal of School Health" on "Healthier Students Are Better Learners." Methods: Literature was reviewed and synthesized to identify health problems affecting school-aged youth that are highly prevalent, disproportionately affect urban minority youth,…

  13. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health. PMID:24399031

  14. The Bio-Social Paradox in the Black Community: Life Gets Longer but Not Healthier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamara, J. Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    The demographic profile of American Blacks reveals a phenomenal rise in longevity between 1900 and 1970 not matched by healthier living. This is attributable to higher incidence of cardiovascular disorders and certain cancers among non-Whites. This racial differential is statistically correlated with Black peoples' residence, work, and dietary…

  15. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

  16. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-09-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health. PMID:24399031

  17. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  18. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. PMID:24529984

  19. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  20. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  1. Behavioral management of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...

  2. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  3. The Cost of a Healthier Diet for Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.; Goggin, Kathy; Clements, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study used a market-basket approach to examine the availability and cost of a standard food shopping list (R-TFP) versus a healthier food shopping list (H-TFP) in the grocery stores used by a sample of 23 families of young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Frequency counts were used to measure availability. The average cost of the R-TFP and the H-TFP was compared using a paired t-test. Results Small or independent markets had the highest percent of missing foods (14%), followed by chain supermarkets (3%), and big box stores (2%). There was a significant difference in the average cost for the R-TFP versus the H-TFP ($324.71 and $380.07, respectively p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications Families may encounter problems finding healthier foods and/or incur greater costs for healthier foods. Nutrition education programs for T1DM need to teach problem solving to help families overcome these barriers. PMID:26164132

  4. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part I): Assessment of Participant Reach and Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background There are an estimated 25.8 million American children and adults, equivalent to 8.3% of the US population, living with diabetes. Diabetes is particularly burdensome on minority populations. The use of mobile technologies for reaching broad populations is a promising approach, given its wide footprint and ability to deliver inexpensive personalized messages, to increase awareness of type 2 diabetes and promote behavior changes targeting risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing mobile health information service, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. Txt4health is a mobile health information service designed to help people understand their risk for type 2 diabetes and become more informed about the steps they can take to lead healthy lives. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health reach and adoption by focusing on enrollment and participant engagement in program pilots in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a retrospective records analysis of individual-level txt4health system data from participants in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati to determine participant usage of txt4health and engagement with the program. Results Results from the retrospective records analysis revealed that 5570 participants initiated the 2-step enrollment process via 1 of 3 enrollment strategies: text message, website, or directly with Beacon staff who signed participants up via the website. In total, 33.00% (1838/5570) of participants completed the 2-step enrollment process and were fully enrolled in the program. All participants (100.00%, 1620/1620) who enrolled via text message completed the entire 2-step enrollment

  5. Adoption and Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Byung Hoon

    1989-01-01

    Because of Korean attitudes towards adoption and other reasons, attempts to promote intracountry adoption have met with limited success, and intercountry adoption is used as an alternative way of meeting children's needs. (RJC)

  6. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  7. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  8. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    PubMed

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  9. Parent perceptions to promote a healthier lifestyle for their obese child.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael; Benton, Jane M; Werk, Lloyd N

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children referred to a pediatric multidisciplinary weight-management clinic were queried regarding the importance of and their readiness to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors with their children and also regarding their confidence in their ability to adopt those changes. Among the 193 children's parents who completed a questionnaire (93.7% response), greater than 75% of respondents recognized the importance of healthy eating and physical activity, and many indicated feeling both confident and ready to make changes. Surprisingly, even among those not confident, parents also indicated they were ready to change their child's eating (p < .001). This study explores the discrepancy between parents indicating a high level of importance and readiness to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors but having less confidence that they would actually be able to enact change. PMID:22136345

  10. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  11. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth. PMID:25955537

  12. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Heidi; Shoffner, Peggy; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2012-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  13. Using Coaching to Support Classroom-Level Adoption and Use of Interventions within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, M.; Reinke, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many schools today have a prevention-based focus for working with academic and social behavior problems through the use of tiered approaches (Bohanon, McIntosh, & Goodman, 2011; Horner & Sugai, 2005). Through the use of levels of support, including a continuum of increasingly intensive support based on responsiveness to evidence-based core…

  14. Confirming the Etiology of Adolescent Acting-out Behaviors: An Examination of Observer-Ratings in a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis revealed moderate shared environmental influences (C) on most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009), including antisocial behavior. Critically, however, the research analyzed in this meta-analysis relied largely on specific informant-reports (and particularly parent and child reports), each…

  15. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015. PMID:22690228

  16. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. PMID:24801009

  17. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment. PMID:24762340

  18. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments. PMID:27281519

  19. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  20. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  1. Single Parent Adoptive Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research and reports on a longitudinal study of 15 single-parent adoptive homes over a 14-year period that demonstrated that these homes have the capacity to be successful adoptive placements. Identifies unique characteristics of single-parent adoptive homes, and notes the need for additional research to identify children for whom these…

  2. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  3. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  4. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  5. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  6. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  7. Food Sustainability Education as a Route to Healthier Eating: Evaluation of a Multi-Component School Programme in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M.; Dailami, N.; Weitkamp, E.; Salmon, D.; Kimberlee, R.; Morley, A.; Orme, J.

    2012-01-01

    Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food…

  8. Can front-of-pack labelling schemes guide healthier food choices? Australian shoppers' responses to seven labelling formats.

    PubMed

    Watson, Wendy L; Kelly, Bridget; Hector, Debra; Hughes, Clare; King, Lesley; Crawford, Jennifer; Sergeant, John; Chapman, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that easily accessible, comprehensible and consistent nutrient information on the front of packaged foods could assist shoppers to make healthier food choices. This study used an online questionnaire of 4357 grocery shoppers to examine Australian shoppers' ability to use a range of front-of-pack labels to identify healthier food products. Seven different front-of-pack labelling schemes comprising variants of the Traffic Light labelling scheme and the Percentage Daily Intake scheme, and a star rating scheme, were applied to nine pairs of commonly purchased food products. Participants could also access a nutrition information panel for each product. Participants were able to identify the healthier product in each comparison over 80% of the time using any of the five schemes that provided information on multiple nutrients. No individual scheme performed significantly better in terms of shoppers' ability to determine the healthier product, shopper reliance on the 'back-of-pack' nutrition information panel, and speed of use. The scheme that provided information about energy only and a scheme with limited numerical information of nutrient type or content performed poorly, as did the nutrition information panel alone (control). Further consumer testing is necessary to determine the optimal format and content of an interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labelling scheme. PMID:24126243

  9. Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mayuree; Afshin, Ashkan; Singh, Gitanjali; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prices of healthier versus less healthy foods/diet patterns while accounting for key sources of heterogeneity. Data sources MEDLINE (2000–2011), supplemented with expert consultations and hand reviews of reference lists and related citations. Design Studies reviewed independently and in duplicate were included if reporting mean retail price of foods or diet patterns stratified by healthfulness. We extracted, in duplicate, mean prices and their uncertainties of healthier and less healthy foods/diet patterns and rated the intensity of health differences for each comparison (range 1–10). Prices were adjusted for inflation and the World Bank purchasing power parity, and standardised to the international dollar (defined as US$1) in 2011. Using random effects models, we quantified price differences of healthier versus less healthy options for specific food types, diet patterns and units of price (serving, day and calorie). Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistics. Results 27 studies from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Among food groups, meats/protein had largest price differences: healthier options cost $0.29/serving (95% CI $0.19 to $0.40) and $0.47/200 kcal ($0.42 to $0.53) more than less healthy options. Price differences per serving for healthier versus less healthy foods were smaller among grains ($0.03), dairy (−$0.004), snacks/sweets ($0.12) and fats/oils ($0.02; p<0.05 each) and not significant for soda/juice ($0.11, p=0.64). Comparing extremes (top vs bottom quantile) of food-based diet patterns, healthier diets cost $1.48/day ($1.01 to $1.95) and $1.54/2000 kcal ($1.15 to $1.94) more. Comparing nutrient-based patterns, price per day was not significantly different (top vs bottom quantile: $0.04; p=0.916), whereas price per 2000 kcal was $1.56 ($0.61 to $2.51) more. Adjustment for intensity of differences in healthfulness yielded similar results. Conclusions

  10. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  11. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  12. Relationships between Perceived Attributes of Innovations and Their Subsequent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Glenn S.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships between educator's innovation adoption behavior and attributes of innovations described by Rogers and Shoemaker are examined. Only one of the five hypothesized relationships was accepted. (DS)

  13. The Impact of Previous Type of Abuse and Sibling Adoption upon Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-two parents of adopted children with histories of abuse or neglect were interviewed. Parents of children with histories of physical and sexual abuse reported lower family functioning than parents of children with histories of neglect. Also, parents who adopted sibling groups reported fewer child externalizing behavior problems but lower…

  14. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  15. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  16. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: The Danish guidance and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kornov, Lone

    2009-01-15

    A wide range of factors within spatial planning can affect health. There is therefore an important scope for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans to protect and improve human health. Due to the EU Directive 2001/42/EC on SEA, health has been made explicit in Danish legislation and guidance. This paper examines the inclusion of health as a formal component in impact assessment of spatial plans. Based upon a documentary study of 100 environmental reports, the paper analyses and discusses how health impact considerations are incorporated in SEA practice. It is found that health impacts are included in SEA practice and are being interpreted in a broader sense than what the national guidance exemplifies. The frequent included health aspects are noise, drinking water, air pollution, recreation/outdoor life and traffic safety. The primary determinant for health is transport-whether it is at the overall or local planning level. The main conclusion is that SEA shows a potential to catalyse healthier spatial planning. Despite the broad inclusion of health in SEA practice the examination shows potential improvements, hereunder qualification of assessments by better explaining the nature and significance of impacts and by including the distributional aspects of human health impacts. Inclusion from the health sector is put forward as an important institutional mean to secure cross disciplinarily and higher quality assessment.

  18. Improving the design of nutrition labels to promote healthier food choices and reasonable portion sizes

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, C A; Khandpur, N

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and easy-to-understand nutrition labeling is a worthy public health goal that should be considered an important strategy among many to address obesity and poor diet. Updating the Nutrition Facts Panel on packaged foods, developing a uniform front-of-package labeling system and providing consumers with nutrition information on restaurant menus offer important opportunities to educate people about food's nutritional content, increase awareness of reasonable portion sizes and motivate consumers to make healthier choices. The aims of this paper were to identify and discuss: (1) current concerns with nutrition label communication strategies; (2) opportunities to improve the communication of nutrition information via food labels, with a specific focus on serving size information; and (3) important future areas of research on nutrition labeling as a tool to improve diet. We suggest that research on nutrition labeling should focus on ways to improve food labels' ability to capture consumer attention, reduce label complexity and convey numeric nutrition information in simpler and more meaningful ways, such as through interpretive food labels, the addition of simple text, reduced use of percentages and easy-to-understand presentation of serving size information. PMID:25033961

  19. Healthier Lives for European Minority Groups: School and Health Care, Lessons from the Roma

    PubMed Central

    Flecha, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    On average, the Roma in Europe can expect to die 10 years earlier than the rest of the population, given the health conditions they experience. EU-funded research has informed on successful actions (SA) that when implemented among the Roma provide them new forms of educational participation which have a direct impact on improving their health status, regardless of their educational level. The findings from this research, unanimously endorsed by the European Parliament, have been included in several European Union recommendations and resolutions as part of the EU strategy on Roma inclusion. To analyze these SA, as well as the conditions that promote them and their impact on reducing health inequalities, communicative fieldwork has been conducted with Roma people from a deprived neighbourhood in the South of Spain, who are participating in the previously identified SA. The analysis reveals that these SA enable Roma people to reinforce and enrich specific strategies like improving family cohesion and strengthening their identity, which allow them to improve their overall health. These findings may inform public policies to improve the health condition of the Roma and other vulnerable groups, one goal of the Europe 2020 strategy for a healthier Europe. PMID:23887619

  20. Improving the design of nutrition labels to promote healthier food choices and reasonable portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Roberto, C A; Khandpur, N

    2014-07-01

    Accurate and easy-to-understand nutrition labeling is a worthy public health goal that should be considered an important strategy among many to address obesity and poor diet. Updating the Nutrition Facts Panel on packaged foods, developing a uniform front-of-package labeling system and providing consumers with nutrition information on restaurant menus offer important opportunities to educate people about food's nutritional content, increase awareness of reasonable portion sizes and motivate consumers to make healthier choices. The aims of this paper were to identify and discuss: (1) current concerns with nutrition label communication strategies; (2) opportunities to improve the communication of nutrition information via food labels, with a specific focus on serving size information; and (3) important future areas of research on nutrition labeling as a tool to improve diet. We suggest that research on nutrition labeling should focus on ways to improve food labels' ability to capture consumer attention, reduce label complexity and convey numeric nutrition information in simpler and more meaningful ways, such as through interpretive food labels, the addition of simple text, reduced use of percentages and easy-to-understand presentation of serving size information. PMID:25033961

