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Sample records for adopted chinese girls

  1. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  2. The British Chinese Adoption Study: Orphanage Care, Adoption and Mid-Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan; Grant, Margaret; Feast, Julia; Simmonds, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: While studies of ex-orphanage care show adverse effects on development, the longer-term impact on mid-life psychosocial functioning and physical health has not been established. Methods: Orphanage records provided baseline data on a sample of 100 Hong Kong Chinese girls who were subsequently adopted into the UK. A mid-life follow-up…

  3. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  4. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  5. Una nina adoptada su conducta en el jardin de infantes (An Adopted Girl's Conduct in Preschool).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscello de Mason, Marile

    1994-01-01

    Reports observations made by a preschool teacher in Argentina about a four-year-old adopted girl in her preschool. The teacher noticed problems between the girl and her adoptive mother, who tried to prevent the girl from remembering her past. The teacher particularly noticed changes in the girl's drawings. (AA)

  6. Second-first language acquisition: analysis of expressive language skills in a sample of girls adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing; Loker, Troy; Dedrick, Robert F; Marfo, Kofi

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated adopted Chinese girls' expressive English language outcomes in relation to their age at adoption, chronological age, length of exposure to English and developmental risk status at the time of adoption. Vocabulary and phrase utterance data on 318 girls were collected from the adoptive mothers using the Language Development Survey (LDS) (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). The girls, aged 18-35 months (M=26·2 months, SD=4·9 months), were adopted at ages ranging from 6·8 to 24 months (M=12·6 months, SD=3·1 months), and had been exposed to English for periods ranging from 1·6 to 27·6 months (M=13·7, SD=5·7). Findings suggest that vocabulary and mean length of phrase scores were negatively correlated with age at adoption but positively correlated with chronological age and length of exposure to English. Developmental risk status at the time of adoption was not correlated with language outcomes. The gap between their expressive language and that of same-age girls from the US normative sample was wider for children aged 18-23 months but was closed for children aged 30-35 months. About 16% of the children met the LDS criteria for delays in vocabulary and 17% met the LDS criteria for delays in mean length of phrase. Speech/language interventions were received by 33·3% of the children with delays in vocabulary and 25% with delays in phrase. PMID:21781372

  7. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia. PMID:12294313

  8. Girl adoption in China-A less-known side of son preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyu; Ebenstein, Avraham; Edlund, Lena; Li, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    In 1987, 4 per cent of girls were adopted within China. Why? Unlike infanticide, abandonment rids parents of daughters while preserving the supply of potential brides. In fact, an erstwhile tradition common in Fujian and Jiangxi provinces had parents of sons adopting an infant girl to serve as a future daughter-in-law and household help. Analysing a nationally representative 1992 survey of children, we found that: (1) girl adoptions were concentrated in the above-mentioned provinces; (2) girls were predominantly adopted by families with sons; (3) adopted girls faced substantial disadvantage as measured by school attendance at ages 8-13. In the 1990s, as the sex ratio at birth climbed, were girls aborted rather than abandoned? Observing that in the 2000 census too many girls appear in families with older sons, we estimated that at least 1/25 girls were abandoned in the 1990s, a proportion that in Fujian and Jiangxi may have peaked at 1/10 in 1994. PMID:25789605

  9. Adoption Does Not Increase the Risk of Mortality among Taiwanese Girls in a Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Siobhán M.; Brown, Melissa J.; Floyd, Bruce; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted children often experience health and well-being disadvantages compared to biological children remaining in their natal households. The degree of genetic relatedness is thought to mediate the level of parental investment in children, leading to poorer outcomes of biologically unrelated children. We explore whether mortality is related to adoption in a historical Taiwanese population where adoption rarely occurred among kin. Using Cox proportional hazards models in which adoption is included as a time-dependent covariate, we show that adoption of girls does not increase the risk of mortality, as previously suggested; in fact, it is either protective or neutral with respect to mortality. These results suggest that socio-structural variables may produce positive outcomes for adopted children, even compared to biological children who remain in the care of their parents. PMID:25923106

