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Sample records for adopt strict energy

  1. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  2. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet. PMID:8269890

  3. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  4. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  5. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  6. The Bond Order of C2 from a Strictly N-Representable Natural Orbital Energy Functional Perspective.

    PubMed

    Piris, Mario; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2016-03-14

    The bond order of the ground electronic state of the carbon dimer has been analyzed in the light of natural orbital functional theory calculations carried out with an approximate, albeit strictly N-representable, energy functional. Three distinct solutions have been found from the Euler equations of the minimization of the energy functional with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers, which expand upon increasing values of the internuclear coordinate. In the close vicinity of the minimum energy region, two of the solutions compete around a discontinuity point. The former, corresponding to the absolute minimum energy, features two valence natural orbitals of each of the following symmetries, σ, σ*, π and π*, and has three bonding interactions and one antibonding interaction, which is very suggestive of a bond order large than two but smaller than three. The latter, features one σ-σ* linked pair of natural orbitals and three degenerate pseudo-bonding like orbitals, paired each with one triply degenerate pseudo-antibonding orbital, which points to a bond order larger than three. When correlation effects, other than Hartree-Fock for example, between the paired natural orbitals are accounted for, this second solution vanishes yielding a smooth continuous dissociation curve. Comparison of the vibrational energies and electron ionization energies, calculated on this curve, with their corresponding experimental marks, lend further support to a bond order for C2 intermediate between acetylene and ethylene.

  7. The Bond Order of C2 from a Strictly N-Representable Natural Orbital Energy Functional Perspective.

    PubMed

    Piris, Mario; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2016-03-14

    The bond order of the ground electronic state of the carbon dimer has been analyzed in the light of natural orbital functional theory calculations carried out with an approximate, albeit strictly N-representable, energy functional. Three distinct solutions have been found from the Euler equations of the minimization of the energy functional with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers, which expand upon increasing values of the internuclear coordinate. In the close vicinity of the minimum energy region, two of the solutions compete around a discontinuity point. The former, corresponding to the absolute minimum energy, features two valence natural orbitals of each of the following symmetries, σ, σ*, π and π*, and has three bonding interactions and one antibonding interaction, which is very suggestive of a bond order large than two but smaller than three. The latter, features one σ-σ* linked pair of natural orbitals and three degenerate pseudo-bonding like orbitals, paired each with one triply degenerate pseudo-antibonding orbital, which points to a bond order larger than three. When correlation effects, other than Hartree-Fock for example, between the paired natural orbitals are accounted for, this second solution vanishes yielding a smooth continuous dissociation curve. Comparison of the vibrational energies and electron ionization energies, calculated on this curve, with their corresponding experimental marks, lend further support to a bond order for C2 intermediate between acetylene and ethylene. PMID:26822104

  8. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  9. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  10. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  11. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern Californiamore » residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.« less

  12. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  13. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Accelerating Adoption of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The DOE/EERE Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) increases awareness and accelerates adoption of practices and technologies that cost-effectively increase energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy, and oil displacement.

  14. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  15. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  16. Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.

  17. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  18. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  19. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  20. Statewide Savings Projections from the Adoption of Commercial Building Energy Codes in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.

    2002-09-30

    ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. A number of jurisdictions in the state of Illinois are considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as their commercial building energy code. This report builds on the results of a previous study, "Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions," to estimate the total potential impact of adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as a statewide commercial building code in terms of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) savings, total primary energy savings, and pollution emissions reductions.

  1. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  2. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  3. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  4. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  5. Sixty-five: Communication and the Adoption of Energy Conservation Measures by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    To determine the relationship of various forms of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners, and to compare the energy conserving behavior of those under 65 with those over 65, a three-year panel study was conducted in a Midwest suburban community. Heads of households who owned single family dwellings were…

  6. Social and attitudinal determinants of the behavioral intention to adopt solar-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    In spite of increased research efforts, an understanding of the factors encouraging solar adoption and the barriers hindering adoption is seriously deficient. This study attempts to correct this deficiency by developing a predictive model of intentions to adopt residential solar technologies. The development of the model derives from three sources: (1) findings from previous studies, (2) variables from the diffusion of innovations tradition, and (3) an attitude-behavior model from social psychology. The attitude-behavior model, developed by Martin Fishbein and his associates over the past several years, forms the core of the conceptual model that incorporates the diffusion variables and the findings from previous studies. The final conceptual model indicates, as expected, that a measure of attitudes toward the act of adopting solar technologies in the most-important predictor variable. Homeowners who weight the various factors associated with solar energy and arrive at a favorable composite-attitude express a behavioral intention to adopt the technology. Other factors, however, improve the level of prediction. Perceptions of economic advantages, perceptions of economic barriers, and educational attainment were found to be statistically significant predictors. Still other factors, such as income, the number of contracts with solar owners, and environmental concerns, improved prediction indirectly. However, perceived social norms had no significant effects on the formation of the intention to adopt solar energy systems.

  7. Building change: Effects of professional culture and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Kathryn Bess

    1998-12-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of energy-efficient buildings, energy efficiency measures have not been widely adopted by the building industry. My dissertation addresses the question "If energy efficiency is such a good idea, why isn't there more of it?" by studying the two professional groups that have the most influence over building design: architects and engineers. My hypothesis is that the professional cultures and organizational contexts of building designers can and do influence the achievable potential for energy efficiency in buildings. "Professional culture" describes what architects and engineers are generally taught (both directly and indirectly) to want in a building. "Organizational context" refers to where and how an individual architect or engineer does his or her work. Two utility-funded demand-side management projects provide data for this effort. I use technologies, designers, and decisions from these projects to explore the effects of engineering-economic information, professional culture, and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption. My results show that even in situations where cost and information barriers are overcome, professional culture and organizational contexts affect energy efficiency adoption. My conclusions recommend treating energy efficiency in the built environment as a socio-technical problem, not an engineering-economic one. To improve energy efficiency adoption in the short term, efficiency advocates should focus on organizational context, matching efficient technologies with the firm types most likely to adopt them. To generate market transformation in the long term, efficiency advocates should focus on educating future generations of designers to include efficiency in their professional cultures.

  8. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  9. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is to better understand the motivations that lead office building professionals to adopt green building technology. By utilizing a validated theory named the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the investigator analyzes the impact of four predictor variables on the behavioral intention to adopt green building technology. The adapted UTAUT model, called the Green Building Technology Model (GBTM), was found to have a statistically significant correlation with the intention to adopt green building technology. The results provide a model for using the GBTM in green building technology applications. Implications are drawn for the green industry on the whole and for the green office building movement in particular. Industry and government can develop interventions based on the insights learned from this study about the adoption process. These interventions, such as education or awareness campaigns, can help increase the adoption of green building technology, further advancing society's efforts to conserve the natural environment and achieve cost efficiencies.

  10. Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of the energy and water conservation standards that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010. The standards covered include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. We estimate that energy efficiency standards for consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010 saved 3.0 quads in 2010, have had a cumulative energy savings of 25.9 quads through 2010 and will achieve cumulative energy savings of 158 quads over the period 1990-2070. Thus, the majority of the savings are still to come as products subject to standards enter the stock. Furthermore, the standards will have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $851 billion and $1,103 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. In addition, we estimate the water conservation standards, together with those energy conservation standards that also save water, saved residential consumers 1.5 trillion gallons of water in 2010, have had cumulative water savings of 11.7 trillion gallons through 2010, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 51.4 trillion gallons.

  12. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  13. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  14. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  15. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  16. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  17. On the optimization of the generalized coplanar Hohmann impulsive transfer adopting energy change concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Osman M.; Soliman, Adel S.

    2005-02-01

    We considered the problem of transferring the rocket's orbit to higher energy orbit, using minimum fuel cost, as a problem in change of energy, since this is most convenient. For the generalized Hohmann case (the departure; the transferring and the destination orbits are ellipses), we adopt the first configuration only, when the apogee of transfer orbit, and the apogee of destination orbit are coincident. Firstly, we assign the ΔvA, ΔvB increments in velocity at points A,B (the position of peri-apse and apo-apse impulses respectively), as functions of the eccentricity of the transfer orbit, eT. Subsequently, we apply the optimum condition leading to the derivation of the quartic equation in eT, and showed how to deduce (ΔvA+ΔvB)Min. A numerical example is presented, in which we determined the four roots of the quartic equation, by a numerical Mathematica Version 2.2. We selected the adequate consistent root, only one in this case, and evaluated (ΔvA+ΔvB)Min for the two orbits of the couple Earth and Mars. This article is a new approach and leads to new discoveries involved in the problem, consequently adds new insight and avoids complexities of previous procedures.

  18. Evaluation of Energy Policy Instruments for the Adoption of Renewable Energy: Case of Wind Energy in the Pacific Northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abotah, Remal

    The wide use of renewable energy technologies for generating electricity can be seen as one way of meeting environmental and climate change challenges along with a progression to a low-carbon economy. A large number of policy instruments have been formed and employed to support the adoption of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector. However, the success of these policies in achieving their goals relies on how effective they are in satisfying their targets and thus increasing renewable energy adoption. One measurement for effectiveness of policy instruments can be their contribution to the input of the process of renewable energy adoption and their effect on satisfying regional goal. The objective of this research is evaluate the effectiveness of energy policy instruments on increasing the adoption of renewable energy by developing a comprehensive evaluation model. Criteria used in this assessment depend on five perspectives that are perceived by decision makers as important for adoption process. The decision model linked the perspectives to policy targets and various energy policy instruments. These perspectives are: economic, social, political, environmental and technical. The research implemented the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized policy assessment framework. Data for wind energy adoption in the Pacific Northwest region were collected as a case study and application for the model. Experts' qualitative judgments were collected and quantified using the pair-wise comparison method and the final rankings and effectiveness of policy alternatives with respect to the mission were identified. Results of this research identified economic feasibility improvement of renewable energy projects as the most influential perspective and that renewable portfolio standards and tax credits are the two most effective criteria to accomplish that. The research also applied sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis to identify the

  19. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This report describes a Berkeley Lab effort to model the economics and operation of small-scale (<500 kW) on-site electricity generators based on real-world installations at several example customer sites. This work builds upon the previous development of the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment, and idealized operating schedule, that would minimize the site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a historic test period, usually a recent year. This study offered the first opportunity to apply DER-CAM in a real-world setting and evaluate its modeling results. DER-CAM has three possible applications: first, it can be used to guide choices of equipment at specific sites, or provide general solutions for example sites and propose good choices for sites with similar circumstances; second, it can additionally provide the basis for the operations of installed on-site generation; and third, it can be used to assess the market potential of technologies by anticipating which kinds of customers might find various technologies attractive. A list of approximately 90 DER candidate sites was compiled and each site's DER characteristics and their willingness to volunteer information was assessed, producing detailed information on about 15 sites of which five sites were analyzed in depth. The five sites were not intended to provide a random sample, rather they were chosen to provide some diversity of business activity, geography, and technology. More importantly, they were chosen in the hope of finding examples of true business decisions made based on somewhat sophisticated analyses, and pilot or demonstration projects were avoided. Information on the benefits and pitfalls of implementing a DER system was also presented from an additional ten sites including agriculture, education, health

  20. Innovation information seeking and innovation adoption: Facilities and plant managers' energy outlook comparing linear to nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Joseph J.

    One focal point of concern, policy and a new research will involve identifying individual and organizational facilitative and obstructive factors within the context of energy innovation diffusion in the U.S. This interdisciplinary intersection of people, technology and change is one of serious consequence and has broad implications that span national security, energy infrastructure, the economy, organizational change, education and the environment. This study investigates facilities and plant managers' energy innovation information seeking and energy adoption evolution. The participants are managers who consume more electrical energy than all other groups in the world and are among the top users of natural gas and oil in the United States. The research calls upon the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Diffusion of Innovations and nonlinear dynamics in a study of adoption patterns for 13 energy-related innovations. Cusp catastrophe models and power laws were compared to linear multiple regression to examine and characterize data. Findings reveal that innovation adoption and information seeking differences are slight between private and public sector facilities and plant managers and that the group as a whole may resist change. Of the 13 innovations, some exhibit very strong cusp catastrophe distributions while support for multiple linear regression and the power law were found.

  1. Strictly positive real transfer functions revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Leal, Rogelio; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1990-01-01

    The two most commonly used definitions of strictly positive real (SPR) transfer functions are reviewed. Contrary to what has been suggested in the literature, it is proven that the least restrictive (weak) definition of the two is clearly related to the Yacubovich-Kalman lemma. The relationship between time- and frequency-domain conditions pertaining to the weak definition of SPR systems is established.

  2. Analyticity of strictly static and strictly stationary, inheriting and non-inheriting Einstein-Maxwell solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tod, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Following the technique of Müller zum Hagen (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 67: 415-421, 1970) we show that strictly static and strictly stationary solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations are analytic in harmonic coordinates. This holds whether or not the Maxwell field inherits the symmetry.

  3. Assessment of locally adopted methods of energy conservation in Ohio school districts

    SciTech Connect

    Medlock, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to survey the school districts in the state of Ohio to determine specific energy conservation techniques that have been utilized; 2) to identify specific energy conservation techniques that are being implemented according to district type, district enrollment size, and district assessed valuation per pupil; and 3) to compare those energy conservation techniques identified by the study with suggested implementation values provided by the Energy Office of the Ohio State Department of Education. A questionnaire was adminstered to all of the public school districts in the state of Ohio. Data obtained from the responding districts showed the following demographic characteristics: 1) 57.8% had planned active energy conservation management programs; 2) 58.9 placed emphasis upon both long- and short-range conservation planning; 3) 72.8% were able to reduce energy expenditure between 1 and 15%; 4) 55.4% indicated energy audits in more than 50% of their buildings; 5) 74.5% indicated financial limitations as the major obstacle to implementation of energy conservation; and 6) 60.0% cited the superintendent as being responsible for the implementation of energy conservation. The specific energy conservation techniques given highest implementation priority were in the heating and cooling area while lowest implementation priority was in the extra activities and food services areas.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  6. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  7. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  8. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  9. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  10. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  11. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  12. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  13. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  14. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  15. Young healthy individuals develop lack of energy when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ernersson, Asa; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nyström, Fredrik H; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman

    2010-09-01

    During the past 20 years, a sedentary lifestyle has become more common and simultaneously the consumption of energy-dense food has increased. These are two major risk factors associated with the increase of overweight and obesity, which is found in all ages over the world. The low well-being reported by obese individuals could be associated with increased food intake or it might be a specific consequence of obesity and lack of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, by increasing energy intake and simultaneously having a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks in healthy, normal-weight individuals of both genders. Eighteen healthy individuals (12 men and 6 women; median age 23, range 21-44 years) were included in an intervention, with a doubled energy intake and a maximum physical activity of 5000 steps per day during 4 weeks. After completing this intervention the participants were interviewed and asked to describe their experience during the past 4 weeks. A phenomenological approach was used to gain understanding of the phenomenon and analyses of the transcripts were performed in four steps according to Giorgis' method. The main essence of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, was found to be lack of energy, related to emotional life, relations and life habits. Lack of energy emerged from five structures: influenced self-confidence, commitment to oneself and others, managing eating, feelings of tiredness and physical impact. These five structures were manifested through 12 constituents. These lifestyle changes decreased the sense of well-being in nonobese healthy individuals of both genders.

  16. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    2012-01-01

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  17. Adopting a Long View to Energy R&D and Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Doley; P.J. Runci

    1999-08-09

    This report presents the results of an assessment of a test installation of two similar sulfur lamp, or S-lamp lighting systems, with hollow-light guide distribution. The S-lamp, developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc. with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technology, Community and State Programs (BTS), was demonstrated as a prototype for the first time in 1994. The S-lamp embodies a new, microwave-powered, electrodeless technology that offers improved energy efficiency and color rendition compared with most available sources. The purpose of this assessment is to provide important information to all of those involved regarding the effectiveness and future applicability of this technology in a postal sorting setting.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  20. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  1. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  3. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  4. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  5. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  6. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  7. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  8. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  9. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  10. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  11. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  12. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  13. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  14. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  15. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 ' = -190 mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 ' = -320 mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A. woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 ' ≈ -500 mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate + Fd(2-)  + 2 NAD(+)  → pyruvate + Fd + 2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( Δ μ ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes.