  1. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  2. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  3. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  4. Obstacles to Interstate Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Roberta

    A documentation of the obstacles in law, policy and administrative procedure that interfere with effecting adoptions across State lines is presented. Major problems include: (1) Nonjudicial termination or relinquishment proceedings, although legal in many States, do not satisfy the courts in other states on the issue of the child's freedom for…

  5. The Nature and Determinants of Intranet Discontinuance after Mandatory Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Inho

    2008-01-01

    This research examines post-adoption behavior (discontinuance versus continuance) with the context of Intranet use. Multiple theories are used as theoretical frameworks to extend information communication technology research to the case of post-adoption behavior. Three research questions and six sets of hypotheses are formulated to distinguish…

  6. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  7. Empowering people to be healthier: public health nutrition through the Ottawa Charter.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Mary A T

    2015-08-01

    The WHO's Ottawa Charter highlights five priority areas for taking action in public health. Only one of them is at the individual level as action at more upstream intervention levels, such as community or policy levels, is critical for enabling individuals to succeed. The objective of the present paper is to give insight into the many complex processes involved in public health nutrition by describing the Ottawa Charter's five priority areas for taking action using public health nutrition initiatives I have been involved in. Evidence-based guidelines for healthy eating and infant feeding provide an essential basis for individuals to 'develop personal skills' (Action Area 1). 'Re-orienting health services' (Action Area 2) can address the needs of vulnerable population subgroups, such as the culturally sensitive diabetes prevention programme established for an Indo-Asian community in Canada. Identifying geographic areas at high risk of childhood obesity enables better strategic planning and targeting of resources to 'strengthen community action' (Action Area 3). Calorie menu labelling can 'create supportive environments' (Action Area 4) through encouraging a demand for less energy-dense, healthier food options. 'Building healthy public policy' (Action Area 5) to implement mandatory folic acid food fortification for prevention of birth defects has many advantages over a voluntary approach. In conclusion, evaluation and evidence-based decision-making needs to take account of different strategies used to take action in each of these priority areas. For this, the randomised control trial needs adaptation to determine the best practice in public health nutrition where interventions play out in real life with all its confounding factors. PMID:25602708

  8. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  9. Using formative research to develop a nutrition education resource aimed at assisting low-income households in South Africa adopt a healthier diet.

    PubMed

    Everett-Murphy, K; De Villiers, A; Ketterer, E; Steyn, K

    2015-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to the budgetary constraints and information needs of poor households in the major urban centres of South Africa. Twenty-two focus groups were convened to explore the target audience's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices as they related to healthy eating and their views about the proposed nutrition resource (N = 167). A brief questionnaire assessed eating and cooking practices among focus group participants. Key informant interviews with eight dieticians/nutritionists working with this population added to the focus group findings. The research identified important issues to take into account in the development of the resource. These included the need to: directly address prevalent misconceptions about healthy eating and unhealthy eating practices; increase self-efficacy regarding the purchasing and preparation of healthy food; represent diverse cultural traditions and consider the issues of affordability and availability of food ingredients. This study demonstrates the value of using formative research in the design of nutrition-related communication in a multicultural, poor, urban South African setting. PMID:26590241

  10. Using Formative Research to Develop a Nutrition Education Resource Aimed at Assisting Low-Income Households in South Africa Adopt a Healthier Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett-Murphy, K.; De Villiers, A.; Ketterer, E.; Steyn, K.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to…

  11. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  12. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  13. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  14. Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

  15. The Norwegian Healthier Goats programme--a financial cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G Elise; Asheim, Leif J; Hardaker, J Brian; Sølverød, Liv; Lindheim, Dag; Valle, Paul S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profitability to dairy goat farmers of participating in the Healthier Goats disease control and eradication programme (HG), which was initiated in 2001 and is still running. HG includes the control and eradication of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Norwegian goat herds. The profitability of participation was estimated in a financial cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using partial budgeting to quantify the economic consequences of infectious disease control through HG versus taking no action. Historical data were collected from 24 enrolled dairy goat herds and 21 herds not enrolled in HG, and supplemented with information from a questionnaire distributed to the same farmers. Expert opinions were collected to arrive at the best possible estimates. For some input parameters there were uncertainty due to imperfect knowledge, thus these parameters were modelled as PERT probability distributions and a stochastic simulation model was built. The CBA model was used to generate distributions of net present value (NPV) of farmers' net cash flows for choosing to enroll versus not enrolling. This was done for three selected milk quota levels of 30000L, 50000L and 70000L, and both for before and after the introduction of a reduced milk price for the non-enrolled. The NPVs were calculated over time horizons of 5, 10 and 20 years using an inflation-adjusted discount rate of 2.8% per annum. The results show that participation in HG on average was profitable over a time horizon of 10 years or longer for quota levels of 50000L and 70000L, although not without risk of having a negative NPV. If farmers had to pay all the costs themselves, participation in HG would have been profitable only for a time horizon beyond 20 years. In 2012, a reduced milk price was introduced for farmers not enrolled in HG, changing the decision criteria for farmers, and thus, the CBA. When the

  16. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Stephen M.; Sharma, Anu; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic disengagement. RESULTS: The odds of a reported suicide attempt were ∼4 times greater in adoptees compared with nonadoptees (odds ratio: 4.23). After adjustment for factors associated with suicidal behavior, the odds of reporting a suicide attempt were reduced but remained significantly elevated (odds ratio: 3.70). CONCLUSIONS: The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior. Continued study of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults. PMID:24019414

  17. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  18. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  19. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Review: Adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review of the literature examines adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children. Three domains of research about looked-after children are examined. Findings There is extensive evidence that early adverse experiences affect psychological and neurobiological development in looked-after and adopted children. There is also evidence that some looked-after and adopted children show remarkable resilience in the face of adversity; intervention research provides evidence of the ability to reduce risks and promote positive outcomes in this population. The intervention studies have revealed not only the potential for improved behavioral trajectories, but also the plasticity of neurobiological systems affected by early stress. Conclusion Foster and adopted children face many challenges, but scientific knowledge also provides reason for hope and information about how to maximize positive outcomes. PMID:25678858

  1. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  2. EHR adopters vs. non-adopters: Impacts of, barriers to, and federal initiatives for EHR adoption

    PubMed Central

    Jamoom, Eric W.; Patel, Vaishali; Furukawa, Michael F.; King, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    While adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems has grown rapidly, little is known about physicians’ perspectives on its adoption and use. Nationally representative survey data from 2011 are used to compare the perspectives of physicians who have adopted EHRs with those that have yet to do so across three key areas: the impact of EHRs on clinical care, practice efficiency and operations; barriers to EHR adoption; and factors that influence physicians to adopt EHRs. Despite significant differences in perspectives between adopters and non-adopters, the majority of physicians perceive that EHR use yields overall clinical benefits, more efficient practices and financial benefits. Purchase cost and productivity loss are the greatest barriers to EHR adoption among both adopters and non-adopters; although non-adopters have significantly higher rates of reporting these as barriers. Financial incentives and penalties, technical assistance, and the capability for electronic health information exchange are factors with the greatest influence on EHR adoption among all physicians. However, a substantially higher proportion of non-adopters regard various national health IT policies, and in particular, financial incentives or penalties as a major influence in their decision to adopt an EHR system. Contrasting these perspectives provides a window into how national policies have shaped adoption thus far; and how these policies may shape adoption in the near future. PMID:26250087

  3. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption. PMID:16154473

  4. The emotional aftermath of adoption.

    PubMed

    Nadelson, C C

    1976-09-01

    Adopted children are emotionally vulnerable. Adoptive parents must cope with more complex problems than biologic parents. The family physician can provide valuable counseling. Preadoption counseling focuses on motivation and ambivalence. After adoption, however, serious, sometimes predictable, issues arise, such as: how and when to tell the child he is adopted; the child's search for knowledge; the problem of subsequent divorce; the birth of a natural sibling, and the involvement of other family members. New concepts include "open adoption" and "single parent adoption." PMID:961560

  5. Adoptions Without Agencies: A Study of Independent Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; And Others

    The purposes of this national study of independent, nonagency adoptions were: (1) to determine the experience of the parties involved (biological parents, adoptive parents, agencies, intermediaries, and law enforcement agents); (2) to identify agency policies, procedures and resources that deter agency adoptions and thus encourage independent…

  6. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  7. What's law got to do with it Part 2: Legal strategies for healthier nutrition and obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the most important opportunities for law lie in seeking to enhance the effectiveness of a population health approach. Part 2 of this article aims to provide a systematic review of the legal strategies that are most likely to emerge, or are worth considering, as part of a suite of policies designed to prevent population weight gain and, more generally, healthier nutrition. While the impact of any one intervention may be modest, their cumulative impact could be significant and could also create the conditions for more effective public education campaigns. This article addresses the key contenders, with particular reference to Australia and the United States. PMID:18533999

  8. A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

  9. Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

    1969-01-01

    Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

  10. Adoption Resources for Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1971-01-01

    The growing number of adoptions in this country, including racially mixed adoptions, attest to the general acceptance of adoption as a way of bringing love to children in need of families of their own and the satisfactions of parenthood to childless couples, single men and women, and families who have room for one more. (Author/AJ)

  11. Facilitating Behavior Change with Low-Literacy Patient Education Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods: We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder…

  12. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  13. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children’s perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. Methods To investigate children’s attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Results Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Conclusions Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of

  14. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  15. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  16. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  17. Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Intervention for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathrellou, Eirini; Yannakoulia, Mary; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Tsiantis, John; Chrousos, George P.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2010-01-01

    Along the lines of the evidence-based recommendations, we developed a multi-disciplinary intervention for overweight children 7- to 12-years-old, primarily aiming at helping children to adopt healthier eating habits and a physically active lifestyle. The program combined nutrition intervention, based on a non-dieting approach, with physical…

  18. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  19. Making Schools the Model for Healthier Environments Toolkit: What It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Healthy students perform better. Poor nutrition and inadequate physical activity can affect not only academic achievement, but also other factors such as absenteeism, classroom behavior, ability to concentrate, self-esteem, cognitive performance, and test scores. This toolkit provides information to help make schools the model for healthier…

  20. Cultural Socialization in Families With Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2008-01-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultural socialization. Individual variations in cultural socialization also are discussed in terms of child development and shifting adoption attitudes and practices. PMID:17176191

  1. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  2. Lunches Selected and Consumed from the National School Lunch Program in Schools Designated As HealthierUS School Challenge Schools Are More Nutritious than Lunches Brought from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Saade, Catherine; Shaw, Emily; Englund, Tim; Cashman, Linda; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Rushing, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient content of National School Lunch Program (NSLP) lunches and lunches brought from home (LBFH) lunches in elementary schools participating in the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC). Methods: Participants included students in grades 2-5 in four Washington state HUSSC…

  3. The benefits of simply observing: mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K; Pronk, Tila M; Keesman, Mike; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one's spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants' sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants' levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally. PMID:25347126

  4. Future health applications of genomics: priorities for communication, behavioral, and social sciences research.

    PubMed

    McBride, Colleen M; Bowen, Deborah; Brody, Lawrence C; Condit, Celeste M; Croyle, Robert T; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J; Koehly, Laura M; Korf, Bruce R; Marteau, Theresa M; McLeroy, Kenneth; Patrick, Kevin; Valente, Thomas W

    2010-05-01

    Despite the quickening momentum of genomic discovery, the communication, behavioral, and social sciences research needed for translating this discovery into public health applications has lagged behind. The National Human Genome Research Institute held a 2-day workshop in October 2008 convening an interdisciplinary group of scientists to recommend forward-looking priorities for translational research. This research agenda would be designed to redress the top three risk factors (tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) that contribute to the four major chronic diseases (heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lung disease, and many cancers) and account for half of all deaths worldwide. Three priority research areas were identified: (1) improving the public's genetic literacy in order to enhance consumer skills; (2) gauging whether genomic information improves risk communication and adoption of healthier behaviors more than current approaches; and (3) exploring whether genomic discovery in concert with emerging technologies can elucidate new behavioral intervention targets. Important crosscutting themes also were identified, including the need to: (1) anticipate directions of genomic discovery; (2) take an agnostic scientific perspective in framing research questions asking whether genomic discovery adds value to other health promotion efforts; and (3) consider multiple levels of influence and systems that contribute to important public health problems. The priorities and themes offer a framework for a variety of stakeholders, including those who develop priorities for research funding, interdisciplinary teams engaged in genomics research, and policymakers grappling with how to use the products born of genomics research to address public health challenges. PMID:20409503

  5. Openness in Adoption: Research with the Adoption Kinship Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes current research on the outcomes of open adoption. Discusses issues involved in conducting research on openness and offers methodological recommendations. Provides examples from one research program with adoptive kinship networks. Concludes that psychological outcomes were less related to the level of openness than to the dynamics of…

  6. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  7. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  8. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and whether adoptive status moderated this relationship. Participating families included 616 adoptive and non-adoptive families with two adolescent children. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Sibling closeness was highest in families that emphasized both conversation and conformity and lowest in families that emphasized only conversation or neither conversation nor conformity. Emotional and behavioral closeness were differentially associated with adoption status, sibling age, and sibling gender. Few moderating effects of adoption status were found. Post hoc analyses showed moderating effects of sibling gender composition. PMID:21984844

  9. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  10. Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2007-01-01

    Although faculty support has been identified as a critical factor in the success of educational-technology programs, many people involved in such efforts underestimate the complexities of integrating technology into teaching. In this article, the author proposes an adoption cycle to help tackle the complex issue of technology adoption for…

  11. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  12. Dynamics of social contagions with heterogeneous adoption thresholds: crossover phenomena in phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous adoption thresholds exist widely in social contagions, such as behavior spreading, but were always neglected in previous studies. To this end, we introduce heterogeneous adoption threshold distribution into a non-Markovian spreading threshold model, in which an individual adopts a behavior only when the received cumulative pieces of behavioral information from neighbors exceeds his adoption threshold. In order to understand the effects of heterogeneous adoption thresholds quantitatively, an edge-based compartmental theory is developed. A two-state spreading threshold model is taken as an example, in which some individuals have a low adoption threshold (i.e., activists) while the remaining ones hold a relatively higher adoption threshold (i.e., bigots). We find a hierarchical characteristic in adopting behavior, i.e., activists first adopt the behavior and then stimulate bigots to adopt the behavior. Interestingly, two types of crossover phenomena in phase transition occur: for a relatively low adoption threshold of bigots, a change from first-order to second-order phase transition can be triggered by increasing the fraction of activists; for a relatively higher adoption threshold of bigots, a change from hybrid to second-order phase transition can be induced by varying the fraction of activists, decreasing mean degree or enhancing network heterogeneity. The theoretical predictions based on the suggested theory agree very well with the simulation results.

