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Sample records for adopt strict energy

  1. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  2. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  3. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  4. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  5. Public Policy, Technology Adoption, and Aggregate Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, W.; Kopp, R.J.; Morgenstern, R.D.; Pizer, W.A.; Shih, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This research examines the factors that influence the adoption of new energy-saving technologies among U.S. manufacturing plants and explores their potential impact on aggregate energy efficiency. We conduct this analysis using two models: a conventional diffusion model and a stand-alone model of new technology adoption we develop in this paper. The latter model allows us to compute effects on aggregate efficiency based solely on adoption data.

  6. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  7. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  8. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  9. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  10. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Accelerating Adoption of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The DOE/EERE Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) increases awareness and accelerates adoption of practices and technologies that cost-effectively increase energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy, and oil displacement.

  11. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  12. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  13. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern Californiamore » residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.« less

  14. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern California residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.

  15. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  16. Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.

  17. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  18. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  19. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  20. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  1. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  2. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  3. Sixty-five: Communication and the Adoption of Energy Conservation Measures by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    To determine the relationship of various forms of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners, and to compare the energy conserving behavior of those under 65 with those over 65, a three-year panel study was conducted in a Midwest suburban community. Heads of households who owned single family dwellings were…

  4. Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of the energy and water conservation standards that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010. The standards covered include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. We estimate that energy efficiency standards for consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010 saved 3.0 quads in 2010, have had a cumulative energy savings of 25.9 quads through 2010 and will achieve cumulative energy savings of 158 quads over the period 1990-2070. Thus, the majority of the savings are still to come as products subject to standards enter the stock. Furthermore, the standards will have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $851 billion and $1,103 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. In addition, we estimate the water conservation standards, together with those energy conservation standards that also save water, saved residential consumers 1.5 trillion gallons of water in 2010, have had cumulative water savings of 11.7 trillion gallons through 2010, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 51.4 trillion gallons.

  6. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  7. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  8. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter; Price, Sarah

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  9. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  10. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  11. The Strict-Weak Lattice Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Ivan; Seppäläinen, Timo; Shen, Hao

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the strict-weak polymer model, and show the KPZ universality of the free energy fluctuation of this model for a certain range of parameters. Our proof relies on the observation that the discrete time geometric -TASEP model, studied earlier by Borodin and Corwin, scales to this polymer model in the limit . This allows us to exploit the exact results for geometric -TASEP to derive a Fredholm determinant formula for the strict-weak polymer, and in turn perform rigorous asymptotic analysis to show KPZ scaling and GUE Tracy-Widom limit for the free energy fluctuations. We also derive moments formulae for the polymer partition function directly by Bethe ansatz, and identify the limit of the free energy using a stationary version of the polymer model.

  12. Evaluating the benefits of commercial building energy codes and improving federal incentives for code adoption.

    PubMed

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2014-12-16

    The federal government has the goal of decreasing commercial building energy consumption and pollutant emissions by incentivizing the adoption of commercial building energy codes. Quantitative estimates of code benefits at the state level that can inform the size and allocation of these incentives are not available. We estimate the state-level climate, environmental, and health benefits (i.e., social benefits) and reductions in energy bills (private benefits) of a more stringent code (ASHRAE 90.1-2010) relative to a baseline code (ASHRAE 90.1-2007). We find that reductions in site energy use intensity range from 93 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (California) to 270 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (North Dakota). Total annual benefits from more stringent codes total $506 million for all states, where $372 million are from reductions in energy bills, and $134 million are from social benefits. These total benefits range from $0.6 million in Wyoming to $49 million in Texas. Private benefits range from $0.38 per square meter in Washington State to $1.06 per square meter in New Hampshire. Social benefits range from $0.2 per square meter annually in California to $2.5 per square meter in Ohio. Reductions in human/environmental damages and future climate damages account for nearly equal shares of social benefits.

  13. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  14. Evaluation of Energy Policy Instruments for the Adoption of Renewable Energy: Case of Wind Energy in the Pacific Northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abotah, Remal

    The wide use of renewable energy technologies for generating electricity can be seen as one way of meeting environmental and climate change challenges along with a progression to a low-carbon economy. A large number of policy instruments have been formed and employed to support the adoption of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector. However, the success of these policies in achieving their goals relies on how effective they are in satisfying their targets and thus increasing renewable energy adoption. One measurement for effectiveness of policy instruments can be their contribution to the input of the process of renewable energy adoption and their effect on satisfying regional goal. The objective of this research is evaluate the effectiveness of energy policy instruments on increasing the adoption of renewable energy by developing a comprehensive evaluation model. Criteria used in this assessment depend on five perspectives that are perceived by decision makers as important for adoption process. The decision model linked the perspectives to policy targets and various energy policy instruments. These perspectives are: economic, social, political, environmental and technical. The research implemented the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized policy assessment framework. Data for wind energy adoption in the Pacific Northwest region were collected as a case study and application for the model. Experts' qualitative judgments were collected and quantified using the pair-wise comparison method and the final rankings and effectiveness of policy alternatives with respect to the mission were identified. Results of this research identified economic feasibility improvement of renewable energy projects as the most influential perspective and that renewable portfolio standards and tax credits are the two most effective criteria to accomplish that. The research also applied sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis to identify the

  15. Nonlinear models for the adoption and diffusion of innovations for industrial energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Joseph J; Guastello, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Four different theoretical models for explaining the diffusion of innovation were compared for 13 energy-related innovations--the Theory of Planned Behavior, the S-curve for Diffusion of Innovations, the power law distribution, and the cusp catastrophe. The substantive concern was to explore the roles of facilitative and obstructive factors in diffusing industrial and commercial innovations. Participants were 102 industrial plant and facilities managers from sites that were among the top users of electrical energy and natural gas in the United States. They completed a survey that contained measurements of positive attitudes toward innovation, organizational resistance to innovation, and the extent to which they had investigated or adopted each of the target innovations. Seven of the 13 innovations exhibited strong cusp catastrophe models (via nonlinear regression, average R2 = .91) compared to linear alternative models (average R2 = .31) for those innovations; the S-curve for diffusion was regarded as a simplified version of the cusp. One innovation was characterized best by a power law distribution (R2 = .94), and the remaining five were characterized best by a linear model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (R2 = .41). Different underlying dynamics for the various innovations were implied by these results.

  16. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This report describes a Berkeley Lab effort to model the economics and operation of small-scale (<500 kW) on-site electricity generators based on real-world installations at several example customer sites. This work builds upon the previous development of the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment, and idealized operating schedule, that would minimize the site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a historic test period, usually a recent year. This study offered the first opportunity to apply DER-CAM in a real-world setting and evaluate its modeling results. DER-CAM has three possible applications: first, it can be used to guide choices of equipment at specific sites, or provide general solutions for example sites and propose good choices for sites with similar circumstances; second, it can additionally provide the basis for the operations of installed on-site generation; and third, it can be used to assess the market potential of technologies by anticipating which kinds of customers might find various technologies attractive. A list of approximately 90 DER candidate sites was compiled and each site's DER characteristics and their willingness to volunteer information was assessed, producing detailed information on about 15 sites of which five sites were analyzed in depth. The five sites were not intended to provide a random sample, rather they were chosen to provide some diversity of business activity, geography, and technology. More importantly, they were chosen in the hope of finding examples of true business decisions made based on somewhat sophisticated analyses, and pilot or demonstration projects were avoided. Information on the benefits and pitfalls of implementing a DER system was also presented from an additional ten sites including agriculture, education, health

  17. Innovation information seeking and innovation adoption: Facilities and plant managers' energy outlook comparing linear to nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Joseph J.

    One focal point of concern, policy and a new research will involve identifying individual and organizational facilitative and obstructive factors within the context of energy innovation diffusion in the U.S. This interdisciplinary intersection of people, technology and change is one of serious consequence and has broad implications that span national security, energy infrastructure, the economy, organizational change, education and the environment. This study investigates facilities and plant managers' energy innovation information seeking and energy adoption evolution. The participants are managers who consume more electrical energy than all other groups in the world and are among the top users of natural gas and oil in the United States. The research calls upon the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Diffusion of Innovations and nonlinear dynamics in a study of adoption patterns for 13 energy-related innovations. Cusp catastrophe models and power laws were compared to linear multiple regression to examine and characterize data. Findings reveal that innovation adoption and information seeking differences are slight between private and public sector facilities and plant managers and that the group as a whole may resist change. Of the 13 innovations, some exhibit very strong cusp catastrophe distributions while support for multiple linear regression and the power law were found.

  18. Use of Energy-Efficient Technologies: U.S. Marine Corps Perceptions to Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    the opinion makers from an influence campaign. The elite adopts an innovation and communicates it throughout their personal network, which spurs ...of the game is direct, the technology or product is a representation. In both focus groups Marines gave examples of using gear they had previously...on Marines. In both focus groups, examples of Marines using a certain piece of gear were based on the gear used in Call of Duty. The comments seem to

  19. Key Drivers of Marines Willingness to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    warrant officer 2 DoI diffusion of innovations DON Department of the Navy E2O Expeditionary Energy Office FMF fleet marine force GCSS ground...more energy -efficient. • “Expeditionary forces can reduce their logistical requirement if energy - efficient technologies are implemented ” • “It...Same thing with solar power. If solar power was so much better than electricity in terms of efficiency and cost why haven’t people jumped on it

  20. Can economic incentives enhance adoption and use of a household energy technology? Evidence from a pilot study in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, Faraz; Steele, Jason; Jeuland, Marc

    2017-03-01

    While much work has examined approaches to increase uptake of a variety of household environmental, health and energy technologies, researchers and policymakers alike have struggled to ensure long-term use. Drawing on a pilot-scale experiment conducted in rural Cambodia, this study evaluates whether economic incentives enhance continued use of—and fuel savings from—improved cookstoves (ICS). Capital-cost subsidies that have been traditionally employed to enhance ICS adoption were augmented with rebates linked to stated and objectively measured use in order to investigate impacts on both initial and sustained adoption in the treatment group. Results show that households do respond to these rebates by adopting the intervention ICS at significantly higher rates, and by using it more frequently and for longer periods. Consistent with these stove-use patterns, solid-fuel use and time spent collecting or preparing fuels also decline. However, this effect appears to diminish over time. Thus, while economic inducements may significantly increase adoption and use of new environmental health technologies, corresponding reductions in environmental or livelihood burdens are not guaranteed. Additional research on the design and implementation of incentive-based interventions targeting households directly—such as carbon financing or other forms of results-based financing (RBF) for improved cookstoves—therefore seems warranted prior to wider implementation of such solutions.

  1. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    2012-01-01

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  3. Adopting a Long View to Energy R&D and Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Doley; P.J. Runci

    1999-08-09

    This report presents the results of an assessment of a test installation of two similar sulfur lamp, or S-lamp lighting systems, with hollow-light guide distribution. The S-lamp, developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc. with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technology, Community and State Programs (BTS), was demonstrated as a prototype for the first time in 1994. The S-lamp embodies a new, microwave-powered, electrodeless technology that offers improved energy efficiency and color rendition compared with most available sources. The purpose of this assessment is to provide important information to all of those involved regarding the effectiveness and future applicability of this technology in a postal sorting setting.

  4. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model Plus (DER-CAM+), Version 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardorso, Goncalo; Mashayekh, Salman; DeForest, Nicholas

    2016-03-24

    DER-CAM+ v1.0.0 is internally referred to as DER-CAM v5.0.0. Due to fundamental changes from previous versions, a new name (DER-CAM+) will be used for DER-CAM version 5.0.0 and above. DER-CAM+ is a Decision Support Tool for Decentralized Energy Systems that has been tailored for microgrid applications, and now explicitly considers electrical and thermal networks within a microgrid, ancillary services, and operating reserve. DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet energy loads of a building or microgrid for a typical test year. The previous versions of DER-CAM were formulated without modeling the electrical/thermal networks within the microgrid, and hence, used aggregate single-node approaches. Furthermore, they were not able to consider operating reserve constraints, and microgrid revenue streams from participating in ancillary services markets. This new version DER-CAM+ considers these issues by including electrical power flow and thermal flow equations and constraints in the microgrid, revenues from various ancillary services markets, and operating reserve constraints.

  5. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  8. Consumer-behavorial analysis of alternate-energy adoption: the case of geothermal energy in New Mexico. Final report, 6/1/80-8/1/81

    SciTech Connect

    McDevitt, P.; Pratt, E.; Michie, D.

    1981-08-01

    The overall objectives of the research described here are the determination of the market penetration prospects of geothermal energy in New Mexico and the identification of the key determinants of geothermal adoption by prospective consumers. The resources considered are intermediate temperature (65/sup 0/C less than or equal to T less than or equal to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal resources, and the applications examined are direct (non-electric) uses. In order to achieve the overall research objectives, four specific work tasks were undertaken: the design of a marketing research instrument for investigating prospects for the market penetration of geothermal energy; the implementation of the marketing research instrument through a pilot study of adoption behavior of prospective consumers of geothermal energy in the state of New Mexico; the identification and evaluation of market considerations which will affect the commercialization of direct geothermal applications within the state; and the design of a comprehensive marketing program to maximize the commercialization of geothermal energy in New Mexico.

  9. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-03-28

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours.

  10. Strictly nonclassical behavior of a mesoscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Vendeiro, Zachary; Chen, Wenlan; Zhang, Hao; McConnell, Robert; Sørensen, Anders S.; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the strictly nonclassical behavior in a many-atom system using a recently derived criterion [E. Kot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.233601] that explicitly does not make use of quantum mechanics. We thereby show that the magnetic-moment distribution measured by McConnell et al. [Nature (London) 519, 439 (2015), 10.1038/nature14293] in a system with a total mass of 2.6 ×105 atomic mass units is inconsistent with classical physics. Notably, the strictly nonclassical behavior affects an area in phase space 103 times larger than the Planck quantum ℏ .

  11. Strictly positive real transfer functions revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Leal, Rogelio; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1990-01-01

    The two most commonly used definitions of strictly positive real (SPR) transfer functions are reviewed. Contrary to what has been suggested in the literature, it is proven that the least restrictive (weak) definition of the two is clearly related to the Yacubovich-Kalman lemma. The relationship between time- and frequency-domain conditions pertaining to the weak definition of SPR systems is established.