  16. Mammalian Evolution May not Be Strictly Bifurcating

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Björn M.; Janke, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1–4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100–80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation. PMID:20591845

  17. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  18. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  19. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  20. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  1. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  2. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  3. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  4. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  5. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  6. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  7. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  8. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  9. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  10. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  11. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  12. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  13. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  14. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  15. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  17. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  19. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  20. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  1. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  2. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  3. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  4. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color....

  5. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  6. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  7. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  8. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  9. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  10. Rethinking Diffusion Theory in an Applied Context: Role of Environmental Values in Adoption of Home Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…

  11. Sex: A Classification in Search of Strict Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, Frederica K.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of the Fourteenth Amendment in sex discrimination cases are examined with focus on the standard of review--strict scrutiny, rational relationship, or something in between. Early challenges and judicial attitudes, growing use of the equal protection clause, maternity benefits (Title VII vs. the Constitution), and 1974-75 Supreme Court…

  12. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pipeline and ports under the jurisdiction of the United States, and is carrying TAPS oil, the Owner and... discharge of TAPS oil from such vessel. Strict liability under this section shall cease when the TAPS oil... State law. (2) The Fund shall establish uniform procedures to determine whether claims from a TAPS...

  13. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pipeline and ports under the jurisdiction of the United States, and is carrying TAPS oil, the Owner and... discharge of TAPS oil from such vessel. Strict liability under this section shall cease when the TAPS oil... State law. (2) The Fund shall establish uniform procedures to determine whether claims from a TAPS...

  14. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pipeline and ports under the jurisdiction of the United States, and is carrying TAPS oil, the Owner and... discharge of TAPS oil from such vessel. Strict liability under this section shall cease when the TAPS oil... State law. (2) The Fund shall establish uniform procedures to determine whether claims from a TAPS...

  15. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pipeline and ports under the jurisdiction of the United States, and is carrying TAPS oil, the Owner and... discharge of TAPS oil from such vessel. Strict liability under this section shall cease when the TAPS oil... State law. (2) The Fund shall establish uniform procedures to determine whether claims from a TAPS...

  16. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pipeline and ports under the jurisdiction of the United States, and is carrying TAPS oil, the Owner and... discharge of TAPS oil from such vessel. Strict liability under this section shall cease when the TAPS oil... State law. (2) The Fund shall establish uniform procedures to determine whether claims from a TAPS...

  17. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  18. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  19. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology asmore » well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.« less

  20. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology as well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.

  1. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  2. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  3. Facultative to strict anaerobes ratio in the preterm infant microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear alterations in the process of microbiota establishment in preterm newborns when compared with a control group of full-term breast-fed infants. Here we have analyzed these data more in depth, corroborating a reduced proportion of strict anaerobes with respect to facultatives in the fecal microbiota of preterm infants. The potential benefits, as well as the side effects, of strategies aimed at counterbalancing this alteration in the facultative to strict anaerobes ratio are discussed in this addendum. PMID:22922559

  4. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  5. Taking Adoption Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William

    1990-01-01

    Argues that adoption should be included in strategies to help children, teen parents, and other women with difficult pregnancies because adolescents are not equipped to raise children. Discusses the need for longitudinal research on adoption, adoption education in secondary schools, and studying mass media impact on adoption. (FMW)

  6. [The strict sense nursing postgraduation in Brazil: advances and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Munari, Denize Bouttelet; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; de Gutiérrez, Maria Gaby Rivero; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani

    2013-09-01

    Nursing is a specific field of knowledge and social practice that has been consolidated and strengthened as science. In Brazil, it has been developed due to the increase and qualification of strict sense post-graduate programs. This study aims to present a historical review of the strict sense post-graduate nursing courses in Brazil and to reflect on their evolution, progress, challenges and future perspectives. It explores the creation of strict sense post-graduate courses, highlighting the movement to build a culture of academic and professional post-graduation in nursing. The historical path of their consolidation, expansion, conquest of excellence and international visibility over four decades, and the challenges and future perspectives are showed. It is found that the post-graduate programs in the field has contributed to the advancement and consolidation of scientific, technological knowledge and innovation in nursing and health care, having as philosophy the respect for diversity and the free exchange of ideas, the improvement of quality of life and health, and the effectiveness of citizenship.

  7. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  8. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  9. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  10. Adoption: The Bigger Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies two theoretical frameworks for adoption research: stress and coping literature and life-span developmental psychology. Recognizes that placing adoption within these larger study areas encourages differentiated, conditional questions such as when does adoption have which types of impacts for which types of individuals. (DLH)

  11. Adopting a Water-Food-Energy nexus approach to explore the synergies and trade-offs of food-water policies in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Lechon, Yolanda; de la Rúa, Cristina; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Spain is a semi-arid country and faces a strong competition over scarce water resources by the different sectors. Agriculture is the largest water consumer and because of this it is often at the core of much of the disputes over water. Several policy measures have been implemented in the course of the last decades to ameliorate water scarcity problems. The irrigation modernization plan is probably one of the most ambitious plans implemented so far (with a total investment of nearly 3,800 mill € involving the modernization of over 1 million irrigated ha), and was developed with the double aim of increasing the efficiency of agricultural water use and strength the resilience and competitiveness of the Spanish irrigation sector. In this research we examine the implications of the irrigation modernization plan by adopting a nexus approach. In particular we assess the trends in water, land and energy footprints associated to agriculture during the period 2000-2011 to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. Likewise, we used a life cycle analysis approach to assess the implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Our results show that the land footprint of irrigated agriculture has increased 2% (from 3.4 mill ha in 2000 to 3,6 mill ha in 2011). Meanwhile, the water footprint of irrigated agriculture has decreased by 8% (from 17,078 hm3 in 2000 to 15,573 hm3 in 2011). Beyond the net water savings, there has been a major shift in the composition of the water footprint. In the year 2000, 77% of the blue agricultural water footprint was linked to surface water, while in the year 2011 over 55% of the water consumed by agriculture is groundwater. The modernization of irrigation technologies alongside with the shift from a predominantly surface water footprint to groundwater has boosted the energy footprint of irrigation by 56% (2442 GWh in 2000 to 3803 GWh in 2011). This rise in the energy bill has meant an increase of 9% in the GHG emissions. Yet, this GHG

  12. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Corda, Christian

    2013-10-15

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle.

  13. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  14. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  15. The claim from adoption.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  16. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  17. Application of inverse, strict conformal transformation to design waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y G; Wang, N; Ong, C K

    2010-05-01

    Integration of transformation optics with development of metamaterials offers great opportunities to create exotic material with electromagnetic functionality absent from nature. It has already led to several significant advancements in physical conceptions and technological applications such as invisible cloaking. Unfortunately practical application is often restricted by the complex requirements on material properties imposed by the general optical transformation theory. It is therefore necessary to relax the stringent requirements of materials properties in order to practicably use the power of transformation optics to design exotic optical devices. Development of new coordinate transformation mathematics to compromise between the stringent materials properties and the ultimate performance required by a useful novel device is required. In this work the authors employed strict conformal transformation to design physical materials that could guide light in a predetermined way. A simple and efficient numerical approach based on unusual inverse transformation is proposed here to quickly solve partial differential equations and construct the mapping relationship. The results showed that a transformed optical device could be made by purely using isotropic dielectric materials. Two application examples were numerically proposed to verify the versatility of conformal transformation and the robustness of the inverse approach. One was a 90 degrees waveguide beam bend, and the other was a waveguide-type beam splitter or coupler.

  18. Strict and random alternation in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Elliffe, Douglas; Davison, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons responded on pairs of concurrent variable-interval schedules with, in different parts, four different arrangements of alternation between schedules. Following a single switching-key response, alternation was either strict or random, and the alternative presented after a switch (the postswitch alternative) was either signaled by the location of the switching key or unsignaled. Generalized-matching analyses showed little difference in behavior among the different alternation arrangements, except the usual finding of lower sensitivity of response allocation than time allocation was eliminated by arranging random alternation. Patterns of interchangeover times were similar for all arrangements except signaled random alternation. Differences in behavior preceding the different postswitch alternatives were found in the signaled random alternation procedure. Preference was biased towards the color of the signaled postswitch alternative and showed increased sensitivity when the postswitch alternative was to be the one with the higher reinforcer rate. Interchangeover times were substantially shorter when the postswitch alternative was signaled to be different from the current alternative than when it was signaled to be the same. However, when separate reinforcer ratios were calculated for the different postswitch alternatives, those effects were eliminated or greatly reduced. We suggest that, although behavior is indeed influenced by the postswitch alternative, the mechanism is indirect. That is, the distributions of reinforcers between alternatives obtained before each postswitch alternative differ when those alternatives are signaled, and those distributions are discriminated, but the same relations between choice and relative reinforcement hold irrespective of which postswitch alternative is signaled. PMID:12696742

  19. Collecting reliable clades using the Greedy Strict Consensus Merger

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supertree methods combine a set of phylogenetic trees into a single supertree. Similar to supermatrix methods, these methods provide a way to reconstruct larger parts of the Tree of Life, potentially evading the computational complexity of phylogenetic inference methods such as maximum likelihood. The supertree problem can be formalized in different ways, to cope with contradictory information in the input. Many supertree methods have been developed. Some of them solve NP-hard optimization problems like the well-known Matrix Representation with Parsimony, while others have polynomial worst-case running time but work in a greedy fashion (FlipCut). Both can profit from a set of clades that are already known to be part of the supertree. The Superfine approach shows how the Greedy Strict Consensus Merger (GSCM) can be used as preprocessing to find these clades. We introduce different scoring functions for the GSCM, a randomization, as well as a combination thereof to improve the GSCM to find more clades. This helps, in turn, to improve the resolution of the GSCM supertree. We find this modifications to increase the number of true positive clades by 18% compared to the currently used Overlap scoring. PMID:27375971

  20. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  1. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  2. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  3. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  4. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    PubMed

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  5. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    PubMed

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  6. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  7. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  8. The Colorado Adoption Project

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Corley, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically-informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated- sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP’s history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP’s initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study’s multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development. PMID:23158098

  9. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  10. The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Henning; Fricke, W. Florian; Veith, Birgit; Brüggemann, Holger; Liesegang, Heiko; Strittmatter, Axel; Miethke, Marcus; Buckel, Wolfgang; Hinderberger, Julia; Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clostridium kluyveri is unique among the clostridia; it grows anaerobically on ethanol and acetate as sole energy sources. Fermentation products are butyrate, caproate, and H2. We report here the genome sequence of C. kluyveri, which revealed new insights into the metabolic capabilities of this well studied organism. A membrane-bound energy-converting NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (RnfCDGEAB) and a cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex (Bcd/EtfAB) coupling the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA with the reduction of ferredoxin represent a new energy-conserving module in anaerobes. The genes for NAD-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase and NAD(P)-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase are located next to genes for microcompartment proteins, suggesting that the two enzymes, which are isolated together in a macromolecular complex, form a carboxysome-like structure. Unique for a strict anaerobe, C. kluyveri harbors three sets of genes predicted to encode for polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrides and one set for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. The latter is predicted to catalyze the synthesis of a new siderophore, which is formed under iron-deficient growth conditions. PMID:18218779

  11. The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features.

    PubMed

    Seedorf, Henning; Fricke, W Florian; Veith, Birgit; Brüggemann, Holger; Liesegang, Heiko; Strittmatter, Axel; Miethke, Marcus; Buckel, Wolfgang; Hinderberger, Julia; Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph; Thauer, Rudolf K; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2008-02-12

    Clostridium kluyveri is unique among the clostridia; it grows anaerobically on ethanol and acetate as sole energy sources. Fermentation products are butyrate, caproate, and H2. We report here the genome sequence of C. kluyveri, which revealed new insights into the metabolic capabilities of this well studied organism. A membrane-bound energy-converting NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (RnfCDGEAB) and a cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex (Bcd/EtfAB) coupling the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA with the reduction of ferredoxin represent a new energy-conserving module in anaerobes. The genes for NAD-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase and NAD(P)-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase are located next to genes for microcompartment proteins, suggesting that the two enzymes, which are isolated together in a macromolecular complex, form a carboxysome-like structure. Unique for a strict anaerobe, C. kluyveri harbors three sets of genes predicted to encode for polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrides and one set for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. The latter is predicted to catalyze the synthesis of a new siderophore, which is formed under iron-deficient growth conditions. PMID:18218779

  12. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  13. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  14. A case of strictly unilateral migraine without aura transformed in an episodic hemicrania continua.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Rossana; Cevoli, Sabina; Nicodemo, Marianna; Pierangeli, Giulia; Grimaldi, Daniela; Cortelli, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    According to the diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society classification, hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral continuous headache of moderate intensity with painful exacerbations associated with ipsilateral autonomic signs without pain-free periods. We report a case of a 42-year-old woman suffered of a remitting form of hemicrania continua evolved from a strictly unilateral migraine without aura.

  15. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416 Section 28.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot...

  16. Computational dynamics for robotics systems using a non-strict computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orin, David E.; Wong, Ho-Cheung; Sadayappan, P.

    1989-01-01

    A Non-Strict computational approach for real-time robotics control computations is proposed. In contrast to the traditional approach to scheduling such computations, based strictly on task dependence relations, the proposed approach relaxes precedence constraints and scheduling is guided instead by the relative sensitivity of the outputs with respect to the various paths in the task graph. An example of the computation of the Inverse Dynamics of a simple inverted pendulum is used to demonstrate the reduction in effective computational latency through use of the Non-Strict approach. A speedup of 5 has been obtained when the processes of the task graph are scheduled to reduce the latency along the crucial path of the computation. While error is introduced by the relaxation of precedence constraints, the Non-Strict approach has a smaller error than the conventional Strict approach for a wide range of input conditions.

  17. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  18. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  19. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for implementing NEPA published by CEQ at 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for implementing NEPA published by CEQ at 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section...

  1. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for implementing NEPA published by CEQ at 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section...

  2. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for implementing NEPA published by CEQ at 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for implementing NEPA published by CEQ at 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section...

  4. Effects of sentencing options and strict / lenient instructions on convicting suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Berman, Mitchell; Embry, Tippins

    2003-11-01

    Sentence and strictness of instructions influence juries' willingness to convict. To see whether this result holds for suicide attempters, 240 undergraduates read jury instructions for a suicide attempt that varied sentence (jail term, fine, community service, or mandatory counseling) and instructions, voted guilty / not guilty, and rated their certainty and effectiveness. With sentences of 25 hours mandatory counseling, or strict instructions, more respondents voted guilty. Sentence did not impact certainty or effectiveness, but strictness enhanced certainty. Overall, respondents were neutral that convicting a suicide attempter would reduce future attempts. Consistent with terror management theory, present students were willing to punish regardless of whether they thought that the punishment was preventive.

  5. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption.

  6. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  7. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  8. Who Is Adopted? Measuring Adoption Status Using National Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Bayley, Bruce K.; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Coyl, Diana; Grotevant, Harold D.; van Dulmen, Manfred; Dunbar, Nora

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to illustrate the complexities of using large-scale surveys to measure adoption status. Discusses conceptual and methodological issues in measuring adoption status. Presents decision rules for determining adoption status across three sources of data: school self-administered…

  9. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J G

    1996-12-10

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  10. Increasing awareness among fluid milk processors of the economic feasibility of energy efficiency projects, and encouraging their adoption through access to benchmarking and other decision-support tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a study done by Thoma et al. (2010) the energy used in fluid milk processing in the United States of America is responsible for approximately 2 million metric tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the total life cycle of milk. These emissions come from electricity use (about 75 perc...

  11. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  12. Adoptive cellular therapy.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based therapies with various lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. The transfusion of T lymphocytes, also called adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an effective treatment for viral infections, has induced regression of cancer in early stage clinical trials, and may be a particularly important and efficacious modality in the period following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Immune reconstitution post-SCT is often slow and incomplete, which in turn leads to an increased risk of infection and may impact relapse risk in patients with malignant disease. Immunization post-HSCT is frequently unsuccessful, due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. ACT has the potential to enhance antitumor and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. The ability to genetically engineer lymphocyte subsets has the further potential to improve the natural immune response, correct impaired immunity, and redirect T cells to an antitumor effector response. This chapter focuses on various applications of ACT for cancer immunotherapy, and we discuss some of the latest progress and hurdles in translating these technologies to the clinic.