  13. Behavioral management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig A; Tyler, Chermaine; Foreyt, John P

    2007-12-01

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising for behavioral programs, as results demonstrate an 8% to 10% reduction in initial weight during the first 6 months to 1 year of treatment. However, the long-term impact of these treatments remains unclear, as many individuals regain weight lost over time. The Diabetes Prevention Program and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial are providing strong data on the long-term results of intensive behavioral management interventions. PMID:18377784

  14. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  15. Chronic care management of globesity: promoting healthier lifestyles in traditional and mHealth based settings

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Corti, Stefania; Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Giusti, Emanuele M.; Novelli, Margherita; Cattivelli, Roberto; Middleton, Nicole A.; Simpson, Susan G.; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight could be real chronic conditions above all if there are other complications such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders. Due to the multifactorial etiology of obesity, evidence-based interventions to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. There are significant limitations in this multidisciplinary chronic care management of obesity, most notably those regarding costs and long-term adherence and efficacy. Programs including eHealth platforms and new technologies could overcome limitations connected to the traditional in-patient chronic care management of obesity, thus providing promising opportunities in enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications in terms of long-term efficacy and effectiveness across clinical, organizational, and economic perspectives. PMID:26528215

  16. Preventive maintenance. 'Problem recognition style' can be used to segment the market and promote healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Jayanti, R K

    1997-01-01

    Problem recognition styles--desired state types (DSTs) and actual state types (ASTs)--have an effect on preventive health care decision making. Segmenting the market along these lines can help marketers position products and services to educate and attract people who will not see a doctor unless there is something wrong with them. Both groups expect the same benefits from preventive health care actions, but ASTs fail to act on those expectations. Therefore, marketing strategy touting the benefits of preventive health care might be futile. Educational promotional campaigns aimed at both DSTs and ASTs also are wasteful because DSTs already possess much health knowledge, lead wellness-oriented lifestyles, and practice preventive health behaviors. PMID:10169031

  17. Guilt and help from friends: variables related to healthy behavior.

    PubMed

    Birkimer, J C; Johnston, P L; Berry, M M

    1993-10-01

    American college students' self-reported status regarding 13 health-related behaviors, and several potential predictors of healthy behavior were assessed. Healthy behaviors were, at best, weakly related to being informed about or agreeing with a rule that the unhealthy alternatives were dangerous. Healthy behaviors were more strongly related to reports that guilty feelings would result from choosing the unhealthy alternatives and that friends would help with the healthy behaviors. Higher levels of reported self-control also predicted healthier behavior. PMID:8283862

  18. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  19. Subjects with isolated GH deficiency due to a null GHRHR mutation eat proportionally more, but healthier than controls.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, Alécia A; Salvatori, Roberto; Gomes-Santos, Elenilde; Santana, João A M; Leal, Ângela C G B; Barbosa, Rita A A; Oliveira, Carla R P; Souza, Anita H O; Valença, Eugênia H O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2016-02-01

    The GH/IGF-I axis has important interactions with the alimentary system and with the balance between energy intake (EI) and energy requirement (ER). Reduced EI has been described in adult-onset acquired GH deficiency (GHD). Individuals from the Brazilian Itabaianinha cohort, with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to a homozygous mutation (c.57+1G→A) in the GHRH receptor gene, are an ideal model to study the consequences of lifetime GHD. The purpose of this study is to evaluate EI and ER in this untreated IGHD cohort. Cross-sectional study of 24 adult IGHD patients and 23 controls from the same region, matched for age and gender. Estimated EI (EEI) was evaluated by dietary recall, and estimated ER (EER) by the equation of the Dietary Reference Intakes. Fat mass was assessed by DXA. Both EEI and EER were lower in IGHD than controls. However, when corrected by body weight, EEI was higher in IGHD (p = 0.005). IGHD individuals consume in percentage more proteins (p < 0.0001), less carbohydrates (p = 0.013), and equal amount of lipids in comparison to controls. The higher EEI per body weight suggests a possible increase of orexigenic mechanisms in untreated IGHD individuals, ensuring greater caloric intake, which would have adaptive advantages for small-sized individuals in environments with limited access to food. IGHD individuals seem to have a healthier dietary pattern than CO. PMID:26100788

  20. Gender-based health interventions in the United States: An overview of the coalition for healthier community initiative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephanie; Walker, Elaine M

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities by gender constitute an important yet often overlooked aspect of health around the globe. Within the United States, there is both a paucity of research as well as planned programs that take into account how socio-cultural roles and expectations for men and women may differentially affect symptoms, access to care, and treatment. Viewing women's health exclusively as a function of sex (i.e., biological) differences represents a narrow understanding that does not fully explain gaps in health disparities between men and women. In September 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) launched a national initiative entitled the Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC) to employ a gender-based framework in several urban, suburban and rural communities across the nation. The Office on Women's Health (OWH) within the DHHS funded 10 coalitions to ultimately improve the health of women and girls utilizing a gender-based approach. This article provides an overview of the initiative and the focus of the special issue. PMID:25773577

  1. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part I. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Rustan, Rahman; Huang, Weidan; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) brought together nearly 220 senior representatives of governmental and non-governmental global health organizations, as well as corporate executives of emerging vaccine manufacturers, from 26 countries for a two-day tailored lectures, Q&A sessions, CEOs panel discussion and networking opportunities, followed by a vaccine-technology symposium and visit to manufacturing facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants included representatives of 38 vaccine manufacturers, as well as international partners and collaborating research institutions, with 39% female participants. The Vice-Minister of Health to Vietnam commended the speakers and participants to this Annual General Meeting, devoted to achieve our common goal of protecting people against infectious diseases with better vaccines, for a healthier life. He reminded the audience that the first vaccine produced in Vietnam was oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s and contributed to polio eradication in Vietnam, in 2000. Through its manufacturing resources, Vietnam eliminated neonatal tetanus in 2005, and has controlled measles and hepatitis B spread. The Ministry of Health hopes that by sharing experiences, delegates at this conference will foster international cooperation and partnerships among organizations. CEOs elaborated on challenges and opportunities for emerging countries. PMID:24923636

  2. The Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment: How a Health Care Conversion Foundation Is Transforming a Medical School.

    PubMed

    Maurana, Cheryl A; Lucey, Paula A; Ahmed, Syed M; Kerschner, Joseph E; Bolton, G Allen; Raymond, John R

    2016-01-01

    Health care conversion foundations, such as the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment (the endowment) at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), result from the conversion of nonprofit health organizations to for-profit corporations. Over the past several decades, nearly 200 of these foundations have been created, and they have had a substantial impact on the field of health philanthropy. The MCW was a recipient of funds resulting from Blue Cross & Blue Shield United of Wisconsin's conversion from a nonprofit to a for-profit status in 1999. Established in 2004, the endowment has invested approximately $185 million in 337 research, education, and public and community health initiatives that benefit Wisconsin residents. However, the transformative potential of the health care conversion foundation has extended well beyond the opportunities provided through the endowment's financial resources. As the endowment celebrates its 10th anniversary, the authors describe the transformative nature of the endowment, as well as significant accomplishments and lessons learned, in the following areas: shared power, community partnerships, translational research, and integration of medicine and public health. It is the authors' hope that these lessons will be valuable to other medical schools and the communities they serve, as they invest in improving the health of their communities, irrespective of the funding source. PMID:26445084

  3. A healthier future for all Australians: an overview of the final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    After extensive community and health industry consultation, the final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, A healthier future for all Australians, was presented to the Australian Government on 30 June 2009. The reform agenda aims to tackle major access and equity issues that affect health outcomes for people now; redesign our health system so that it is better positioned to respond to emerging challenges; and create an agile, responsive and self-improving health system for long-term sustainability. The 123 recommendations are grouped in four themes: Taking responsibility: supporting greater individual and collective action to build good health and wellbeing. Connecting care: delivering comprehensive care for people over their lifetime, by strengthening primary health care, reshaping hospitals, improving subacute care, and opening up greater consumer choice and competition in aged care services. Facing inequities: taking action to tackle the causes and impact of health inequities, focusing on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people in rural and remote areas, and access to mental health and dental services. Driving quality performance: having leadership and systems to achieve the best use of people, resources and knowledge, including "one health system" with national leadership and local delivery, revised funding arrangements, and changes to health workforce education, training and practice. PMID:19807629

  4. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. PMID:27288899

  5. In-District Programs for Students with Autism: How Do New Jersey Special Education Directors Describe and Understand the Factors that They Think Influence Their Decision to Adopt and Use Applied Behavior Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Irene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the perspectives of New Jersey public school special education administrators on factors that influenced their decision to use or not use applied behavior analysis (ABA), an educational methodology, for their in-district programs serving children with autism. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has called…

  6. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. Objective We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. Methods An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Results Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. Conclusions FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears

  7. Nourishing change. Partnership enlists dozens of hospitals to put healthier food on their menus and kick junk food out of the cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaimy

    2012-10-01

    More than 150 hospitals have signed on to the Partnership for a Healthier America's push to ditch the deep-fat fryer in their cafeterias and bulk up on fruit and veggies. "Our focus is to ensure that if people want to make a healthy choice, they can," says Larry Soler, left, president and CEO of the partnership, which is working to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:23163198

  8. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it

  9. I Will If You Will: Similarity in Married Partners' Readiness to Change Health Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Melissa M.; Shields, Cleveland G.; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P.; Mobley, Stacey; Boushey, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Married men and women (N = 1,899 couples) reported readiness to eat a healthier diet, lose weight, and get more exercise (stage of change) and indicated whether they were confident to make these changes (self-efficacy). Husbands' and wives' reports of readiness to change each health behavior were positively associated. Furthermore, women who…

  10. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. PMID:25752207

  11. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife. PMID:11648176

  12. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  13. Adoption Failure: A Social Work Postmortem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Alfred; Seidl, Frederick W.