  10. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  11. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. PMID:27292081

  12. A case of an adoptive girl with precocious puberty: the problem of age estimation.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonio; Roca, Roberta; Introna, Francesco; Santoro, Valeria

    2013-09-10

    Age estimation is one of the main tasks of forensic anthropology and odontology, both on the dead and the living. In living subjects, age estimation may be used to establish an individual's status as a minor in cases involving adoption, criminal responsibility, child pornography, and those seeking asylum, especially where adequate identification documents are lacking. The authors report a case about age assessment of a girl born in Mbujimayi (Democratic Republic of Congo) and later adopted in Italy. The birth certificate issued after finding the child in a state of abandonment (in December 2007), bore date of 12.12.2004, but this was in contrast with the year of birth - 2003 - stated on the certification available to the center that had provided accommodation to the girl in Africa. Her adoptive parents reported that the child had been diagnosed with precocious puberty and was thus under treatment. She weighed 32.5 kg and was 132.5 cm tall. Body mass index (BMI) corresponded to the range between 9.5 and 14 years of age. The assessment of maturity indicators (sexual characteristics) placed the child at the lower limits of Stage II of Tanner's classification (sparse growth of long, slightly darkened, downy straight pubic hair; elevation of the breast and nipple as a small mound with increased diameter of the areolae). The skeletal age was determined by taking X-rays of the hand and wrist using Fels, TW2 and Greulich and Pyle methods. Dental growth was assessed through orthopantomogram using Demirjian's technique. The methods applied were adjusted considering the studies on African population found in the literature, and a skeletal and dental age of 10 years was established. Afterwards, the wrist X-rays performed at the Children's Hospital of Bari, 7 months before our investigation, revealed a skeletal age of 7 years. This evidence showed that, despite the treatment the child had promptly initiated, early puberty had influenced the skeletal growth with an acceleration

  13. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  14. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Internationally Adopted Chinese Children: Communication and Symbolic Behavior Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuoh, Hisako

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of internationally adopted children to another culture and language has not been studied extensively. This study followed four infant girls from China during the 1st year postadoption, measuring vocabulary, gestural, social, communication, and symbolic behavior development each month. The children were also tested at 2 and 3 years…

  15. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  16. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  17. Barriers to the Adoption of ICT in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in US Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Kai; Chen, Chang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate barriers to the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) for teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in US universities. Although the development of ICT for teaching is growing, few published studies address ICT specifically regarding CFL teaching. Therefore, this study has reviewed the…

  18. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  19. Uncommon fusion of teeth and lateral periodontal cyst in a Chinese girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Xia, Xue; Wang, Wenjun; Qin, Man

    2011-10-01

    Fusion is a developmental anomaly of dental hard tissues. Most cases occur in the anterior region of both the primary and permanent dentitions. Occasionally, fusion of permanent and supernumerary teeth may occur in the maxillary anterior region; however, a supernumerary tooth fused with a premolar is a rare case. Developmental lateral periodontal cyst is also an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst with no clinical symptoms, and the lesion is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. In the present case, we report the uncommon fusion of teeth and lateral periodontal cyst in a Chinese girl. Using cone beam computed tomography we are able to acquire a better understanding of the complicated root canal morphology of the fused tooth and successfully manage the lateral periodontal cyst. PMID:21621436

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Beliefs by Stage of Physical Activity Adoption in Iranian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Berry, Tanya R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to examine the relationships among physical activity (PA)-related beliefs and to determine to what extent Iranian adolescents in different stages of PA adoption differ in perceived benefits and barriers during a 3-year transition from junior high school to high school. Methods: Data were collected from…

  1. Anorexia nervosa in a girl of Chinese origin: psychological, somatic and transcultural factors.

    PubMed

    Demarque, Mélissa; Guzman, Gabriela; Morrison, Elodie; Ahovi, Jonathan; Moro, Marie Rose; Blanchet-Collet, Corinne