  13. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  14. Strictly Arbitrary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains the history and functions of labor arbitration. Focuses on the limitations placed on the arbitrator and emphasizes the difference between deciding and compromising on a suit. Includes anecdotes from the experience of the author, a prominent arbitrator. (KH)

  15. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  16. Recruiting Mexican American Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Robert S.; Serpe, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 591 Mexican Americans to determine adoption interest and create recruiting practices for prospective parents. Approximately one-third of sample reported an interest in adoption, but many perceived both structural and cultural obstacles to adoption. Based on findings, recommendations for increasing recruitment of…

  17. Intellectual resemblance among adoptive adoptive and biological relatives: the Texas adoption project.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M; Loehlin, J C; Willerman, L

    1979-05-01

    Intellectual and personality measures were available from unwed mothers who gave their children up for adoption at birth. The same or similar measures have been obtained from 300 sets of adoptive parents and all of their adopted and natural children in the Texas Adoption Project. The sample characteristics are discussed in detail, and the basic findings for IQ are presented. Initial analyses of the data on IQ suggest moderate heritabilities. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary nature of these findings.

  18. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  19. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted. PMID:721273

  20. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  1. Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.T.

    1983-10-10

    The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

  2. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons.

  3. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Used as External Acceptors of Electrons: an Energetic Advantage for Strictly Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD+/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

  4. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  5. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. PMID:26384603

  6. A STRICTLY CONTRACTIVE PEACEMAN–RACHFORD SPLITTING METHOD FOR CONVEX PROGRAMMING

    PubMed Central

    BINGSHENG, HE; LIU, HAN; WANG, ZHAORAN; YUAN, XIAOMING

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the application of the Peaceman–Rachford splitting method (PRSM) to a convex minimization model with linear constraints and a separable objective function. Compared to the Douglas–Rachford splitting method (DRSM), another splitting method from which the alternating direction method of multipliers originates, PRSM requires more restrictive assumptions to ensure its convergence, while it is always faster whenever it is convergent. We first illustrate that the reason for this difference is that the iterative sequence generated by DRSM is strictly contractive, while that generated by PRSM is only contractive with respect to the solution set of the model. With only the convexity assumption on the objective function of the model under consideration, the convergence of PRSM is not guaranteed. But for this case, we show that the first t iterations of PRSM still enable us to find an approximate solution with an accuracy of O(1/t). A worst-case O(1/t) convergence rate of PRSM in the ergodic sense is thus established under mild assumptions. After that, we suggest attaching an underdetermined relaxation factor with PRSM to guarantee the strict contraction of its iterative sequence and thus propose a strictly contractive PRSM. A worst-case O(1/t) convergence rate of this strictly contractive PRSM in a nonergodic sense is established. We show the numerical efficiency of the strictly contractive PRSM by some applications in statistical learning and image processing. PMID:25620862

  7. Halopeptonella vilamensis gen. nov, sp. nov., a halophilic strictly aerobic bacterium of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae.

    PubMed

    Menes, Rodolfo Javier; Viera, Claudia Elizabeth; Farías, María Eugenia; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-negative, halophilic, heterotrophic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (SV525T) was isolated from the sediment of a hypersaline lake located at 4600 m above sea level (Laguna Vilama, Argentina). Strain SV525T was strictly aerobic and formed pink-to-magenta colonies. Growth occurred at 10–35 °C (optimum 25–30 °C), at pH levels 6.0–8.5 (optimum 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations of 7.5–25 % (w/v) with an optimum at 10–15 % (w/v). The strain required sodium and magnesium but not potassium ions for growth. Grows with tryptone, or Bacto Peptone as sole carbon and energy source and requires yeast extract for growth. It produced catalase and oxidase. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8 and the major fatty acids comprised C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and C18:0. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol% and its polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a phosphoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SV525T belongs to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data, SV525T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Halopeptonella vilamensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV525T (=DSM 21056T =JCM 16388T =NCIMB 14596T). PMID:26475627

  8. Sequential Transhydroxylations Converting Hydroxyhydroquinone to Phloroglucinol in the Strictly Anaerobic, Fermentative Bacterium Pelobacter massiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Andreas; Schnell, Sylvia; Schink, Bernhard

    1992-01-01

    The recently isolated fermenting bacterium Pelobacter massiliensis is the only strict anaerobe known to grow on hydroxyhydroquinone (1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene) as the sole source of carbon and energy, converting it to stoichiometric amounts of acetate. In this paper, we report on the enzymatic reactions involved in the conversion of hydroxyhydroquinone and pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene) to phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). Cell extracts of P. massiliensis transhydroxylate pyrogallol to phloroglucinol after addition of 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (1,2,3,5-TTHB) as cosubstrate in a reaction identical to that found earlier with Pelobacter acidigallici (A. Brune and B. Schink, J. Bacteriol. 172:1070-1076, 1990). Hydroxyhydroquinone conversion to phloroglucinol is initiated in cell extracts without an external addition of cosubstrates. It involves a minimum of three consecutive transhydroxylation reactions characterized by the transient accumulation of two different TTHB isomers. Chemical synthesis of the TTHB intermediates allowed the resolution of the distinct transhydroxylation steps in this sequence. In an initial transhydroxylation, the hydroxyl group in the 1-position of a molecule of hydroxyhydroquinone is transferred to the 5-position of another molecule of hydroxyhydroquinone to give 1,2,4,5-TTHB and resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) as products. Following this disproportionation of hydroxyhydroquinone, the 1,2,4,5-isomer is converted to 1,2,3,5-TTHB, an enzymatic activity present only in hydroxyhydroquinone-grown cells. Finally, phloroglucinol is formed from 1,2,3,5-TTHB by transfer of the 2-hydroxyl group to either hydroxyhydroquinone or resorcinol. The resulting coproducts are again cosubstrates in earlier reactions of this sequence. From the spectrum of hydroxybenzenes transhydroxylated by the cell extracts, the minimum structural prerequisites that render a hydroxybenzene a hydroxyl donor or acceptor are deduced. PMID:16348719

  9. Reliable filtering with strict dissipativity for T-S fuzzy time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojie; Shi, Peng; Wu, Ligang; Basin, Michael V

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of reliable filter design with strict dissipativity has been investigated for a class of discrete-time T-S fuzzy time-delay systems. Our attention is focused on the design of a reliable filter to ensure a strictly dissipative performance for the filtering error system. Based on the reciprocally convex approach, firstly, a sufficient condition of reliable dissipativity analysis is proposed for T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying delays and sensor failures. Then, a reliable filter with strict dissipativity is designed by solving a convex optimization problem, which can be efficiently solved by standard numerical algorithms. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

  10. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  11. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  12. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  13. Strict dual-mode large-mode-area fiber with multicore structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenxing; Ren, Guobin; Jian, Wei; Jiang, Youchao; Wu, Yue; Yang, Yuguang; Shen, Ya; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new kind of quasi-37-cores fiber structure consisting of 15 conventional cores and 22 air-hole cores. Strict dual-mode condition is systematically analyzed about three structure parameters, core-to-core pitch, relative core diameter, and difference of refractive index between core and cladding. Large effective area about 1910.98 μm2 with low bending loss less than 10-3 dB / m is achieved while keeping strict dual-mode. This structured fiber has a great potential in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  14. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  15. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  16. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  17. Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2007-01-01

    Although faculty support has been identified as a critical factor in the success of educational-technology programs, many people involved in such efforts underestimate the complexities of integrating technology into teaching. In this article, the author proposes an adoption cycle to help tackle the complex issue of technology adoption for…

  18. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  19. A comparison of attitudes toward meat and animals among strict and semi-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have documented a phenomenon whereby individuals self-identify as vegetarians but then simultaneously acknowledge that they eat red meat, chicken, and/or fish. Despite being a consistent and fairly robust effect, there has been little attempt to explain these semi-vegetarians, why they would define themselves in a category whose membership criteria they violate, and ways they might differ from strict vegetarians. The present research highlights possible reasons for the discrepancy and focuses on several dimensions that may demarcate semi-from strict vegetarians: belief in human-animal similarity and liking of and disgust toward meat. Survey results indicated that semi-vegetarians (n=57) were less likely to dislike meat and to find meat disgusting than were strict vegetarians (n=157), even accounting for diet motives. There were no differences between the groups in their beliefs about human-animal similarity although semi-vegetarians who consumed a wider range of animal products perceived marginally less human-animal similarity than those who consumed only fish. The results suggest that semi-vegetarians are distinct from strict vegetarians primarily in their evaluation of and disgust toward meat, likely as a cause or consequence of their occasional consumption of animal flesh.

  20. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  1. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414 Section 28.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  2. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414 Section 28.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  3. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414 Section 28.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  4. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414 Section 28.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  5. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416 Section 28.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  6. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416 Section 28.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  7. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414 Section 28.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  8. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416 Section 28.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416 Section 28.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  10. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  11. DB 02-1 STRICT CONTROL OF HYPERTENSION IN THE FRAIL ELDERLY: IS IT BENEFICIAL? (PRO).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-09-01

    With the life-expectancy increased, the older population expected to grow all around the world. Especially, the increase of elderly population leads to increase of vulnerable or frail elderly people, who require special consideration in caring and managing chronic medical condition. Considering the substantial diversity in the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and functional impairment, elderly people are often highly heterogeneous and their physiological ability and vulnerability vary widely even in same chronological age. However, most of the evidences regarding the treatment for the elderly people were derived from randomized clinical trial which included relatively fit elderly people. Accordingly, the results have limitations when we apply the results to our daily clinical practice.Contrasts to fit people, frail elderly people are vulnerable to stressor, thus considered to be candidates for the less intensive treatment. For this reason, most of the hypertension guidelines recommended less strict blood pressure control for the oldest-old or frail elderly people because of concerns regarding adverse clinical outcome associated with low blood pressure. Nevertheless, there has been very few well-designed clinical trial in frail older adults to support the recommendation.Recent data regarding strict blood pressure control in patients with increased cardiovascular risk showed lower rates of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular with intensive treatment. Furthermore, pre-specified subgroup analysis confirmed the benefit of strict blood pressure in patients older than 75 years. Interestingly, the benefits of strict blood pressure control were more prominent in pre-frail or frail elderly patients than fit elderly patients. These findings seem contradictory to the previous recommendation and usual belief. However, frail elderly people have more cardiovascular risk factors and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Thus, they are considered to be high

  12. Strict Smoke-free Home Policies Among Smoking Parents in Pediatric Settings

    PubMed Central

    Ossip, Deborah J.; Chang, Yuchiao; Nabi-Burza, Emara; Drehmer, Jeremy; Finch, Stacia; Hipple, Bethany; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine strict smoke-free home policies among smoking parents assessed in pediatric offices. Methods We analyzed baseline parental survey data from 10 control practices in a national trial of pediatric office-based tobacco control interventions (Clinical Effort Against Second-hand Smoke Exposure, CEASE). We used logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine factors associated with strict smoke-free home policies. Results Subjects were 952 parents who were current smokers. Just over half (54.3%) reported strict smoke-free home policies. Few reported being asked (19.9%) or advised (17.1%) regarding policies by pediatricians. Factors associated with higher odds of policies were child 5 years or younger (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53, 3.86), nonblack race/ethnicity (aORs 2.17–2.60, 95% CIs 1.25–5.00), non-Medicaid (HMO/private (aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.31, 2.58); self-pay/other aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.12, 2.78); well-child versus sick child visit (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11, 2.34), fewer than 10 cigarettes per day (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31, 2.47), no other home smokers (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.25), only father smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.06, 2.83), and strict smoke-free car policy (aOR 3.51, 95% CI 2.19, 5.64). Conclusions Nearly half of smoking parents did not have strict smoke-free home policies. Parents were less likely to report policies if they were heavier smokers, black, living with other smokers, or attending a sick child visit; if they did not have a young child or smoke-free car policy; if they had a child on Medicaid; and if anyone other than only the father smoked. Few pediatricians addressed or recommended strict smoke-free home policies in an office visit. The pediatric office encounter represents a currently missed opportunity to intervene regarding smoke-free homes, particularly for high-risk groups. PMID:24238677

  13. Counseling Issues in Adoptions by Stepparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patricia A.; Mast, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Although the number of nonrelative adoptions is decreasing, stepparent adoptions are not. These adoptions are viewed as nonproblematic family business separate from the general adoption picture. This article examines demographic data in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, from 55 stepparent adoptions concerning stepparent adopters, birth parents, and…

  14. A strictly improving Phase 1 algorithm using least-squares subproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Although the simplex method's performance in solving linear programming problems is usually quite good, it does not guarantee strict improvement at each iteration on degenerate problems. Instead of trying to recognize and avoid degenerate steps in the simplex method, we have developed a new Phase I algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy, with strict improvement attained at each iteration. It is also noted that the new Phase I algorithm is closely related to a number of existing algorithms. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase I algorithm were almost 3.5 times faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was over 10 times faster.

  15. A strictly improving Phase 1 algorithm using least-squares subproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Although the simplex method`s performance in solving linear programming problems is usually quite good, it does not guarantee strict improvement at each iteration on degenerate problems. Instead of trying to recognize and avoid degenerate steps in the simplex method, we have developed a new Phase I algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy, with strict improvement attained at each iteration. It is also noted that the new Phase I algorithm is closely related to a number of existing algorithms. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase I algorithm were almost 3.5 times faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was over 10 times faster.

  16. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned: Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lessons learned from heritage adoption designs. A general overview of cover deployment hardware that includes the three mechanisms of latch, hinge, and energy absorbers are also discussed.

  17. The maximal Abelian dimension of linear algebras formed by strictly upper triangular matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjumea, J. C.; Núñez, J.; Tenorio, Á. F.

    2007-09-01

    We compute the largest dimension of the Abelian Lie subalgebras contained in the Lie algebra mathfrak{g}_n of n×n strictly upper triangular matrices, where n ∈ ℕ {1}. We do this by proving a conjecture, which we previously advanced, about this dimension. We introduce an algorithm and use it first to study the two simplest particular cases and then to study the general case.

  18. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America.

  19. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. PMID:25677377

  20. Response to strict and liberalized specific carbohydrate diet in pediatric Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Burgis, Jennifer C; Nguyen, Kaylie; Park, KT; Cox, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) as nutritional therapy for maintenance of remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted in 11 pediatric patients with CD who initiated the SCD as therapy at time of diagnosis or flare. Two groups defined as SCD simple (diet alone, antibiotics or 5-ASA) or SCD with immunomodulators (corticosteroids and/or stable thiopurine dosing) were followed for one year and compared on disease characteristics, laboratory values and anthropometrics. RESULTS: The mean age at start of the SCD was 11.8 ± 3.0 years (range 6.6-17.6 years) with five patients starting the SCD within 5 wk of diagnosis. Three patients maintained a strict SCD diet for the study period and the mean time for liberalization was 7.7 ± 4.0 mo (range 1-12) for the remaining patients. In both groups, hematocrit, albumin and ESR values improved while on strict SCD and appeared stable after liberalization (P-value 0.006, 0.002, 0.002 respectively). The majority of children gained in weight and height percentile while on strict SCD, with small loss in weight percentile documented with liberalization. CONCLUSION: Disease control may be attainable with the SCD in pediatric CD. Further studies are needed to assess adherence, impact on mucosal healing and growth. PMID:26877615

  1. Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure

    PubMed Central

    Powys, R; Robinson, J; Kench, P L; Ryan, J; Brennan, P C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is well accepted that collimation is a cost-effective dose-reducing tool for X-ray examinations. This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography. Methods A three-view series (occipitomental, occipitomental 30 and lateral) was investigated, and radiation doses to the lenses and thyroid were measured using an Unfors dosemeter. Images were assessed by six experienced observers using a visual grading analysis and a total of 5400 observations were made. Results Strict collimation significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid when using a fixed projection-specific exposure. With a variable exposure technique (fixed exit dose, to simulate the behaviour of an automatic exposure control), while strict collimation was again shown to reduce thyroid dose, higher lens doses were demonstrated when compared with larger fields of exposure. Image quality was found to significantly improve using strict collimation, with observer preference being demonstrated using visual grading characteristic curves. Conclusion The complexities of optimising radiographic techniques have been shown and the data presented emphasise the importance of examining dose-reducing strategies in a comprehensive way. PMID:22374279

  2. EXAMINATION OF THE PCICE METHOD IN THE NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE, AS WELL AS STRICTLY INCOMPRESSIBLE, LIMITS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray A. Berry; Richard C. Martineau

    2007-04-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods – the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the f ully compressible limit. The PCICE method’s behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the f ully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow.