  12. Strictly Subversive: Films of False Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines two recent films--"Scent of a Woman" and "Strictly Ballroom"--that project stereotypical negative portrayals of educational institutions and their limited capacity for reform. Both films bring their audiences to view educational institutions as worthy of destruction and, by focusing on "quick fixes," fail to address the difficulties of…

  13. Uniformly convex and strictly convex Orlicz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masta, Al Azhary

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we define the new norm of Orlicz spaces on ℝn through a multiplication operator on an old Orlicz spaces. We obtain some necessary and sufficient conditions that the new norm to be a uniformly convex and strictly convex spaces.

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  15. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  16. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  17. Quantum mechanical models with strictly ergodic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavi, Rajinder

    We study quantum Hamiltonians with potentials defined by strictly ergodic dynamical systems. Our interest here are models where physical properties are understood in some regimes of disorder and the extent to which they vary in alternate regimes of disorder. For Schrodinger operators we show properties known to hold in the case of analytic potentials on the torus hold even for rough potentials only required to be Holder continuous. Specifically in this case we show, assuming a positive Lyapunov exponent, dynamical localization properties hold; as well as continuity of the measure of the spectrum for all rotations. For the quantum Ising model we show for phase structure that occur in the random regime, there are similar conditions for existence under the assumption of strictly ergodic dynamics. That is, moment conditions for random disorder are paralleled by conditions on the sampling functions in deterministic disorder. We obtain conditions for existence of phase transitions given any strictly egodically defined disorder. In addition, a new multiscale analysis method is developed to show the existence of stretched exponential decay in the random cluster model generalization of the quantum Ising model where only slower decay was obainable by previous methods.

  18. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  3. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  4. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992]...

  6. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992]...

  7. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  8. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  9. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  10. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  11. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  12. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  13. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  14. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  15. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  16. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  17. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  18. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  19. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  20. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  1. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  3. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  4. Rethinking Diffusion Theory in an Applied Context: Role of Environmental Values in Adoption of Home Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…

  5. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 ' = -190 mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 ' = -320 mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A. woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 ' ≈ -500 mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate + Fd(2-)  + 2 NAD(+)  → pyruvate + Fd + 2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( Δ μ ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes.

  6. Practice of strict glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Marcus J; de Graaff, Mart J; Royakkers, Annic A N M; van Braam Houckgeest, Floris; van der Sluijs, Johannes P; Kieft, Hans; Spronk, Peter E

    2008-11-01

    Blood glucose control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as "strict glycemic control", decreases mortality and morbidity of critically ill patients. We searched the medical literature for export opinions, surveys, and clinical reports on blood glucose control in intensive care medicine. While strict glycemic control has been recommended standard of care for critically ill patients, the risk of severe hypoglycemia with strict glycemic control is frequently mentioned by experts. Some rationalize this risk, though others strongly point out the high incidence of hypoglycemia to be (one) reason not to perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete in intensive care units across the world. Frequently local guidelines accept higher blood glucose levels than those with strict glycemic control. Only a minority of retrieved manuscripts are on blood glucose regimens with the lower targets as with strict glycemic control. Hypoglycemia certainly is encountered with blood glucose control, in particular with strict glycemic control. Reports show intensive care-nurses can adequately and safely perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete, at least in part because of the feared risks of hypoglycemia. The preference for hyperglycemia over intermittent hypoglycemia is irrational, however, because there is causal evidence of harm for the former but only associative evidence of harm for the latter. For several reasons it is wise to have strict glycemic control being a nurse-based strategy.

  7. Mammalian Evolution May not Be Strictly Bifurcating

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Björn M.; Janke, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1–4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100–80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation. PMID:20591845

  8. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology as well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.

  9. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  10. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  11. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  12. Potential of anaerobic digestion for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and production of renewable energy from agriculture: barriers and incentives to widespread adoption in Europe.

    PubMed

    Banks, C J; Salter, A M; Chesshire, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the role of anaerobic digestion in promoting good agricultural practice on farms and the contribution this would make to reducing the environmental impacts associated with manure management. There are no regulatory drivers to promote the use of digestion in Europe, and the technology has only been widely adopted where economic drivers and coherent policies have been implemented at a national level. These measures have included direct subsidy on the energy price paid for "green electricity", and exemption of tax when biogas is used as a vehicle fuel. In those countries where financial incentives are not available or where a financial penalty is incurred through the regulatory regime, the uptake of digestion has been poor. Even with subsidies, digestion of animal manures as a single substrate is not common, and countries with successful schemes have achieved this either by permitting the import of wastes onto the farm or offering bonus subsidies for the use of energy crops. Both of these measures improve the energy efficiency of the process by increasing the volumetric methane production, although concerns are expressed that attention could concentrate on energy production at the expense of improving manure management.

  13. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  14. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  15. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  17. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  19. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  20. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  1. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  3. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  4. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  5. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  6. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  7. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  8. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  9. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  10. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  11. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  12. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  13. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  14. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  15. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  16. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  18. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  19. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  20. Strictly finite-range potential for light and heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, P.; Lovas, R. G.; Betan, R. M. Id; Vertse, T.; Balkay, L.

    2014-05-01

    Strictly finite-range (SFR) potentials are exactly zero beyond their finite range. Single-particle energies and densities, as well as S-matrix pole trajectories, are studied in a few SFR potentials suited for the description of neutrons interacting with light and heavy nuclei. The SFR potentials considered are the standard cutoff Woods-Saxon (CWS) potentials and two potentials approaching zero smoothly: the SV potential introduced by Salamon and Vertse [Phys. Rev. C 77, 037302 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.037302] and the SS potential of Sahu and Sahu [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 21, 1250067 (2012), 10.1142/S021830131250067X]. The parameters of these latter potentials were set so that the potentials may be similar to the CWS shape. The range of the SV and SS potentials scales with the cube root of the mass number of the core like the nuclear radius itself. For light nuclei a single term of the SV potential (with a single parameter) is enough for a good description of the neutron-nucleus interaction. The trajectories are compared with a benchmark for which the starting points (belonging to potential depth zero) can be determined independently. Even the CWS potential is found to conform to this benchmark if the range is identified with the cutoff radius. For the CWS potentials some trajectories show irregular shapes, while for the SV and SS potentials all trajectories behave regularly.

  1. Adopting a Water-Food-Energy nexus approach to explore the synergies and trade-offs of food-water policies in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Lechon, Yolanda; de la Rúa, Cristina; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Spain is a semi-arid country and faces a strong competition over scarce water resources by the different sectors. Agriculture is the largest water consumer and because of this it is often at the core of much of the disputes over water. Several policy measures have been implemented in the course of the last decades to ameliorate water scarcity problems. The irrigation modernization plan is probably one of the most ambitious plans implemented so far (with a total investment of nearly 3,800 mill € involving the modernization of over 1 million irrigated ha), and was developed with the double aim of increasing the efficiency of agricultural water use and strength the resilience and competitiveness of the Spanish irrigation sector. In this research we examine the implications of the irrigation modernization plan by adopting a nexus approach. In particular we assess the trends in water, land and energy footprints associated to agriculture during the period 2000-2011 to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. Likewise, we used a life cycle analysis approach to assess the implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Our results show that the land footprint of irrigated agriculture has increased 2% (from 3.4 mill ha in 2000 to 3,6 mill ha in 2011). Meanwhile, the water footprint of irrigated agriculture has decreased by 8% (from 17,078 hm3 in 2000 to 15,573 hm3 in 2011). Beyond the net water savings, there has been a major shift in the composition of the water footprint. In the year 2000, 77% of the blue agricultural water footprint was linked to surface water, while in the year 2011 over 55% of the water consumed by agriculture is groundwater. The modernization of irrigation technologies alongside with the shift from a predominantly surface water footprint to groundwater has boosted the energy footprint of irrigation by 56% (2442 GWh in 2000 to 3803 GWh in 2011). This rise in the energy bill has meant an increase of 9% in the GHG emissions. Yet, this GHG

  2. Strictly Positive Definite Kernels on a Product of Spheres II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guella, Jean C.; Menegatto, Valdir A.; Peron, Ana P.

    2016-10-01

    We present, among other things, a necessary and sufficient condition for the strict positive definiteness of an isotropic and positive definite kernel on the cartesian product of a circle and a higher dimensional sphere. The result complements similar results previously obtained for strict positive definiteness on a product of circles [Positivity, to appear, arXiv:1505.01169] and on a product of high dimensional spheres [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 435 (2016), 286-301, arXiv:1505.03695].

  3. On Languages Piecewise Testable in the Strict Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, James; Heinz, Jeffrey; Bailey, Gil; Edlefsen, Matt; Visscher, Molly; Wellcome, David; Wibel, Sean

    In this paper we explore the class of Strictly Piecewise languages, originally introduced to characterize long-distance phonotactic patterns by Heinz [7] as the Precedence Languages. We provide a series of equivalent abstract characterizations, discuss their basic properties, locate them relative to other well-known subregular classes and provide algorithms for translating between the grammars defined here and finite state automata as well as an algorithm for deciding whether a regular language is Strictly Piecewise.

  4. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  5. Head-Strictness is Not a Monotonic Abstract Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamin, Samuel

    1991-01-01

    A property P of a language is said to be definable by abstract interpretation if there is a monotonic map abs from the domain of standard semantics to an abstract domain A of finite height, and a partition of the abstract domain into two parts A(sub p) and A(sub non p), such that any value has property P if and only if abs maps it to an element of A(sub p). Head-strictness is a property of functions over lists which asserts, roughly speaking, that whenever the function looks at the tail of a list, it looks at the head of the tail. We prove that head-strictness is not definable by abstract interpretation. We then present a non-monotonic abstract interpretation for head-strictness and prove its safety.

  6. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  7. The Existence Problem for Steiner Networks in Strictly Convex Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    We consider the existence problem for `Steiner networks' (trivalent graphs with 2 π/3 angles at each junction) in strictly convex domains, with `Neumann' boundary conditions. For each of the three possible combinatorial possibilities, sufficient conditions on the domain are derived for existence. In addition, in each case explicit examples of nonexistence are given.

  8. Strict parabolicity of the multifractal spectrum at the Anderson transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Using the well-known "algebra of multifractality," we derive the functional equation for anomalous dimensions Δ q , whose solution Δ = χ q( q-1) corresponds to strict parabolicity of the multifractal spectrum. This result demonstrates clearly that a correspondence of the nonlinear σ-models with the initial disordered systems is not exact.

  9. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Imposition of strict liability. 29.7 Section 29.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE...) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321(p)), and...

  10. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed.

  11. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  12. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  13. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  14. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  15. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  16. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414... Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Low Middling Color and Strict Low Middling Spotted Color....

  17. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  18. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  2. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  3. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  4. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  5. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Corda, Christian

    2013-10-15

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle.

  6. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  7. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  9. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  11. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  12. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  13. A strictly Markovian expansion for plasma turbulence theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The collision operator that appears in the equation of motion for a particle distribution function that has been averaged over an ensemble of random Hamiltonians is non-Markovian. It is non-Markovian in that it involves a propagated integral over the past history of the ensemble averaged distribution function. All formal expansions of this nonlinear collision operator to date preserve this non-Markovian character term by term yielding an integro-differential equation that must be converted to a diffusion equation by an additional approximation. In this note we derive an expansion of the collision operator that is strictly Markovian to any finite order and yields a diffusion equation as the lowest non-trivial order. The validity of this expansion is seen to be the same as that of the standard quasi-linear expansion.

  14. A strictly Markovian expansion for plasma turbulence theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    The collision operator that appears in the equation of motion for a particle distribution function that was averaged over an ensemble of random Hamiltonians is non-Markovian. It is non-Markovian in that it involves a propagated integral over the past history of the ensemble averaged distribution function. All formal expansions of this nonlinear collision operator to date preserve this non-Markovian character term by term yielding an integro-differential equation that must be converted to a diffusion equation by an additional approximation. An expansion is derived for the collision operator that is strictly Markovian to any finite order and yields a diffusion equation as the lowest nontrivial order. The validity of this expansion is seen to be the same as that of the standard quasilinear expansion.

  15. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  16. Food allergy: is strict avoidance the only answer?

    PubMed

    Allen, C W; Campbell, D E; Kemp, A S

    2009-08-01

    It is an immunological paradigm that avoidance of food allergen may reduce the risk or prevent immunological reactions and conversely that a greater exposure increases the magnitude of the immune response. Consequently, food allergen avoidance has been recommended to reduce the risk of sensitization in infants and to prevent clinical reactions in children with positive skin prick tests (SPT). In the latter setting, it is hoped that avoidance may either promote or at least not retard the development of tolerance. Animal studies, however, have demonstrated that tolerance to food allergens may be induced by either large (high zone tolerance) or small (low zone tolerance) doses, whereas doses in between may actually stimulate immune responses. In this review, we discuss whether strict allergen avoidance is always the most appropriate strategy for preventing or managing IgE-mediated food allergy.

  17. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  18. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  19. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  20. Increasing awareness among fluid milk processors of the economic feasibility of energy efficiency projects, and encouraging their adoption through access to benchmarking and other decision-support tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a study done by Thoma et al. (2010) the energy used in fluid milk processing in the United States of America is responsible for approximately 2 million metric tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the total life cycle of milk. These emissions come from electricity use (about 75 perc...

  1. Family Structure, Parental Strictness, and Sexual Behavior among Inner-City Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Jemmott, John B., III

    1992-01-01

    Family structure, parental strictness, and sexual behavior were examined among black male adolescents (n=200). Those living with both parents used condoms more frequently. Those who believed that their mothers were more strict than others reported less frequent coitus with fewer women, while those perceiving their father to be more strict used…

  2. Hydrogen evolution by strictly aerobic hydrogen bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, M; Steinbüchel, A; Schlegel, H G

    1984-08-01

    When strains and mutants of the strictly aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus are grown heterotrophically on gluconate or fructose and are subsequently exposed to anaerobic conditions in the presence of the organic substrates, molecular hydrogen is evolved. Hydrogen evolution started immediately after the suspension was flushed with nitrogen, reached maximum rates of 70 to 100 mumol of H2 per h per g of protein, and continued with slowly decreasing rates for at least 18 h. The addition of oxygen to an H2-evolving culture, as well as the addition of nitrate to cells (which had formed the dissimilatory nitrate reductase system during the preceding growth), caused immediate cessation of hydrogen evolution. Formate is not the source of H2 evolution. The rates of H2 evolution with formate as the substrate were lower than those with gluconate. The formate hydrogenlyase system was not detectable in intact cells or crude cell extracts. Rather the cytoplasmic, NAD-reducing hydrogenase is involved by catalyzing the release of excessive reducing equivalents under anaerobic conditions in the absence of suitable electron acceptors. This conclusion is based on the following experimental results. H2 is formed only by cells which had synthesized the hydrogenases during growth. Mutants lacking the membrane-bound hydrogenase were still able to evolve H2. Mutants lacking the NAD-reducing or both hydrogenases were unable to evolve H2.