    2015-04-01

    The increased prevalence of anorexia nervosa reported in non-Western societies inevitably raises the issue of the influence of cultural factors in the genesis and the patterns of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is not a straightforward Western culture-bound syndrome, although an influence of Western ideals of thinness does exist. The illness seems more related to rapid cultural shifts, either societal or individual, such as those occurring in the migratory process. Migrants and their children have to face the acculturation process and may experience a culture-clash. The pathology can also fulfil a positive acculturative function. This is a case study concerning a second-generation Chinese girl born in France presenting with anorexia nervosa. This case leads us to raise the issue of the choice of diagnostic criteria in relation to cultural background. We will also discuss the impact of the family's migratory history on the construction of identity in adolescence. Finally we will explore the specific features of care provision for anorexia nervosa in a transcultural setting. PMID:24363225

  2. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  3. Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: prospective evidence from mainland Chinese boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Despite evidence that sociocultural and psychological factors contribute to disordered eating, researchers have yet to examine the extent to which putative risk factors influence vulnerability for girls versus boys within and across phases of adolescence, particularly in non-Western cultures. In this study, early and middle adolescent samples from China (N = 2,909) completed measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and were reassessed 12 months later. Among both younger and older girls, elevations in appearance-focused interactions with friends, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction predicted increases in symptomatology at follow-up. In contrast, there was more discontinuity in risk factors relevant to samples of boys. Although media and friendship influences contributed to later disturbances among early adolescent boys, psychological factors, including body dissatisfaction and negative affect, had stronger effects in the multivariate model for older boys. Implications of finding are discussed in relation to adolescent development and a Chinese cultural context. PMID:21319924

  4. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  5. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  6. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  7. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese girls

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zezhang; Tang, Nelson Leung-Sang; Xu, Leilei; Qin, Xiaodong; Mao, Saihu; Song, Yueming; Liu, Limin; Li, Fangcai; Liu, Peng; Yi, Long; Chang, Jiang; Jiang, Long; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Shi, Benlong; Zhang, Wen; Qiao, Jun; Sun, Xu; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Zhou; Wang, Fei; Xie, Dingding; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhonghui; Jin, Mengran; Han, Xiao; Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bang-ping; Yu, Yang; Wang, Bing; Lee, K. M.; Lee, Wayne Y.W.; Lam, T. P.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural deformity of the spine affecting millions of children. As a complex disease, the genetic aetiology of AIS remains obscure. Here we report the results of a four-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a sample of 4,317 AIS patients and 6,016 controls. Overall, we identify three new susceptibility loci at 1p36.32 near AJAP1 (rs241215, Pcombined=2.95 × 10−9), 2q36.1 between PAX3 and EPHA4 (rs13398147, Pcombined=7.59 × 10−13) and 18q21.33 near BCL-2 (rs4940576, Pcombined=2.22 × 10−12). In addition, we refine a previously reported region associated with AIS at 10q24.32 (rs678741, Pcombined=9.68 × 10−37), which suggests LBX1AS1, encoding an antisense transcript of LBX1, might be a functional variant of AIS. This is the first GWAS investigating genetic variants associated with AIS in Chinese population, and the findings provide new insight into the multiple aetiological mechanisms of AIS. PMID:26394188

  9. The Adoption of Instructional Technology by Chinese Women Faculty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yixin

    2013-01-01

    While some institutions of higher learning encourage faculty adoption of newer instructional technologies into practice, various factors contribute to integration or hesitancy of acceptance. These base level factors are compounded when issues of culture and identity are considered. This quantitative study examined the characteristics of Chinese…

  10. Babies without Borders: Representations of Transracial Chinese Adoption in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Interracial and multi-ethnic families formed through intermarriage and transracial adoption are on the rise in the context of globalization, transforming familiar assumptions about what a family should be. The trend of diversity in family composition is increasing and will continue to evolve. This article attempts to compile a set of useful…