  3. Effect of iron limitation and fur gene inactivation on the transcriptional profile of the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Delyana; Janssen, Holger; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Bahl, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Iron is a nutrient of critical importance for the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, as it is involved in numerous basic cellular functions and metabolic pathways. A gene encoding a putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been identified in the genome of C. acetobutylicum. In this work, we inactivated the fur gene by using insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant showed a slow-growing phenotype and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, but essentially no dramatic change in its fermentation pattern. A unique feature of its physiology was the overflowing production of riboflavin. To gain further insights into the role of the Fur protein and the mechanisms for establishment of iron balance in C. acetobutylicum, we characterized and compared the gene-expression profile of the fur mutant and the iron-limitation stimulon of the parental strain. Not surprisingly, a repertoire of iron-transport systems was upregulated in both microarray datasets, suggesting that they are regulated by Fur according to the availability of iron. In addition, iron limitation and inactivation of fur affected the expression of several genes involved in energy metabolism. Among them, two genes, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase and a flavodoxin, were highly induced. In order to support the function of the latter, the ribDBAH operon responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis was also upregulated significantly. Furthermore, the iron-starvation response of C. acetobutylicum involved transcriptional modifications that were not detected in the fur mutant, suggesting that there exist additional mechanisms for adaptation to low-iron environments. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum senses and responds to availability of iron on multiple levels using a sophisticated system, and that Fur plays an important role in this process.

  4. Technological advances in adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Mathias; Krueger, Christine; Schneck, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy is an attractive and elegant strategy for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases. Several approaches have been developed to generate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy in cancer and infectious diseases. Currently, many approaches are based on either the use of autologous peptide pulsed dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells or nonspecific expansion of T cells. Unfortunately, current approaches lack the ability to serve as reproducible and economically viable methods. Several groups are developing new artificial approaches to overcome problems associated with dendritic cells and the nonspecific expansion of T-cell clones in order to make adoptive immunotherapy more feasible and effective. Thus, by increasing the availability of adoptive immunotherapy, we will be able to better determine the efficacy of the approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In this review, we focus on technological advances that will facilitate adoptive immunotherapy. Specifically, we summarize current strategies which are either based on artificial antigen-presenting cells or on T-cell receptor gene transfer. PMID:15753966

  5. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  6. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife.

  7. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  8. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  9. Has the Academy Adopted TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert; Deshotels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 469 colleges and universities assessed the degree to which colleges and universities have adopted total quality management (TQM) or continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. Results suggest use of TQM/CQI is lower than predicted, at about 13% of institutions. Variations in extent of use of the approach are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  11. Adaptive neural control for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Chen, Bing; Shi, Peng

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive neural control scheme for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients. Based on the radial basis function neural network online approximation capability, an adaptive neural controller is presented by combining the backstepping approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed controller guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and contains minimal learning parameters. Finally, three simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme.

  12. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  13. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    PubMed Central

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-01

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise—only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified. PMID:20162017

  14. First experimental demonstration of an isotropic electromagnetic cloak with strict conformal mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yungui; Liu, Yichao; Lan, Lu; Wu, Tiantian; Jiang, Wei; Ong, C. K.; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    In the past years quasi-conformal mapping has been generally used to design broadband electromagnetic cloaks. However, this technique has some inherit practical limitations such as the lateral beam shift, rendering the device visible or difficult to hide a large object. In this work we circumvent these issues by using strict conformal mapping to build the first isotropic cloak. Microwave near-field measurement shows that our device (with dielectric constant larger than unity everywhere) has a very good cloaking performance and a broad frequency response. The present dielectric approach could be technically extended to the fabrication of other conformal devices at higher frequencies. PMID:23851589

  15. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  16. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS2 covering an area as large as a few cm2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS2. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ˜1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  17. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites.

  18. [The emergence of indirect reciprocity: evolutionary foundation of altruistic behavior based on "strict discriminator"].

    PubMed

    Mashima, Rie; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    Although there have been a number of studies that theoretically and empirically examined altruism based on direct reciprocity, few have been conducted on how altruism based on indirect reciprocity emerges. Recent advances in biological research, however, have suggested possible answers to the question. For instance, Nowak and Sigmund (1998a, b) proposed that what they called image scoring strategy made indirect reciprocity possible. After critically examining their work, Leimar and Hammerstein (2001) pointed out several limitations to the theory, and instead proposed standing strategy as an explanation. Although careful attempts to replicate the findings by them and Panchanathan and Boyd (2003) supported the arguments against image scoring, we reveal that standing strategy was not a satisfactory answer either. Based on a series of evolutionary simulations, we propose a new strategy, which we call strict discriminator, as an alternative. Strict discriminators are discriminating altruists, similar to the altruists with image scoring or standing strategy, but they are different in that its criterion for discrimination is stricter: unconditional altruists are excluded from their reciprocity.

  19. Optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form.

    PubMed

    Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimal tracking control scheme for nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form with uncertain dynamics. The optimal tracking problem is transformed into an equivalent optimal regulation problem through a feedforward adaptive control input that is generated by modifying the standard backstepping technique. Subsequently, a neural network-based optimal control scheme is introduced to estimate the cost, or value function, over an infinite horizon for the resulting nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form when the internal dynamics are unknown. The estimated cost function is then used to obtain the optimal feedback control input; therefore, the overall optimal control input for the nonlinear continuous-time system in strict-feedback form includes the feedforward plus the optimal feedback terms. It is shown that the estimated cost function minimizes the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman estimation error in a forward-in-time manner without using any value or policy iterations. Finally, optimal output feedback control is introduced through the design of a suitable observer. Lyapunov theory is utilized to show the overall stability of the proposed schemes without requiring an initial admissible controller. Simulation examples are provided to validate the theoretical results. PMID:26111400

  20. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed. Images PMID:6881964

  1. Two strictly polyphosphate-dependent gluco(manno)kinases from diazotrophic Cyanobacteria with potential to phosphorylate hexoses from polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Albi, Tomás; Serrano, Aurelio

    2015-05-01

    The single-copy genes encoding putative polyphosphate-glucose phosphotransferases (PPGK, EC 2.7.1.63) from two nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. PCC7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102, were cloned and functionally characterized. In contrast to their actinobacterial counterparts, the cyanobacterial PPGKs have shown the ability to phosphorylate glucose using strictly inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) as phosphoryl donors. This has proven to be an economically attractive reagent in contrast to the more costly ATP. Cyanobacterial PPGKs had a higher affinity for medium-long-sized polyP (greater than ten phosphoryl residues). Thus, longer polyP resulted in higher catalytic efficiency. Also in contrast to most their homologs in Actinobacteria, both cyanobacterial PPGKs exhibited a modest but significant polyP-mannokinase activity as well. Specific activities were in the range of 180-230 and 2-3 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with glucose and mannose as substrates, respectively. No polyP-fructokinase activity was detected. Cyanobacterial PPGKs required a divalent metal cofactor and exhibited alkaline pH optima (approx. 9.0) and a remarkable thermostability (optimum temperature, 45 °C). The preference for Mg(2+) was noted with an affinity constant of 1.3 mM. Both recombinant PPGKs are homodimers with a subunit molecular mass of ca. 27 kDa. Based on database searches and experimental data from Southern blots and activity assays, closely related PPGK homologs appear to be widespread among unicellular and filamentous mostly nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. Overall, these findings indicate that polyP may be metabolized in these photosynthetic prokaryotes to yield glucose (or mannose) 6-phosphate. They also provide evidence for a novel group-specific subfamily of strictly polyP-dependent gluco(manno)kinases with ancestral features and high biotechnological potential, capable of efficiently using polyP as an alternative and cheap source of energy-rich phosphate instead of costly ATP

  2. Two strictly polyphosphate-dependent gluco(manno)kinases from diazotrophic Cyanobacteria with potential to phosphorylate hexoses from polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Albi, Tomás; Serrano, Aurelio

    2015-05-01

    The single-copy genes encoding putative polyphosphate-glucose phosphotransferases (PPGK, EC 2.7.1.63) from two nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. PCC7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102, were cloned and functionally characterized. In contrast to their actinobacterial counterparts, the cyanobacterial PPGKs have shown the ability to phosphorylate glucose using strictly inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) as phosphoryl donors. This has proven to be an economically attractive reagent in contrast to the more costly ATP. Cyanobacterial PPGKs had a higher affinity for medium-long-sized polyP (greater than ten phosphoryl residues). Thus, longer polyP resulted in higher catalytic efficiency. Also in contrast to most their homologs in Actinobacteria, both cyanobacterial PPGKs exhibited a modest but significant polyP-mannokinase activity as well. Specific activities were in the range of 180-230 and 2-3 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with glucose and mannose as substrates, respectively. No polyP-fructokinase activity was detected. Cyanobacterial PPGKs required a divalent metal cofactor and exhibited alkaline pH optima (approx. 9.0) and a remarkable thermostability (optimum temperature, 45 °C). The preference for Mg(2+) was noted with an affinity constant of 1.3 mM. Both recombinant PPGKs are homodimers with a subunit molecular mass of ca. 27 kDa. Based on database searches and experimental data from Southern blots and activity assays, closely related PPGK homologs appear to be widespread among unicellular and filamentous mostly nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. Overall, these findings indicate that polyP may be metabolized in these photosynthetic prokaryotes to yield glucose (or mannose) 6-phosphate. They also provide evidence for a novel group-specific subfamily of strictly polyP-dependent gluco(manno)kinases with ancestral features and high biotechnological potential, capable of efficiently using polyP as an alternative and cheap source of energy-rich phosphate instead of costly ATP

  3. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  4. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  5. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  6. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  7. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  8. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  9. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  10. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  11. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  12. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  13. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  14. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  15. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  16. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  17. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  18. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  19. Intestinal microflora in rats: isolation and characterization of strictly anaerobic bacteria requiring long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, M; Kawai, Y; Mutai, M

    1976-01-01

    Three strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria, isolated from the cecal contents of rats, have strict requirements for long-chain fatty acids. The effect of exogenous fatty acids on the growth and fatty acid composition of the bacteria was examined. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid was observed. These observations suggest that long-chain fatty acids in the intestine are factors in controlling the localization and the population levels of indigenous bacteria in vivo in rats. PMID:1267446

  20. Reactions to terror attacks in ultra-orthodox jews: the cost of maintaining strict identity.

    PubMed

    Ankri, Yael L E; Bachar, Eytan; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic events can shatter faith and beliefs. The responses of Ultra-Orthodox survivors of deadly terrorist attacks illustrate an effort to reconcile dreadful experiences with deeply embedded beliefs. Qualified clinicians prospectively evaluated self-reported and interviewer-generated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive appraisal in Ultra-Orthodox (n = 20) and non-Ultra-Orthodox (n = 33) survivors of suicide bus-bombing incidents in Jerusalem. Ultra-Orthodox survivors reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and more personal guilt. Their narratives reflected an unshaken belief in Just Providence, within which being a victim of terror was perceived as a Just retribution for known or unknown wrongdoing. Survivors' reactions to trauma often reflect an effort to reconcile incongruous experiences with previously held beliefs. When treating strict believers, helpers should be sensitive to the identity-preserving function of posttraumatic cognitions.

  1. Strictly non-blocking 4×4 silicon electro-optic switch matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pei-Ji; Xing, Jie-Jiang; Li, Xian-Yao; Li, Zhi-Yong; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Yu, Yu-De

    2015-12-01

    The first path-independent insertion-loss (PILOSS) strictly non-blocking 4×4 silicon electro-optic switch matrix is reported. The footprint of this switch matrix is only 4.6 mm×1.0 mm. Using single-arm modulation, the crosstalk measured in this test is -13 dB˜ -27 dB. And a maximum crosstalk deterioration of 6dB caused by two-path interference is also found. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB301701), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013AA014402, 2012AA012202, and 2015AA016904), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275065 and 61107048).

  2. Global tracking control of strict-feedback systems using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeng-Tze

    2012-11-01

    Most existing adaptive neural controllers ensure semiglobally uniform ultimately bounded stability on the condition that the neural approximation remains valid for all time. However, such a condition is difficult to verify beforehand. As a result, deterioration of tracking performance or even instability may occur in real applications. A common recourse is to activate an extra robust controller outside the neural active region to pull back the transient. Such an approach, however, has been restricted to dynamic systems with matched uncertainty. We extend it to strict-feedback systems with mismatched uncertainties via multiswitching-based backstepping methodology. Each virtual and actual controller of the proposed design switches between an adaptive neural controller and a robust controller, with the switching algorithm being sufficiently smooth and, hence, able to be incorporated with the backstepping tool. The overall controller ensures globally uniform ultimate boundedness while simultaneously avoiding the possible control singularity. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed designs.

  3. Lp stability for entropy solutions of scalar conservation laws with strict convex flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi; Ghoshal, Shyam Sundar; Veerappa Gowda, G. D.

    Here we consider the scalar convex conservation laws in one space dimension with strictly convex flux which is in C1. Existence, uniqueness and L1 contractivity were proved by Kružkov [14]. Using the relative entropy method, Leger showed that for a uniformly convex flux and for the shock wave solutions, the L2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded by the L2 norm of the initial perturbation. Here we generalize the result to Lp norm for all 1⩽p<∞. Also we show that for the non-shock wave solution, Lp norm of the perturbed solution relative to the modified N-wave is bounded by the Lp norm of the initial perturbation for all 1⩽p<∞.

  4. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. A semi-automatic method for positioning a femoral bone reconstruction for strict view generation.

    PubMed

    Milano, Federico; Ritacco, Lucas; Gomez, Adrian; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Risk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for femoral bone positioning after 3D image reconstruction from Computed Tomography images. This serves as grounding for the definition of strict axial, longitudinal and anterior-posterior views, overcoming the problem of patient positioning biases in 2D femoral bone measuring methods. After the bone reconstruction is aligned to a standard reference frame, new tomographic slices can be generated, on which unbiased measures may be taken. This could allow not only accurate inter-patient comparisons but also intra-patient comparisons, i.e., comparisons of images of the same patient taken at different times. This method could enable medical doctors to diagnose and follow up several bone deformities more easily. PMID:21096490

  6. Corynebacterium glutamicum superoxide dismutase is a manganese-strict non-cambialistic enzyme in vitro.

    PubMed

    El Shafey, H M; Ghanem, S; Merkamm, M; Guyonvarch, A

    2008-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) of Corynebacterium glutamicum was purified and characterized. The enzyme had a native molecular weight of about 80kDa, whereas a monomer with molecular weight of 24kDa was found on SDS-PAGE suggesting it to be homotetramer. The native SOD activity stained gel revealed a unique cytosolic enzyme. Supplementing growth media with manganese increased the specific activity significantly, while adding iron did not result in significant difference. No growth perturbation was observed with the supplemented media. In vitro metal removal and replacement studies revealed conservation of about 85% of the specific activity by substitution with manganese, while substitution with copper, iron, nickel or zinc did not restore any significant specific activity. Manganese was identified by atomic absorption spectrometer, while no signals corresponding to fixing other metallic elements were detected. Thus, C. glutamicum SOD could be considered a strict (non-cambialistic) manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). PMID:16809027

  7. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  8. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. Methods The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406). Results Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548–1.541]; p = 0.28). An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21–0.95]; p = 0.04). P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation. Conclusions Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27280467

  9. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  10. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption. PMID:22047850

  11. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  12. 10 CFR 1042.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1042.135 Section 1042.135 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS... Introduction § 1042.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures....