    1971-01-01

    Failed adoption is defined as removal of the adoptive child at any time between placement and legal adoption. A study of failed adoptions in a statewide adoption agency found a failure rate of less than 3 percent. Reasons for failure are analyzed and implications for practice are suggested. (Author)

  14. Canadian Adoption Statistics: 1981-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; Daly, Kerry J.

    1994-01-01

    Obtained data on Canadian adoptions (1981-90) from adoption coordinators of all 10 provinces and 2 territories. Found downward trends in use of adoption as means of family formation across decade. By 1990, most infant adoptions were facilitated by private practitioners and agencies whereas older children were primarily adopted through public…

  15. Sensory impact of lowering sugar content in orange nectars to design healthier, low-sugar industrialized beverages.

    PubMed

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; Aguiar, Lorena Andrade de; Fiusa, Anndressa; Botelho, Raquel Braz de Assunção; Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Melo, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The presence of added sugars (AS) in the diet is associated with increased risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. We assessed sensory impact of lowering AS in orange nectar, aiming at new WHO sugar guideline. Ideal sweetness by just-about-right (JAR) tests (60 consumers), difference and rejection thresholds (36 and 35 assessors), and acceptance and sensory profile by Check-all-that-apply (CATA) tests (100 consumers) were performed. JAR test comprised six concentrations of AS from 12% down to 4.5%. Thresholds tests comprised orange nectars at reference sugar concentration (10%) and at lower sugar levels. Acceptance and CATA tests compared reference, ideal sweetness and thresholds concentrations. There were two groups of consumers; one with ideal sweetness lower at 5.5% AS and another with ideal sweetness at standard 10.5% AS. The average ideal sweetness among all consumers was 7.3% AS. The difference threshold from the reference at 10.5% AS was at 8.5% AS and the rejection threshold was 7.2%. Overall acceptance of nectar with 8.5% and 7.2% AS was similar to reference and higher than acceptance of nectar with 5.5%. However, after cluster analysis, nectars with 5.5% AS did not differ from nectars with 8.5% or 7.2% AS, suggesting the possibility of a gradual reduction until 5.5% in the long term. Lowering AS to 7.2% or 5.5% caused significant changes in viscosity, sweet odor, bitterness and sweetness in comparison to the reference concentration. Lowering sugar from 10% to 8.5% did not affect acceptance or sensory attributes, and could be indicated for a first reduction. Results indicate that a gradual reduction to 7.2% and 5.5% would be feasible. Reductions can remove 3150-9450 tons of sugar per year from the Brazilian diet resulting in healthier beverages. PMID:26428862

  16. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests). Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses). Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies. PMID:22625222

  17. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p < .001). Older overweight and obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions. PMID:25872866

  18. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  19. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  20. Has the Academy Adopted TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert; Deshotels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 469 colleges and universities assessed the degree to which colleges and universities have adopted total quality management (TQM) or continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. Results suggest use of TQM/CQI is lower than predicted, at about 13% of institutions. Variations in extent of use of the approach are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mittica, Gloria; Capellero, Sonia; Genta, Sofia; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The standard front-line therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is combination of debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence. Although extensive efforts to find new therapeutic options, cancer cells invariably develop drug resistance and disease progression. New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve prognosis of patients with advanced EOC.Recently, several preclinical and clinical studies investigated feasibility and activity of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC. Our aim is to highlight prospective of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC, focusing on HLA-restricted Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs), and MHC-independent immune effectors such as natural killer (NK), and cytokine-induced killer (CIK). Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has shown activity in several pre-clinical models. Available preclinical and clinical data suggest that adoptive cell therapy may provide the best benefit in settings of low tumor burden, minimal residual disease, or maintenance therapy. Further studies are needed to better define the optimal clinical setting. PMID:27188274

  2. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  3. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:25380232

  4. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  5. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adoption Directory Search National Foster Care & Adoption Directory Search Many concerned individuals have expressed the desire to ... how to become a foster or adoptive parent. Search results for this category include contact information for: ...

  6. Preference for Cute Infants Does Not Depend on Their Ethnicity or Species: Evidence from Hypothetical Adoption and Donation Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Jessika; Probst, Fabian; Mast, Fred W.; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous work suggest a preference of adult observers for cute compared to less cute infants. In Study 1 we investigated whether the preference for cute infants depends on the ethnicity and species of the infant. We simultaneously presented two faces (one cute and one less cute) and asked Caucasian participants to choose the infant to whom they would rather give a toy (Task 1) and which infant they would rather adopt (Task 2). The infants were Caucasian or African human babies or dog puppies. For all face categories and in both tasks we found a strong preference for cute infants. A possible reason for preferring cute infants may be that cute infants look healthier than less cute infants. To investigate whether cuteness is associated with the assessment of health we conducted Study 2. Faces of Caucasian and African infants and dog puppies were rated for cuteness and health. The findings revealed a significant relationship between health and cuteness evaluation across all stimuli. We suggest that one reason why cute infants are preferred might be because they are perceived as being healthier. PMID:25844526

  7. The Winning with Wellness pilot project: rural Appalachian elementary student physical activity and eating behaviors and program implementation 4 years later.

    PubMed

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Robinson, Hazel F; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stern, H Patrick

    2011-01-01

    School-based efforts to promote physical activity and healthier eating are a potentially effective approach to decreasing child obesity in rural populations. This article describes follow-up data on student activity and eating behaviors 4 years after implementation of the Winning with Wellness obesity prevention initiative. This project was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's coordinated school health model and used a community-based participatory research approach to address health behaviors in rural Appalachian elementary students. Results suggest significant increases in daily pedometer steps and healthier food selections by students as well as teacher support for continued health promotion efforts. PMID:21378512

  8. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  9. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  10. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  11. The Texas Adoption Project: Adopted Children and Their Intellectual Resemblance to Biological and Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Joseph M.

    1983-01-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar data available from the children's biological mothers. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences in intelligence. (Author/RH)

  12. Toward a Healthier Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Health care in Iraq is the sector most influenced by variables such as political, cultural, social, and economic environments. The current status of national security, the deterioration of infrastructure, difficulty in accessing clean water and sewage services in some areas, and the national levels of poverty, malnutrition, and social fragility are all factors that negatively affect the health of the Iraqi people [1]. There is a real need for a solid national health policy that is able to match the available resources against the health needs of a growing population, as provided in the Constitution of Iraq and National Development Plan, and oriented to a set of strategies and objectives that can drive development of the Iraqi health sector in the future [2]. Establishment of a fair and comprehensive national health system requires sustainable commitment to this policy by all stakeholders and partners in order to focus efforts and achieve synergy in the optimal investment of available resources and to provide health care services and attain maximum effectiveness and efficiency of systemic response to the health needs of the Iraqi people and society. PMID:25191144

  13. EATING HEALTHIER IN SCHOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School feeding programs must meet federal nutrition guidelines, but less-nutritious 'competitive' foods also sold in schools do not have to. Here's what should be done. One can hardly read an article about obesity in children in either the popular press or the scientific peer-reviewed literature a...

  14. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Methods Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Results Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Conclusions Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers

  15. Characterizing Clinic Adoption of Clinical and Business Trainings in Child Mental Health in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Olin, Serene; Weaver, Jamie; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study prospectively examined the naturalistic adoption of clinical and business evidence-informed trainings by all outpatient mental health clinics licensed to treat children, adolescents, and their families in New York State. Methods: Using September 2011-August 2013 attendance data from the New York State-funded Clinic Technical Assistance Center, this study classified the adoption behavior of 346 clinics in four ways: by number, type, intensity, and an adopter group category characterizing clinics by the highest training intensity in which they participated. Descriptive statistics on these adoption classifications were examined. Results: Among the 268 adopting clinics, a median of five out of 33 trainings were adopted; business and clinical trainings were about equally accessed (82% vs. 78%). Hour-long webinars were most popular (96% participation) compared to 6-18 month-long learning collaboratives (34% participation). Among adopters of business and clinical learning collaboratives, 73-100% sampled a webinar first before they committed to the learning collaboratives, though consistent participation in learning collaborative sessions over time was a challenge. Adopter groups captured meaningful adopter profiles: 41% were low-adopters that selected fewer trainings and only participated in webinars; 34% were high-/super-adopters that accessed more trainings and participated in learning collaboratives. Conclusions: More nuanced definitions of adoption behavior can improve the understanding of clinic adoption of trainings and hence promote the development of efficient roll-out strategies by state systems. PMID:25082362

  16. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  17. Behavioral science perspectives on health hazard/health risk appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M H; Janz, N K

    1987-01-01

    Health-promotion efforts often employ HRA as a device for providing an individual with quantitative information about the consequences of personal health-related behaviors and as an attempt to motivate the client to adopt recommendations directed at establishing a healthier lifestyle. From a behavioral science perspective, the HRA approach and process contain elements that (at least in retrospective analysis) appear to be founded in relevant bodies of theory. First, HRA seems to be a reasonably efficient mechanism for transmitting information relative to associations between personal health behaviors and mortality risks. Moreover, while general knowledge and advice about the untoward consequences of risk factors (such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, etc.) are currently widespread, HRA provides new and specific information: the client's own relative risks. Some individuals who voluntarily participate in HRA bring to the experience an already high level of readiness to take action; for them, the technique may constitute the final necessary stimulus or "cue to action" [12]. Referring to a "borrowing from the future" phenomenon, Green points out that "some educational efforts are really only triggers to behavior that would have changed eventually anyway" [44, p. 159]. Thus, where motivation is sufficiently high, receipt of HRA feedback information may by itself be capable of inducing behavior change. Second, the focus on awareness and personalization of mortality risk fits well with most theoretical formulations concerning attitudes and beliefs involved in health-related decision making. Although the emphasis on mortality and often distant negative outcomes is problematic, increasing the client's perception of personal vulnerability is a psychologically defensible approach, and fear arousal can generate attitude change (although questions of appropriate level, duration of effects obtained, acceptability, etc. still need to be resolved). Third, HRA might be

  18. Social Capital Framework in the Adoption of E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Siew Mee

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the influence of social and cultural factors on the adoption of e-learning in higher education in Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey, Singapore and Australia. Particular attention in each case was given to factors relating to social capital, attitudes and patterns of behavior in leadership, entrepreneurialism, and teaching and to…

  19. Relationships Between Perceived Attributes of Innovations and Their Subsequent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Glenn S.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    Relationships between educators' innovation-adoption behavior and five attributes of innovation (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability) were examined. The attributes, developed by Rogers and Shoemaker, emerged from research in disciplines such as sociology and anthropology, and the present investigation was…

  20. Child-Parent Relationship Therapy for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes-Holt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children may present with a wide range of disruptive behaviors making it difficult to implement holistic therapeutic interventions. The number of primary caregivers, disrupted placements, and repeated traumatic events contribute to the overall mental health of the adoptee and greater number of occurrences increases the risk of…

  1. Innovation in nursing education: which trends should you adopt?

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A

    2007-01-01

    The author identifies trends that challenge the status quo in academic nursing education. She further provides a theoretical framework that can be used by nursing program administrators to determine the potential adoptability of the trend in nursing education programs. Leader behaviors that are crucial in leading and managing change are highlighted. PMID:17627207

  2. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  3. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  4. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  5. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  6. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  7. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  8. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  9. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  10. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  11. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  12. Experiences of Black Families as Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Gwendolyn S.; King, Lula T.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted descriptive study in which 12 Black families shared their ideas about adoptive parenthood. Found most common reason for adopting was inability to have children biologically. Found need for post-adoptive services for Black families on an as-needed basis. Recommends adoption agencies and communities build on positive experiences of Black…

  13. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  14. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  15. Adoption: Pediatric, Legislative and Social Issues

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.

    1981-01-01

    Physicians may find themselves involved in many phases of the adoption process, ranging from advising infertile couples who wish to adopt a child to caring for adopted children, adolescents or adults. Recent legislation has been aimed at making it possible for children to be adopted who have been receiving foster care and at providing financial assistance to implement the adoption of children with handicaps and with medical problems. The adoption process is becoming more open. Adoptees are searching for and finding their biological parents and all parties in the “adoption triangle” are developing relationships with one another. PMID:7257384

  16. Helping lower income parents reduce the risk of food waste resulting from children's aversion to healthier food options: Comment on Daniel (2016).

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Finkelstein, Stacey R; Scott, Maura L; Vallen, Beth

    2016-02-01

    We reflect on Daniel's (2016) finding that a challenge to improving the diets of lower income children is parental worry over food waste that results from children's rejection of healthier food options such as vegetables. This finding has important implications because previous research has indicated novel foods that have a bitter or sour flavor profile (as is the case with many vegetables) must be introduced to children several times before these foods are accepted. We suggest research-based techniques that parents could utilize to reduce the risk of costly food waste, and discuss obstacles that could impede well-intended parents from reaching their goals of improving their children's diets. PMID:26723199

  17. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  18. Council Adopts Two Major Statements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council approved an update to the Union's vision statement and adopted a position statement concerning the U.S. plans for a Moon-Mars initiative. The vision statement, which is reproduced in this section of Eos, describes what the AGU is expected to look like 10 years in the future. The Planning Committee, under the chairmanship of President-elect Tim Killeen, and with input from the policy committees, Sections, and Focus Groups, is updating AGU's strategic plan, which is intended to move measurably toward the vision.