  11. Language Development of Chinese Adoptees 18-35 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, T.X.; Yang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the expressive language development of 186 18-35 months old Chinese girls adopted into American families. The adoptees were adopted between 3 and 25 months (M=11.0, S.D.=3.1) and had lived in the adoptive families for 3-27 months (M=16.2, S.D.=5.8) at the time of the study. The adoptive mothers provided information…

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; V Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9–17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26–45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9–17 years) vs. young women (18–25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26–45 year-old women vs. 18–25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18–25 minus 26–45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [–1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [–1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9–17 years) as compared with young women (18–25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years. PMID:25424785

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9-17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26-45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9-17 years) vs. young women (18-25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26-45 year-old women vs. 18-25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18-25 minus 26-45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [-1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [-1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9-17 years) as compared with young women (18-25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years. PMID:25424785

  14. De novo exonic deletion of KDM6A in a Chinese girl with Kabuki syndrome: A case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pu; Tan, Hu; Xia, Yan; Yu, Qian; Wei, Xianda; Guo, Ruolan; Peng, Ying; Chen, Chen; Li, Haoxian; Mei, Libin; Huang, Yanru; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2016-06-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare condition with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. Exonic deletions, disrupting the lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A) gene have been demonstrated as rare cause of KS. Here, we report a de novo 227-kb deletion in chromosome Xp11.3 of a 7-year-old Chinese girl with KS. Besides the symptoms of KS, the patient also presented with skin allergic manifestations, which were considered to be a new, rare feature of the phenotypic spectrum. The deletion includes the upstream region and exons 1-2 of KDM6A and potentially causes haploinsuffiency of the gene. We also discuss the mutation spectrum of KDM6A and clinical variability of patients with KDM6A deletion through a literature review. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028180

  15. U.S. Families' Adoption of Chinese Daughters: A Narrative Analysis of Family Themes in Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Jacki; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which family formation processes were presented in international children's adoption books. Guided by Pinderhughes' (1996) adoptive family development model, we conducted a content analysis for the representation of two developmental phases (anticipation and accommodation). A total…

  16. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  17. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  18. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  19. Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: a two year longitudinal study of mainland Chinese boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n = 1,271) and girls (n = 1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725

  20. Girl child: her rights and law.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood. PMID:12157999

  1. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes. PMID:12158008

  2. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  3. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  4. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  5. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  6. Girls in Science Rule!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a camping experience and its activities created for girls entering 6th grade who wanted to learn science and explore science-related fields. Indicates that the camping experience for girls promoted positive attitudes toward science learning. (KHR)

  7. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  8. TEACHERS' INTERACTIONS WITH BOYS AND WITH GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID H.; SEARS, PAULINE S.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE TEACHERS' PART IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF CHILDREN IN ADOPTING AND MAINTAINING A SEX-ROLE THAT WILL HELP THEM REACH A SENSE OF REAL IDENTITY. ANSWERS WERE SOUGHT FOR TWO QUESTIONS--(1) DO TEACHERS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO BOYS AND GIRLS, AND (2) IF SO, WHAT EFFECT MAY THIS HAVE ON THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL…

  9. Chinese Children's Constructive Activity and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how constructive activities are involved when Chinese students are performing reading tasks that require deeper levels of understanding. Forty students from Grade 5 (19 boys and 21 girls), and 42 students from Grade 6 (20 boys and 22 girls) participated in this study. To reveal the children's constructive processes in…

  10. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  11. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  12. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  13. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  14. Partnerships with Girls in Rural Schools in China: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Vilma; Zhao, Lin

    A case study of the impact of modest scholarships on the education of poor, rural Chinese girls found a "bonus effect"--an increase in the value placed on female scholarship recipients by their village. In mountainous Shaanxi Province, poor economic conditions led to many girls dropping out of school by grade 4. In one village, the All-China…

  15. Girls' Schooling Empowerment in Rural China: Identifying Capabilities and Social Change in the Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an elaboration of the human development capability approach by theorizing empowerment capabilities as an essential aspect of the education of excluded village girls. Seeking to explain Chinese village girls' demand for schooling, the article identifies intangible and instrumental capabilities that have often been…