  13. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  14. Dendritic, transferable, strictly monolayer MoS2 flakes synthesized on SrTiO3 single crystals for efficient electrocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ji, Qingqing; Han, Gao-Feng; Ju, Jing; Shi, Jianping; Ma, Donglin; Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Yanshuo; Li, Minjie; Lang, Xing-You; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-08-26

    Controllable synthesis of macroscopically uniform, high-quality monolayer MoS2 is crucial for harnessing its great potential in optoelectronics, electrocatalysis, and energy storage. To date, triangular MoS2 single crystals or their polycrystalline aggregates have been synthesized on insulating substrates of SiO2/Si, mica, sapphire, etc., via portable chemical vapor deposition methods. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of dendritic, strictly monolayer MoS2 flakes possessing tunable degrees of fractal shape on a specific insulator, SrTiO3. Interestingly, the dendritic monolayer MoS2, characterized by abundant edges, can be transferred intact onto Au foil electrodes and serve as ideal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction, reflected by a rather low Tafel slope of ∼73 mV/decade among CVD-grown two-dimensional MoS2 flakes. In addition, we reveal that centimeter-scale uniform, strictly monolayer MoS2 films consisting of relatively compact domains can also be obtained, offering insights into promising applications such as flexible energy conversion/harvesting and optoelectronics.

  15. Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.

  16. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community.

  17. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  18. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  19. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  20. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  1. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  2. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... adopted youngsters need to be told about their origins, ideally even before middle childhood. Introducing the Information ... needs to have an honest understanding of his origin. Adopted children who have not been told seem ...

  3. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Placement of Children (ICPC) Administrator - Provides legal and fiscal oversight for ICPC, which regulates the interstate movement of children in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ...

  4. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  5. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  6. A strictly improving linear programming alorithm based on a series of Phase 1 problems

    SciTech Connect

    Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    When used on degenerate problems, the simplex method often takes a number of degenerate steps at a particular vertex before moving to the next. In theory (although rarely in practice), the simplex method can actually cycle at such a degenerate point. Instead of trying to modify the simplex method to avoid degenerate steps, we have developed a new linear programming algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy. This new method solves the Phase II problem of finding an optimal solution by solving a series of Phase I feasibility problems. Strict improvement is attained at each iteration in the Phase I algorithm, and the Phase II sequence of feasibility problems has linear convergence in the number of Phase I problems. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase II algorithm were over 15% faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was almost two times faster, and on one problem it was four times faster.

  7. How strict should specimen acceptance or rejection criteria be for diagnostic semen analysis? An opinion.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bryan J; Tomlinson, Mathew J

    2015-06-01

    Medical laboratory accreditation (previously by Clinical Pathology Accreditation UK Ltd and now by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service) has been integral to improving standards and service quality in the UK. With the recent introduction of the ISO15189 standard, all laboratories offering a clinical diagnostic service are required to demonstrate further improvement, with more emphasis on validation and assessment of the uncertainty levels associated with testing. This applies not only to 'bench testing', but also to the evidence-base for all pre-analytical and post-analytical procedures. To reduce the risk of external influences on andrology test results, semen sample rejection criteria were developed, including confirmation of patient identity, a strict time limit from sample production to testing, the use of toxicity-tested containers, a prescribed sexual abstinence and a need for complete sample collection. However, such criteria were originally developed by the World Health Organization in order to standardise analysis rather than reject testing outright, and should therefore be implemented with caution. Rejecting samples with normal semen parameters because they fail to meet some of the criteria as outlined above would be a waste of resources and adversely affect user (the person who requested or provided the sample) satisfaction. This document evaluates the evidence base underlying commonly used criteria for specimen rejection and suggests how they may be applied more pragmatically in order to improve efficiency and reduce the waste of resources.

  8. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  9. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F.; Rodrigo, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  10. Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Fièvre, Sabine; Carta, Mario; Chamma, Ingrid; Labrousse, Virginie; Thoumine, Olivier; Mulle, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors can segregate to specific synaptic inputs in a given neuron. Using functional mapping by focal glutamate uncaging in CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), we observe that kainate receptors (KARs) are strictly confined to the postsynaptic elements of mossy fibre (mf) synapses and excluded from other glutamatergic inputs and from extrasynaptic compartments. By molecular replacement in organotypic slices from GluK2 knockout mice, we show that the faithful rescue of KAR segregation at mf-CA3 synapses critically depends on the amount of GluK2a cDNA transfected and on a sequence in the GluK2a C-terminal domain responsible for interaction with N-cadherin. Targeted deletion of N-cadherin in CA3 PCs greatly reduces KAR content in thorny excrescences and KAR-EPSCs at mf-CA3 synapses. Hence, multiple mechanisms combine to confine KARs at mf-CA3 synapses, including a stringent control of the amount of GluK2 subunit in CA3 PCs and the recruitment/stabilization of KARs by N-cadherins. PMID:27669960

  11. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F; Rodrigo, Allen G

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  12. Comparison of nonerythroid alpha-spectrin genes reveals strict homology among diverse species.

    PubMed Central

    Leto, T L; Fortugno-Erikson, D; Barton, D; Yang-Feng, T L; Francke, U; Harris, A S; Morrow, J S; Marchesi, V T; Benz, E J

    1988-01-01

    The spectrins are a family of widely distributed filamentous proteins. In association with actin, spectrins form a supporting and organizing scaffold for cell membranes. Using antibodies specific for human brain alpha-spectrin (alpha-fodrin), we have cloned a rat brain alpha-spectrin cDNA from an expression library. Several closely related human clones were also isolated by hybridization. Comparison of sequences of these and other overlapping nonerythroid and erythroid alpha-spectrin genes demonstrated that the nonerythroid genes are strictly conserved across species, while the mammalian erythroid genes have diverged rapidly. Peptide sequences deduced from these cDNAs revealed that the nonerythroid alpha-spectrin chain, like the erythroid spectrin, is composed of multiple 106-amino-acid repeating units, with the characteristic invariant tryptophan as well as other charged and hydrophobic residues in conserved locations. However, the carboxy-terminal sequence varies markedly from this internal repeat pattern and may represent a specialized functional site. The nonerythroid alpha-spectrin gene was mapped to human chromosome 9, in contrast to the erythroid alpha-spectrin gene, which has previously been assigned to a locus on chromosome 1. Images PMID:3336352

  13. Learning from ISS-modular adaptive NN control of nonlinear strict-feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Min; Liu, Tengfei; Hill, David J

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural control (ANC) for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback systems with unknown affine terms. To achieve the purpose of learning, a simple input-to-state stability (ISS) modular ANC method is first presented to ensure the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors in finite time. Subsequently, it is proven that learning with the proposed stable ISS-modular ANC can be achieved. The cascade structure and unknown affine terms of the considered systems make it very difficult to achieve learning using existing methods. To overcome these difficulties, the stable closed-loop system in the control process is decomposed into a series of linear time-varying (LTV) perturbed subsystems with the appropriate state transformation. Using a recursive design, the partial persistent excitation condition for the radial basis function neural network (NN) is established, which guarantees exponential stability of LTV perturbed subsystems. Consequently, accurate approximation of the closed-loop system dynamics is achieved in a local region along recurrent orbits of closed-loop signals, and learning is implemented during a closed-loop feedback control process. The learned knowledge is reused to achieve stability and an improved performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs. Simulation studies are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Törrönen, R; Hänninen, O; Verhagen, H; Mykkänen, H

    1995-12-01

    Antioxidant status was investigated in 20 Finnish middle-aged female vegans and in one male vegan who were following a strict, uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet"), by means of a dietary survey and biochemical measurements (blood concentrations of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, and the activities of the zinc/copper-dependent superoxide dismutase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase). Values were compared with those of omnivores matched for sex, age, social status, and residence. Antioxidant supplementation was used by 4 of 20 female vegans and by 11 of 20 control subjects. Based on dietary records, the vegans had significantly higher intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, and copper, and a significantly lower intake of selenium than the omnivorous control subjects. The calculated dietary antioxidant intakes by the vegans, expressed as percentages of the US recommended dietary allowances, were as follows: 305% of vitamin C, 247% of vitamin A, 313% of vitamin E, 92% of zinc, 120% of copper, and 49% of selenium. Compared with the omnivores, the vegans had significantly higher blood concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, as well as higher erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. These differences were also seen in pairs who were using no antioxidant supplements. The present data indicate that the "living food diet" provides significantly more dietary antioxidants than does the cooked, omnivorous diet, and that the long-term adherents to this diet have a better antioxidant status than do omnivorous control subjects.

  15. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet, and serum lipids in strict vegans.

    PubMed

    Agren, J J; Törmälä, M L; Nenonen, M T; Hänninen, O O

    1995-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes, platelets, and serum lipids was compared between subjects who had been eating a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food") for years and omnivore controls. The vegan diet contains equal amounts of fat but more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the mixed diet of the control group. In vegans, the proportion of linoleic acid was greater in all lipid fractions studied. Also, the levels of other n-6 fatty acids were greater, with the exception of arachidonic acid levels, which were similar in most fractions. In erythrocytes, platelets and serum phospholipid fractions, this increase was mainly at the expense of the n-3 fatty acids. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were only 29-36% and 49-52% of those in controls, respectively. In vegans the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids was only about half that in omnivores. In addition to the lower levels of n-3 fatty acids, the proportions of palmitic and stearic acids were lower in serum cholesteryl esters, triglycerides and free fatty acids of vegans. The proportion of oleic acid was slightly lower only in serum cholesteryl esters and erythrocyte phosphatidylserine. The results show that, in the long term, the vegan diet has little effect on the proportions of oleic and arachidonic acids, whereas the levels of n-3 fatty acids are depressed to very low levels with prolonged consumption of the high linoleic and oleic acid components of this diet.

  16. How strict should specimen acceptance or rejection criteria be for diagnostic semen analysis? An opinion.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bryan J; Tomlinson, Mathew J

    2015-06-01

    Medical laboratory accreditation (previously by Clinical Pathology Accreditation UK Ltd and now by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service) has been integral to improving standards and service quality in the UK. With the recent introduction of the ISO15189 standard, all laboratories offering a clinical diagnostic service are required to demonstrate further improvement, with more emphasis on validation and assessment of the uncertainty levels associated with testing. This applies not only to 'bench testing', but also to the evidence-base for all pre-analytical and post-analytical procedures. To reduce the risk of external influences on andrology test results, semen sample rejection criteria were developed, including confirmation of patient identity, a strict time limit from sample production to testing, the use of toxicity-tested containers, a prescribed sexual abstinence and a need for complete sample collection. However, such criteria were originally developed by the World Health Organization in order to standardise analysis rather than reject testing outright, and should therefore be implemented with caution. Rejecting samples with normal semen parameters because they fail to meet some of the criteria as outlined above would be a waste of resources and adversely affect user (the person who requested or provided the sample) satisfaction. This document evaluates the evidence base underlying commonly used criteria for specimen rejection and suggests how they may be applied more pragmatically in order to improve efficiency and reduce the waste of resources. PMID:25292458

  17. A Narrative Inquiry of International Adoption Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Christin; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The international adoption entrance story is an unexplored topic in the adoption literature. The stories that families tell of beginning life with their new children has important implications for the development of an autobiographical narrative of an adopted child. A coherent autobiographical narrative is vital for healthy childhood development.…

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  19. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  20. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  1. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  2. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  3. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  4. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  5. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  6. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  7. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  8. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  9. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  10. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  11. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  12. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  13. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  15. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  16. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  17. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  18. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  19. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  20. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  1. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  2. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  3. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  4. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  5. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. PMID:21598869

  6. Adoptive immunotherapy of advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Schachter, Jacob

    2012-09-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has emerged as an effective therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Since the first introduction of the protocol in 1988 [1], major improvements have been achieved with response rates of 40%-72% among patients who were resistant to previous treatment lines. Both cell product and conditioning regimen are major determinants of treatment efficacy; therefore, developing ACT protocols explore diverse ways to establish autologous intra-tumoral lymphocyte cultures or peripheral effector cells as well as different lymphodepleting regimens. While a proof of feasibility and a proof of concept had been established with previous published results, ACT will need to move beyond single-center experiences, to confirmatory, multi-center studies. If ACT is to move into widespread practice, it will be necessary to develop reproducible high quality cell production methods and accepted lymphodepleting regimen. Two new drugs, ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb) and vemurafenib (Zelboraf, Roche), were approved in 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on positive phase III trials. Both drugs show a clear overall survival benefit, so the timing of when to use ACT will need to be carefully thought out. In contrast to these 2 new, commercially available outpatient treatments, ACT is a personally-specified product and labor-intensive therapy that demands both acquisition of high standard laboratory procedures and close clinical inpatient monitoring during treatment. It is unique among other anti-melanoma treatments, providing the potential for a durable response following a single, self-limited treatment. This perspective drives the efforts to make this protocol accessible for more patients and to explore modifications that may optimize treatment results.

  7. Absorption and utilization of organic matter by the strict autotroph, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, with special reference to aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Butler, R G; Umbreit, W W

    1966-02-01

    Butler, Richard G. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), and Wayne W. Umbreit. Absorption and utilization of organic matter by the strict autotroph, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, with special reference to aspartic acid. J. Bacteriol. 91:661-666. 1966.-The strictly autotrophic bacterium, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, can be shown to assimilate a variety of organic materials. Aspartic acid can be assimilated into protein and can be converted into CO(2), but even in the presence of sulfur it cannot serve as the sole source of carbon for growth. The reason appears to be that aspartic acid is converted into inhibitory materials.

  8. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  9. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  10. Proteiniclasticum ruminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic proteolytic bacterium isolated from yak rumen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kegui; Song, Lei; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2010-09-01

    Two strictly anaerobic, proteolytic bacterial strains, designated strain D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r, were isolated from a cellulose-degrading mixed culture enriched from yak rumen content. The strains were Gram-stain negative and non-spore-forming with cell sizes of 0.5-0.8 x 0.6-2.0 mum. The temperature range for growth was 24-46 degrees C (optimum 38-39 degrees C) and the pH range was between 5.6 and 8.7 (optimum 7.0-7.3). Both strains used soya peptone, tryptone, l-phenylalanine, l-leucine, l-methionine, l-serine, l-valine, l-threonine and l-histidine as carbon and nitrogen sources, but did not use any of the saccharides tested. The major fermentation products from PY medium were acetate, propionate and iso-butyrate. The DNA G+C contents of strains D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r were 41.0+/-0.1 mol% and 41.3+/-0.1 mol% (HPLC), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains represented a new phyletic sublineage within the family Clostridiaceae, with <93.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to recognized species. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains D3RC-2(T) and D3RC-3r are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Proteiniclasticum ruminis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is D3RC-2(T) (=AS 1.5057(T)=JCM 14817(T)).

  11. Learning from adaptive neural dynamic surface control of strict-feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Cong

    2015-06-01

    Learning plays an essential role in autonomous control systems. However, how to achieve learning in the nonstationary environment for nonlinear systems is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present learning method for a class of n th-order strict-feedback systems by adaptive dynamic surface control (DSC) technology, which achieves the human-like ability of learning by doing and doing with learned knowledge. To achieve the learning, this paper first proposes stable adaptive DSC with auxiliary first-order filters, which ensures the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors in a finite time. With the help of DSC, the derivative of the filter output variable is used as the neural network (NN) input instead of traditional intermediate variables. As a result, the proposed adaptive DSC method reduces greatly the dimension of NN inputs, especially for high-order systems. After the stable DSC design, we decompose the stable closed-loop system into a series of linear time-varying perturbed subsystems. Using a recursive design, the recurrent property of NN input variables is easily verified since the complexity is overcome using DSC. Subsequently, the partial persistent excitation condition of the radial basis function NN is satisfied. By combining a state transformation, accurate approximations of the closed-loop system dynamics are recursively achieved in a local region along recurrent orbits. Then, the learning control method using the learned knowledge is proposed to achieve the closed-loop stability and the improved control performance. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the proposed scheme can not only reuse the learned knowledge to achieve the better control performance with the faster tracking convergence rate and the smaller tracking error but also greatly alleviate the computational burden because of reducing the number and complexity of NN input variables.