  3. Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis).

    PubMed

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P

    1998-01-01

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anaerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

  4. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  5. Parallel transmission RF pulse design with strict temperature constraints.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Cem M; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher

    2017-02-10

    RF safety in parallel transmission (pTx) is generally ensured by imposing specific absorption rate (SAR) limits during pTx RF pulse design. There is increasing interest in using temperature to ensure safety in MRI. In this work, we present a local temperature correlation matrix formalism and apply it to impose strict constraints on maximum absolute temperature in pTx RF pulse design for head and hip regions. Electromagnetic field simulations were performed on the head and hip of virtual body models. Temperature correlation matrices were calculated for four different exposure durations ranging between 6 and 24 min using simulated fields and body-specific constants. Parallel transmission RF pulses were designed using either SAR or temperature constraints, and compared with each other and unconstrained RF pulse design in terms of excitation fidelity and safety. The use of temperature correlation matrices resulted in better excitation fidelity compared with the use of SAR in parallel transmission RF pulse design (for the 6 min exposure period, 8.8% versus 21.0% for the head and 28.0% versus 32.2% for the hip region). As RF exposure duration increases (from 6 min to 24 min), the benefit of using temperature correlation matrices on RF pulse design diminishes. However, the safety of the subject is always guaranteed (the maximum temperature was equal to 39°C). This trend was observed in both head and hip regions, where the perfusion rates are very different.

  6. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  7. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  8. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    PubMed

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  9. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  10. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  11. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  12. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  13. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  14. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  15. Discrete-time H(infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Chen, Ben M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback. The authors derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a strictly proper compensator which achieves a given H(sub infinity) norm bound. Note that contrary to the continuous time, in discrete time there might exist a suitable proper compensator but no suitable strictly proper compensator. Finally, they give an explicit formula for one controller which achieves this bound.

  16. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  17. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  18. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  19. Computational dynamics for robotics systems using a non-strict computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orin, David E.; Wong, Ho-Cheung; Sadayappan, P.

    1989-01-01

    A Non-Strict computational approach for real-time robotics control computations is proposed. In contrast to the traditional approach to scheduling such computations, based strictly on task dependence relations, the proposed approach relaxes precedence constraints and scheduling is guided instead by the relative sensitivity of the outputs with respect to the various paths in the task graph. An example of the computation of the Inverse Dynamics of a simple inverted pendulum is used to demonstrate the reduction in effective computational latency through use of the Non-Strict approach. A speedup of 5 has been obtained when the processes of the task graph are scheduled to reduce the latency along the crucial path of the computation. While error is introduced by the relaxation of precedence constraints, the Non-Strict approach has a smaller error than the conventional Strict approach for a wide range of input conditions.

  20. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  1. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  2. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  3. Elemental sulfur and acetate can support life of a novel strictly anaerobic haloarchaeon

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kublanov, Ilya V; Gavrilov, Sergei N; Rojo, David; Roman, Pawel; Golyshin, Peter N; Slepak, Vladlen Z; Smedile, Francesco; Ferrer, Manuel; Messina, Enzo; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M

    2016-01-01

    Archaea domain is comprised of many versatile taxa that often colonize extreme habitats. Here, we report the discovery of strictly anaerobic extremely halophilic euryarchaeon, capable of obtaining energy by dissimilatory reduction of elemental sulfur using acetate as the only electron donor and forming sulfide and CO2 as the only products. This type of respiration has never been observed in hypersaline anoxic habitats and is the first example of such metabolic capability in the entire Archaea domain. We isolated and cultivated these unusual organisms, selecting one representative strain, HSR2, for detailed characterization. Our studies including physiological tests, genome sequencing, gene expression, metabolomics and [14C]-bicarbonate assimilation assays revealed that HSR2 oxidized acetate completely via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Anabolic assimilation of acetate occurred via activated glyoxylate bypass and anaplerotic carboxylation. HSR2 possessed sulfurtransferase and an array of membrane-bound polysulfide reductase genes, all of which were expressed during the growth. Our findings suggest the biogeochemical contribution of haloarchaea in hypersaline anoxic environments must be reconsidered. PMID:25978546

  4. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  5. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  6. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  7. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  8. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  9. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  10. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Used as External Acceptors of Electrons: an Energetic Advantage for Strictly Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD+/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

  11. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons.

  12. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  13. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  14. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  15. Brassicibacter mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from food industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Tan, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2012-12-01

    A novel mesophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain BM(T), was isolated from food industry wastewater. The cells were motile, non-spore-forming rods and stained Gram-negative. Growth of strain BM(T) was observed at 16-44 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-8% (optimum 1.5%, w/v). Strain BM(T) was chemo-organotrophic, using a few sugars and amino acids as sole carbon and energy sources. The fermentation products from peptone-yeast extract broth were propionate, formate, acetate, ethanol and isovalerate. Indole, NH(3) and H(2)S were produced from peptone. No respiratory quinones could be detected. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (39.3%), iso-C(15:0) dimethyl acetal (10.1%), anteiso-C(15:0) (7.6%), C(14:0) (6.1%) and C(16:0) (5.6%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and a number of unidentified aminoglycolipids, glycolipids and phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 28.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BM(T) was related to various genera of the family Clostridiaceae, and its closest relatives were Sporosalibacterium faouarense SOL3f37(T) (94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Proteiniborus ethanoligenes GW(T) (92.1%) and Clostridiisalibacter paucivorans 37HS60(T) (92.0%). In recognition of its distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, isolate BM(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of a new genus, Brassicibacter mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Brassicibacter mesophilus is BM(T) ( = JCM 16868(T)  = DSM 24659(T)).

  16. Strict blood pressure control associates with decreased mortality risk by APOL1 genotype.

    PubMed

    Ku, Elaine; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Appel, Lawrence J; Parsa, Afshin; Gassman, Jennifer; Glidden, David V; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Although APOL1 high-risk genotype partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of blacks to chronic kidney disease (CKD), whether APOL1 associates differentially with mortality risk remains controversial. Here we evaluate the association between APOL1 genotype and risk of death and determine whether APOL1 status modifies the association between strict versus usual blood pressure control and mortality risk. We performed a retrospective analysis of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial that randomized black participants with CKD to strict versus usual blood pressure control from 1995 to 2001. This included 682 participants with known APOL1 genotype (157 with high-risk genotype) previously assigned to either strict (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 92 mm Hg or less) versus usual blood pressure control (MAP 102-107 mm Hg) during the trial. During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, risk of death did not differ between individuals with high- versus low-risk APOL1 genotypes (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.33]). However, a significant interaction was detected between the APOL1 risk group and blood pressure control strategy. In the APOL1 high-risk group, the risk of death was 42% lower comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control (0.58 [0.35-0.97]). In the APOL1 low-risk group, the risk of death comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control was not significantly different (1.09 [0.84-1.43]). Thus, strict blood pressure control during CKD associates with a lower risk of death in blacks with the high-risk CKD APOL1 genotype. Knowledge of APOL1 status could inform selection of blood pressure treatment targets in black CKD patients.

  17. Strict dual-mode large-mode-area fiber with multicore structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenxing; Ren, Guobin; Jian, Wei; Jiang, Youchao; Wu, Yue; Yang, Yuguang; Shen, Ya; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new kind of quasi-37-cores fiber structure consisting of 15 conventional cores and 22 air-hole cores. Strict dual-mode condition is systematically analyzed about three structure parameters, core-to-core pitch, relative core diameter, and difference of refractive index between core and cladding. Large effective area about 1910.98 μm2 with low bending loss less than 10-3 dB / m is achieved while keeping strict dual-mode. This structured fiber has a great potential in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  18. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  19. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned: Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lessons learned from heritage adoption designs. A general overview of cover deployment hardware that includes the three mechanisms of latch, hinge, and energy absorbers are also discussed.

  20. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of the Effect Uniforms or Strict Dress Codes Have on Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Jackie Baker

    This study attempted to determine whether or not the teachers in a rural Georgia elementary school believed that a strict dress-code or student-uniform policy was needed to improve student behavior. A 20-item Likert Scale questionnaire was developed to measure teachers' feelings and/or beliefs concerning the students' dress code and effects on…

  2. A comparison of attitudes toward meat and animals among strict and semi-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have documented a phenomenon whereby individuals self-identify as vegetarians but then simultaneously acknowledge that they eat red meat, chicken, and/or fish. Despite being a consistent and fairly robust effect, there has been little attempt to explain these semi-vegetarians, why they would define themselves in a category whose membership criteria they violate, and ways they might differ from strict vegetarians. The present research highlights possible reasons for the discrepancy and focuses on several dimensions that may demarcate semi-from strict vegetarians: belief in human-animal similarity and liking of and disgust toward meat. Survey results indicated that semi-vegetarians (n=57) were less likely to dislike meat and to find meat disgusting than were strict vegetarians (n=157), even accounting for diet motives. There were no differences between the groups in their beliefs about human-animal similarity although semi-vegetarians who consumed a wider range of animal products perceived marginally less human-animal similarity than those who consumed only fish. The results suggest that semi-vegetarians are distinct from strict vegetarians primarily in their evaluation of and disgust toward meat, likely as a cause or consequence of their occasional consumption of animal flesh.

  3. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  4. She's Strict for a Good Reason: Highly Effective Teachers in Low-Performing Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Mary; Rivera, John; Durish, Dena; Hoff, Linda; Kawell, Susan; Pawlak, Pat; Hinman, Ivannia Soto; Straus, Laura; Veney, Cloetta

    2011-01-01

    A study of 31 high-performing teachers in low-performing urban schools found that these teachers had certain traits in common. They were strict; they taught in traditional, explicit ways; there was little time in their classrooms when instruction was not occurring; and they moved around the room helping their students. They used very few…

  5. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  6. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  7. Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    The Los Angeles Unified School District's Adopt-A-School Program is described as a program where a business or an industry sponsors a school. Some of the ways business and industry can help students are to provide role models, tutor students, give mini-course lectures, share hobbies, offer counseling, give club sponsorship, provide summer…

  8. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  9. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  10. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  11. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  12. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  13. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  14. Effect of iron limitation and fur gene inactivation on the transcriptional profile of the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Delyana; Janssen, Holger; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Bahl, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Iron is a nutrient of critical importance for the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, as it is involved in numerous basic cellular functions and metabolic pathways. A gene encoding a putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been identified in the genome of C. acetobutylicum. In this work, we inactivated the fur gene by using insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant showed a slow-growing phenotype and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, but essentially no dramatic change in its fermentation pattern. A unique feature of its physiology was the overflowing production of riboflavin. To gain further insights into the role of the Fur protein and the mechanisms for establishment of iron balance in C. acetobutylicum, we characterized and compared the gene-expression profile of the fur mutant and the iron-limitation stimulon of the parental strain. Not surprisingly, a repertoire of iron-transport systems was upregulated in both microarray datasets, suggesting that they are regulated by Fur according to the availability of iron. In addition, iron limitation and inactivation of fur affected the expression of several genes involved in energy metabolism. Among them, two genes, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase and a flavodoxin, were highly induced. In order to support the function of the latter, the ribDBAH operon responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis was also upregulated significantly. Furthermore, the iron-starvation response of C. acetobutylicum involved transcriptional modifications that were not detected in the fur mutant, suggesting that there exist additional mechanisms for adaptation to low-iron environments. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum senses and responds to availability of iron on multiple levels using a sophisticated system, and that Fur plays an important role in this process.

  15. Are all species of Pseudorhabdosynochus strictly host specific? A molecular study.

    PubMed

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2012-06-01

    Species of the diplectanid monogenean genus Pseudorhabdosynochus are strictly host-specific (specialist), with the exception of P. cyanopodus, which was reported in New Caledonia, South Pacific, from two host species, Epinephelus cyanopodus and E. chlorostigma. We sequenced the COI gene of both host fish species and of their monogeneans. Morphological identification and pairwise distances showed that the two fish species were distinct (difference 6.1-6.6%), but that their monogeneans were not (difference 0-1.5%). A morphological study of sclerotised parts showed that specimens of P. cyanopodus are similar in both fish. Most species of groupers and their associated Pseudorhabdosynochus species are from warm surface waters, but the two groupers E. cyanopodus and E. chlorostigma are usually caught in deep-sea on the outer slope of the coral reef. This suggests that acquisition of a less strict host specificity is an adaptation of P. cyanopodus to deep-sea hosts.

  16. Observers and output feedback stabilising controllers for nonlinear strict-feedback systems with sampled observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Hitoshi

    2016-02-01

    The design of observers and output feedback stabilising controllers for continuous-time strict-feedback systems with sampled observation is considered. First two types of observers are designed. One is a discrete-time semiglobal and practical reduced-order observer for the exact model and the other is a continuous-time semiglobal and practical full-order observer for continuous-time strict feedback systems with sampled observation. Then by combining the designed continuous-time observers and continuous-time state feedback laws that are continuous, zero at the origin, and uniformly globally asymptotically stabilise continuous-time systems, output feedback semiglobally practically uniformly asymptotically stabilising controllers are constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed design of observers and output feedback controllers.