  16. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  17. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    PubMed Central

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  18. Boys as Only-Children and Girls as Only-Children--Parental Gendered Expectations of the Only-Child in the Nuclear Chinese Family in Present-Day China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…

  19. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  20. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  1. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  2. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  3. The Search for Sustainable Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The girls of girls' schools, the author believes, are a kind of Platonic Form of American girl, an ideal to which most of the rest of society, of the country's meritocratic system, aspires for their daughters, a reflection of one's deepest values. She believes girls all over the country, in all high schools, want The Dream. They want to achieve…

  4. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  5. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  6. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  7. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  8. Connecting with Girls, Connects Them to You: Toward a "by Girls, for Girls" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Today there are 14 million girls ages 11-17 in the United States. The growing population of girls clearly represents a new opportunity for youth development organizations to reach out and engage them. In its continuing commitment to develop program options to meet the needs of girls today, in 2001 the Girl Scout Research Institute conducted one of…

  9. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  10. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  11. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  12. Girl-to-Girl Violence: The Voice of the Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…

  13. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  14. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of "femininity"…

  15. Adoption and Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Byung Hoon

    1989-01-01

    Because of Korean attitudes towards adoption and other reasons, attempts to promote intracountry adoption have met with limited success, and intercountry adoption is used as an alternative way of meeting children's needs. (RJC)

  16. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  17. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  18. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Now Corporation for National and Community Service and Boys & Girls Clubs of America partner with Google to help ... Military Youth Arianna Skinner Receives Top Honor from Boys & Girls Clubs of America JB MDL- Fort Dix Youth ...

  19. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  20. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  1. What about the Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Rebecca Priegert

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated test results that identify the literacy problems of boys as the most salient gender issue in schools distort the reality that girls experience significant gender-based challenges as well, though their problems may not present as clearly on standardized tests. This emphasis on boys' difficulties has moved educational resources in that…

  2. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  3. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  4. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  5. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  6. Do Girls Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This study explores mathematics performance between boys and girls in terms of attitude toward mathematics and the average standardized scores in reading and mathematics between the 30th and 85th percentiles. Participants were 7th grade students from a private school in an urban area who registered in a course intended for students of average…

  7. Helping Girls Who Hate PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A new website is helping girls who doubt their athletic abilities: www.ihategymclass.com. The website encourages girls through articles and an advice column, where girls can bring issues related to sports that they might be embarrassed to take to peers or a physical education teacher. Website founder Heather E. Schwartz says she wanted to reach…

  8. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  9. Y's Girl: increasing body satisfaction among primary school girls.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2013-09-01

    To date, effective body image interventions for preadolescent school girls are lacking. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Y's Girl, a published body image curriculum specifically tailored for preadolescent school girls. A sample of 60 Grade 6 girls with a mean age of 11.25 (range of 11-12) years were allocated either to an intervention or control group and completed baseline and posttest measures of body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparison, self-esteem, peer factors, and disordered eating. Findings revealed that, compared to the control group, girls receiving the intervention reported improved body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparisons, and self-esteem at posttest 1 week after the intervention ended. Furthermore, changes in body satisfaction were moderated by initial levels of risk-factors. These findings provide initial support for Y's Girl as an effective, affordable body image intervention for preadolescent girls which can be implemented by teachers. PMID:23876878

  10. Girls' Education in the United States and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elizabeth K.; Sutton, Lenford; Agezo, Clement Kwadzo

    2006-01-01

    UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan (2000) delivered a speech at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, stating that, of the 110 million children in the world who should be in school but are not, two-thirds are girls. The lack of equality is contrary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, in which governments committed to…

  11. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  12. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  14. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  15. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  16. Perceptions of weight and attitudes toward eating in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Koff, E; Rierdan, J