  12. Strict actions of the human wrist flexors: A study with an electrical neuromuscular stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Narita, Aya; Sagae, Masaaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Takaaki; Sotokawa, Tasuku; Nakano, Haruki; Naganuma, Makoto; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Ogino, Toshihiko; Naito, Akira

    2015-08-01

    In order to elucidate strict actions of the human wrist flexors, motion and force produced by electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS) to each of musculus (m.) flexsor carpi radialis (FCR) and m. flexsor carpi ulnaris (FCU) with the prone, semiprone, and supine forearm were studied in ten healthy human subjects. Abduction, extension, adduction, and flexion directions were represented by, respectively, 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. ENS to FCR and FCU produced motion in direction of, respectively, 273° (mean) and 265° with the prone, 249° and 232° with the semiprone, and 242° and 229° with the supine forearm to the maximal range. Direction/strength (Nm) of force by ENS to FCR and FCU were, respectively, 298°/1.16 and 239°/1.70 with the prone, 279°/1.30 and 241°/1.62 with the semiprone, and 267°/1.24 and 227°/2.04 with the supine forearm. ENS to FCR exhibited force of 20-29% of maximal flexion and 7-15% of maximal abduction or 1-4% of maximal adduction and that to FCU force of 24-28% of maximal flexion and 15-25% of maximal adduction. The force study results suggest that FCU is a flexor rather than an adductor with every forearm position. FCR should be a flexor rather than an abductor with the prone and semiprone and a flexor with the supine forearm. The action of FCR as the abductor should diminish with supinating the forearm. PMID:25921817

  13. Control of water distribution networks with dynamic DMA topology using strictly feasible sequential convex programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The operation of water distribution networks (WDN) with a dynamic topology is a recently pioneered approach for the advanced management of District Metered Areas (DMAs) that integrates novel developments in hydraulic modeling, monitoring, optimization, and control. A common practice for leakage management is the sectorization of WDNs into small zones, called DMAs, by permanently closing isolation valves. This facilitates water companies to identify bursts and estimate leakage levels by measuring the inlet flow for each DMA. However, by permanently closing valves, a number of problems have been created including reduced resilience to failure and suboptimal pressure management. By introducing a dynamic topology to these zones, these disadvantages can be eliminated while still retaining the DMA structure for leakage monitoring. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on sequential convex programming (SCP) is outlined for the control of a dynamic topology with the objective of reducing average zone pressure (AZP). A key attribute for control optimization is reliable convergence. To achieve this, the SCP method we propose guarantees that each optimization step is strictly feasible, resulting in improved convergence properties. By using a null space algorithm for hydraulic analyses, the computations required are also significantly reduced. The optimized control is actuated on a real WDN operated with a dynamic topology. This unique experimental program incorporates a number of technologies set up with the objective of investigating pioneering developments in WDN management. Preliminary results indicate AZP reductions for a dynamic topology of up to 6.5% over optimally controlled fixed topology DMAs. This article was corrected on 12 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  14. Strict evolutionary conservation followed rapid gene loss on human and rhesus Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jennifer F; Skaletsky, Helen; Brown, Laura G; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Graves, Tina; Fulton, Robert S; Dugan, Shannon; Ding, Yan; Buhay, Christian J; Kremitzki, Colin; Wang, Qiaoyan; Shen, Hua; Holder, Michael; Villasana, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Cree, Andrew; Courtney, Laura; Veizer, Joelle; Kotkiewicz, Holland; Cho, Ting-Jan; Koutseva, Natalia; Rozen, Steve; Muzny, Donna M; Warren, Wesley C; Gibbs, Richard A; Wilson, Richard K; Page, David C

    2012-02-22

    The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.

  15. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu) of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species) at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding) at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation. PMID:20637064

  16. The Strictly Aerobic Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Tolerates Loss of a Mitochondrial DNA-Packaging Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bakkaiova, Jana; Arata, Kosuke; Matsunobu, Miki; Ono, Bungo; Aoki, Tomoyo; Lajdova, Dana; Nebohacova, Martina; Nosek, Jozef; Miyakawa, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly compacted into DNA-protein structures termed mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids). The key mt-nucleoid components responsible for mtDNA condensation are HMG box-containing proteins such as mammalian mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Abf2p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To gain insight into the function and organization of mt-nucleoids in strictly aerobic organisms, we initiated studies of these DNA-protein structures in Yarrowia lipolytica. We identified a principal component of mt-nucleoids in this yeast and termed it YlMhb1p (Y. lipolytica mitochondrial HMG box-containing protein 1). YlMhb1p contains two putative HMG boxes contributing both to DNA binding and to its ability to compact mtDNA in vitro. Phenotypic analysis of a Δmhb1 strain lacking YlMhb1p resulted in three interesting findings. First, although the mutant exhibits clear differences in mt-nucleoids accompanied by a large decrease in the mtDNA copy number and the number of mtDNA-derived transcripts, its respiratory characteristics and growth under most of the conditions tested are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type strain. Second, our results indicate that a potential imbalance between subunits of the respiratory chain encoded separately by nuclear DNA and mtDNA is prevented at a (post)translational level. Third, we found that mtDNA in the Δmhb1 strain is more prone to mutations, indicating that mtHMG box-containing proteins protect the mitochondrial genome against mutagenic events. PMID:24972935

  17. SepM, a Streptococcal Protease Involved in Quorum Sensing, Displays Strict Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saswati; Cao, Luyang; Kim, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of dental caries, relies on multiple quorum-sensing (QS) pathways that coordinate the expression of factors needed for colonization in the oral cavity. S. mutans uses small peptides as QS signaling molecules that typically are secreted into the outside milieu. Competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) is one such QS signaling molecule that functions through the ComDE two-component signal transduction pathway. CSP is secreted through NlmTE, a dedicated ABC transporter that cleaves off the N-terminal leader peptide to generate a mature peptide that is 21 residues long (CSP-21). We recently identified a surface-localized protease, SepM, which further cleaves the CSP-21 peptide at the C-terminal end and removes the last 3 residues to generate CSP-18. CSP-18 is the active QS molecule that interacts with the ComD sensor kinase to activate the QS pathway. In this study, we show that SepM specifically cleaves CSP-21 between the Ala18 and Leu19 residues. We also show that SepM recognizes only Ala at position 18 and Leu at position 19, although some CSP-18 variants with a substitution at position 18 can function equally as well as the QS peptide. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SepM homologs from other streptococci are capable of processing CSP-21 to generate functional CSP-18. IMPORTANCE SepM is a membrane-associated streptococcal protease that processes competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to generate an active quorum-sensing molecule in S. mutans. SepM belongs to the S16 family of serine proteases, and in this study, we found that SepM behaves as an endopeptidase. SepM displays strict substrate specificity and cleaves the peptide bond between the Ala and Leu residues. This is the first report of an endopeptidase that specifically cleaves these two residues. PMID:26553848

  18. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  19. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  20. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  1. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  2. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  3. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  4. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  5. Differentiated CW Policy and Strict Priority Policy for Location-Independent End-to-End Delay in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Yun Han; Kim, Kyung Jae; Park, Jin Soo; Choi, Bong Dae

    We investigate delay analysis of multi-hop wireless mesh network (WMN) where nodes have multi-channel and multiple transceivers to increase the network capacity. The functionality of the multi-channel and multiple transceivers allows the whole WMN to be decomposed into disjoint zones in such a way that i) nodes in a zone are within one-hop distance, and relay node and end nodes with different CWmins contend to access the channel based on IEEE 802.11e EDCA, ii) different channels are assigned to neighbor zones to prevent the hidden node problem, iii) relay nodes can transmit and receive the packets simultaneously by multi-channel and multiple transceivers. With this decomposition of the network, we focus on the delay at a single zone and then the end-to-end delay can be obtained as the sum of zone-delays. In order to have the location-independent end-to-end delay to the gateway regardless of source nodes' locations, we propose two packet management schemes, called the differentiated CW policy and the strict priority policy, at each relay node where relay packets with longer hop count are buffered in higher priority queues according to their experienced hop count. For the differentiated CW policy, a relay node adopts the functionality of IEEE 802.11e EDCA where a higher priority queue has a shorter minimum contention window. We model a typical zone as a one-hop IEEE 802.11e EDCA network under non-saturation condition where priority queues have different packet arrival rates and different minimum contention window sizes. First, we find the PGF (probability generating function) of the HoL-delay of packets at priority queues in a zone. Second, by modeling each queue as M/G/1 queue with the HoL-delay as a service time, we obtain the packet delay (the sum of the queueing delay and the HoL-delay) of each priority queue in a zone. Third, the average end-to-end delay of packet generated at end node in each zone is obtained by summing up the packet delays at each zone. For

  6. Changes in Motivation for Adoption, Value Orientations and Behavior in Three Generations of Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoksbergen, Rene A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypothesizes that in this century a pattern of three generations of adoptive parents has developed, differing in motives and attitudes toward adoption: traditional-closed, open-idealistic, and materialistic-realistic. Maintains that adoption has lost its taboo character, domestic adoption is decreasing or has almost vanished (Scandinavia,…

  7. Obsession in the strict sense: A helpful psychopathological phenomenon in the differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bürgy, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper presented follows the hypothesis that differentiation between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia is possible only by focusing on the single phenomenon of obsession. The statement of a nosological specificity of obsession, called obsession in the strict sense, is set against the current views of ICD-10 and DSM-IV of obsession as a ubiquitous, non-specific phenomenon appearing in comorbidities. In the succession of the paper, the historical development of these two very different views and their clinically mixing is reconstructed. The phenomenological clarification of the structure of the obsessive phenomena leads to the term of obsession in the strict sense. The distinction between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia can take place at the psychopathological interface between obsession in the strict sense and delusional idea. The examination of the literature on the connection between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia shows that there is no definitive connection between obsession in the strict sense and schizophrenia. Finally, some case reports are presented to sharpen clinical suspicion for other possibly wrong diagnoses.

  8. Pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae in a teaching hospital: importance of strictly following decontamination procedures and emerging issues concerning sterilization.

    PubMed

    Scorzolini, Laura; Mengoni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Claudio M; Baldan, Rossella; Cirillo, Daniela M; De Giusti, Maria; Marinelli, Lucia; Cottarelli, Alessia; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae analyzing isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples. Mycobacterium gordonae was detected in 7 out of 497 broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples after bronchoscopy procedure in patients admitted to a teaching hospital between January and April 2013. During this pseudo-outbreak clinical, epidemiological, environmental and molecular investigations were performed. None of the patients met the criteria for non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease and were treated for M. gordonae lung disease. Environmental investigation revealed M. gordonae in 3 samples: in tap water and in the water supply channel of the washer disinfector. All the isolates were subjected to genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE revealed that only patients' isolates presented the same band pattern but no correlation with the environmental strain was detected. Surveillance of the outbreak and the strict adherence to the reprocessing procedure and its supplies resulted afterwards in no detection of M. gordonae in clinical respiratory samples. Clinical surveillance of patients was crucial to establish the start of NTM treatment. Regular screening of tap water and endoscopic equipment should be adopted to compare the clinical strains with the environmental ones when an outbreak occurs. PMID:26922983

  9. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  10. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  11. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    PubMed

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  12. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  13. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.

    2009-09-01

    , or enhanced in, forming stars at different rates with respect to a selected reference case. Models involving a strictly universal IMF (i.e. gas neither inhibited from, nor enhanced in, forming stars with respect to a selected reference case) can also reproduce the data to an acceptable extent. Our main conclusions are (1) different models are necessary to fit the (incomplete) halo sample, which is consistent with the idea of two distinct halo components: an inner, flattened halo in slow prograde rotation, and an outer, spherical halo in net retrograde rotation (Carollo et al. in Nature 450:1020, 2007); (2) the oxygen enrichment within the inner SN halo, the SN thick disk, and the bulge, was similar and coeval within the same metallicity range, as inferred from observations (Prochaska et al. in Astron. J. 120:2513, 2000); (3) the fit to thin disk data implies an oxygen abundance range similar to its thick disk counterpart, with the extension of conclusion (2) to the thin disk, and the evolution of the thick + thin disk as a whole (Haywood in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388:1175, 2008) cannot be excluded; (4) leaving outside the outer halo, a fit to the data related to different environments is provided by models with a strictly universal IMF but different probabilities of a region being active, which implies different global efficiencies of the star formation rate; (5) a special case of stellar migration across the disk can be described by models with enhanced star formation, where a fraction of currently observed SN stars were born in situ and a comparable fraction is due to the net effect of stellar migration, according to recent results based on high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations (Ro\\vskar et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 684:L79, 2008).

  14. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  15. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  16. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  17. DB 02-2 STRICT CONTROL OF HYPERTENSION IN THE FRAIL ELDERLY: IS IT BENEFICIAL? (CON).

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    target BP such as JATOS and VALISH. Differences in initiation levels and targeting levels of BP among guidelines may be partly due to how strictly applied evidences to guidelines and differences in the healthcare system among countries. In contrast with these guidelines, AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory published recommendations that target BP for most people including the elderly is <140/90 mmHg. This advisory further mentioned that lower target may be appropriate for some populations such as African-American, the elderly, or patients with LV hypertrophy, systolic or diastolic LV dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease depending on the results of randomized clinical trials (eg, Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial [SPRINT]). SPRINT showed significant evidence that targeting SBP <120 mmHg (BP measured with an automated measurement protocol in separate room of the office) provides stronger protection from cardiovascular events and death than the traditional target BP of <140 mmHg. Recently, a subanalysis of SPRINT in patients aged 75 years or older showed the same results of primary endpoints with the main trial regardless of frailty status. SPRINT showed, however, significantly higher rates of some adverse events in the intensive-treatment group compared with standard-treatment group. The SPRINT did not enroll older adults residing in nursing homes, persons with type 2 diabetes or prevalent stroke. Individualized treatment of hypertension should be considered from the point of preventive effects of cardiovascular diseases, harmful risk of adverse events and effects on QOL based on not only evidence-based medicine but also individual physiology-based medicine in the very elderly and frail hypertensive patients.

  18. DB 02-2 STRICT CONTROL OF HYPERTENSION IN THE FRAIL ELDERLY: IS IT BENEFICIAL? (CON).

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    target BP such as JATOS and VALISH. Differences in initiation levels and targeting levels of BP among guidelines may be partly due to how strictly applied evidences to guidelines and differences in the healthcare system among countries. In contrast with these guidelines, AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory published recommendations that target BP for most people including the elderly is <140/90 mmHg. This advisory further mentioned that lower target may be appropriate for some populations such as African-American, the elderly, or patients with LV hypertrophy, systolic or diastolic LV dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease depending on the results of randomized clinical trials (eg, Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial [SPRINT]). SPRINT showed significant evidence that targeting SBP <120 mmHg (BP measured with an automated measurement protocol in separate room of the office) provides stronger protection from cardiovascular events and death than the traditional target BP of <140 mmHg. Recently, a subanalysis of SPRINT in patients aged 75 years or older showed the same results of primary endpoints with the main trial regardless of frailty status. SPRINT showed, however, significantly higher rates of some adverse events in the intensive-treatment group compared with standard-treatment group. The SPRINT did not enroll older adults residing in nursing homes, persons with type 2 diabetes or prevalent stroke. Individualized treatment of hypertension should be considered from the point of preventive effects of cardiovascular diseases, harmful risk of adverse events and effects on QOL based on not only evidence-based medicine but also individual physiology-based medicine in the very elderly and frail hypertensive patients. PMID:27642911

  19. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TD04NO10.016 [FR Doc. 2010... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-28117... small. National Adoption Day is a day of hope and happiness when courthouses finalize the adoptions...

  20. Predicting Language Outcomes for Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Language and speech are difficult to assess in newly arrived internationally adopted children. The purpose of this study was to determine if assessments completed when toddlers were first adopted could predict language outcomes at age 2. Local norms were used to develop early intervention guidelines that were evaluated against age 2…

  1. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  2. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions are seen as…

  3. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  4. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  5. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  6. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  7. A Research and Development Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ronald E.

    1974-01-01

    An elaboration of the adoption phase of the Clark and Guba R and D model. A brief discussion of the normative structures of the organizations and organizational boundary permeability provides the rationale for a set of suggested procedures for adoption of innovations at the school building level. (Author)

  8. Fuzzy Cognitive Map Modelling Educational Software Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Sarmin; Brooks, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Educational software adoption across UK secondary schools is seen as unsatisfactory. Based on stakeholders' perceptions, this paper uses fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to model this adoption context. It discusses the development of the FCM model, using a mixed-methods approach and drawing on participants from three UK secondary schools. The study…

  9. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  10. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of wedlock... has stated that he or she is not the natural parent of the child. (v) Since the soldier is not...

  11. Adopting the Caregiver Role: A Family Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Chapman, Jeffery G.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to investigate how adult children become caregivers to older parents with functional impairments and what roles their own children adopt in their family's care arrangement. Interviews revealed five influences on children and grandchildren's adoption of caregiver roles: expectations; family rules; religious training;…

  12. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  13. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28839 Filed 11-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8744 of November 1, 2011 National Adoption Month, 2011 By the President of... basic support, and still more children abroad live without families. During National Adoption Month,...