  17. Strict management of a pregnant patient with giant coronary artery aneurysm due to Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kosuke; Ono, Hiroshi; Sato, Anna; Kinomoto, Satoko; Tagawa, Naomi; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Kato, Hitoshi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) may occur in Kawasaki disease (KD). Patients with giant CAA (diameter >8 mm), in particular, have higher risk of myocardial infarction. Previous reports have demonstrated the necessity of anticoagulation therapy in such cases. The management of patients with KD complicated by giant CAA later in life, however, remains controversial. Here, we describe the strict management in the case of a 28-year-old pregnant Japanese woman with KD with giant CAA (diameter, 11 mm). Instead of warfarin, the patient was given low-dose aspirin and i.v. unfractionated heparin during pregnancy to prevent thrombosis in the giant CAA. At 38 weeks of gestation, she had spontaneous delivery of a healthy baby. No thrombotic or bleeding complications were observed. The strict anticoagulation therapy resulted in successful pregnancy and delivery without any adverse events.

  18. A strictly improving Phase 1 algorithm using least-squares subproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Although the simplex method`s performance in solving linear programming problems is usually quite good, it does not guarantee strict improvement at each iteration on degenerate problems. Instead of trying to recognize and avoid degenerate steps in the simplex method, we have developed a new Phase I algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy, with strict improvement attained at each iteration. It is also noted that the new Phase I algorithm is closely related to a number of existing algorithms. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase I algorithm were almost 3.5 times faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was over 10 times faster.

  19. A strictly improving Phase 1 algorithm using least-squares subproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Although the simplex method's performance in solving linear programming problems is usually quite good, it does not guarantee strict improvement at each iteration on degenerate problems. Instead of trying to recognize and avoid degenerate steps in the simplex method, we have developed a new Phase I algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy, with strict improvement attained at each iteration. It is also noted that the new Phase I algorithm is closely related to a number of existing algorithms. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase I algorithm were almost 3.5 times faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was over 10 times faster.

  20. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  1. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America.

  2. Strict upper error bounds on computed outputs of interest in computational structural mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladevèze, Pierre

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces new strict error bounds of computed outputs of interest for time-dependent nonlinear problems in quasi-statics as well as in dynamics. All sources of errors, including modeling errors, are taken into account. Therefore, such error bounds are also suitable tools for analyzing various approximations, particularly in dynamics. Small-displacement problems without softening, such as (visco)plasticity problems, are included through the classical thermodynamics framework involving internal state variables; the material models are not necessarily standard.

  3. Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy for T1b Tumors: Strict Trifecta Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tufek, Ilter; Doganca, Tunkut; Obek, Can; Argun, Omer Burak; Tuna, Mustafa Bilal; Keskin, Mehmet Selcuk; Kural, Ali Rıza

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: “Trifecta” in partial nephrectomy consists of negative surgical margins, minimal renal function decrease and absence of complications. In the present article, our single-center robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) experience in T1b renal masses is reported in terms of strict Trifecta outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with a tumor diameter between 4 and 7 cm (stage T1b), who underwent RAPN by a single surgeon. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were recorded and analyzed to evaluate short-term functional and oncologic outcomes. Patients with absence of grade ≥ 2 Clavien-Dindo complications, warm ischemia time (WIT) ≤25 minutes, ≤15% postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease and negative surgical margins were reported to achieve strict Trifecta outcomes. P < .05 was indicated statistically significant. Results: A total of 150 patients underwent RAPN, and 50 patients were identified with tumor size between 4 and 7 cm. Mean WIT was 20.8 ± 6.2 minutes and mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 269 ± 191 mL. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. Eleven patients (22%) had a >15% eGFR decrease after surgery. Nine patients (18%) had WIT longer than 25 minutes. Four patients (8%) had grade ≥2 Clavien-Dindo complications. Twenty-nine (58%) patients had strict Trifecta outcomes. Mean follow-up was 44.2 ± 27.2 months. Tumor recurrence was not observed in any patient. Conclusions: Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for T1b renal masses can be safely performed in experienced hands. Optimal strict Trifecta outcomes and recurrence rates can be achieved. PMID:28352149

  4. Monotonic convergent optimal control theory with strict limitations on the spectrum of optimized laser fields.

    PubMed

    Gollub, Caroline; Kowalewski, Markus; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2008-08-15

    We present a modified optimal control scheme based on the Krotov method, which allows for strict limitations on the spectrum of the optimized laser fields. A frequency constraint is introduced and derived mathematically correct, without losing monotonic convergence of the algorithm. The method guarantees a close link to learning loop control experiments and is demonstrated for the challenging control of nonresonant Raman transitions, which are used to implement a set of global quantum gates for molecular vibrational qubits.

  5. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-11-20

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R {sub vir}, growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R {sub vir}. Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  6. Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure

    PubMed Central

    Powys, R; Robinson, J; Kench, P L; Ryan, J; Brennan, P C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is well accepted that collimation is a cost-effective dose-reducing tool for X-ray examinations. This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography. Methods A three-view series (occipitomental, occipitomental 30 and lateral) was investigated, and radiation doses to the lenses and thyroid were measured using an Unfors dosemeter. Images were assessed by six experienced observers using a visual grading analysis and a total of 5400 observations were made. Results Strict collimation significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid when using a fixed projection-specific exposure. With a variable exposure technique (fixed exit dose, to simulate the behaviour of an automatic exposure control), while strict collimation was again shown to reduce thyroid dose, higher lens doses were demonstrated when compared with larger fields of exposure. Image quality was found to significantly improve using strict collimation, with observer preference being demonstrated using visual grading characteristic curves. Conclusion The complexities of optimising radiographic techniques have been shown and the data presented emphasise the importance of examining dose-reducing strategies in a comprehensive way. PMID:22374279

  7. Kruger strict morphology and post-thaw progressive motility in cryopreserved human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-Y; Lee, C-T; Wu, C-H; Hsu, C-S; Hsu, M-I

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate Kruger strict morphology and conventional semen analysis in predicting cryosurvival and the progressive motility recovery rate of frozen spermatozoa. Our study included 56 semen samples with >10 million spermatozoa per ejaculate. The main outcome measures were conventional semen analysis, strict morphology analysis by the Kruger method, cryosurvival rate and post-thaw sperm motility. A significant reduction in sperm motility after cryopreservation was demonstrated. The freeze-thawing process caused a 66% reduction in rapid progressive motile spermatozoa, a 45% reduction in slow progressive motile spermatozoa and a 2% reduction in nonprogressive motile spermatozoa. The cryosurvival and progressive motility recovery rates were not correlated with parameters of conventional semen analysis, such as sperm concentration, motility, WHO morphology and total motile count, but the progressive motility recovery rate was significantly correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting Kruger normal morphology (P = 0.028). The recovery rate of rapidly progressive motility was profoundly decreased compared with slow progressive motility following the frozen-thaw procedure of semen. Kruger strict morphology assessment was a better predictor of the progressive motility recovery rate following the freezing-thaw procedure than parameters of conventional semen analysis.

  8. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs in each State or territory. State Postadoption ...

  9. Human adoption in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1990-03-01

    Exploitation is a fundamental element of the parental strategies of many species of birds. Cuckoos, for example, lay their eggs in the nest of other birds, who often unwittingly rear the alien nestlings as their own. Nest parasitism is an efficient reproductive strategy for cuckoos, who do not have to worry about building a nest, incubating their eggs, or feeding their nestlings. But not all hosts respond passively to such intrusions. In response to parasitic cowbirds, for example, robins have evolved the ability to detect and selectively eject alien young from their nests. Human parenting strategies differ sharply from the strategies of cuckoos and robins. Unlike cuckoos, we are reluctant to allow our children to be raised by others. Unlike robins, we knowingly rear strange young. What makes human behavior toward children so different from that of cuckoos and robins? Humans seem to share a number of predispositions that facilitate successful adoptive relationships, and the desire to raise children seems to be pervasive among modern humans. Despite these commonalities, patterns of adoption transactions vary greatly among contemporary human societies. This paper considers the origins and causes of cross-cultural variation in human adoptive behavior from an evolutionary perspective.

  10. 10 CFR 1042.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1042.135 Section 1042.135 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS... Introduction § 1042.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures....

  11. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  12. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  13. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  14. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  15. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  16. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  17. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  18. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  19. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    PubMed Central

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-01

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise—only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified. PMID:20162017

  20. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  1. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  2. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  3. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P < 0.001). A higher concentration of campesterol compared with sitosterol is normal in omnivorous subjects and can be explained by lower absorption and esterification rates of sitosterol. Our results suggest that a strict uncooked vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  4. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS2 covering an area as large as a few cm2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS2. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ˜1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  5. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites.

  6. Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.

  7. Lack of evidence for phase-only control of retinal photoisomerization in the strict one-photon limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebel, M.; Kukura, P.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of shaping electric fields to steer light-induced processes coherently has fascinated scientists for decades. Despite early theoretical considerations that ruled out one-photon coherent control (CC), several experimental studies reported that molecular responses are sensitive to the shape of the excitation field in the weak-field limit. These observations were largely attributed to the presence of rapid-decay channels, but experimental verification is lacking. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the degree of achievable control over the photoisomerization of the retinal protonated Schiff-base in bacteriorhodopsin, isorhodopsin and rhodopsin, all of which exhibit similar chromophores but different isomerization yields and excited-state lifetimes. Irrespective of the system studied, we find no evidence for dissipation-dependent behaviour, nor for any CC in the strict one-photon limit. Our results question the extent to which a photochemical process at ambient conditions can be controlled at the amplitude level, and how the underlying molecular potential-energy surfaces and dynamics may influence this controllability.

  8. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  9. Two strictly polyphosphate-dependent gluco(manno)kinases from diazotrophic Cyanobacteria with potential to phosphorylate hexoses from polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Albi, Tomás; Serrano, Aurelio

    2015-05-01

    The single-copy genes encoding putative polyphosphate-glucose phosphotransferases (PPGK, EC 2.7.1.63) from two nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. PCC7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102, were cloned and functionally characterized. In contrast to their actinobacterial counterparts, the cyanobacterial PPGKs have shown the ability to phosphorylate glucose using strictly inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) as phosphoryl donors. This has proven to be an economically attractive reagent in contrast to the more costly ATP. Cyanobacterial PPGKs had a higher affinity for medium-long-sized polyP (greater than ten phosphoryl residues). Thus, longer polyP resulted in higher catalytic efficiency. Also in contrast to most their homologs in Actinobacteria, both cyanobacterial PPGKs exhibited a modest but significant polyP-mannokinase activity as well. Specific activities were in the range of 180-230 and 2-3 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with glucose and mannose as substrates, respectively. No polyP-fructokinase activity was detected. Cyanobacterial PPGKs required a divalent metal cofactor and exhibited alkaline pH optima (approx. 9.0) and a remarkable thermostability (optimum temperature, 45 °C). The preference for Mg(2+) was noted with an affinity constant of 1.3 mM. Both recombinant PPGKs are homodimers with a subunit molecular mass of ca. 27 kDa. Based on database searches and experimental data from Southern blots and activity assays, closely related PPGK homologs appear to be widespread among unicellular and filamentous mostly nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. Overall, these findings indicate that polyP may be metabolized in these photosynthetic prokaryotes to yield glucose (or mannose) 6-phosphate. They also provide evidence for a novel group-specific subfamily of strictly polyP-dependent gluco(manno)kinases with ancestral features and high biotechnological potential, capable of efficiently using polyP as an alternative and cheap source of energy-rich phosphate instead of costly ATP

  10. Adoption law: a district nurse's guide.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-04-01

    The Government wants to see a large rise in the use of adoption as a means of giving children a secure, loving and permanent home. Guidance coming into effect from April calls for a more pragmatic approach to adoption placements, and calls for the active promotion of the adoption process by health and social care professionals. District nurses will encounter people interested in becoming prospective adopters, but who are unsure if their background or lifestyle makes them eligible. It is essential that district nurses have a working understanding of the guidance and provisions of the Adoption and Children Act 2002 to confidently advise others about adoption and clarify any issues raised.

  11. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  12. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  13. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  14. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Porteous, A. . E-mail: s.j.lumbers@open.ac.uk

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available.

  15. Strict vs lenient criteria for elution testing: comparison of yields between two tertiary care medical centers.

    PubMed

    Veeraputhiran, Muthu K; Pesek, Gina A; Blackall, Douglas P

    2011-09-01

    In this study, 2 patient populations, using different elution strategies, were compared to evaluate eluate yields under more and less restrictive conditions. An informative eluate was defined as one in which an antibody that could be clinically significant was detected in the eluate but was not detectable in the plasma at the time of elution testing. The results for 160 direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) and 160 elution studies were evaluated in 71 patients at the adult hospital (lenient criteria). The results for 372 DATs and 43 elution studies were evaluated in 123 patients at the pediatric hospital (strict criteria). The yields from these eluates were 0.6% at the adult hospital (C antibody) vs 2.3% at the pediatric hospital (Jk(a) antibody). Thus, the yield of information from eluate testing is low regardless of the stringency applied to testing. However, considering the cost and time required for testing, more stringent criteria are advised.

  16. Explicit approximations for strictly nonlinear oscillators with slowly varying parameters with applications to free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, J.; Li, Y. P.

    1987-08-01

    The first part of this paper summarizes the mathematical modeling of free electron lasers (FEL), and the remainder concerns general perturbation methods for solving free electron laser (FEL) and other strictly nonlinear oscillatory problems with slowly varying parameters and small perturbations. We review and compare the methods of Kuzmak-Luke and of near-identity averaging transformations. In order to implement the calculation of explicit solutions we develop two approximation schemes. The first involves use of finite Fourier series to present either the leading approximation of the solution or the transformation of the governing equations to a standard form appropriate for the method of averaging. In the second scheme we fit a cubic polynomial to the potential such that the leading approximation is expressible in terms of elliptic functions. The ideas are illustrated with a number of examples which are also solved numerically to assess the accuracy of the various approximations.

  17. Lp stability for entropy solutions of scalar conservation laws with strict convex flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi; Ghoshal, Shyam Sundar; Veerappa Gowda, G. D.

    Here we consider the scalar convex conservation laws in one space dimension with strictly convex flux which is in C1. Existence, uniqueness and L1 contractivity were proved by Kružkov [14]. Using the relative entropy method, Leger showed that for a uniformly convex flux and for the shock wave solutions, the L2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded by the L2 norm of the initial perturbation. Here we generalize the result to Lp norm for all 1⩽p<∞. Also we show that for the non-shock wave solution, Lp norm of the perturbed solution relative to the modified N-wave is bounded by the Lp norm of the initial perturbation for all 1⩽p<∞.