    1991-06-01

    Sixth grade girls (n = 206) responded to questions about their weight, body image, dieting practices, and attitudes toward weight and eating. Results suggested that feeling too fat and wishing to lose weight were becoming normative for young adolescent girls in that the majority of girls wished to weigh less and said that they dieted at least occasionally. For most girls, weight concerns had emerged between the ages of 9 to 11. A sizeable proportion of girls seemed to have adopted a "dieting mentality," claiming to be avoiding fat, counting calories, thinking excessively about food, feeling guilty after eating and overeating, and exercising to lose weight. Such practices were common even among girls who did not describe themselves as overweight or who were satisfied with their appearance. The emergence of these attitudes and behaviors at increasingly younger ages is of grave concern, as several of them are risk factors for the development of serious eating disorders. PMID:1755870

  17. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  18. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  19. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  20. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  1. Single Parent Adoptive Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research and reports on a longitudinal study of 15 single-parent adoptive homes over a 14-year period that demonstrated that these homes have the capacity to be successful adoptive placements. Identifies unique characteristics of single-parent adoptive homes, and notes the need for additional research to identify children for whom these…

  2. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  3. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  4. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  5. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  6. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  7. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  8. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  9. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not be as accurate for girls with more complex problems. ... The following steps can help prevent UTIs in girls: Avoid giving your child bubble baths. Have your ...

  10. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  11. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  12. Counseling Girls for Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the unequal position of women in the labor force is a critical issue for guidance counselors. Counselors should encourage girls to try different areas and counteract stereotypes that both students and teachers have concerning education and careers for girls. (JAC)

  13. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  14. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  15. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  16. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  17. Children's Sex-Typing during the Second World War: Girls, Boys, and War Games on the Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    This paper explored the behavior of children of the U.S. homefront during World War II, and found that, in general, girls and boys adopted the sex-typed behavior that their parents, teachers, and peers believed was appropriate to their gender and age. Thus, girls played the roles of mother, teacher, and nurse, while boys played the roles of…

  18. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

  19. Popular Culture and Moral Panics about "Children at Risk": Revisiting the Sexualisation-of-Young-Girls Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to resist moral panics over children's media consumption, and especially girls' consumption of hyper-sexualised popular media, this paper aims to offer a more positive account of popular culture and young children's, especially girls', engagement with it. By adopting a historical approach to modern childhood and the moral panics…

  20. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed. PMID:12321765

  1. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  2. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  3. Teaching "Red Scarf Girl". A Facing History and Ourselves Study Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Elisabeth Fieldstone

    2009-01-01

    Ji-li Jiang's extraordinary memoir "Red Scarf Girl" transports readers to a tumultuous time in Chinese history--the first two years of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Caught between conflicting forces--joining the Revolution's call for rebellion, protecting her family, and fitting in with her peers--Jiang describes how her…

  4. A Survey of the Health, Sleep, and Development of Children Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael A.; Mccarthy-Rettig, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    The health, development, and sleeping patterns of 240 children adopted from China were examined using a survey research approach. Eighty percent of the children were 18 months of age or younger when adopted, and 98 percent of the children were girls. Sixty-two percent of the children were reported to have been developmentally delayed at the time…

  5. Social-Emotional Adjustment and Attachment in Children Adopted from China: Processes and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the processes and predictors of change in maternal ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and attachment security in 70 infant girls adopted from China at a mean age of 13.5 months. These children's mental and language development were also directly assessed. The adopted children were assessed within the first…

  6. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  7. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  8. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  9. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  10. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  11. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  12. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls. PMID:18551822

  13. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  14. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  15. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  16. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  17. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  18. e-VLBI Applications of Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, Z.; Zhong, C.; Li, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) adopts the strategy of "one network, two purposes" for deep-space exploration and scientific applications. To achieve the new e-VLBI capabilities, we have upgraded the stations and the data processing center of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN). The Chinese Next Generation Internet (CNGI) project also will give support to e-VLBI applications.