  14. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26669 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and...

  15. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27190 Filed 11-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice...

  16. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  17. States Adopt Standards at Fast Clip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half the states have adopted a new set of common academic standards, barely a month after their final release and, in most cases, with little opposition. As of July 9, 23 states had decided to replace their mathematics and English/language arts standards with the common set. Another flurry of adoptions is expected by Aug. 2, since the $4…

  18. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  19. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  20. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Porteous, A. . E-mail: s.j.lumbers@open.ac.uk

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available.

  1. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate.

  2. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. PMID:26302334

  3. What are the attitudes of strictly-orthodox Jews to clinical trials: are they influenced by Jewish teachings?

    PubMed

    Box Bayes, Joan

    2013-10-01

    In order to explore whether and how Jewish teachings influence the attitudes of strictly-orthodox Jews to clinical trials, 10 strictly-orthodox Jews were purposively selected and interviewed, using a semi-structured schedule. Relevant literature was searched for similar studies and for publications covering relevant Jewish teachings. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcribed interviews and explore relationships between attitudes and Jewish teachings identified in the review. Participants' attitudes were influenced in a variety of ways: by Jewish teachings on the over-riding importance of preserving life--the need to avoid risks affecting life and health, while taking risks to preserve life--and the religious obligation to help others, as well as by previous experience. Attitudes mirrored those in the general population, enabling many participants to reach conclusions that did not differ materially from those of the general population or research ethics committees.

  4. On the total—and strict total—Positivity of the kernels associated with parabolic initial boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. J. P. Georg

    This paper is concerned with the total—and strict total—positivity of the integral kernels which relate the solutions of parabolic initial boundary value problems to the initial and boundary data. Maximum principle arguments, in conjunction with a characterisation of total positivity in terms of variation diminishing properties, are used to prove total positivity of both the initial value and boundary value kernels under mild assumptions; similar methods yield strict total positivity when the coefficients appearing in the equation are analytic in either the time or the space variable. In this way we extend results of Karlin and McGregor on the total positivity of the kernel associated with the initial data; their proofs used the determinantal definition of total positivity and exploited the work of Gohberg and Krein on the Green's functions of Sturm-Liouville operators.

  5. Strict convexity and C 1, α regularity of potential functions in optimal transportation under condition A3w

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibing; Wang, Xu-Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we prove the strict c-convexity and the C 1, α regularity for potential functions in optimal transportation under condition (A3w). These results were obtained by Caffarelli [1,3,4] for the cost c (x, y) =| x - y | 2, by Liu [11], Loeper [15], Trudinger and Wang [20] for costs satisfying the condition (A3). For costs satisfying the condition (A3w), the results have also been proved by Figalli, Kim, and McCann [6], assuming that the initial and target domains are uniformly c-convex, see also [21]; and by Guillen and Kitagawa [8], assuming the cost function satisfies A3w in larger domains. In this paper we prove the strict c-convexity and the C 1, α regularity assuming either the support of source density is compactly contained in a larger domain where the cost function satisfies A3w, or the dimension 2 ≤ n ≤ 4.

  6. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Rachel; Fogelman, Yacov; Bennett, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The authors present a case of severe megaloblastic anemia and neurologic damage due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a 6-month-old infant. The cause of the vitamin deficiency was a maternal dietary deficiency because of a strict vegetarian diet and prolonged breast-feeding. The importance of early recognition of significant maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in vegetarians is emphasized so that appropriate supplementation can be given and irreversible neurologic damage in the infant prevented.

  7. Strictly one-dimensional electron system in Au chains on Ge(001) revealed by photoelectron k-space mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Schäfer, J.; Blumenstein, C.; Höpfner, P.; Bostwick, A.; McChesney, J. L.; Rotenberg, E.; Claessen, R.

    2011-03-01

    Atomic nanowires formed by Au on Ge(001) are scrutinized for the band topology of the conduction electron system by k-resolved photoemission. Two metallic electron pockets are observed. Their Fermi surface sheets form straight lines without undulations perpendicular to the chains within experimental uncertainty. The electrons hence emerge as strictly confined to one dimension. Moreover, the system is stable against a Peierls distortion down to 10 K, lending itself for studies of the spectral function.

  8. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air.

  9. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  10. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  11. Parallel Process Issues for Lesbian and Gay Adoptive Parents and Their Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2005-01-01

    Gays and lesbians, both single and coupled, are increasingly turning to adoption to create or expand their families. This manuscript specifically addresses the continuing needs of adoptees and adoptive parents by exploring key issues in the life course of gays and lesbians and their adopted children, and identifying potential parallel development…

  12. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  13. Factors Influencing the Adoption Decision: An Analysis of Adopters and Nonadopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert N.; Rollins, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An agricultural innovation (nitrogen testing) had been used by 127 of a sample of 220 farmers. Adoption of the technique was influenced by information and change agents' attitudes. Adopters were also motivated by cost savings. Both adopters and nonadopters either did not have or use soil sampling skills needed to perform the test correctly.…

  14. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  15. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  16. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  17. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  18. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  19. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  20. Intercountry adoption: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Tizard, B

    1991-07-01

    Studies of the outcome of intercountry adoption are reviewed in the context of its history and politics. Intercountry adoption is a post-World War II phenomenon, and has become largely a service for childless couples in the West. Many Third World countries, and some Western social workers, are bitterly opposed to the practice, on both political and psychological grounds. Outcome studies have produced results similar to those found in studies of incountry adoption, although, to date, insufficient attention has been paid to issues of identity and racism. The policy implications of these studies will depend on political considerations, as well as the research evidence.

  1. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  2. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  3. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption of tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of tariff by a successor. 341.6 Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption of tariff by...

  4. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  5. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  6. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodine). Newborn metabolic screen up to 2 years. Infectious Diseases PPD or currently recommended testing for tuberculosis exposure ( ... Pediatrics. Medical Evaluation of Internationally Adopted Children for Infectious Diseases. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, ...

  7. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  8. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  9. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stories . O.J. Howard Publishing. Siegel, D.H., & Smith, S.L. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and ... from- secrecy- and- stigma- to- knowledge- and- connections/ Smith, S. (2007). Safeguarding the rights and well-being of ...

  10. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  11. The African orphan crisis and international adoption.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; Shaw, Stacey A

    2006-07-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption, although a small and temporary solution, may fit within the framework being used as a global working model. Issues surrounding adoption, such as racism, racial and cultural identity development, waiting children in the U.S. public child welfare system, and the potential legal risks, are delineated. The African perspective toward adoption is presented, although the response varies and is not collectively defined. The authors conclude that although international adoptions should be used as a last-resort solution, and with tight regulations, the potential benefits to some children merit the opening of a dialogue on the topic.

  12. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  13. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  14. The family romance fantasies of adopted children.

    PubMed

    Wieder, H

    1977-01-01

    Despite the absence of psychoanalytic studies to support the position, family romance fantasies have been assumed to be similar in form and function in both the adopted child and the blood kin child. My studies, documented herein from the analyses of three adoptees, reveal that knowing one is adopted results in modifications of the fantasy and that certain types of adoptees seem incapable of effectively creating the paradigmatic family romance fantasy.

  15. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  16. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  17. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  2. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  3. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  4. Adoption in the age of reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A

    2001-05-01

    The choice of adoption over genetic parenthood was investigated in 105 women retrospectively by questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: female/male subfertility; female subfertility; male subfertility; and female/male fertility. Half the sample (59/105) answered the question about the importance of a genetic link. Women who failed to adopt thought a genetic link was important, as did those who were less likely to disclose alternative reproductive conceptions to their child. First thoughts following diagnosis were more focused and actions more centered on adoption in the female/male subfertile group compared to the other groups. Communication of the child's origins was least prevalent in the female/male subfertile group, followed by the male subfertile group, although all groups would disclose adoption. The choice of adoption was determined by a number of factors, not all associated with infertility resolution. Although it is unlikely that resolution to infertility can be achieved in any population attempting to overcome infertility, the cognitive dissonance identified in this population is likely to be generalizable to those choosing other options to overcome infertility. Cultural and counselling acknowledgement of postmodern family theory principles is likely to ease cognitive consistency regarding the status of adoptive familyhood, and dispel the importance of reproductive options emphasizing a genetic link. PMID:12449936

  5. Social Context and Hearing Aid Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Hearing rehabilitation tends to focus on the influence of intraindividual factors and concepts such as readiness for change and health beliefs. In contrast, less is known about the role of social context and the potential role of significant others on hearing aid adoption. This explorative retrospective study investigated whether hearing aid adoption is associated with significant other attendance at audiology appointments. The study sample consisted of 33,933 and 27,031 individuals who attended appointments either alone or with a significant other, respectively (n = 60,964). It was found that hearing aid adoption was significantly greater when patients attended audiology appointments with a significant other (63.8%) than when attending appointments alone (50.6%). The association between hearing aid adoption and attendance by a significant other was hearing dependent, with 96% higher hearing aid adoption for patients with mild hearing losses when patients attended appointments with a significant other than when attending appointments alone. Hearing aid return rates were comparable when patients attended appointments alone (27%) or with a significant other (24%). Several potential explanations for the observed association are discussed. The pattern of results is consistent with the view that greater adherence is observed when audiologic care is provided from a patient-centered care perspective. Future research should establish whether there is a causal relationship between attendance at appointments by significant others and hearing aid adoption and should attempt to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these variables. PMID:27733672

  6. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  7. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  8. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  9. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  10. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  11. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  12. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  13. The Practice of Adoption: History, Trends, and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamostny, Kathy P.; O'Brien, Karen M.; Baden, Amanda L.; Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the practice of adoption to counseling psychologists to promote clinical understanding of the adoption experience and to stimulate research on adoption. The article includes definitions of adoption terminology, important historical and legal developments for adoption, a summary of adoption statistics,…

  14. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  15. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  16. Accuracy in Rietveld quantitative phase analysis: a comparative study of strictly monochromatic Mo and Cu radiations

    PubMed Central

    León-Reina, L.; García-Maté, M.; Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Santacruz, I.; Vallcorba, O.; De la Torre, A. G.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports 78 Rietveld quantitative phase analyses using Cu Kα1, Mo Kα1 and synchrotron radiations. Synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to validate the most challenging analyses. From the results for three series with increasing contents of an analyte (an inorganic crystalline phase, an organic crystalline phase and a glass), it is inferred that Rietveld analyses from high-energy Mo Kα1 radiation have slightly better accuracies than those obtained from Cu Kα1 radiation. This behaviour has been established from the results of the calibration graphics obtained through the spiking method and also from Kullback–Leibler distance statistic studies. This outcome is explained, in spite of the lower diffraction power for Mo radiation when compared to Cu radiation, as arising because of the larger volume tested with Mo and also because higher energy allows one to record patterns with fewer systematic errors. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) have also been established for the studied series. For similar recording times, the LoDs in Cu patterns, ∼0.2 wt%, are slightly lower than those derived from Mo patterns, ∼0.3 wt%. The LoQ for a well crystallized inorganic phase using laboratory powder diffraction was established to be close to 0.10 wt% in stable fits with good precision. However, the accuracy of these analyses was poor with relative errors near to 100%. Only contents higher than 1.0 wt% yielded analyses with relative errors lower than 20%. PMID:27275132

  17. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  18. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  19. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  20. Strictly Physical Global Weak Solutions of a Navier-Stokes Q-tensor System with Singular Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-10-01

    We study the existence, regularity and so-called `strict physicality' of global weak solutions of a Beris-Edwards system which is proposed as a model for the incompressible flow of nematic liquid crystal materials. An important contribution to the dynamics comes from a singular potential introduced by John Ball and Apala Majumdar which replaces the commonly employed Landau-de Gennes bulk potential. This is built into our model to ensure that a natural physical constraint on the eigenvalues of the Q-tensor order parameter is respected by the dynamics of this system. Moreover, by a maximum principle argument, we are able to construct global strong solutions in dimension two.

  1. Uniform and strict persistence in monotone skew-product semiflows with applications to non-autonomous Nicholson systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaya, Rafael; Sanz, Ana M.

    2016-10-01

    We determine sufficient conditions for uniform and strict persistence in the case of skew-product semiflows generated by solutions of non-autonomous families of cooperative systems of ODEs or delay FDEs in terms of the principal spectrums of some associated linear skew-product semiflows which admit a continuous separation. Our conditions are also necessary in the linear case. We apply our results to a noncooperative almost periodic Nicholson system with a patch structure, whose persistence turns out to be equivalent to the persistence of the linearized system along the null solution.

  2. Who Adopts Improved Fuels and Cookstoves? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The global focus on improved cookstoves (ICSs) and clean fuels has increased because of their potential for delivering triple dividends: household health, local environmental quality, and regional climate benefits. However, ICS and clean fuel dissemination programs have met with low rates of adoption. Objectives: We reviewed empirical studies on ICSs and fuel choice to describe the literature, examine determinants of fuel and stove choice, and identify knowledge gaps. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the adoption of ICSs or cleaner fuels by households in developing countries. Results are synthesized through a simple vote-counting meta-analysis. Results: We identified 32 research studies that reported 146 separate regression analyses of ICS adoption (11 analyses) or fuel choice (135 analyses) from Asia (60%), Africa (27%), and Latin America (19%). Most studies apply multivariate regression methods to consider 7–13 determinants of choice. Income, education, and urban location were positively associated with adoption in most but not all studies. However, the influence of fuel availability and prices, household size and composition, and sex is unclear. Potentially important drivers such as credit, supply-chain strengthening, and social marketing have been ignored. Conclusions: Adoption studies of ICSs or clean energy are scarce, scattered, and of differential quality, even though global distribution programs are quickly expanding. Future research should examine an expanded set of contextual variables to improve implementation of stove programs that can realize the “win-win-win” of health, local environmental quality, and climate associated with these technologies. PMID:22296719

  3. Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    June, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    The transfusion of T cells, also called adoptive T cell therapy, is an effective treatment for viral infections and has induced regression of cancer in early-stage clinical trials. However, recent advances in cellular immunology and tumor biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T cell therapy. For example, use of engineered T cells is being tested as a strategy to improve the functions of effector and memory T cells, and manipulation of the host to overcome immunotoxic effects in the tumor microenvironment has led to promising results in early-stage clinical trials. Challenges that face the field and must be addressed before adoptive T cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice are discussed. PMID:17476350

  4. Breaking the addiction to technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2014-04-01

    A major driver of cost growth in health care is the rapid increase in the utilisation of existing technology and not simply the adoption of new technology. Health economists and their health technology assessment colleagues have become obsessed by technology adoption questions and have largely ignored 'technology management' questions. Technology management would include the life-cycle assessment of technologies in use, to assess their real-world performance; and monitoring of technology indication creep. A rebalancing of focus might serve to encourage a more self-critical and learning culture amongst those involved in technology evaluation analysis. Further, health economists and health technology assessment analysts could make a more significant contribution to system efficiency through rebalancing their efforts away from technology adoption questions towards technology management issues.

  5. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  6. Who adopts? Characteristics of women and men who have adopted children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, 2 percent of adults aged 18-44 years had adopted children, approximately 2 million people. Significantly more adopters are men, over age 30, are ever married, have biological children, and have ever used infertility services. Women who have adopted are older than women who have given birth to a child. Significantly more ever-married men have adopted children compared with never-married men or women in either marital status. Women who have ever used infertility services are more likely to have adopted compared with women who have not used these services. Men who have adopted are more likely than men who have not adopted to have also fathered a child. Hispanic women are significantly less likely than non-Hispanic women or men of any race or ethnicity to have adopted children. Women with incomes below 150% of the poverty level are significantly less likely than women with higher incomes or men, irrespective of poverty status, to have adopted children. The percentage of infants relinquished by never-married mothers has declined to 1.0%, or fewer than 7,000 infants annually.

  7. Tetrachloroethene dehalorespiration and growth of Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 in strict dependence on the activity of Desulfovibrio fructosivorans.