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy Bounded Control for Consensus of Multiple Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-01-10

    This paper studies the adaptive fuzzy bounded control problem for leader-follower multiagent systems, where each follower is modeled by the uncertain nonlinear strict-feedback system. Combining the fuzzy approximation with the dynamic surface control, an adaptive fuzzy control scheme is developed to guarantee the output consensus of all agents under directed communication topologies. Different from the existing results, the bounds of the control inputs are known as a priori, and they can be determined by the feedback control gains. To realize smooth and fast learning, a predictor is introduced to estimate each error surface, and the corresponding predictor error is employed to learn the optimal fuzzy parameter vector. It is proved that the developed adaptive fuzzy control scheme guarantees the uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop systems, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. The simulation results and comparisons are provided to show the validity of the control strategy presented in this paper.

  19. Distributed consensus tracking for multiple uncertain nonlinear strict-feedback systems under a directed graph.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jin

    2013-04-01

    In this brief, we study the distributed consensus tracking control problem for multiple strict-feedback systems with unknown nonlinearities under a directed graph topology. It is assumed that the leader's output is time-varying and has been accessed by only a small fraction of followers in a group. The distributed dynamic surface design approach is proposed to design local consensus controllers in order to guarantee the consensus tracking between the followers and the leader. The function approximation technique using neural networks is employed to compensate unknown nonlinear terms induced from the controller design procedure. From the Lyapunov stability theorem, it is shown that the consensus errors are cooperatively semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded and converge to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin.

  20. Discovery of clostrubin, an exceptional polyphenolic polyketide antibiotic from a strictly anaerobic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pidot, Sacha; Ishida, Keishi; Cyrulies, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-07-21

    Genome mining of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii, an industrial producer of solvents, revealed the presence of several cryptic gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To unearth its metabolic potential, a C. beijerinckii strain was cultured under various conditions, which led to the discovery of a deep purple pigment. This novel metabolite, named clostrubin (1), was isolated and its structure was fully elucidated. The pentacyclic polyphenol features a benzo[a]tetraphene ring topology that is unprecedented for natural products. Stable-isotope labeling experiments showed that 1 is an aromatic polyketide that folds in a noncanonical manner to form the unusual perifused ring system. In addition to being the first reported polyketide from an anaerobic bacterium, 1 is a potent antibiotic with pronounced activity against various pathogenic bacteria, such as MRSA, VRE, and mycobacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.12-0.97 μM.

  1. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  2. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: How an enzyme enforces strict binding order

    DOE PAGES

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-02-17

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productivemore » whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s-1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S-·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. In conclusion, this first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.« less

  3. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: how an enzyme enforces strict binding order.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2015-04-10

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(Ni(I))·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s(-1) at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(Ni(II))·CoB7S(-)·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  4. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. Methods The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406). Results Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548–1.541]; p = 0.28). An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21–0.95]; p = 0.04). P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation. Conclusions Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27280467

  5. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclosed and 40 percent being mediated (Siegel & Livingston Smith, 2012). Although the context around each adoption is ... Society, 78 , 522–529. Siegel, D. H., & Livingston Smith, S. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and stigma ...

  6. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  7. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of...

  8. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  9. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  10. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  11. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  12. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  13. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  15. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  16. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  17. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  18. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  19. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  20. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  1. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  2. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  3. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  4. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  5. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  6. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  7. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  8. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  9. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  10. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  11. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  12. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  13. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  14. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  15. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  16. Talking with Young Children about Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Mary; Fisher, Susan

    Even though current wisdom holds that adoptive parents should talk with their child about adoption as early as possible, no guidelines exist to prepare parents for the various ways their children might respond when these conversations take place. This book discusses how young children make sense of the fact that they are adopted, how their…

  17. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and stand... parents and children. This month, we celebrate adopted children, teenagers, and their diverse families....

  18. Adoption of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Grabenbauer, L; Fraser, R.; McClay, J.; Woelfl, N.; Thompson, C.B.; Cambell, J.; Windle, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Less than 20% of hospitals in the US have an electronic health record (EHR). In this qualitative study, we examine the perspectives of both academic and private physicians and administrators as stakeholders, and their alignment, to explore their perspectives on the use of technology in the clinical environment. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 74 participants who were asked a series of open-ended questions. Grounded theory was used to analyze the transcribed data and build convergent themes. The relevance and importance of themes was constructed by examining frequency, convergence, and intensity. A model was proposed that represents the interactions between themes. Results Six major themes emerged, which include the impact of EHR systems on workflow, patient care, communication, research/outcomes/billing, education/learning, and institutional culture. Academic and private physicians were confident of the future benefits of EHR systems, yet cautious about the current implementations of EHR, and its impact on interactions with other members of the healthcare team and with patients, and the amount of time necessary to use EHR’s. Private physicians differed on education and were uneasy about the steep learning curve necessary for use of new systems. In contrast to physicians, university and hospital administrators are optimistic, and value the availability of data for use in reporting. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that both private and academic physicians concur on the need for features that maintain and enhance the relationship with the patient and the healthcare team. Resistance to adoption is related to insufficient functionality and its potential negative impact on patient care. Integration of data collection into clinical workflows must consider the unexpected costs of data acquisition. PMID:23616868

  19. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  20. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  1. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: How an enzyme enforces strict binding order

    SciTech Connect

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-02-17

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s-1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S-·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. In conclusion, this first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  2. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  3. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  4. Head regeneration in hemichordates is not a strict recapitulation of development

    PubMed Central

    Luttrell, Shawn M.; Gotting, Kirsten; Ross, Eric; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Head or anterior body part regeneration is commonly associated with protostome, but not deuterostome invertebrates. However, it has been shown that the solitary hemichordate Ptychodera flava possesses the remarkable capacity to regenerate their entire nervous system, including their dorsal neural tube and their anterior head‐like structure, or proboscis. Hemichordates, also known as acorn worms, are marine invertebrate deuterostomes that have retained chordate traits that were likely present in the deuterostome ancestor, placing these animals in a vital position to study regeneration and chordate evolution. All acorn worms have a tripartite body plan, with an anterior proboscis, middle collar region, and a posterior trunk. The collar houses a hollow, dorsal neural tube in ptychoderid hemichordates and numerous chordate genes involved in brain and spinal cord development are expressed in a similar anterior–posterior spatial arrangement along the body axis. Results: We have examined anterior regeneration in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava and report the spatial and temporal morphological changes that occur. Additionally, we have sequenced, assembled, and analyzed the transcriptome for eight stages of regenerating P. flava, revealing significant differential gene expression between regenerating and control animals. Conclusions: Importantly, we have uncovered developmental steps that are regeneration‐specific and do not strictly follow the embryonic program. Developmental Dynamics 245:1159–1175, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Dynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists PMID:27649280

  5. Antarctic strict anaerobic microbiota from Deschampsia antarctica vascular plants rhizosphere reveals high ecology and biotechnology relevance.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Rafael José Marques; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Lobo, Leandro Araujo; Granato, Alessandra; de Carvalho Maalouf, Pedro; de Jesus, Hugo Emiliano; Rachid, Caio T C C; Moraes, Saulo Roni; Dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic's Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity. Using anaerobic cultivation methods, we identified and isolated a range of microbial taxa whose abundance was associated with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and presences were exclusively endemic to the Antarctic continent. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum (73 %), with the genus Clostridium found as the most isolated taxa. Here, we describe two soil treatments (oxygen gradient and heat shock) and 27 physicochemical culture conditions were able to increase the diversity of anaerobic bacteria isolates. Heat shock treatment allowed to isolate a high percentage of new species (63.63 %), as well as isolation of species with high enzymatic activity (80.77 %), which would have potential industry application. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of anaerobic microbes regarding ecology, evolutionary, and biotechnological features essential to the Antarctic ecosystem.

  6. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  7. Strict de novo methylation of the 35S enhancer sequence in gentian.

    PubMed

    Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Oda, Masayuki; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2010-03-23

    A novel transgene silencing phenomenon was found in the ornamental plant, gentian (Gentiana triflora x G. scabra), in which the introduced Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter region was strictly methylated, irrespective of the transgene copy number and integrated loci. Transgenic tobacco having the same vector did not show the silencing behavior. Not only unmodified, but also modified 35S promoters containing a 35S enhancer sequence were found to be highly methylated in the single copy transgenic gentian lines. The 35S core promoter (-90)-introduced transgenic lines showed a small degree of methylation, implying that the 35S enhancer sequence was involved in the methylation machinery. The rigorous silencing phenomenon enabled us to analyze methylation in a number of the transgenic lines in parallel, which led to the discovery of a consensus target region for de novo methylation, which comprised an asymmetric cytosine (CpHpH; H is A, C or T) sequence. Consequently, distinct footprints of de novo methylation were detected in each (modified) 35S promoter sequence, and the enhancer region (-148 to -85) was identified as a crucial target for de novo methylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that complexes formed in gentian nuclear extract with the -149 to -124 and -107 to -83 region probes were distinct from those of tobacco nuclear extracts, suggesting that the complexes might contribute to de novo methylation. Our results provide insights into the phenomenon of sequence- and species- specific gene silencing in higher plants.

  8. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F.; Rodrigo, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  9. A strictly improving linear programming alorithm based on a series of Phase 1 problems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    When used on degenerate problems, the simplex method often takes a number of degenerate steps at a particular vertex before moving to the next. In theory (although rarely in practice), the simplex method can actually cycle at such a degenerate point. Instead of trying to modify the simplex method to avoid degenerate steps, we have developed a new linear programming algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy. This new method solves the Phase II problem of finding an optimal solution by solving a series of Phase I feasibility problems. Strict improvement is attained at each iteration in the Phase I algorithm, and the Phase II sequence of feasibility problems has linear convergence in the number of Phase I problems. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase II algorithm were over 15% faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was almost two times faster, and on one problem it was four times faster.

  10. Strict control of auricin production in Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239 involves a feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kutas, Peter; Feckova, Lubomira; Rehakova, Alena; Novakova, Renata; Homerova, Dagmar; Mingyar, Erik; Rezuchova, Bronislava; Sevcikova, Beatrica; Kormanec, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The polyketide gene cluster aur1 is responsible for the production of the angucycline antibiotic auricin in Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239. Auricin production is regulated in a complex manner involving several regulators, including a key pathway-specific positive regulator Aur1P that belongs to the family of 'atypical' response regulators. Production of auricin is induced after entry into stationary phase. However, auricin was produced in only a short time interval of several hours. We found that the decrease of auricin production was due to a strict regulation of auricin biosynthetic genes at the transcriptional level by a feedback mechanism; auricin and/or its intermediate(s) inhibited binding of Aur1P to its cognate biosynthetic promoter aur1Ap and consequently stopped its activation. In addition, we also determined that synthesised auricin is unstable during growth of S. aureofaciens CCM3239 in the production medium even though purified auricin is stable for days in various organic solvents. The critical parameter affecting its stability was pH. Auricin is stable at acid pH and unstable at neutral and alkaline pH. The drop in auricin concentration was due to an increase of pH shortly after induction of auricin production during cultivation of S. aureofaciens CCM3239.

  11. Uniparental Inheritance of Chloroplast DNA Is Strict in the Isogamous Volvocalean Gonium

    PubMed Central

    Setohigashi, Yuka; Hamaji, Takashi; Hayama, Mahoko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Background A problem has remained unresolved regarding the exceptions to the unilateral inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from MT+/female in Chlamydomonas and other volvocaleans demonstrated by the previous genetic analyses. For identification of the parental types of cpDNA, these studies used parents that have differences in restriction fragment length polymorphisms and exhibit partial sexual incompatibility. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we used sexually compatible parents of the isogamous colonial volvocalean Gonium maiaprilis that seemed an ideal species to identify the pattern of cpDNA inheritance based on the length difference in the putative group I intron interrupted in the Rubisco large subunit gene and objective identification of mating types by the presence or absence of the minus-dominance (MID) gene. We examined patterns of inheritance of cpDNA and presence/absence of a MID ortholog (GmMID) in 107 F1 progeny of G. maiaprilis that were obtained by inducing germination of separated single zygotes. The results demonstrated no exception of the uniparental inheritance of cpDNA from the MT+ parent (lacking GmMID) in sexually compatible or genetically less divergent strains of G. maiaprilis. Conclusions/Significance The present data suggest that the uniparental inheritance of cpDNA is likely more strict in crossings of less diverged strains or sexually compatible parental volvocaleans, and some genetic inconsistency between the parents may cause exceptional uniparental inheritance of cpDNA. PMID:21559302

  12. On a holomorphic Lefschetz formula in strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Kytmanov, A M; Myslivets, S G; Tarkhanov, N N

    2004-12-31

    The classical Lefschetz formula expresses the number of fixed points of a continuous map f:M{yields}M in terms of the transformation induced by f on the cohomology of M. In 1966, Atiyah and Bott extended this formula to elliptic complexes over a compact closed manifold. In particular, they obtained a holomorphic Lefschetz formula on compact complex manifolds without boundary. Brenner and Shubin (1981, 1991) extended the Atiyah-Bott theory to compact manifolds with boundary. On compact complex manifolds with boundary the Dolbeault complex is not elliptic, therefore the Atiyah-Bott theory is not applicable. Bypassing difficulties related to the boundary behaviour of Dolbeault cohomology, Donnelly and Fefferman (1986) obtained a formula for the number of fixed points in terms of the Bergman metric. The aim of this paper is to obtain a Lefschetz formula on relatively compact strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds X with smooth boundary, that is, to find the total Lefschetz number for a holomorphic endomorphism f{sup *} of the Dolbeault complex and to express it in terms of local invariants of the fixed points of f.