  19. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  20. Adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, H M; Liebowitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the transfer of immunocompetent cells, has been shown to be a promising new strategy for treatment of a variety of malignancies, including leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The possibility that it may likewise benefit patients with multiple myeloma is now being explored by researchers in Europe and the United States. Two alternatives, one using donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and the other using autologous T cells, are described. In the Netherlands, researchers studied the use of DLIs in 17 patients with multiple myeloma who relapsed after bone marrow transplant (BMT). Of 16 evaluable patients, 10 (62%) responded, with six (37%) achieving a complete response (CR). After a median follow-up duration of 28 months, five patients relapsed and five remained in remission. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in nine patients. In the United States, adoptive immunotherapy is currently being tested in eight patients with chemotherapy-resistant lymphoma. Autologous T cells were obtained prior to BMT and expanded using an anti-CD3/CD28 culture system. After BMT, the cells were reinfused into the patient. At approximately day 14, granulocyte levels began to recover in the six evaluable patients, and levels remained relatively stable over the posttreatment course. Two patients developed severe autoimmune toxicity, which responded to treatment in one and resolved spontaneously in the other. PMID:9989486

  1. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  2. An unusual incident of adoption in a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population at Gombe National Park.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Emily E

    2008-10-01

    Allomothering and adoption are well documented across primate species. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of such behavior according to the costs and benefits to the caregiver, mother, and infant. Permanent adoptions and allomothering have been observed in chimpanzees, but they typically involve the infants' siblings or nulliparous females. Here, I report a unique incident of adoption where an infant was adopted by its grandmother without the death of its mother. I conclude by considering how the adoption may have benefited the grandmother, mother, and infant. PMID:18543321

  3. Antecedents to the adoption of ASPS in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Randeree, Ebrahim; Judd, Susan P; Kishore, Rajiv; Rao, H Raghav

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to identify drivers of adoption for a new form of information technology outsourcing--the ASP model--in the healthcare industry. Primary data were collected in January 2002 from a nationwide survey of senior-level healthcare information technology executives. Cost management (supplier presence, asset specificity, production costs, transaction costs, resource availability) and relative advantage (reliability, customizability, strategic alignment, and magnitude of potential loss) were found to have the largest influences on adoption behavior. PMID:14558375

  4. Food sustainability education as a route to healthier eating: evaluation of a multi-component school programme in English primary schools.

    PubMed

    Jones, M; Dailami, N; Weitkamp, E; Salmon, D; Kimberlee, R; Morley, A; Orme, J

    2012-06-01

    Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food sustainability issues--such as the promotion of awareness about local, seasonal, organic, fair trade and higher animal welfare foods. This paper presents an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership, a multi-component programme that sought to address both the health and sustainability aspects of food. The study consisted of a two-stage cross-sectional survey of Years 5 and 6 students (ages 9-11) in 30 primary schools at enrolment and after 18-24 months, combined with an analysis of programme delivery. Higher self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption in the second stage survey was associated with a range of indicators of school participation in the programme. These included the reform of school meal procurement and preparation; experiential food growing, cooking and farm-based education and improved opportunities for stakeholder engagement. The study therefore develops a case for multilevel programmes that incorporate sustainability issues alongside experiential food education in primary school settings. PMID:22355199

  5. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community. PMID:26262001

  6. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  7. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  8. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  9. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs. PMID:26559074

  10. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  11. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... adopted youngsters need to be told about their origins, ideally even before middle childhood. Introducing the Information ... needs to have an honest understanding of his origin. Adopted children who have not been told seem ...

  12. Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanpour, Fariborz

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies on the impact of organizational factors on the adoption of innovations along three dimensions (innovation type, innovation radicalness, and stages of adoption), finding considerable agreement. Proposes a research agenda for future studies. (SR)

  13. Social Skills in Children Adopted from Socially-Emotionally Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.; McCall, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed social skills in post-institutionalized (PI) children with respect to age-at-adoption, age-at-assessment, and gender. Parent ratings of social skills (Social Skills Rating System) and behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were obtained for 214 children and 127 adolescents who were adopted from socially-emotionally depriving Russian institutions. Results showed that children adopted before 18 months of age have better social skills than those adopted after this age; those assessed in childhood demonstrate better social skills than those assessed in adolescence. PI females, especially later-adopted adolescents, have particularly poor social skills. Children with poor social skills tend to have higher rates of behavior problems. PMID:27087772

  14. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  15. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  16. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  17. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  19. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  20. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  1. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  2. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  3. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  4. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  5. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  6. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  7. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  8. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  9. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  10. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  11. A Narrative Inquiry of International Adoption Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Christin; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The international adoption entrance story is an unexplored topic in the adoption literature. The stories that families tell of beginning life with their new children has important implications for the development of an autobiographical narrative of an adopted child. A coherent autobiographical narrative is vital for healthy childhood development.…

  12. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  13. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  14. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  15. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  16. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  17. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  18. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  19. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  20. Modeling technology adoption in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Besley, T.; Case, A. )

    1993-05-01

    An analysis of technology adoption decisions by poor farmers is provided. Some possible empirical models for studying technology adoption are reviewed. The issue of theoretical consistency is dealt with in terms of the costs of such consistency, measured in data needs and model complexity, and the benefits, measured in terms of understanding the micro-economic foundations of adoption.

  1. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  2. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  3. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  4. Executive function and mental health in adopted children with a history of recreational drug exposures.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Corbett, Selena M; Birkett, Melissa A; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  5. Executive Function and Mental Health in Adopted Children with a History of Recreational Drug Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Gray, Hilary M.; Corbett, Selena M.; Birkett, Melissa A.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  6. The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers in the Lower Fraser Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    The study investigated the adoption behavior of 100 strawberry growers (including 32 Mennonites and 23 Japanese) in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Adoption of six selected practices was examined in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and ethnicity. Findings included the following: (1) ethnic groups differed significantly on…

  7. Children's Drawings: Self-Perception and Family Function in International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Brittany L.; Tirella, Linda G.; Miller, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    No comprehensive studies have examined the utility of family drawings within the context of international adoption. We examined the relationship of Kinetic Family Drawings by 54 internationally adopted children in the USA (65% female; M age = 8.57 years, SD = 2.1) to demographics, child competencies (Child Behavior Checklist: CBCL/6-18) and…

  8. Perceptual Factors that Influence the Adoption of Videotex Technology: Results of the Channel 2000 Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Ted

    1983-01-01

    Presents an overview of diffusion theory and the attributes of innovations and their adopting units, as well as the methodology and results of a study designed to increase understanding of innovative behavior by investigating perceptions of both adopters and nonadopters of the consumer-oriented videotex service, Channel 2000. (EAO)

  9. A Comparison of Physician Pre-Adoption and Adoption Views on Electronic Health Records in Canadian Medical Practices

    PubMed Central

    Cocosila, Mihail

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a major campaign involving large expenditures of public money to increase the adoption rate of electronic health record (EHR) systems in Canada. To maximize the chances of success in this effort, physician views on EHRs must be addressed, since user perceptions are key to successful implementation of technology innovations. Objective We propose a theoretical model comprising behavioral factors either favoring or against EHR adoption and use in Canadian medical practices, from the physicians’ point of view. EHR perceptions of physicians already using EHR systems are compared with those not using one, through the lens of this model. Methods We conducted an online cross-sectional survey in both English and French among medical practitioners across Canada. Data were collected both from physicians using EHRs and those not using EHRs, and analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. Results We collected 119 responses from EHR users and 100 from nonusers, resulting in 2 valid samples of 102 and 83 participants, respectively. The theoretical adoption model explained 55.8% of the variance in behavioral intention to continue using EHRs for physicians already using them, and 66.8% of the variance in nonuser intention to adopt such systems. Perception of ease of use was found to be the strongest motivator for EHR users (total effect .525), while perceptions of usefulness and of ease of use were the key determinants for nonusers (total effect .538 and .519, respectively) to adopt the system. Users see perceived overall risk associated with EHR adoption as a major obstacle (total effect –.371), while nonusers perceive risk only as a weak indirect demotivator. Of the 13 paths of the SEM model, 5 showed significant differences between the 2 samples (at the .05 level): general doubts about using the system (P = .02), the necessity for the system to be relevant for their job (P < .001), and the necessity for the system to be useful (P = .049

  10. Why, when, and how fast innovations are adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, S.; Laguna, M. F.; Iglesias, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    When the full stock of a new product is quickly sold in a few days or weeks, one has the impression that new technologies develop and conquer the market in a very easy way. This may be true for some new technologies, for example the cell phone, but not for others, like the blue-ray. Novelty, usefulness, advertising, price, and fashion are the driving forces behind the adoption of a new product. But, what are the key factors that lead to adopt a new technology? In this paper we propose and investigate a simple model for the adoption of an innovation which depends mainly on three elements: the appeal of the novelty, the inertia or resistance to adopt it, and the interaction with other agents. Social interactions are taken into account in two ways: by imitation and by differentiation, i.e., some agents will be inclined to adopt an innovation if many people do the same, but other will act in the opposite direction, trying to differentiate from the "herd". We determine the conditions for a successful implantation of the new technology, by considering the strength of advertising and the effect of social interactions. We find a balance between the advertising and the number of anti-herding agents that may block the adoption of a new product. We also compare the effect of social interactions, when agents take into account the behavior of the whole society or just a part of it. In a nutshell, the present model reproduces qualitatively the available data on adoption of innovation.

  11. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  12. Shanghai adopts family planning regulations.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    These Regulations, adopted by the Municipal People's Congress of Shanghai on 14 March 1990, do the following: a) strictly prohibit any units and individuals from identifying the sex of a fetus without medical reasons; b) add 1 additional week to the marriage leave of couples who marry at the age set for late marriage (25 for males and 23 for females); c) add 15 days of maternity leave for women who give birth at the age set for late birth (24) and 3 days for their spouses; d) impose a fine equal to 3 to 6 times their average annual income if a couple have an unplanned birth (calculated on the basis of their income 2 years before the birth); and e) subject a couple who have an unplanned birth to disciplinary action by their working units if they work for others or by the administrative department of industry and commerce if they are self employed. Second births are allowed if a first child "can not become normal because of nonhereditary diseases," if both husband and wife are single children, or if a "remarried couple had only one child before their remarriage." The Regulations provide that "the improvement of birth quality and good upbringing of children should be promoted, advice on heredity should be provided, and premarital examinations [should] be conducted." They also stipulate that "A woman should terminate her pregnancy or undergo a sterilization operation if both husband and wife (or either of them) have [a] hereditary or other disease not medically suitable for birth." The provisions of these Regulations prohibiting prenatal sex selection were reported in Annual Review of Population Law, Vol. 17, 1990, Section 240. PMID:12348767

  13. The role of siblings in adoption outcomes and experiences from adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Flood, Margaux E; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-04-01

    In many families, siblings play important roles in shaping each other's outcomes and experiences across development. In adoptive families, siblings may affect adoptees' feelings about adoption and birth family contact. Among "target adoptees" (i.e., 1 participating adopted individual within adoptive families) with siblings who may have also been adopted or the biological children of the adoptive parents, we examined how adoption experiences and individual adjustment from adolescence into emerging adulthood were associated with sibling relationship dynamics. We present 3 studies using longitudinal, mixed method data within the same overarching sample of adoptive families. Study 1 was a follow-up to Berge et al.'s (2006) study of adolescent adoptees and their adopted siblings with birth family contact; we found evidence of changes in the status of contact collectively experienced by 26 adopted sibling pairs when target adoptees were emerging adults. In Study 2, we found that target adoptees (n = 91) with siblings (adopted or not) who were more involved with target adoptees' birth family contact demonstrated more favorable behavioral outcomes than target adoptees who had uninvolved siblings. Finally in Study 3, for target adoptees with siblings who were also adopted (n = 51), results showed that target adoptees felt more positively about their own adoption when siblings expressed similar positive feelings about individual adoption experiences. Implications of our findings are discussed in terms of the enduring contributions of sibling relationships from childhood into adulthood and the unique ways in which adoptive siblings are important in shaping one another's experiences of adoption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651349

  14. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  15. Neighborhood Context and Youth Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and cardiovascular health behaviors among youths and whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with such behaviors independently of individual characteristics. Methods. Linear models determined the effects of individual and neighborhood characteristics (SES, social disorganization, racial/ethnic minority concentration, urbanization) on dietary habits, physical activity, and smoking among 8165 youths aged 12 to 21 years. Results. Low SES was associated with poorer dietary habits, less physical activity, and higher odds of smoking. After adjustment for SES, Black race was associated with poorer dietary habits and lower odds of smoking. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with healthier dietary habits, lower levels of physical activity, and lower odds of smoking than non-Hispanic ethnicity. Low neighborhood SES and high neighborhood social disorganization were independently associated with poorer dietary habits, while high neighborhood Hispanic concentration and urbanicity were associated with healthier dietary habits. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with physical activity or smoking. Conclusions. Changes in neighborhood social structures and policies that reduce social inequalities may enhance cardiovascular health behaviors. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:428–436) PMID:11867325

  16. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

  17. Specific Extreme Behaviors of Postinstitutionalized Russian Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Brandi N.; McCall, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior problems reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were studied in 316 children adopted from social-emotionally depriving Russian institutions as a function of age at adoption (18-month cutoff), age at assessment (6-11 and 12-18 years), and gender. Children adopted after 18 months had higher problem…

  18. Feeding behaviors of low-income mothers: Directive control relateds to a lower BMI in children, and a nondirective control relates to a healthier diet in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore whether and how directive (external, observable pressure on the child to eat a healthy diet) and nondirective (motivating the child to eat a healthy diet through praising, asking questions, and organizing the home food environment) type of parental feeding ...

  19. Communication and the adoption of energy conservation measures by the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses a four-wave panel study conducted in a Midwest community to determine the relationship of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners. Special attention was paid to the communication and energy use constraints faced by the elderly. Analysis indicates that younger respondents adopted actions to save energy in the home at a faster rate than did older respondents. This study found that energy-related content in the mass media bears stronger relationships with the perceived importance of the energy problem than with adoption of energy conservation behavior. It is suggested that the role of communicators and educators in encouraging and reinforcing energy conservation remains very important.