    PubMed

    Drzyzga, Oliver; Gottschal, Jan C

    2002-02-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) dehalorespiration was investigated in a continuous coculture of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio fructosivorans and the dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 at different sulfate concentrations and in the absence of sulfate. Fructose (2.5 mM) was the single electron donor, which could be used only by the sulfate reducer. With 2.5 mM sulfate, the dehalogenating strain was outnumbered by the sulfate-reducing bacterium, sulfate reduction was the dominating process, and only trace amounts of PCE were dehalogenated by strain TCE1. With 1 mM sulfate in the medium, complete sulfate reduction and complete PCE dehalogenation to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) occurred. In the absence of sulfate, PCE was also completely dehalogenated to cis-DCE, and the population size of strain TCE1 increased significantly. The results presented here describe for the first time dehalogenation of PCE by a dehalorespiring anaerobe in strict dependence on the activity of a sulfate-reducing bacterium with a substrate that is exclusively used by the sulfate reducer. This interaction was studied under strictly controlled and quantifiable conditions in continuous culture and shown to depend on interspecies hydrogen transfer under sulfate-depleted conditions. Interspecies hydrogen transfer was demonstrated by direct H(2) measurements of the gas phase and by the production of methane after the addition of a third organism, Methanobacterium formicicum.

  8. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  9. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  10. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  11. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  12. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  13. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  14. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  15. Indian Foster and Adoptive Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Designed to assist Indian tribes and oganizations in the recruitment, training, licensing, and evaluation of Indian foster and adoptive homes, the manual is presented in six sections. The introduction provides a definition for foster care and foster children, along with excerpts from the Bill of Rights for Foster Children. Section I discusses the…

  16. Cultural Competence for Transracial Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides a clear conceptual definition of cultural competence for transracial-cultural adoptive (TRA) parents based on an extensive review of the literature and feedback from experts and parents. A three part definition of cultural competence for TRA parents includes: racial awareness, multicultural planning, and survival skills. Implications for…

  17. Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

  18. Comment on the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Michael Levin argues that data from the study are consistent with a black/white IQ difference that is significantly genetic. Richard Lynn maintains that adoption by middle-class, white families has no effect on intelligence. Waldman, Weinberg, and Scarr respond to these criticisms and support the original conclusions. (SLD)

  19. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  20. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  1. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  2. Adopting Learning Technologies: From Belief to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Cornelius H.; Cant, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge faced by most heads of academic departments around the world is to manage the adoption and use of appropriate learning technologies in order to support the department's learning offerings to students. Earlier research undertaken by the authors revealed that lecturers within the Department of Marketing and Retail Management at the…

  3. Adopt-A-Stream Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Labs, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    Water pollution is not a recently discovered problem. Humankind's ability to generate pollutants continues to exceed its ability to control them. The Adopt-A-Stream program invites people who care for waterways to take an active role in assuring their well-being. High school groups supported by local co-sponsors agree to evaluate their adopted…

  4. The Symbolic Crises of Adoption: Popular Media's Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggenspack, Beth M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a symbolic interaction approach to examine the dimensions of symbolic crises faced by adoptive families and adoption advocates resulting from changing adoption patterns and motives, language transformations that create tensions, and media misrepresentations of adoption. Explores common myths about adoption spread by popular news and…

  5. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…

  6. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  7. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  8. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  9. Kids Speak Out on Adoption: A Multiage Bookwriting Group for Adopted Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Kathleen Jennings

    1996-01-01

    Describes the conceptualization and development of a multiage bookwriting group entitled the Saturday Club for Adopted Kids. Describes the benefits of offering this project-oriented group in which adoptees can tell their stories and share their experiences in an environment that supports their recovery from early trauma. Notes adoptive parents'…

  10. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  11. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  12. A signalling theory of excessive technological adoption.

    PubMed

    Barros, P P; Pinto, C G; Machado, A

    1999-05-01

    Technology adoption has been identified as one of the main elements behind the growth of health care expenditures. It has been argued that the health insurance arrangements in the US justify, to a certain extent, the technology-driven rise in costs. Moreover, it eases the adoption of less cost-effective procedures and devices. This paper presents an additional argument by which excessive technology investments may occur: providers of care invest in technology as a way to "signal" their intrinsic (and unobservable) quality. Providers face the option of adopting a new technology. The decision of adoption in itself may convey information about his/her quality: for example, patients conjecture that providers who display newer technology are of higher quality. Providers, being aware of this, may invest in technology to reveal themselves as high quality. Thus, technology adoption could result only from the desire to attract patients. The investment is self-defeating in the sense that if all providers invest, no information about quality is transmitted to patients. We evaluate the argument in a context of demand for health care services where patients have initially no information about the quality of different providers. We show that an incentive to invest as a way to signal quality may or may not lead to overinvestment. It is also possible that only some providers invest. They reveal themselves as high quality providers. The analysis suggests that the argument is more important for some services than for others. Overall, an additional argument for overinvestment in technology in some circumstances is provided.

  13. Hierarchy of Carbon Source Selection in Paracoccus pantotrophus: Strict Correlation between Reduction State of the Carbon Substrate and Aerobic Expression of the nap Operon

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, M. J. K.; Bhakoo, K. K.; Sawers, G.; Richardson, D. J.; Ferguson, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Paracoccus pantotrophus can express a periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) during aerobic growth. A proposed role for this enzyme is the dissipation of excess redox energy during oxidative metabolism of reduced carbon substrates. To investigate the regulation of nap expression, a transcriptional fusion between the nap promoter region of P. pantotrophus and the lacZ gene was constructed. When this fusion was used, analyses showed that transcription from the nap promoter increases as the average reduction state of the carbon atoms increases. Thus, β-galactosidase activities increase as the carbon source changes in the order succinate-acetate-butyrate. This result was obtained regardless of which of the three carbon sources was used for culture of the inoculum. If two carbon sources were presented together, the β-galactosidase activity was always the same as it was when the least-reduced carbon source was added alone. This suggests that the regulation is dependent upon metabolism of the more-reduced carbon sources rather than just their presence in the medium. Analysis of culture medium by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance showed that for aerobic growth P. pantotrophus strictly selected its carbon source in the order succinate-acetate-butyrate. This was reflected by diauxic growth kinetics on medium containing mixed carbon substrates. The regulatory mechanism underpinning such a selection is unknown but is likely to be related to the mechanism which controls the transcription of the nap operon. PMID:12169601

  14. Review: Adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review of the literature examines adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children. Three domains of research about looked-after children are examined. Findings There is extensive evidence that early adverse experiences affect psychological and neurobiological development in looked-after and adopted children. There is also evidence that some looked-after and adopted children show remarkable resilience in the face of adversity; intervention research provides evidence of the ability to reduce risks and promote positive outcomes in this population. The intervention studies have revealed not only the potential for improved behavioral trajectories, but also the plasticity of neurobiological systems affected by early stress. Conclusion Foster and adopted children face many challenges, but scientific knowledge also provides reason for hope and information about how to maximize positive outcomes. PMID:25678858

  15. Mutation at a Strictly Conserved, Active Site Tyrosine in the Copper Amine Oxidase Leads to Uncontrolled Oxygenase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Datta, Saumen; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Mathews, F. Scott

    2010-09-07

    The copper amine oxidases carry out two copper-dependent processes: production of their own redox-active cofactor (2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, TPQ) and the subsequent oxidative deamination of substrate amines. Because the same active site pocket must facilitate both reactions, individual active site residues may serve multiple roles. We have examined the roles of a strictly conserved active site tyrosine Y305 in the copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha kinetically, spetroscopically (Dubois and Klinman (2006) Biochemistry 45, 3178), and, in the present work, structurally. While the Y305A enzyme is almost identical to the wild type, a novel, highly oxygenated species replaces TPQ in the Y305F active sites. This new structure not only provides the first direct detection of peroxy intermediates in cofactor biogenesis but also indicates the critical control of oxidation chemistry that can be conferred by a single active site residue.

  16. Comparative study of biological hydrogen production by pure strains and consortia of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Masset, Julien; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a simple and rapid method was developed in order to assess in comparative tests the production of binary biogas mixtures containing CO(2) and another gaseous compound such as hydrogen or methane. This method was validated and experimented for the characterisation of the biochemical hydrogen potential of different pure strains and mixed cultures of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) growing on glucose. The experimental results compared the hydrogen production yield of 19 different pure strains and sludges: facultative and strict anaerobic HPB strains along with anaerobic digester sludges thermally pre-treated or not. Significant yields variations were recorded even between different strains of the same species by i.e. about 20% for three Clostridium butyricum strains. The pure Clostridium butyricum and pasteurianum strains achieved the highest yields i.e. up to 1.36 mol H(2)/mol glucose compared to the yields achieved by the sludges and the tested Escherichia and Citrobacter strains.

  17. ["Reflex--in a strict sense". Ivan Michajlovic Secenov and the founding myths of the 'Russian reflex empire'].

    PubMed

    Wurm, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct Ivan Michajlovik Secenov's impact on reflex theory by looking at the different narratives which constitute his specific position in the history of science, where he is considered the Russian founder of a purely materialist framing of consciousness and behaviour, the father figure of objective psychology, and the predecessor of the 'great' Ivan Pavlov. I argue that Secenov himself was very much aware of the symbolic significance of the term "reflex" and that the rhetorical strategies in his opus magnum, The Reflexes of the Brain (1863), deliberately enforce the precarious twofold potential of reflexological conceptions as psycho-physiological structures as well as social programs. Also within the cultural and political settings of the 19th and 20th century, Secenov's comprehensive and multifaceted research work in the field of nerve physiology was gradually reduced to a strong, ideologically interpretable message: "All movements bearing the name of voluntary in physiology are reflex in a strict sense".

  18. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  19. Monolithic InP strictly non-blocking 8×8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Tanemura, Takuo; Higo, Akio; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-17

    A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

  20. ["Reflex--in a strict sense". Ivan Michajlovic Secenov and the founding myths of the 'Russian reflex empire'].

    PubMed

    Wurm, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct Ivan Michajlovik Secenov's impact on reflex theory by looking at the different narratives which constitute his specific position in the history of science, where he is considered the Russian founder of a purely materialist framing of consciousness and behaviour, the father figure of objective psychology, and the predecessor of the 'great' Ivan Pavlov. I argue that Secenov himself was very much aware of the symbolic significance of the term "reflex" and that the rhetorical strategies in his opus magnum, The Reflexes of the Brain (1863), deliberately enforce the precarious twofold potential of reflexological conceptions as psycho-physiological structures as well as social programs. Also within the cultural and political settings of the 19th and 20th century, Secenov's comprehensive and multifaceted research work in the field of nerve physiology was gradually reduced to a strong, ideologically interpretable message: "All movements bearing the name of voluntary in physiology are reflex in a strict sense". PMID:19824305

  1. Adaptive NN backstepping output-feedback control for stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Jiao, Licheng; Li, Jing; Li, Ruihong

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, this paper addresses the problem of adaptive output-feedback control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems with time-varying delays using neural networks (NNs). The circle criterion is applied to designing a nonlinear observer, and no linear growth condition is imposed on nonlinear functions depending on system states. Under the assumption that time-varying delays exist in the system output, only an NN is employed to compensate for all unknown nonlinear terms depending on the delayed output, and thus, the proposed control algorithm is more simple even than the existing NN backstepping control schemes for uncertain systems described by ordinary differential equations. Three examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control scheme proposed in this paper.

  2. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design. PMID:26259222

  3. Composite Adaptive Fuzzy Output Feedback Control Design for Uncertain Nonlinear Strict-Feedback Systems With Input Saturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongming; Tong, Shaocheng; Li, Tieshan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a composite adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unmeasured states and input saturation. Fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the designed fuzzy state observer, a serial-parallel estimation model is established. Based on adaptive backstepping dynamic surface control technique and utilizing the prediction error between the system states observer model and the serial-parallel estimation model, a new fuzzy controller with the composite parameters adaptive laws are developed. It is proved that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output can follow the given bounded reference signal. A numerical example and simulation comparisons with previous control methods are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Strict Selection Criteria During Surgical Training Ensures Good Outcomes in Laparoscopic Omental Patch Repair (LOPR) for Perforated Peptic Ulcer (PPU).

    PubMed

    Shelat, Vishal G; Ahmed, Saleem; Chia, Clement L K; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2015-02-01

    Application of minimal access surgery in acute care surgery is limited due to various reasons. Laparoscopic omental patch repair (LOPR) for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) surgery is safe and feasible but not widely implemented. We report our early experience of LOPR with emphasis on strict selection criteria. This is a descriptive study of all patients operated on for PPU at academic university-affiliated institutes from December 2010 to February 2012. All the patients who were operated on for LOPR were included as the study population and their records were studied. Perioperative outcomes, Boey score, Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and physiologic and operative severity scores for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) scores were calculated. All the data were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using Stata Version 8.x. (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Fourteen patients had LOPR out of a total of 45 patients operated for the PPU. Mean age was 46 years (range 22-87 years). Twelve patients (86%) had a Boey score of 0 and all patients had MPI < 21 (mean MPI = 14). The predicted POSSUM morbidity and mortality were 36% and 7%, respectively. Mean ulcer size was 5 mm (range 2-10 mm), mean operating time was 100 minutes (range 70-123 minutes) and mean length of hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-6 days). There was no morbidity or mortality pertaining to LOPR. LOPR should be offered by acute care surgical teams when local expertise is available. This can optimize patient outcomes when strict selection criteria are applied.

  5. New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2004-10-20

    The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

  6. Nursing students' perceptions of adoption: educational preparation needed.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Forster, Anna; Lim, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Adoption is a worldwide practice; most know someone who has been adopted, has adopted a child, or has relinquished a child for adoption. Healthcare professionals will have contact with patients who have a connection to adoption. This study examined the overall perceptions, current knowledge, and gaps in a nursing curriculum as reported by undergraduate nursing students and offers insight into caring for those impacted by adoption.

  7. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  8. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  9. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  10. Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, S

    1999-01-01

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.

  11. Three Major banks adopt carbon principles

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-15

    People in the electric power sector stopped and took notice in early February when three major Wall Street banks announced that they were adopting new carbon principles in considering investment loans for power plants because of pending federal CO2 regulation 'could make such investments more risky'. The principles, meant to become industry-wide practice, could slow investment in coal plants and other major emitters, as banks require power companies to offer plans to deal with greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  13. Qubit-mediated energy transfer between thermal reservoirs: Beyond the Markovian master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Dvira

    2013-05-01

    We study qubit-mediated energy transfer between two electron reservoirs by adopting a numerically exact influence functional path-integral method. This nonperturbative technique allows us to study the system's dynamics beyond the weak coupling limit. Our simulations for the energy current indicate that perturbative-Markovian master equation predictions significantly deviate from exact numerical results already at intermediate coupling πραj,j'≳0.4, where ρ is the metal (Fermi sea) density of states, taken as a constant, and αj,j' is the scattering potential energy of electrons, between the j and j' states. Perturbative Markovian master equation techniques should be therefore used with caution beyond the strictly weak subsystem-bath coupling limit, especially when a quantitative knowledge of transport characteristics is desired.

  14. The Adoption Experience: Families Who Give Children a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ann

    This book examines the adoption process in Great Britain, recounting first-hand experiences to take the reader through each stage of the process from the adopter's point of view. The book also examines the success and failure of several types of adoption. The chapters are: (1) "You Want to Adopt"; (2) "First Meetings, First Months, Falling in…

  15. Responding to the Needs of the Adopted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajda, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In today's societal landscape, "adoption," the legal process by which a child becomes a full and permanent member of a new family, is becoming commonplace. Even though most people have had a personal experience with adoption in some capacity, those most closely associated with adoption (birth parents, adoptees, and adoptive parents) continue to be…

  16. Launching a Baby's Adoption: Practical Strategies for Parents and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Patricia Irwin

    Intended for adoptive parents and adoption practitioners and intermediaries, this book uses the metaphor of space exploration to provide practical strategies for meeting the adopted infant's needs and smoothing the transition. Chapter 1, "Mission: To Explore New Worlds," discusses adoptive and birth parent preparation, loss issues, and society's…

  17. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  18. 22 CFR 96.12 - Authorized adoption service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorized adoption service providers. 96.12... AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Accreditation and Approval Requirements for the Provision of Adoption Services § 96.12 Authorized adoption service providers. (a) Once...

  19. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  20. Connecting the Dots: Exploring Themes in Adoption Picturebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattix, April A.; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 1.4 million school-aged children entered their families through adoption. As such, adoption represents a real and complex social issue with which young children--adopted or not--can grapple. Adoption picturebooks provide a medium by which children can explore this complicated concept. This manuscript analyzes a standard library…