  13. Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Fièvre, Sabine; Carta, Mario; Chamma, Ingrid; Labrousse, Virginie; Thoumine, Olivier; Mulle, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors can segregate to specific synaptic inputs in a given neuron. Using functional mapping by focal glutamate uncaging in CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), we observe that kainate receptors (KARs) are strictly confined to the postsynaptic elements of mossy fibre (mf) synapses and excluded from other glutamatergic inputs and from extrasynaptic compartments. By molecular replacement in organotypic slices from GluK2 knockout mice, we show that the faithful rescue of KAR segregation at mf-CA3 synapses critically depends on the amount of GluK2a cDNA transfected and on a sequence in the GluK2a C-terminal domain responsible for interaction with N-cadherin. Targeted deletion of N-cadherin in CA3 PCs greatly reduces KAR content in thorny excrescences and KAR-EPSCs at mf-CA3 synapses. Hence, multiple mechanisms combine to confine KARs at mf-CA3 synapses, including a stringent control of the amount of GluK2 subunit in CA3 PCs and the recruitment/stabilization of KARs by N-cadherins. PMID:27669960

  14. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model: A Developmental Conceptualization of the Adoption Process Within Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a representation of the process by which an educational institution adopts an innovation, views adoption as a developmental process involving complex interaction between an adopting institution, a user system, and a resource system. The resource system is usually a formal organization whose expert…

  15. "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Maintains that its narrative/comment format and accounts of those involved in adoption validate the feelings of the adoption-triad members. Suggests that the book lacks information on individuals who contributed comments and contains few narratives from…

  16. Spatial effects on hybrid electric vehicle adoption

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaoli; Roberts, Matthew C.; Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2017-03-08

    This paper examines spatial effects on hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) adoption. This is in contrast to most existing analyses, which concentrate on analyzing socioeconomic factors and demographics. This paper uses a general spatial model to estimate the strength of ‘neighbor effects’ on HEV adoption—namely that each consumer’s HEV-adoption decision can be influenced by the HEV-adoption decisions of geographic neighbors. We use detailed census tract-level demographic data from the 2010 United States Census and the 2012 American Community Survey and vehicle registration data collected by the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles. We find that HEV adoption exhibits significant spatial effects. We furthermore » conduct a time-series analysis and show that historical HEV adoption has a spatial effect on future adoption. Lastly, these results suggest that HEVs may appear in more dense clusters than models that do not consider spatial effects predict.« less

  17. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  18. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  19. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    PubMed

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  20. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  1. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    State energy offices use SEP funds to develop state plans that identify opportunities for adopting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, and implementing programs to improve energy sustainability.

  2. Proteiniclasticum ruminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic proteolytic bacterium isolated from yak rumen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kegui; Song, Lei; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2010-09-01

    Two strictly anaerobic, proteolytic bacterial strains, designated strain D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r, were isolated from a cellulose-degrading mixed culture enriched from yak rumen content. The strains were Gram-stain negative and non-spore-forming with cell sizes of 0.5-0.8 x 0.6-2.0 mum. The temperature range for growth was 24-46 degrees C (optimum 38-39 degrees C) and the pH range was between 5.6 and 8.7 (optimum 7.0-7.3). Both strains used soya peptone, tryptone, l-phenylalanine, l-leucine, l-methionine, l-serine, l-valine, l-threonine and l-histidine as carbon and nitrogen sources, but did not use any of the saccharides tested. The major fermentation products from PY medium were acetate, propionate and iso-butyrate. The DNA G+C contents of strains D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r were 41.0+/-0.1 mol% and 41.3+/-0.1 mol% (HPLC), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains represented a new phyletic sublineage within the family Clostridiaceae, with <93.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to recognized species. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Proteiniclasticum ruminis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is D3RC-2(T) (=AS 1.5057(T)=JCM 14817(T)).

  3. Learning from adaptive neural dynamic surface control of strict-feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Cong

    2015-06-01

    Learning plays an essential role in autonomous control systems. However, how to achieve learning in the nonstationary environment for nonlinear systems is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present learning method for a class of n th-order strict-feedback systems by adaptive dynamic surface control (DSC) technology, which achieves the human-like ability of learning by doing and doing with learned knowledge. To achieve the learning, this paper first proposes stable adaptive DSC with auxiliary first-order filters, which ensures the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors in a finite time. With the help of DSC, the derivative of the filter output variable is used as the neural network (NN) input instead of traditional intermediate variables. As a result, the proposed adaptive DSC method reduces greatly the dimension of NN inputs, especially for high-order systems. After the stable DSC design, we decompose the stable closed-loop system into a series of linear time-varying perturbed subsystems. Using a recursive design, the recurrent property of NN input variables is easily verified since the complexity is overcome using DSC. Subsequently, the partial persistent excitation condition of the radial basis function NN is satisfied. By combining a state transformation, accurate approximations of the closed-loop system dynamics are recursively achieved in a local region along recurrent orbits. Then, the learning control method using the learned knowledge is proposed to achieve the closed-loop stability and the improved control performance. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the proposed scheme can not only reuse the learned knowledge to achieve the better control performance with the faster tracking convergence rate and the smaller tracking error but also greatly alleviate the computational burden because of reducing the number and complexity of NN input variables.

  4. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu) of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species) at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding) at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation. PMID:20637064

  5. Aerobic biosynthesis of hydrocinnamic acids in Escherichia coli with a strictly oxygen-sensitive enoate reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Yuheng; Shen, Xiaolin; Jain, Rachit; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    3-Phenylpropionic acid (3PPA) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (HPPA) are important commodity aromatic acids widely used in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Currently, 3PPA and HPPA are mainly manufactured through chemical synthesis, which contains multiple steps involving toxic solvents and catalysts harmful to environment. Therefore, replacement of such existing petroleum-derived approaches with simple and environmentally friendly biological processes is highly desirable for manufacture of these chemicals. Here, for the first time we demonstrated the de novo biosynthesis of 3PPA and HPPA using simple carbon sources in E. coli by extending the cinnamic acids biosynthesis pathways through biological hydrogenation. We first screened 11 2-enoate reductases (ER) from nine microorganisms, leading to efficient conversion of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to 3PPA and HPPA, respectively. Surprisingly, we found a strictly oxygen-sensitive Clostridia ER capable of functioning efficiently in E. coli even under aerobic conditions. On this basis, reconstitution of the full pathways led to the de novo production of 3PPA and HPPA and the accumulation of the intermediates (cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid) with cell toxicity. To address this problem, different expression strategies were attempted to optimize individual enzyme׳s expression level and minimize intermediates accumulation. Finally, the titers of 3PPA and HPPA reached 366.77mg/L and 225.10mg/L in shake flasks, respectively. This study not only demonstrated the potential of microbial approach as an alternative to chemical process, but also proved the possibility of using oxygen-sensitive enzymes under aerobic conditions.

  6. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  7. Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Ayers-Lopez, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children’s birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means. PMID:23956791

  8. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  9. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  10. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  11. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  12. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  13. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  14. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... countless American lives, and to encourage the adoption of children from foster care. Currently, thousands of children await adoption or are in foster care, looking forward to permanent homes. These children... children out of foster care. Last year, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius was...

  15. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  16. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  17. MSW Students' Attitudes toward Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaegoo; Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of MSW students ("N"?=?147) toward transracial adoption and included an investigation of the students' personal experiences that may affect their attitudes. Statistical analyses revealed that although the majority of students supported the practice of transracial adoption, a number of students gave…

  18. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  19. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  20. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  1. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    PubMed

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  2. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice to... nurture their development and well-being. Later this month, many Americans will also mark...

  3. Predictors of Adopting Motivational Enhancement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard; Roahen-Harrison, Stephanie; Toriello, Paul J.; Kissinger, Patricia; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward; Carney, Linton; Rice, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors have shown limited success in adopting evidence-based practices (EBPs). The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers and facilitators of adopting an EBP called motivational enhancement therapy (MET). One hundred thirty-six predominantly female (60%) African American (68%) addiction counselors representing over…

  4. Understanding Innovation Adoption in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Production Management, 22: 152-194 (Spring 2002). Frambach, Ruud T. “An Integrated Model of Organizational Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations...European Journal of Marketing, 27: 22-41 (May 1993). Frambach, Ruud T. and Niels Schillewaert. “Organizational Innovation Adoption. A Multi

  5. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  6. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  7. Adoptive Parents' Attitudes Toward Open Birth Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissinger, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Investigated adoptive parents' (N=42) attitudes toward the open birth record issues using a mail survey. Analysis indicated that parental fear was the most important variable. Most supported a measure allowing adult adoptees access to birth records, provided such access was agreeable to birth and adoptive parents. (JAC)

  8. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  9. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions…

  10. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  11. Design of output feedback consensus controllers for nonlinear sampled-data multi-agent systems of strict-feedback form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    Design of reduced-order observer-based output feedback consensus controllers for nonlinear sampled-data multi-agent systems of strict-feedback form is considered based on nonlinear sampled-data control and consensus control theories. As a practical application of the proposed design method, output feedback consensus control for sampled-data fully actuated ships is also discussed.

  12. First Insights into the Genome Sequence of the Strictly Anaerobic Homoacetogenic Sporomusa sphaeroides Strain E (DSM 2875)

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Genis Andrés Castillo; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Sporomusa sphaeroides strain E (DSM 2875), a strict anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium. It is able to grow autotrophically on different one-carbon compounds. The strain possesses several genes of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a single chromosome (4.98 Mb). PMID:28336590

  13. Strict Fathers, Competing Culture(s), and Racialized Poverty: White South African Teachers' Conceptions of Themselves as Racialized Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses in particular on four white South African female practicing P-12 teachers' narratives about their own racialized understanding of their classroom practice(s) and their (racio-cultural) self-identity. Each of the four participants reported growing up with what they described as "strict fathers" and shared ways in…

  14. Pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae in a teaching hospital: importance of strictly following decontamination procedures and emerging issues concerning sterilization.

    PubMed

    Scorzolini, Laura; Mengoni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Claudio M; Baldan, Rossella; Cirillo, Daniela M; De Giusti, Maria; Marinelli, Lucia; Cottarelli, Alessia; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae analyzing isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples. Mycobacterium gordonae was detected in 7 out of 497 broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples after bronchoscopy procedure in patients admitted to a teaching hospital between January and April 2013. During this pseudo-outbreak clinical, epidemiological, environmental and molecular investigations were performed. None of the patients met the criteria for non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease and were treated for M. gordonae lung disease. Environmental investigation revealed M. gordonae in 3 samples: in tap water and in the water supply channel of the washer disinfector. All the isolates were subjected to genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE revealed that only patients' isolates presented the same band pattern but no correlation with the environmental strain was detected. Surveillance of the outbreak and the strict adherence to the reprocessing procedure and its supplies resulted afterwards in no detection of M. gordonae in clinical respiratory samples. Clinical surveillance of patients was crucial to establish the start of NTM treatment. Regular screening of tap water and endoscopic equipment should be adopted to compare the clinical strains with the environmental ones when an outbreak occurs.

  15. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    PubMed

    Kooloos, Jan G M; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C; Ruiter, Dirk J; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sessions lead to higher learning gains than loosely-guided experiences? and (2) are there differences in the recall of anatomical knowledge between students who undergo the two types of laboratory sessions after weeks and months? The design was a randomized controlled trial. The participants were 360 second-year medical students attending a gross anatomy laboratory course on the anatomy of the hand. Half of the students, the experimental group, were subjected without prior warning to station-based laboratory sessions; the other half, the control group, to loosely-guided laboratory sessions, which was the course's prevailing educational method at the time. The recall of anatomical knowledge was measured by written reproduction of 12 anatomical names at four points in time: immediately after the laboratory experience, then one week, five weeks, and eight months later. The strictly-guided group scored higher than the loosely-guided group at all time-points. Repeated ANOVA showed no interaction between the results of the two types of laboratory sessions (P = 0.121) and a significant between-subject effect (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, levels of anatomical knowledge retrieved were significantly higher for the strictly-guided group than for the loosely-guided group at all times. It was concluded that gross anatomy laboratory sessions with strict instructions resulted in the recall of a larger amount of anatomical knowledge, even after eight months.

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  17. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  18. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.

    2009-09-01

    , or enhanced in, forming stars at different rates with respect to a selected reference case. Models involving a strictly universal IMF (i.e. gas neither inhibited from, nor enhanced in, forming stars with respect to a selected reference case) can also reproduce the data to an acceptable extent. Our main conclusions are (1) different models are necessary to fit the (incomplete) halo sample, which is consistent with the idea of two distinct halo components: an inner, flattened halo in slow prograde rotation, and an outer, spherical halo in net retrograde rotation (Carollo et al. in Nature 450:1020, 2007); (2) the oxygen enrichment within the inner SN halo, the SN thick disk, and the bulge, was similar and coeval within the same metallicity range, as inferred from observations (Prochaska et al. in Astron. J. 120:2513, 2000); (3) the fit to thin disk data implies an oxygen abundance range similar to its thick disk counterpart, with the extension of conclusion (2) to the thin disk, and the evolution of the thick + thin disk as a whole (Haywood in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388:1175, 2008) cannot be excluded; (4) leaving outside the outer halo, a fit to the data related to different environments is provided by models with a strictly universal IMF but different probabilities of a region being active, which implies different global efficiencies of the star formation rate; (5) a special case of stellar migration across the disk can be described by models with enhanced star formation, where a fraction of currently observed SN stars were born in situ and a comparable fraction is due to the net effect of stellar migration, according to recent results based on high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations (Ro\\vskar et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 684:L79, 2008).

  19. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  20. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  1. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  2. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  3. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  4. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption of tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of tariff by a successor. 341.6 Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption of tariff by...

  5. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  6. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption Decision: An Analysis of Adopters and Nonadopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert N.; Rollins, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An agricultural innovation (nitrogen testing) had been used by 127 of a sample of 220 farmers. Adoption of the technique was influenced by information and change agents' attitudes. Adopters were also motivated by cost savings. Both adopters and nonadopters either did not have or use soil sampling skills needed to perform the test correctly.…

  8. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  9. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  10. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  11. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  12. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  13. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  14. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  15. 76 FR 81 - Adoption of Recommendation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Adoption of Recommendation AGENCY: Administrative Conference of... the attached recommendation at its Fifty-third Plenary Session. The recommendation addresses issues... makes recommendations for improvements to the agencies, collectively or individually, and to...

  16. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  17. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  18. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  19. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  1. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  2. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  3. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  4. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  5. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... place their children for adoption include money problems, personal goals, and family attitudes. Why do some expectant ... your child learn more about his or her personal history, family background, medical information, and the reasons ...