  20. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  1. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  2. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

  3. [Health-related problems in adopted children].

    PubMed

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit H

    2006-10-01

    International research shows that the standard of health among children adopted from abroad, especially those adopted by single parents, is not as good as that of other children. Danish studies indicate similar problems. The causes could be several, such as poor development in the embryonic and fetal stages, low birth weight, starvation, neglect, infections, and the lack of the natural bonds between mother and child. Surveys indicate that many adoptive parents, single parents in particular, receive children with health problems. There is no Danish research available, but it is important to be aware of these issues in order for both adoptees and adoptants to receive the most support. PMID:17059801

  4. Diet and its role in the behavioral health and training of exotic species.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Food plays an important part in companion animal health, and also plays a significant role in influencing animal behavior. Avian and small mammal species show general trends in food preferences that can be used to reinforce desired behaviors. Motivation for food can be increased by various strategies. Nonfood reinforcers also offer additional options for reinforcing behaviors when food is of little value to an animal. Transitioning to less rich, healthier diets can help prevent reproductive hormone amplification. This article explores how delivering food is an opportunity to influence behavior in addition to providing nourishment. PMID:24767744

  5. Eating behaviors among low-income obese adults in the United States: Does health care provider's advice carry any weight.

    PubMed

    Lorts, Cori; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Preventive Task Force recommends that all patients be screened for obesity and given appropriate weight loss advice, if needed, as nutrition counseling by primary care physicians is a key objective for Healthy People 2020. This study assesses the association between health care provider's (HCP) advice to lose weight and eating behaviors among obese individuals. Data were collected using a household survey of adults in five New Jersey cities in 2009-10. Analyses presented are limited to 548 obese participants. Negative-binomial regression analysis determined the association of participants' eating behaviors and HCP's advice to lose weight, after adjusting for the participant's attempt to lose weight and demographic variables. Despite being obese, only 48% of the participants received weight loss advice from their HCP while 68% stated they were attempting to lose weight. HCP's advice to lose weight was associated with increased salad and fruit consumption (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.61; PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48). Attempting to lose weight was positively associated with a higher consumption of fruit (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.72), vegetables (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39), and with eating fruits and vegetables as snacks (PR 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05). Attempting to lose weight was negatively associated with consumption of sweet snacks (PR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.94), sugar sweetened beverages (PR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.87) and fast food (PR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97). There were no significant interactions between HCP's advice and attempts to lose weight. Obese adult's attempt to lose weight, and not HCP's advice to lose weight, was a predictor for healthy eating behaviors. Interventions in medical practices should train HCPs on effective strategies for motivating obese patients to adopt healthier lifestyles. PMID:26876632

  6. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. PMID:26371450

  7. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians. PMID:16846118

  8. Maternal secure-base scripts and children's attachment security in an adopted sample.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Fernanda

    2006-09-01

    Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby's model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore, because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any correspondence between attachment representations of the parent and secure base behavior of the child must arise as a consequence of dyadic interaction histories. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the child's age at the time of adoption or at the time of attachment assessment predicted child attachment security in adoptive families and also whether the adoptive mother's internal attachment representation predicted the child's attachment security. The participants were 106 mother - child dyads selected from the 406 adoptions carried out through the Lisbon Department of Adoption Services over a period of 3 years. The Attachment Behavior Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1995) was used to assess secure base behavior and an attachment script representation task was used to assess the maternal attachment representations. Neither child's age at the time of adoption, nor age of the child at assessment significantly predicted the AQS security score; however, scores reflecting the presence and quality of maternal secure base scripts did predict AQS security. These findings support the notion that the transmission of attachment security across generations involves mutual exchanges and learning by the child and that the exchanges leading to secure attachment need not begin at birth

  9. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

  10. Drivers of adoption of safety innovations on Australian cotton farms.

    PubMed

    Fragar, L; Temperley, J

    2011-07-01

    The Australian cotton industry has been a leader in the adoption of farm health and safety approaches in the Australian agricultural sector. In order to analyze factors associated with occupational health and safety performance, a review of available information and key stakeholder interviews were conducted A recently defined model for adoption of farm safety, emphasizing individual behavioral, environmental, community, and governmental factors, was used as the framework for the assessment. This hazard-based examination of changes describes improvements that have positively impacted health and safety. Improvements include: reduction in vehicle and on-farm traffic systems, safer irrigation systems, changes in cultivation technology, changes in pesticides and application technology, changes in harvest technology, adoption of gene technology, adoption of occupational health and safety (OHS) management systems, and government regulation. The introduction of genetically modified cotton has directly reduced potential exposure to pesticides, and it has indirectly impacted safety by, for example, reducing traffic flow on farms. This study demonstrates the considerable innovation and positive safety enhancements across the Australian cotton industry with respect to the interaction of management and production systems. These lessons should be used develop effective interventions in other agricultural industries. PMID:21919318

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating: An adoption study.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (Klump, McGue, & Iacono, 2000; von Ranson, Klump, Iacono, & McGue, 2005). Biometric model fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59%-82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

  12. Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe; Bolé, Camille; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Hedwige

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that "chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members". In strong contrast with these captive studies, consistent observations of potentially altruistic behaviors in different populations of wild chimpanzees have been reported in such different domains as food sharing, regular use of coalitions, cooperative hunting and border patrolling. This begs the question of what socio-ecological factors favor the evolution of altruism. Here we report 18 cases of adoption, a highly costly behavior, of orphaned youngsters by group members in Taï forest chimpanzees. Half of the adoptions were done by males and remarkably only one of these proved to be the father. Such adoptions by adults can last for years and thus imply extensive care towards the orphans. These observations reveal that, under the appropriate socio-ecologic conditions, chimpanzees do care for the welfare of other unrelated group members and that altruism is more extensive in wild populations than was suggested by captive studies. PMID:20111704

  13. Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Christophe; Bolé, Camille; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Hedwige

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that “chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members”. In strong contrast with these captive studies, consistent observations of potentially altruistic behaviors in different populations of wild chimpanzees have been reported in such different domains as food sharing, regular use of coalitions, cooperative hunting and border patrolling. This begs the question of what socio-ecological factors favor the evolution of altruism. Here we report 18 cases of adoption, a highly costly behavior, of orphaned youngsters by group members in Taï forest chimpanzees. Half of the adoptions were done by males and remarkably only one of these proved to be the father. Such adoptions by adults can last for years and thus imply extensive care towards the orphans. These observations reveal that, under the appropriate socio-ecologic conditions, chimpanzees do care for the welfare of other unrelated group members and that altruism is more extensive in wild populations than was suggested by captive studies. PMID:20111704

  14. Adoption of Information Technology by Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herling, Thomas J.; Merskin, Debra

    Since little empirical research has been conducted on adoption of currently available information technology by the advertising industry, a study explored the extent of advertising agencies' adoption of selected information technologies such as online database services and electronic mail. The study discussed data from earlier studies and analyzed…

  15. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of wedlock... has stated that he or she is not the natural parent of the child. (v) Since the soldier is not...

  16. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  17. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  1. Single Adoptive Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Sharon Ann

    1978-01-01

    In view of the increasing number of single women who adopt children, the social work profession has an obligation to learn more about this group of mothers. This article is based on a research study to identify characteristics of single adoptive mothers and their children and to learn what community supports the mothers believe would be helpful.…

  2. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28839 Filed 11-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8744 of November 1, 2011 National Adoption Month, 2011 By the President of... basic support, and still more children abroad live without families. During National Adoption Month,...

  3. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26669 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and...

  4. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27190 Filed 11-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice...

  5. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  6. Predicting Language Outcomes for Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Language and speech are difficult to assess in newly arrived internationally adopted children. The purpose of this study was to determine if assessments completed when toddlers were first adopted could predict language outcomes at age 2. Local norms were used to develop early intervention guidelines that were evaluated against age 2…

  7. States Adopt Standards at Fast Clip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half the states have adopted a new set of common academic standards, barely a month after their final release and, in most cases, with little opposition. As of July 9, 23 states had decided to replace their mathematics and English/language arts standards with the common set. Another flurry of adoptions is expected by Aug. 2, since the $4…

  8. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  9. Fuzzy Cognitive Map Modelling Educational Software Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Sarmin; Brooks, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Educational software adoption across UK secondary schools is seen as unsatisfactory. Based on stakeholders' perceptions, this paper uses fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to model this adoption context. It discusses the development of the FCM model, using a mixed-methods approach and drawing on participants from three UK secondary schools. The study…

  10. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  11. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  12. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions are seen as…

  13. A Research and Development Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ronald E.

    1974-01-01

    An elaboration of the adoption phase of the Clark and Guba R and D model. A brief discussion of the normative structures of the organizations and organizational boundary permeability provides the rationale for a set of suggested procedures for adoption of innovations at the school building level. (Author)

  14. Predictors of Adopting Motivational Enhancement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard; Roahen-Harrison, Stephanie; Toriello, Paul J.; Kissinger, Patricia; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward; Carney, Linton; Rice, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors have shown limited success in adopting evidence-based practices (EBPs). The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers and facilitators of adopting an EBP called motivational enhancement therapy (MET). One hundred thirty-six predominantly female (60%) African American (68%) addiction counselors representing over…

  15. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  16. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fennis, Bob M.; Andreassen, Tor W.; Lervik-Olsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated for individuals with a stronger tendency for behavioral disinhibition thus underscoring the “bright side” of this individual difference characteristic that traditionally has been mainly associated with impulsive and indulging behavior. Overall, the present findings add to our understanding of factors inhibiting and promoting healthy behavior change. PMID:26559409

  17. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  18. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  19. Psychosocial variables, external barriers, and stage of mammography adoption.

    PubMed

    Lauver, Diane Ruth; Henriques, Jeffrey B; Settersten, Lori; Bumann, Mary Carson

    2003-11-01

    Guided by H. Triandis's (1980) theory of behavior and the transtheoretical model, the study purpose was to examine differences in psychosocial variables and external conditions by stage of mammography adoption. Sampled from a statewide population, participants (N=509) were women aged 51-80. They had been contacted by telephone, screened for eligibility (e.g., no history of cancer or recent mammogram), and interviewed 3-6 months later. Higher utility beliefs, social influences, and practitioner interactions about mammography were associated with improved stage of adoption, as were lower negative affect and external barriers regarding mammography. Higher decisional balance scores, with and without negative affect toward mammography were associated with improved stage. Controlling for variables reflecting pros and cons, negative affect toward mammography further distinguished among stages. A richer set of pros and cons measures could explain screening more fully. PMID:14640864

  20. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Buscail, Camille; Alles, Benjamin; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label–the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL)–is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods. Methods and Findings Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: ‘Healthy’ (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample), with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; ‘Western’ (N = 33 386, 34.8%); with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; ‘Traditional’ (N = 34 461, 35.1%), with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the ‘Western’ pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates) to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively. Conclusion The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the

  1. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders. PMID:24923638

  2. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  3. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... needed, evidence of the date of adoption; (b) If the widow or widower adopted the child after the insured... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and...

  4. Parallel Process Issues for Lesbian and Gay Adoptive Parents and Their Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2005-01-01

    Gays and lesbians, both single and coupled, are increasingly turning to adoption to create or expand their families. This manuscript specifically addresses the continuing needs of adoptees and adoptive parents by exploring key issues in the life course of gays and lesbians and their adopted children, and identifying potential parallel development…

  5. Skin Color in Transracial and Inracial Adoptive Placements: Implications for Special Needs Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, Ruth G.; Grape, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Explores interview excerpts of African-American adults adopted either transracially or interracially to discuss implications of color for special-needs adoptions. Finds that the issue of color extends beyond racial differences to include skin tone and that children are aware of and internalize color at an early age. Suggests that adoption agencies…

  6. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  7. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  8. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  9. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  10. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  11. Economic externalities of health information technology. A game theoretic model for electronic health record adoption.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Joseph M

    2007-01-01

    A presidential executive order in 2004 called for widespread adoption of electronic health records within 10 years. Proponents have shown this will lead to safe, affordable and consumer-oriented healthcare. Current EHR adoption has not kept pace; some estimates suggest that EHR adoption will occur over a significantly longer period. Implementation costs and return on investment are listed, among other reasons, as the predominant factors limiting rapid adoption. A widespread EHR adoption plateau is expected, with entities being unable or unwilling to adopt EHRs. This will lead to incentive-based requirements to achieve widespread adoption and the full potential of EHRs. This paper looks at externalities of health information technology between the major entities--payors, providers and consumers. These externalities necessitate implementation of incentive-based programs to achieve benefit equilibrium. Game theory is employed to model the behavior of these entities to capture the most equitable outcome. Prescriptive analysis is utilized to interpret and suggest optimal adoption behavior. PMID:19195278

  12. Improving Service Coordination and Reducing Mental Health Disparities Through Adoption of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Brian; Mack, Dominic; Wrenn, Glenda; Shim, Ruth S.; Holden, Kisha; Satcher, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support for removing barriers to the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in behavioral health care, adoption of EHRs in behavioral health settings lags behind adoption in other areas of health care. The authors discuss barriers to use of EHRs among behavioral health care practitioners, suggest solutions to overcome these barriers, and describe the potential benefits of EHRs to reduce behavioral health care disparities. Thoughtful and comprehensive strategies will be needed to design EHR systems that address concerns about policy, practice, costs, and stigma and that protect patients’ privacy and confidentiality. However, these goals must not detract from continuing to challenge the notion that behavioral health and general medical health should be treated as separate and distinct. Ultimately, utilization of EHRs among behavioral health care providers will improve the coordination of services and overall patient care, which is essential to reducing mental health disparities. PMID:25975885

  13. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodine). Newborn metabolic screen up to 2 years. Infectious Diseases PPD or currently recommended testing for tuberculosis exposure ( ... Pediatrics. Medical Evaluation of Internationally Adopted Children for Infectious Diseases. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, ...