  19. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  20. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  1. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned. PMID:12158019

  2. Improving girls' schooling in Africa.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) is working to improve schooling for girls and women. The organization has 14 national chapters and has funded 14 projects in African Countries, including a program of alternative education for out-of-school girls, a remedial mathematics and science program, help for poor students, persuading teachers to allow pregnant girls to continue their schooling after delivery, and programs which allow daughters of farmers to schedule classes around their livestock duties. FAWE also sponsored a ministerial consultation on school dropouts and adolescent pregnancy which attracted an impressive number of male African Ministers of Education. In Ghana, the FAWE chapter acts as a think tank and a pressure group. Female education issues are explored through role-playing in workshops geared to improve public awareness of the importance of educating girls, and science clinics have been designed to increase appreciation for science and mathematics among girls. FAWE has produced publications in English and French, as well as a music tape and a documentary. FAWE is funded by a variety of private and international agencies and recently received recognition from the UN's Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. PMID:12346479

  3. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income. PMID:12158011

  4. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  5. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  6. Obstacles to Interstate Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Roberta

    A documentation of the obstacles in law, policy and administrative procedure that interfere with effecting adoptions across State lines is presented. Major problems include: (1) Nonjudicial termination or relinquishment proceedings, although legal in many States, do not satisfy the courts in other states on the issue of the child's freedom for…

  7. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  8. Preparing Girls for Menstruation: Recommendations from Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Elissa; Rierdan, Jill

    1995-01-01

    Ninth-grade girls (n=157) rated their own experience of menarche and answered 4 open-ended questions. Responses suggested several ways that early preparation could be revised, and supported a conceptualization of menstrual education as a long-term, continuous process, beginning well before menarche and continuing long after. (JPS)

  9. Loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese Adolescents as Predicted by Relationships with Friends and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Junsheng; Li, Dan; Purwono, Urip; Chen, Xinyin; French, Doran C.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese adolescents was predicted by their intimacy and conflict with friends and parents. The total sample included 1,833 thirteen- and fifteen-year-old adolescents recruited from urban schools. Boys reported more loneliness than girls, and Chinese boys reported more loneliness…

  10. The precaution adoption process.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

  11. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  12. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  13. Chinese Calligraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  14. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  15. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  16. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  17. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  18. Girls in Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Research Newsletter, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Girls tend, far less than boys, to opt for science or technical subjects in upper secondary school and higher education. A plan to study females' experiences, ideas, and attitudes to science and technology is reviewed in this report. The study's intent is to follow two groups of Swedish students from the beginning of grade 7 to their choice of…

  19. The State of Hispanic Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    In 1998, a series of focus groups was held to explore the factors that promote resilience among Hispanic girls. At least 4 focus groups, composed of no less than 6 and no more than 15 participants, were conducted at each of the 6 urban sites. In spite of the variations in Hispanic subgroup membership of the focus group participants, the findings…

  20. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  1. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  2. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  3. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  4. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  5. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  6. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  7. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  8. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide" serves as…

  9. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  10. The Meaning of Home for Runaway Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Muzicant, Amit

    2008-01-01

    This naturalistic qualitative study examines the concept of "home" for runaway girls. Through the "home story" of girls who run away from home, the authors hoped to understand the many facets of home, as well as broaden the existing knowledge-base about the phenomenon of adolescent runaway girls. Data consisted of in-depth interviews with 15 girls…

  11. Girls and Science Education - Cause For Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Alison; And Others

    This collection of papers resulted from the observation that girls, before boys, are eased out of science education. An overview of the problem is presented in the first paper, with an identification of some of the factors that discourage girls from pursuing study or careers in science. Justification for teaching science to girls as well as to…

  12. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  13. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  14. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an

  15. Do Village Girls Gain Empowering Capabilities through Schooling and What Functionings Do They Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Vilma; Luo, Shujuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between girls' schooling and empowerment in western China in the first decade of the 21st century. This paper adopted a capability-empowerment framework based on Sen's capability approach into which were integrated concepts by Bourdieu, Appadurai, Nussbaum, Kabeer, and Unterhalter, to help to understand the…

  16. Sims to Teen Second Life: Transition of the SimSavvy Girls to Tech Savvy Isle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Barbara Z.; King, Elizabeth; Hayes, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    In its second year, the Tech Savvy Girls Project adopted "Teen Second Life" as a platform for interest-driven learning and designed projects and objects around themes important to them and their futures as technology-using, creative people. By using the building tools in an open-ended virtual world, they were able to pursue interests common to…

  17. Organizational Learning in the Nonprofit Sector: Lessons from Working with the Girl Scouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peneul, William R.