  6. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  7. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  8. Enhancing adoptive parenting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan; Monck, Elizabeth; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Sharac, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate two parenting programmes designed for adopters of children late placed from care. Adoptive parents, with children between 3 and 8 years who were screened to have serious behavioural problems early in the placement, participated in home-based, manualized, parenting programmes delivered by trained and supervised family social workers. The adopters who agreed to join the study were randomly allocated to one of two parenting interventions or to a "services as usual" group. Baseline, immediate post-intervention and six-month follow-ups were assessed using questionnaires and adopter interviews. No cases were lost to follow-up at any point and satisfaction was high with both parenting interventions. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference (p < 0.007) was found for "satisfaction with parenting" in favour of the intervention group (Effect Size d = 0.7). Negative parenting approaches were reduced in the intervention group. However, no significant differences in child problems were found between the intervention groups and control group, adjusting for baseline scores. Costs analysis showed that a relatively modest investment in post-adoption support would be well spent in improving adopters' satisfaction with parenting in the intervention group compared to the routine service group.

  9. Social Context and Hearing Aid Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Hearing rehabilitation tends to focus on the influence of intraindividual factors and concepts such as readiness for change and health beliefs. In contrast, less is known about the role of social context and the potential role of significant others on hearing aid adoption. This explorative retrospective study investigated whether hearing aid adoption is associated with significant other attendance at audiology appointments. The study sample consisted of 33,933 and 27,031 individuals who attended appointments either alone or with a significant other, respectively (n = 60,964). It was found that hearing aid adoption was significantly greater when patients attended audiology appointments with a significant other (63.8%) than when attending appointments alone (50.6%). The association between hearing aid adoption and attendance by a significant other was hearing dependent, with 96% higher hearing aid adoption for patients with mild hearing losses when patients attended appointments with a significant other than when attending appointments alone. Hearing aid return rates were comparable when patients attended appointments alone (27%) or with a significant other (24%). Several potential explanations for the observed association are discussed. The pattern of results is consistent with the view that greater adherence is observed when audiologic care is provided from a patient-centered care perspective. Future research should establish whether there is a causal relationship between attendance at appointments by significant others and hearing aid adoption and should attempt to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these variables. PMID:27733672

  10. Bridging the divide: openness in adoption and postadoption psychosocial adjustment among birth and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Martin, David M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John B; Reiss, David

    2008-08-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents' postadoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N = 112), an understudied sample, were also explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers' postplacement adjustment, as indexed by birth mothers' self-reports and the interviewers' impression of birth mothers' adjustment. Birth fathers' report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better postadoption adjustment.

  11. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate.

  12. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  13. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  14. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  15. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  16. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  17. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  18. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  19. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  20. The Lieb-Oxfourd bound and the exchange-correlation kernel from the strictly-correlated electrons functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    I will present some recent results based on the strictly-correlated electrons (SCE) functional: 1) a rigorous method to set lower bounds to the optimal particle-number dependent constant appearing in the Lieb-Oxford bound, and 2) an investigation of exact properties in the time domain, including an analytical expression for the kernel in one-dimension, with an analysis of its behavior for the case of bond-breaking excitations. ERC Consolidator Grant 648932.

  1. Viscosity-Projection Method for a Family of General Equilibrium Problems and Asymptotically Strict Pseudocontractions in the Intermediate Sense

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a Meir-Keeler contraction is introduced to propose a viscosity-projection approximation method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a family of general equilibrium problems and the set of fixed points of asymptotically strict pseudocontractions in the intermediate sense. Strong convergence of the viscosity iterative sequences is obtained under some suitable conditions. Results presented in this paper extend and unify the previously known results announced by many other authors. PMID:24285937

  2. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Rachel; Fogelman, Yacov; Bennett, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The authors present a case of severe megaloblastic anemia and neurologic damage due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a 6-month-old infant. The cause of the vitamin deficiency was a maternal dietary deficiency because of a strict vegetarian diet and prolonged breast-feeding. The importance of early recognition of significant maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in vegetarians is emphasized so that appropriate supplementation can be given and irreversible neurologic damage in the infant prevented.

  3. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air.

  4. Who Adopts Improved Fuels and Cookstoves? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The global focus on improved cookstoves (ICSs) and clean fuels has increased because of their potential for delivering triple dividends: household health, local environmental quality, and regional climate benefits. However, ICS and clean fuel dissemination programs have met with low rates of adoption. Objectives: We reviewed empirical studies on ICSs and fuel choice to describe the literature, examine determinants of fuel and stove choice, and identify knowledge gaps. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the adoption of ICSs or cleaner fuels by households in developing countries. Results are synthesized through a simple vote-counting meta-analysis. Results: We identified 32 research studies that reported 146 separate regression analyses of ICS adoption (11 analyses) or fuel choice (135 analyses) from Asia (60%), Africa (27%), and Latin America (19%). Most studies apply multivariate regression methods to consider 7–13 determinants of choice. Income, education, and urban location were positively associated with adoption in most but not all studies. However, the influence of fuel availability and prices, household size and composition, and sex is unclear. Potentially important drivers such as credit, supply-chain strengthening, and social marketing have been ignored. Conclusions: Adoption studies of ICSs or clean energy are scarce, scattered, and of differential quality, even though global distribution programs are quickly expanding. Future research should examine an expanded set of contextual variables to improve implementation of stove programs that can realize the “win-win-win” of health, local environmental quality, and climate associated with these technologies. PMID:22296719

  5. Who Adopts Queer and Pansexual Sexual Identities?

    PubMed

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2016-12-02

    Some nonheterosexual individuals are eschewing lesbian/gay and bisexual identities for queer and pansexual identities. The present study aimed to examine the sexual and demographic characteristics of nonheterosexual individuals who adopt these labels. A convenience sample of 2,220 nonheterosexual (1,459 lesbian/gay, 413 bisexual, 168 queer, 146 pansexual, and 34 other "write-in") individuals were recruited for a cross-sectional online survey. In support of our hypotheses, those adopting pansexual identities were younger than those adopting lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities, and those adopting queer and pansexual identities were more likely to be noncisgender than cisgender, and more likely to be cisgender women than men. The majority of pansexual individuals demonstrated sexual orientation indices within the bisexual range, and showed equivalent patterns of sexual attraction, romantic attraction, sexual behavior, and partner gender as bisexual-identified men and women. In contrast, three-quarters of queer men, and more than half of queer women, reported sexual attraction in the homosexual range. This study found that rather than a general movement toward nontraditional sexual identities, queer and pansexual identities appear most appealing to nonheterosexual women and noncisgender individuals. These findings contribute important information regarding who adopts queer and pansexual identities in contemporary sexual minority populations.

  6. The Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.

  7. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  8. The role of faith in adoption: achieving positive adoption outcomes for African American children.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of faith on choosing to adopt, achieving positive adoption outcomes, and reducing disproportionality. From Louisiana and Texas, 113 families who adopted 226 children, 48% African American, participated in a survey measuring children's behavior and parent distress (PSI-SF Difficult Child and Parent Distress Subscales) and religiosity (Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Index). Of the respondents, 93% of the respondents belonged to a religious congregation, 86% attended church weekly. Controlling for child's behavior, religiosity predicted lower stress in adoptive parenting; church attendance was related to improvement in parental health since adopting. Faith was rated most frequently as essential in parents' decisions to adopt. The study concludes that faith may be an asset in increasing adoptions and improving adoption outcomes resulting in increased numbers of African American children adopted.

  9. "You can always adopt": what clinic staff need to know about adoption and fostering?

    PubMed

    Balen, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents information and research about adoption and fostering, and explains some of the relevant processes. In order that those providing infertility services can play an informed, supportive and empowering role in the decision-making of those whose infertility treatment has been unsuccessful, a number of issues are highlighted. These include the changing profile of children awaiting adoption and fostering; ongoing contact between children and their birth families; the adoption of children from abroad; moving from infertility treatment to adoption or fostering; and the potential ongoing impact of infertility and failed treatment.

  10. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  11. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer or viruses.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Fraietta, Joseph A; Levine, Bruce L; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tumor, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology.

  12. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer or Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Levine, Bruce L.; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tissue, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials in order to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology. PMID:24423116

  13. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  17. Accuracy in Rietveld quantitative phase analysis: a comparative study of strictly monochromatic Mo and Cu radiations.

    PubMed

    León-Reina, L; García-Maté, M; Álvarez-Pinazo, G; Santacruz, I; Vallcorba, O; De la Torre, A G; Aranda, M A G

    2016-06-01

    This study reports 78 Rietveld quantitative phase analyses using Cu Kα1, Mo Kα1 and synchrotron radiations. Synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to validate the most challenging analyses. From the results for three series with increasing contents of an analyte (an inorganic crystalline phase, an organic crystalline phase and a glass), it is inferred that Rietveld analyses from high-energy Mo Kα1 radiation have slightly better accuracies than those obtained from Cu Kα1 radiation. This behaviour has been established from the results of the calibration graphics obtained through the spiking method and also from Kullback-Leibler distance statistic studies. This outcome is explained, in spite of the lower diffraction power for Mo radiation when compared to Cu radiation, as arising because of the larger volume tested with Mo and also because higher energy allows one to record patterns with fewer systematic errors. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) have also been established for the studied series. For similar recording times, the LoDs in Cu patterns, ∼0.2 wt%, are slightly lower than those derived from Mo patterns, ∼0.3 wt%. The LoQ for a well crystallized inorganic phase using laboratory powder diffraction was established to be close to 0.10 wt% in stable fits with good precision. However, the accuracy of these analyses was poor with relative errors near to 100%. Only contents higher than 1.0 wt% yielded analyses with relative errors lower than 20%.

  18. Accuracy in Rietveld quantitative phase analysis: a comparative study of strictly monochromatic Mo and Cu radiations

    PubMed Central

    León-Reina, L.; García-Maté, M.; Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Santacruz, I.; Vallcorba, O.; De la Torre, A. G.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports 78 Rietveld quantitative phase analyses using Cu Kα1, Mo Kα1 and synchrotron radiations. Synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to validate the most challenging analyses. From the results for three series with increasing contents of an analyte (an inorganic crystalline phase, an organic crystalline phase and a glass), it is inferred that Rietveld analyses from high-energy Mo Kα1 radiation have slightly better accuracies than those obtained from Cu Kα1 radiation. This behaviour has been established from the results of the calibration graphics obtained through the spiking method and also from Kullback–Leibler distance statistic studies. This outcome is explained, in spite of the lower diffraction power for Mo radiation when compared to Cu radiation, as arising because of the larger volume tested with Mo and also because higher energy allows one to record patterns with fewer systematic errors. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) have also been established for the studied series. For similar recording times, the LoDs in Cu patterns, ∼0.2 wt%, are slightly lower than those derived from Mo patterns, ∼0.3 wt%. The LoQ for a well crystallized inorganic phase using laboratory powder diffraction was established to be close to 0.10 wt% in stable fits with good precision. However, the accuracy of these analyses was poor with relative errors near to 100%. Only contents higher than 1.0 wt% yielded analyses with relative errors lower than 20%. PMID:27275132

  19. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  20. Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

  1. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  2. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  3. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  4. The Mad, Mad World of Textbook Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B Fordham Foundation and Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Textbook Adoption: The process, in place in twenty-one states, of reviewing textbooks according to state guidelines and then mandating specific books that schools must use, or lists of approved textbooks that schools must choose from. It consistently produces second-rate textbooks that replicate the same flaws and failings over and over again.…

  5. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  6. The Value of Successful MBSE Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The value of successful adoption of Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) practices is hard to quantify. Most engineers and project managers look at the success in terms of cost. But there are other ways to quantify the value of MBSE and the steps necessary to achieve adoption. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been doing Model-Based Engineering (design, structural, etc.) for years, but the system engineering side has not. Since 2010, GRC has been moving from documents centric to MBSE/SysML. Project adoption of MBSE has been slow, but is steadily increasing in both MBSE usage and complexity of generated products. Sharing of knowledge of lessons learned in the implementation of MBSE/SysML is key for others who want to be successful. Along with GRC's implementation, NASA is working hard to increase the successful implementation of MBSE across all the other centers by developing guidelines, templates and libraries for projects to utilize. This presentation will provide insight into recent GRC and NASA adoption efforts, lessons learned and best practices.

  7. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... unconditional love that will help them succeed. And yet, more than 100,000 children in America await this most... celebrate the acts of compassion and love that unite children with adoptive families, and we rededicate..., let us recommit to ensuring every child is given the sustaining love of family, the assurance of...

  8. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  9. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  10. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  11. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  12. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  13. Pre-Parenting Training: Adopter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    Based on a pilot project in ten Oregon high schools, this adopter's guide describes a training program designed to prepare high school students to be mentally and emotionally healthy parents. Three overall curriculum goals are identified: providing practice in clarification of personal values and responsible decision making, clarifying and…

  14. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD... for leave to attend an adoption hearing on (date), if made, would be approved. (iii) Due to military... soldier's new military address to the court or judge. The commander then will send a copy of the...

  15. Trailblazing Teacher Contract Agreement Adopted in Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Baltimore City Public Schools made national headlines late last year when the district adopted a new contract designed to take student learning and teacher professionalism to the next level. The three-year deal replaced conventional approaches to compensation--regular pay increases based on years in the system--with a new approach that gives…

  16. Adopting Learning Technologies: From Belief to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Cornelius H.; Cant, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge faced by most heads of academic departments around the world is to manage the adoption and use of appropriate learning technologies in order to support the department's learning offerings to students. Earlier research undertaken by the authors revealed that lecturers within the Department of Marketing and Retail Management at the…

  17. Faculty Members' Instructional Priorities for Adopting OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…

  18. Children in Adoptive Families: Overview and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickman, Steven L.; Rosenfeld, Alvin A.; Fine, Paul; MacIntyre, James C.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Howe, Ruth-Arlene; Derdeyn, Andre; Gonzales, Mayu Bonoan; Forsythe, Linda; Sveda, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the past 10 years of published research concerning the 2% of American children younger than 18 years old who are adoptees. Method: Review recent literature on developmental influences, placement outcome, psychopathology, and treatment. Results: Adoption carries developmental opportunities and risks. Many adoptees have…

  19. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  20. Adopt-A-Stream Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Labs, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    Water pollution is not a recently discovered problem. Humankind's ability to generate pollutants continues to exceed its ability to control them. The Adopt-A-Stream program invites people who care for waterways to take an active role in assuring their well-being. High school groups supported by local co-sponsors agree to evaluate their adopted…

  1. Enhancing the Fiscal Base for NDN Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capla Associates, Inc., Rochelle Park, NJ.