  14. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  15. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  16. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stories . O.J. Howard Publishing. Siegel, D.H., & Smith, S.L. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and ... from- secrecy- and- stigma- to- knowledge- and- connections/ Smith, S. (2007). Safeguarding the rights and well-being of ...

  17. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  18. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  19. Intercountry Adoption and the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Sharon A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides family therapists with an understanding of intercountry adoption. The special life-cycle issues of multinational families and the challenges intercountry adoptees face are discussed to help therapists treat such families more empathically and effectively. (Author/MKA)

  20. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  1. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  2. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  3. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  4. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  5. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  6. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  7. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  8. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  9. The Practice of Adoption: History, Trends, and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamostny, Kathy P.; O'Brien, Karen M.; Baden, Amanda L.; Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the practice of adoption to counseling psychologists to promote clinical understanding of the adoption experience and to stimulate research on adoption. The article includes definitions of adoption terminology, important historical and legal developments for adoption, a summary of adoption statistics,…

  10. Adoption in the age of reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A

    2001-05-01

    The choice of adoption over genetic parenthood was investigated in 105 women retrospectively by questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: female/male subfertility; female subfertility; male subfertility; and female/male fertility. Half the sample (59/105) answered the question about the importance of a genetic link. Women who failed to adopt thought a genetic link was important, as did those who were less likely to disclose alternative reproductive conceptions to their child. First thoughts following diagnosis were more focused and actions more centered on adoption in the female/male subfertile group compared to the other groups. Communication of the child's origins was least prevalent in the female/male subfertile group, followed by the male subfertile group, although all groups would disclose adoption. The choice of adoption was determined by a number of factors, not all associated with infertility resolution. Although it is unlikely that resolution to infertility can be achieved in any population attempting to overcome infertility, the cognitive dissonance identified in this population is likely to be generalizable to those choosing other options to overcome infertility. Cultural and counselling acknowledgement of postmodern family theory principles is likely to ease cognitive consistency regarding the status of adoptive familyhood, and dispel the importance of reproductive options emphasizing a genetic link. PMID:12449936

  11. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option. PMID:27136971

  12. Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348

  13. Wealth and Health Behavior: Testing the Concept of a Health Cost

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus J.

    2014-01-01

    Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed partially explain behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups. PMID:25530621

  14. Characterization of the Active Microbiotas Associated with Honey Bees Reveals Healthier and Broader Communities when Colonies are Genetically Diverse

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Heather R.; Rios, Daniela; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E.; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L. G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline. PMID:22427917

  15. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Heather R; Rios, Daniela; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline. PMID:22427917

  16. Evaluation of a randomized intervention to increase adoption of comparative effectiveness research by community health organizations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Williams, Weston O; Dusablon, Tracy; Blais, Marissa Puckett; Tregear, Stephen J; Banks, Duren; PhD, Kevin D Hennessy

    2014-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the influence of two strategies (informational packets alone and in conjunction with Webinars) aimed at increasing the adoption of motivational interviewing (MI), a patient-centered behavioral health practice supported by evidence from comparative effectiveness studies, among community health organizations responsible for delivering mental and behavioral health services. Data were obtained from 311 directors and staff across 92 community organizations. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in decision to adopt MI. The mediating effects of multiple contextual variables were also examined. Results showed that both strategies positively influenced the decision to adopt. The positive impact on decision to adopt was significantly greater among individuals that received informational packets in conjunction with Webinars. Baseline attitudes toward evidence-based practices and pressures for change appeared to mediate this effect. PMID:24091611

  17. Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

  18. Community Acceptability and Adoption of Integrated Community Case Management in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nanyonjo, Agnes; Nakirunda, Maureen; Makumbi, Frederick; Tomson, Göran; Källander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Integrated community case management (iCCM) is a recommended strategy to curb child mortality. Drawing on diffusion of innovations (DOIs), the acceptability and adoption of iCCM were qualitatively explored. Data from focus group discussions and interviews with community members, community health workers (CHWs), and supervisors conducted in seven communities were analyzed using content analysis. Perceived relative advantage and compatibility of the program with sociocultural beliefs and healthcare expectations of the communities positively affected acceptability and adoption of iCCM. The degree of stringency, quality, and cost of access to healthcare were crucial to adoption. Failure of the health system to secure regular drug supplies, monetary support, and safe referrals globally hindered adoption. Individual CHW characteristics like undesired behavior, demotivation, and lack of reciprocated trust deterred adoption in some areas. Optimal functioning of iCCM programs will require community sensitization and targeted health systems strengthening to enhance observable program benefits like reduced child mortality. PMID:23136284

  19. Encouraging small businesses to adopt effective technologies to prevent exposure to health hazards.

    PubMed

    Leviton, L C; Sheehy, J W

    1996-04-01

    Small businesses are heterogeneous and the prospects are low for direct OSHA inspection and enforcement. Opportunities are explored to encourage voluntary adoption of new technology to reduce workplace exposures. The case of radiator repair shops is used in this paper to illustrate an approach to the dissemination of control technology to small businesses that will encourage these companies to adopt controls. Several behavioral theories are applied to the case. PMID:8728149

  20. Design, Utility, and History of the Colorado Adoption Project: Examples Involving Adjustment Interactions1

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Corley, Robin P.; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal study in behavioral development, and discusses how adoption studies may be used to assess genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences for important developmental outcomes. Previous CAP research on adjustment outcomes in childhood and adolescence which found significant interactions, including gene-environment interactions, is reviewed. New research suggests mediating effects of menarche and religiosity on age at first sex in this predominantly middle-class, Caucasian sample. PMID:23833552

  1. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  2. The Role of Social Networks in Early Adoption of Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherning, Heidi; Mathiassen, Lars

    As mobile devices have become the personal information-processing interface of choice, many individuals seem to swiftly follow fashion. Yet, the literature is silent on how early adopters of mobile devices overcome uncertainties related to shifts in technology. Based on purposive sampling, this paper presents detailed insights into why and how five closely related individuals made the decision to adopt the iPhone before it was available through traditional supply chains. Focusing on the role played by social networks, we analyze how adoption threshold, opinion leaders, social contagion, and social learning shaped adoption behaviors and outcomes. The analyses confirm that network structures impact the early decision to accept the iPhone; they show that when facing uncertainty, adoption decisions emerged as a combined result of individual adoption reflections and major influences from the social network as well as behaviors observed within the network, and, they reveal interesting behaviors that differed from expectations. In conclusion, we discuss implications for both theory and practice.

  3. Determinants of primary care nurses' intention to adopt an electronic health record in their clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Genevieve; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Sanderson, Duncan

    2012-09-01

    A provincial electronic health record is being developed in the Province of Quebec (and in all other provinces in Canada), and authorities hope that it will enable a safer and more efficient healthcare system for citizens. However, the expected benefits can occur only if healthcare professionals, including nurses, adopt this technology. Although attention to the use of the electronic health record by nurses is growing, better understanding of nurses' intention to use an electronic health record is needed and could help managers to better plan its implementation. This study examined the factors that influence primary care nurses' intention to adopt the provincial electronic health record, since intention influences electronic health record use and implementation success. Using a modified version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Theory of Planned Behavior, a questionnaire was developed and pretested. Questionnaires were distributed to 199 primary care nurses. Multiple hierarchical regression indicated that the Theory of Planned Behavior variables explained 58% of the variance in nurses' intention to adopt an electronic health record. The strong intention to adopt the electronic health record is mainly determined by perceived behavioral control, normative beliefs, and attitudes. The implications of the study are that healthcare managers could facilitate adoption of an electronic health record by strengthening nurses' intention to adopt the electronic health record, which in turn can be influenced through interventions oriented toward the belief that using an electronic health record will improve the quality of patient care. PMID:22592453

  4. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  5. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers. PMID:21221258

  6. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  7. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

  8. Breaking the addiction to technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2014-04-01

    A major driver of cost growth in health care is the rapid increase in the utilisation of existing technology and not simply the adoption of new technology. Health economists and their health technology assessment colleagues have become obsessed by technology adoption questions and have largely ignored 'technology management' questions. Technology management would include the life-cycle assessment of technologies in use, to assess their real-world performance; and monitoring of technology indication creep. A rebalancing of focus might serve to encourage a more self-critical and learning culture amongst those involved in technology evaluation analysis. Further, health economists and health technology assessment analysts could make a more significant contribution to system efficiency through rebalancing their efforts away from technology adoption questions towards technology management issues. PMID:24590701

  9. Adopting Evidence-Based Medically Assisted Treatments in Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations: Roles of Leadership Socialization and Funding Streams

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Davis, Carolyn D.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational adoption of medically assisted treatments (MAT) for substance use disorders (SUDs) in a representative sample of 555 US for-profit and not-for-profit treatment centers. The study examines organizational adoption of these treatments in an institutionally contested environment that traditionally has valued behavioral treatment, using sociological and resource dependence frameworks The findings indicate that socialization of leadership, measured by formal clinical education, is related to the adoption of MAT. Funding patterns also affect innovation adoption, with greater adoption associated with higher proportions of earned income from third party fees for services, and less adoption associated with funding from criminal justice sources. These findings may generalize to other social mission-oriented organizations where innovation adoption may be linked to private and public benefit values inherent in the type of socialization of leadership and different patterns of funding support. PMID:25004707

  10. Adopting evidence-based medically assisted treatments in substance abuse treatment organizations: roles of leadership socialization and funding streams.

    PubMed

    Blum, Terry C; Davis, Carolyn D; Roman, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational adoption of medically assisted treatments (MAT) for substance use disorders (SUDs) in a representative sample of 555 US for-profit and not-for-profit treatment centers. The study examines organizational adoption of these treatments in an institutionally contested environment that traditionally has valued behavioral treatment, using sociological and resource dependence frameworks. The findings indicate that socialization of leadership, measured by formal clinical education, is related to the adoption of MAT. Funding patterns also affect innovation adoption, with greater adoption associated with higher proportions of earned income from third party fees for services, and less adoption associated with funding from criminal justice sources. These findings may generalize to other social mission-oriented organizations where innovation adoption may be linked to private and public benefit values inherent in the type of socialization of leadership and different patterns of funding support. PMID:25004707

  11. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  12. Extending Adoption of Innovation Theory with Consumer Influence the Case of Personal Health Records (PHRs) and Patient Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    A long tradition of adoption of innovations research in the information systems context suggests that innovative information systems are typically adopted by the largest companies, with the most slack resources and the most management support within competitive markets. Additionally, five behavioral characteristics (relative advantage,…

  13. A Comparison of Biological and Adoptive Mothers and Fathers: The Relevance of Biological Kinship and Gendered Constructs of Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Used qualitative interviews to examine beliefs and values about biological and adoptive parents. Considered how biological kinship, gender, and actual parenting behavior affect the assessments respondents made of the emotional bonding between parents and children. Found that biological and adoptive parents viewed motherhood as instinctive and…

  14. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  15. On Adopting Educational Materials: A Cautionary Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S.; Brown, D.; Dotger, S.

    2014-07-01

    The astronomy education community has made many educational materials publically available through various outlets. Unfortunately, adoption of educational materials does not guarantee instructional change. The materials—being nothing more than words on paper—are static, inert representations of abstract concepts that come to life only through interpretation and use by instructors and students. Research has previously demonstrated how instructors adopt, interpret, change, modify, and use materials in ways unanticipated by their developers (Brown 2009). This study investigates how a professor and teaching assistants used Engaging in Astronomical Inquiry (Slater, Slater, & Lyons 2010) during a laboratory section of an introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors.

  16. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer or Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Levine, Bruce L.; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tissue, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials in order to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology. PMID:24423116

  17. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology.