    This material is intended to help state facilitators or developer/demonstrators locate the funding sources most likely to meet the needs of local education agencies (LEAs) as potential National Diffusion Network adopters. LEAs that have identified a specific need that may be met by one of the NDN programs would be encouraged to submit a grant…

  2. Personal Contacts and the Adoption of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    A study undertaken among commercial strawberry growers in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada, sought to define the network of personal contacts as used by the farmers in obtaining information relevant to growing practices. Growers were divided into four adopter categories: laggards, late majority, early majority, and innovator-early…

  3. Comment on the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Michael Levin argues that data from the study are consistent with a black/white IQ difference that is significantly genetic. Richard Lynn maintains that adoption by middle-class, white families has no effect on intelligence. Waldman, Weinberg, and Scarr respond to these criticisms and support the original conclusions. (SLD)

  4. Negotiating the Dance: Consulting with Adoptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kent W.; Carson, David K.; Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive…

  5. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  6. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  7. The Impact of Adoption on Members of the Triad. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the third in a series to use an ethics-based…

  8. The Role of Race, Culture, and National Origin in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the first in a series to use an ethics-based…

  9. The Social Construction of Adoption: Clinical and Community Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the social construction of adoptive parenting and adopted children as reflected in clinical and adoption triangle research. Although clinicians view adoptive families as second best to biologically related families, a random sample of 150 respondents did not differentiate between the functioning of adoptive and biologically related…

  10. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  11. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  12. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  13. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  14. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  15. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  16. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  17. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  18. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  19. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  20. Smart Grid Adoption Likeliness Framework: Comparing Idaho and National Residential Consumers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiya, Evanson G.

    New energy technologies that provide real-time visibility of the electricity grid's performance, along with the ability to address unusual events in the grid and allow consumers to manage their energy use, are being developed in the United States. Primary drivers for the new technologies include the growing energy demand, tightening environmental regulations, aging electricity infrastructure, and rising consumer demand to become more involved in managing individual energy usage. In the literature and in practice, it is unclear if, and to what extent, residential consumers will adopt smart grid technologies. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between demographic characteristics, perceptions, and the likelihood of adopting smart grid technologies among residential energy consumers. The results of a 31-item survey were analyzed for differences within the Idaho consumers and compared against national consumers. Analysis of variance was used to examine possible differences between the dependent variable of likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies and the independent variables of age, gender, residential ownership, and residential location. No differences were found among Idaho consumers in their likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. An independent sample t-test was used to examine possible differences between the two groups of Idaho consumers and national consumers in their level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage, the added convenience of the smart grid, renewable energy, the willingness to pay for infrastructure costs, and the likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. The level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage was significantly different between the two groups (t = 3.11, p = .0023), while the other variables were similar. The study contributes to technology adoption research regarding specific consumer perceptions and provides a framework that

  1. Self-acceptance: a factor in the adoption process.

    PubMed

    DiGiulio, J F

    1988-01-01

    This study determined that high self-acceptance of adoptive parents influenced high parental acceptance of their adopted children. A case is made for emphasizing self-acceptance in adoption procedures.

  2. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  3. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  4. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  5. Strict vegan, low-calorie diet administered by caregiving daughter to elderly mother--is this elder abuse?

    PubMed

    Marcus, E L; Fassberg, C Wasserstein; Namestnik, J; Guedj, D; Caine, Y

    2005-06-01

    We present a case in which a 40 year old woman, who was the primary care-giver of her 78 year-old mother, provided a strict vegan diet which caused the mother severe malnutrition. The mother was hospitalized with severe functional deterioration and, while eating a proper diet during hospitalization, gained weight and her condition improved. The case was reported to the Welfare Officer and the mother was released under the supervision of the Welfare Officer. Cases of severe malnutrition and even death of infants who were fed a strict vegan diet have been reported. This case raises some ethical and legal issues. Should a guardian or a caregiver be allowed to make decisions regarding the way of life and medical treatment of the person in his/her charge which are likely to endanger that person's health and when is it appropriate for society to intervene in individual freedom? The paper includes a review of some reported cases of child and elder abuse or neglect which illustrate these issues.

  6. Nursing students' perceptions of adoption: educational preparation needed.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Forster, Anna; Lim, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Adoption is a worldwide practice; most know someone who has been adopted, has adopted a child, or has relinquished a child for adoption. Healthcare professionals will have contact with patients who have a connection to adoption. This study examined the overall perceptions, current knowledge, and gaps in a nursing curriculum as reported by undergraduate nursing students and offers insight into caring for those impacted by adoption.

  7. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  8. ENHANCING PRESCRIPTION DRUG INNOVATION AND ADOPTION

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, G. Caleb; O’Connor, Alec B.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its Innovation and cost-effectiveness. The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a market place in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

  9. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  10. Isolation of Immune Cells for Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Tlili; Paradis, Pierre; Mann, Koren K; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is a useful technique to characterize the role of the immune system in hypertension and vascular disease. Here we describe as an example the isolation of splenic T regulatory cells from donor mice processed to obtain a single cell suspension, followed by negative and positive selection to obtain CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells, respectively. Treg cells can be subsequently transferred to recipient animals.

  11. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  12. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  13. Children after adoption: Exploring their psychological needs.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Margaret; Hodges, Jill; Malik, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Children adopted from care are known to be at increased risk for mental health difficulties although relatively little research has been carried out to explore this question. This study assessed the mental health and psychological development of children placed for adoption by one UK Local Authority. We compared the pattern and prevalence of difficulties to existing data including that on Looked-After Children (LAC) children. Totally, 106 families were initially approached and parent interviews and at least partial questionnaire data were gathered on 47 children, 72.3% of whom were known to have been maltreated prior to adoption. Of the 34 children with a complete data set including Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), 76.4% met full criteria for at least one neurodevelopmental or mental health diagnosis, a markedly higher rate than comparison data on LAC or community samples. Less than half of those identified with a mental health diagnosis had received any prior diagnosis, and only a minority had received appropriate services. Despite the children's difficulties, the great majority of parents reported high enjoyment of bringing up their child.

  14. According to the strict solution of GR there is no the un-modeled anomalous acceleration of Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to the definition of force f = d (m v) /d t = m (d v / d t) + v (d m / d t ) and the change in masses ( the exchange of momentum-energy tensors bwtween two bodies Tµυ via the field tµν ) deduced by Bondi from Einstein equation ( H.Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990 ), we get a new gravitational equation: f GR = f P + f C , f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r), f C = -G (m M / r 2 ) (v /c) (1). The deductive process is: First if mass is invariable, which implies that the mass may produce the gravitational field but the gravitational field should not lead to the change in mass, i.e., the mass should be an invariable parameter and the fourth dimension momentum i E/c should be entirely independent of three-dimension momentum P. In other words, the energy and the momentum should not compose the four-dimension momentum-energy vector and tensor. Thus, the gravitational equation is no longer a nonlinear but a linear one and Einstein equation should be reduced to Newtonian law: f GR = f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r). Second according to the mass-energy relation we get: dm /dt = dE /c2 dt, where E = EK + m0 c2 , then from the conservation of four dimension momentum-energy vector P 2 -(E/c) 2 = 0, we obtain: dE/dt = c dP/dt, dm/dt = dP/c dt = f P /c, f C = v (dm/dt) = v (f P /c) = -G (m M /r 2 ) (v /c). Then, we educe Eq.(1) from the special relativity when the mass is variable. In Eq.(1) the gravitational mass is just the inertial mass and the equivalent principle come absolutely into existence. Einstein equation can also be deduced from Eq.(1) and is equivalent to Eq.(1). Now the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved with the one by one substitute method of masses solved by alone f P and alone f C in Eq.(1), e.g., from one loop Σf P • d s = 0, the energy loss of celestial body running one loop by f C is a typical dipole radiation and a gravitational wave of dipole radiation is predicted.When mass-point B nearing mass-point A, the masses MA and MB will

  15. Exploring adoption with clients: the need for adoption education within the genetic counseling profession.

    PubMed

    Perry, Cassandra L; Henry, Martha J

    2010-08-01

    Genetic counselors and other health professionals may encounter adoption during any counseling session. They must be skilled in using appropriate language and understand how to approach and discuss this topic with clients. A thorough knowledge of adoption as an option for clients facing a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis is necessary when presenting individuals with non-biased information needed for informed decision-making. However, three preliminary studies have demonstrated an absence of graduate education and lack of a professional knowledge base regarding this option (Mates 2008; Oksala 2007; Perry 2003). We discuss the impact of medical professionals' preconceptions on client decision-making, increasing early identification of fetal anomalies, deficiency of adoption knowledge and resources, and the resulting need for genetic counselors and other health professionals to develop their skills in discussing adoption with clients.

  16. Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  17. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  18. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  19. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  20. Cooperative Semi-Global Output Regulation of Nonlinear Strict-Feedback Multi-Agent Systems With Nonidentical Relative Degrees.

    PubMed

    Su, Youfeng

    2016-03-03

    In this paper, we study the cooperative semi-global output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback multi-agent systems, where the subsystems are assumed to have nonidentical relative degrees. We first introduce the so-called distributed internal model that converts our problem into the cooperative semi-global stabilization problem of the corresponding augmented system composed of the original multi-agent system and the internal model. We then put this augmented system into the general block lower triangular form, and develop the block semi-global backstepping technique to stabilize it. Comparing with some existing literatures, our design has removed the identical relative degree assumption, and hence applies to a much larger group of nonlinear multi-agent systems.

  1. High microbial production and characterization of strictly periodic polymers modelled on the repetitive domain of wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Sourice, Sophie; Nisole, Audrey; Guéguen, Jacques; Popineau, Yves; Elmorjani, Khalil

    2003-12-26

    Primary structures of wheat prolamins contain repetitive domains involved in the mechanical properties of gluten. In order to experience the ability of recombinant strictly periodic polypeptides, modelled on a consensus sequence of wheat gliadins (PQQPY)(8) and (PQQPY)(17) (SPR8 and SPR17 polypeptides, respectively), to be formulated in film solutions, their heterologous expression conditions, in batch culture and low cell densities, were optimized to match the high requirements of this process. A convenient and general purification procedure was also devised. Moreover, FTIR-ATR characterizations indicated that these periodic polypeptides prepared as hydrated doughy state and dried have the tendency to form a protein network through intermolecular beta-sheets, strongly maintained by hydrogen bonds. Accordingly, these recombinant polypeptides are assumed to be a suitable candidate for potential application.

  2. Composite neural dynamic surface control of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Shi, Zhongke; Yang, Chenguang; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the composite adaptive tracking control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form. Dynamic surface control technique is incorporated into radial-basis-function neural networks (NNs)-based control framework to eliminate the problem of explosion of complexity. To avoid the analytic computation, the command filter is employed to produce the command signals and their derivatives. Different from directly toward the asymptotic tracking, the accuracy of the identified neural models is taken into consideration. The prediction error between system state and serial-parallel estimation model is combined with compensated tracking error to construct the composite laws for NN weights updating. The uniformly ultimate boundedness stability is established using Lyapunov method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed method achieves smoother parameter adaption, better accuracy, and improved performance.

  3. Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2004-06-01

    We describe a source-model technique for the analysis of the strictly bound modes propagating in photonic crystal fibers that have a finite photonic bandgap crystal cladding and are surrounded by an air jacket. In this model the field is simulated by a superposition of fields of fictitious electric and magnetic current filaments, suitably placed near the media interfaces of the fiber. A simple point-matching procedure is subsequently used to enforce the continuity conditions across the interfaces, leading to a homogeneous matrix equation. Nontrivial solutions to this equation yield the mode field patterns and propagation constants. As an example, we analyze a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Symmetry characteristics of the modes are discussed and exploited to reduce the computational burden.

  4. Local Petrovskii lacunas close to parabolic singular points of the wavefronts of strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    We enumerate the local Petrovskii lacunas (that is, the domains of local regularity of the principal fundamental solutions of strictly hyperbolic PDEs with constant coefficients in {R}^N) close to parabolic singular points of their wavefronts (that is, at the points of types P_8^1, P_8^2, +/- X_9, X_9^1, X_9^2, J10^1 and J10^3). These points form the next most difficult family of classes in the natural classification of singular points after the so-called simple singularities A_k, D_k, E_6, E_7 and E_8, which have been investigated previously. Also we present a computer program which counts the topologically distinct morsifications of critical points of smooth functions, and hence also the local components of the complement of a generic wavefront at its singular points. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  5. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  6. The impossibility of exactly flat non-trivial Chern bands in strictly local periodic tight binding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Mazaheri, Tahereh; Seidel, Alexander; Tang, Xiang

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the possibility of exactly flat non-trivial Chern bands in tight binding models with local (strictly short-ranged) hopping parameters. We demonstrate that while any two of the three criteria can be simultaneously realized (exactly flat band, non-zero Chern number, local hopping), it is not possible to simultaneously satisfy all three. Our theorem covers both the case of a single flat band, for which we give a rather elementary proof, as well as the case of multiple degenerate flat bands. In the latter case, our result is obtained as an application of K-theory. We also introduce a class of models on the Lieb lattice with nearest and next-nearest neighbor hopping parameters, which have an isolated exactly flat band of a zero Chern number but, in general, non-zero Berry curvature.

  7. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  8. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  9. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  10. Creating Grander Families: Older Adults Adopting Younger Kin and Nonkin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the…

  11. The Adoption Experience: Families Who Give Children a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ann

    This book examines the adoption process in Great Britain, recounting first-hand experiences to take the reader through each stage of the process from the adopter's point of view. The book also examines the success and failure of several types of adoption. The chapters are: (1) "You Want to Adopt"; (2) "First Meetings, First Months,…

  12. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  13. Partitioning the Adoption Process to Better Predict Permanency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Tom; Press, Alan; Billings, Peggy; Moore, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Under federal outcome standards established by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, discharges to adoption are expected to occur within 24 months of the most recent removal from home for at least 32% of cases. In the research recounted here, adoption is treated as a process composed of two discrete steps: adoptive placement, and adoption…

  14. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  15. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  17. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an...

  18. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  19. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  20. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...