    PubMed

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  18. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    PubMed Central

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  19. Guiding healthier food choice: systematic comparison of four front-of-pack labelling systems and their effect on judgements of product healthiness.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Charo E; Raats, Monique M; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Peacock, Matthew; Gröppel-Klein, Andrea; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Wasowicz, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; Gulcan, Yaprak; Kustepeli, Yesim; Gibbs, Michelle; Shepherd, Richard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-05-28

    Different front-of-pack (FOP) labelling systems have been developed in Europe by industry and organisations concerned with health promotion. A study (n 2068) was performed to establish the extent to which inclusion of the most prevalent FOP systems--guideline daily amounts (GDA), traffic lights (TL), GDA+TL hybrid (HYB) and health logos (HL)--impact consumer perceptions of healthiness over and above the provision of a FOP basic label (BL) containing numerical nutritional information alone. The design included within- and between-subjects factors. The within-subjects factors were: food (pizzas, yogurts and biscuits), healthiness of the food (high health, medium health and low health) and the repeated measurements under BL and test FOP label conditions. The between-subjects factors were: the system (GDA, TL, GDA+TL hybrid, HL), portion size (typical portion size and a 50% reduction of a typical portion) and country (the UK, Germany, Poland and Turkey). Although the FOP systems tested did result in small improvements for objective understanding under some conditions, there was little difference between the provision of an FOP label containing basic numerical nutritional information alone or between the various systems. Thus, any structured and legible presentation of key nutrient and energy information on the FOP label is sufficient to enable consumers to detect a healthier alternative within a food category when provided with foods that have distinctly different levels of healthiness. Future research should focus on developing greater understanding of the psychological and contextual factors that impact motivation and the opportunity to use the various FOP systems in real-world shopping settings. PMID:25893314

  20. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies. PMID:25716646

  1. Adoption Status and Family Relationships During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Walkner, Amy J.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    While adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Utilizing the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study is to build upon previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (14.50–18.49 years) and young adulthood (18.50–22.49 years), and analyzed using within subjects repeated measures. While adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators compared to nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972

  2. Adoption status and family relationships during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Amy J; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-12-01

    Although adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Using the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study was to build on previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (range: 14.50-18.49 years) and young adulthood (range:18.50-22.49 years), and analyzed using within-subjects repeated measures. Although adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators than nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972

  3. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  4. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  5. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  6. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  7. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  8. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  9. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…

  10. Adoption Practice in Canada: Emerging Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; Daly, Kerry

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of the National Adoption Study of Canada (NAS), which is based on demographic adoption statistics and a survey of adoption agencies and practitioners. The NAS found that between 1981 and 1990 the number of adoptions decreased by 47% and that private adoptions are accounting for an ever-increasing proportion of infant…

  11. Enhancing the Fiscal Base for NDN Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capla Associates, Inc., Rochelle Park, NJ.

    This material is intended to help state facilitators or developer/demonstrators locate the funding sources most likely to meet the needs of local education agencies (LEAs) as potential National Diffusion Network adopters. LEAs that have identified a specific need that may be met by one of the NDN programs would be encouraged to submit a grant…

  12. Factors Influencing Adoption of the IGE Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Roberta M.

    This paper looks beyond the language of shared decision-making and team teaching to provide insight into how the norms of Individually Guided Education are translated into specific adoption outcomes. Its purposes are (1) to explicate the historical context and assumptions about the nature of schooling and the role of the teacher that are implicit…

  13. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  14. 76 FR 81 - Adoption of Recommendation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... of Executive Departments and agencies (May 20, 2009), 74 FR 24,693, 24,693-94 (May 22, 2009), available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-05-22/pdf/E9-12250.pdf#page=1 (last visited October 29...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Adoption of Recommendation AGENCY: Administrative Conference...

  15. Cultural Competence for Transracial Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides a clear conceptual definition of cultural competence for transracial-cultural adoptive (TRA) parents based on an extensive review of the literature and feedback from experts and parents. A three part definition of cultural competence for TRA parents includes: racial awareness, multicultural planning, and survival skills. Implications for…

  16. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  17. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  18. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  19. Negotiating the Dance: Consulting with Adoptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kent W.; Carson, David K.; Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive…

  20. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TD04NO10.016 [FR Doc. 2010... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-28117...; ] Proclamation 8597 of November 1, 2010 National Adoption Month, 2010 By the President of the United States...

  1. Adopting Learning Technologies: From Belief to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Cornelius H.; Cant, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge faced by most heads of academic departments around the world is to manage the adoption and use of appropriate learning technologies in order to support the department's learning offerings to students. Earlier research undertaken by the authors revealed that lecturers within the Department of Marketing and Retail Management at the…

  2. Personal Contacts and the Adoption of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    A study undertaken among commercial strawberry growers in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada, sought to define the network of personal contacts as used by the farmers in obtaining information relevant to growing practices. Growers were divided into four adopter categories: laggards, late majority, early majority, and innovator-early…

  3. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  4. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  5. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  6. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  7. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  8. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  9. Adopt-A-Stream Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Labs, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    Water pollution is not a recently discovered problem. Humankind's ability to generate pollutants continues to exceed its ability to control them. The Adopt-A-Stream program invites people who care for waterways to take an active role in assuring their well-being. High school groups supported by local co-sponsors agree to evaluate their adopted…

  10. Trailblazing Teacher Contract Agreement Adopted in Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Baltimore City Public Schools made national headlines late last year when the district adopted a new contract designed to take student learning and teacher professionalism to the next level. The three-year deal replaced conventional approaches to compensation--regular pay increases based on years in the system--with a new approach that gives…

  11. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  12. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  13. The Role of Race, Culture, and National Origin in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the first in a series to use an ethics-based…

  14. An Investigation of How Teachers' Concerns Influence Innovation Adoption. Procedures for Adopting Educational Innovations Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, William L.

    An overview is presented of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, which describes the major factors influencing the decisions and actions of individuals in the innovation adoption process. The two critical indicators hypothesized by the model, Level of Use of the Innovation, and Stages of Concern About the Innovation, are discussed. The seven stages…

  15. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  16. Adoption: Three Alternatives. A Comparative Study of Three Alternative Forms of Adoptive Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    This is the second report in a longitudinal study designed to examine experiences of black children adopted by white couples, black couples and single parents. Begun in 1970, the study plan is to follow a cohort of black children, adopted as infants or toddlers, through their childhood years until the age of 20. The present report, based on…

  17. Adoption: Three Alternatives. A Comparative Study of Three Alternative Forms of Adoptive Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    This descriptive report covers the first phase of a 20-year longitudinal study of black children adopted under 3 years of age by black couples, white couples, and single persons. The sample of three groups of approximately equal size was selected from the adoptive placements of two private child welfare agencies between June 1970 and June 1972.…

  18. Genetics and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This commentary article reviews a recent meta-analysis of genetic influences on antisocial behavior by Rhee and Waldman (2002). The authors combined the results of 51 twin and adoption studies and concluded that antisocial behavior has an important genetic component. However, twin and adoption studies contain several methodological flaws and are subject to the confounding influence of environmental factors. Therefore, Rhee and Waldman's conclusions in favor of genetic influences are not supported by the evidence. Two additional topics are Rhee and Waldman's incorrect description of the heritability concept and their failure to discuss several German criminal twin studies published during the Nazi era. PMID:15279006

  19. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  20. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  1. A Partnership Raises Healthier Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Rick; Banks, Patti; Eyres, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A school district in western Washington commits to developing physically fit and healthy students, not only as a means of enhancing learning but as a whole child goal in its own right. This is a report on how it does so in partnership with its community, believing that it is only through such a partnership that it can reach its goals. The central…

  2. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  3. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Mixed-effects logistic regression models test associations of school and family socioeconomic status (SES) with smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Higher family SES was associated with healthier behaviors, except in relation to alcohol consumption. For all behaviors except physical activity, school-level SES was independently associated with healthier behaviors. In higher SES schools, a stronger association of family SES with health behavior was observed, particularly in relation to smoking and physical activity. Conclusions School and family SES may exert independent and combined influences upon adolescent health behaviors. Targeting interventions toward deprived schools may fail to address substantial inequalities within more affluent schools. Targeting deprived families may fail to address behaviors of children from affluent families, attending more deprived schools. Identifying universal health improvement interventions which have greater effects among children from poorer backgrounds may be a more effective means of reducing inequalities. PMID:25731201

  4. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households. PMID:23039344

  5. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed. PMID:24999525

  6. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  7. Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, S

    1999-01-01

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented. PMID:12322180

  8. Learning, Misallocation, and Technology Adoption: Evidence from New Malaria Therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta

    2014-01-01

    I study how the misallocation of new technology to individuals who have low ex post returns to its use affects learning and adoption behavior. I focus on antimalarial treatment, which is frequently over-prescribed in many low-income country contexts where diagnostic tests are inaccessible. I show that misdiagnosis reduces average therapeutic effectiveness, because only a fraction of adopters actually have malaria, and slows the rate of social learning due to increased noise. I use data on adoption choices, the timing and duration of fever episodes, and individual blood slide confirmations of malarial status from a pilot study for a new malaria therapy in Tanzania to show that individuals whose reference groups experienced fewer misdiagnoses exhibited stronger learning effects and were more likely to adopt. PMID:25729112

  9. Outcomes of adoption of adult laboratory ferrets after gonadectomy during a veterinary student teaching exercise.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2007-07-01

    We surveyed 27 people who had adopted a total of 43 adult domestic ferrets after their use in a series of veterinary student surgery teaching laboratories to assess the success of those adoptions and to determine the rate of occurrence of common maladies of domestic ferrets after adult gonadectomy as compared with the usual practice of early-age gonadectomy. The adoptions took place 1-7 y prior to the survey. The response rate was 48% of adopters, covering 53% of the ferrets. Overall the success of former breeding and instructional ferrets as pets were rated as 91% good or excellent and 4.5% poor. Behavioral issues (for example, nipping, failure to litter train) were noted as the most common problems (36% of ferrets). Adrenal gland disease, insulinoma, or lymphosarcoma occurred in 23% of all ferrets and accounted for 57% of those ferrets that had died prior to the time of the survey. PMID:17645296

  10. Overcoming barriers to physician adoption of EHRs.

    PubMed

    Hochron, Stuart M; Goldberg, Paul

    2014-02-01

    A hospital's success in implementing an electronic health record will depend largely on physicians' willingness to adopt the new technology. Therefore, before embarking on such an initiative, finance leaders should conduct a targeted survey to assess the likelihood that the initiative will meet with physician resistance. The survey results can provide a basis for developing an outreach program that will bring physicians on board by helping them understand the initiative's purpose and giving them a stake in its success. PMID:24611225

  11. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  12. [Caregiver Stress in Foster and Adoptive Parents of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver Stress in Foster and Adoptive Parents of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Foster and adoptive parents of 71 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) report on developmental and behavioral characteristics, family stress, coping resources and their satisfaction with support. The data reveal an elevated rate of social and emotional problems in the children. In spite positive individual and social resources, the foster and adoptive parents feel a high level of caregiver stress. 30 % of them rate the support they receive from pediatric, therapeutic or educational services as lower than expected. Specifically, they miss early information on the diagnosis, professional knowledge and support for the special challenges of education and managing behavioral problems in their collaboration with social support agencies. PMID:25524036

  13. Predictors of relationship dissolution in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi

    2015-06-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a noninfant (i.e., older child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, 3 months postadoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low or very high preadoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053348

  14. ADULT EDUCATION AND THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLERD, FRANK W.; VERNER, COOLIE

    THIS STUDY ANALYZED THE GENERAL BEHAVIOR OF ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS IN THIS SETTING. FIVE PERCENT SAMPLES WERE DRAWN FROM 19 DISTRICTS CONSISTING OF 2,721 ORCHARDS, AND DATA WERE GATHERED BY RESIDENT AGRICULTURISTS. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED BY STAGE IN THE ADOPTION…

  15. Stress and Stress Management in Families with Adopted Children Who Have Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todis, Bonnie; Singer, George

    1991-01-01

    The study, using qualitative research methods with six families with severely or multiply disabled adopted children, found that interactions with school, medical, and other personnel were extremely stressful for all families, as were medical crises, difficulties in accessing appropriate services, and adolescents' behavior problems. Effective…

  16. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  17. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  18. Coparenting among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples: Associations with Adopted Children's Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…

  19. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Agricultural Practices; Kampong Bukit Kapar, Selangor, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesson, Lynn L.

    The focus of this study was to procure data about adoption behavior of Malaysian smallholders (farmers) that would be useful in the instructional program in extension education at the College of Agriculture, Malaysia. Students interviewed 76 persons in a rural village of two hundred families, all engaged in agriculture. The major sources of income…

  20. AIDS-related reasons for gay men's adoption of celibacy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, K; Raveis, V H

    1993-01-01

    Since it was first recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could be sexually transmitted, celibacy has been advocated by some as the only unequivocally effective adaptation for avoiding the risk of infection. Others, however, have countered that few will be willing to be celibate and, further, that such behavior may have adverse psychosocial consequences. As part of a qualitative study of gay men's sexual decision-making in the context of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, we identified a subsample of respondents who had adopted celibacy for varying periods of time as an adaptation to the threat of AIDS/HIV infection. A content analysis of these men's interviews revealed 5 principal themes relating their reasons for choosing celibacy. PMID:8297710