    The Cumberland Valley Girl Scout Council is funded primarily by the United Way of Middle Tennessee. Approximately 5 years ago, the United Way of Middle Tennessee adopted an "outcome-based investment model" whereby agencies receive funding based on their ability to specify and monitor program outcomes based on genuine client and community need. To…

  18. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  19. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  20. EHR adopters vs. non-adopters: Impacts of, barriers to, and federal initiatives for EHR adoption

    PubMed Central

    Jamoom, Eric W.; Patel, Vaishali; Furukawa, Michael F.; King, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    While adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems has grown rapidly, little is known about physicians’ perspectives on its adoption and use. Nationally representative survey data from 2011 are used to compare the perspectives of physicians who have adopted EHRs with those that have yet to do so across three key areas: the impact of EHRs on clinical care, practice efficiency and operations; barriers to EHR adoption; and factors that influence physicians to adopt EHRs. Despite significant differences in perspectives between adopters and non-adopters, the majority of physicians perceive that EHR use yields overall clinical benefits, more efficient practices and financial benefits. Purchase cost and productivity loss are the greatest barriers to EHR adoption among both adopters and non-adopters; although non-adopters have significantly higher rates of reporting these as barriers. Financial incentives and penalties, technical assistance, and the capability for electronic health information exchange are factors with the greatest influence on EHR adoption among all physicians. However, a substantially higher proportion of non-adopters regard various national health IT policies, and in particular, financial incentives or penalties as a major influence in their decision to adopt an EHR system. Contrasting these perspectives provides a window into how national policies have shaped adoption thus far; and how these policies may shape adoption in the near future. PMID:26250087

  1. Experiment on Chinese Postgraduates' Recognizing 100 Everyday English Adopting "MMOASAPMI"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongli; Li, Jinghua; Luo, Jing; Liu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the memory effects of the postgraduates' memorizing Everyday English from 30 to 100 using the Natural Numeral Imagery Memory (Method by memorizing the concrete objects associated with the shapes of Arabic numeral to produce marvelous imagination, MMOASAPMI). The results indicated as follows: Firstly,…

  2. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Afework; Tessema, Masresha; H/sellasie, Kiday; Seid, Omer; Kidane, Gebremedhin; Kebede, Aweke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending) adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD) age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4) years. Four hundred forty seven (54%), 355 (42.9%) and 26 (3.1%) of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%), of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%), health centers (27%) and health posts (26%) were the preferred public facilities for provision of iron

  3. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption. PMID:16154473

  4. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  5. Labial adhesions in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roy Kallol; Sonika, Agarwal; Charu, Chanana; Sunesh, Kumar; Neena, Malhotra

    2006-01-01

    Labial adhesions after puberty are rare and are usually the result of chronic inflammation, urinary tract infection, hypoestrogenism or surgical procedures leading to vulval trauma. Sexual abuse leading to labial adhesions is extremely rare in girls who have attained menarche. Complete vulval fusion can rarely occur without any evidence of hypoestrogenism. We address this rare entity in three young pubertal girls wherein one had a history of genital trauma, the second had a history of surgical intervention due to urinary retention and the last one had a history of sexual abuse. All patients had history of genital trauma in common. Accepted management of this condition is adhesiolysis followed by application of estrogen cream in the postoperative period. PMID:16189695

  6. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  7. The emotional aftermath of adoption.

    PubMed

    Nadelson, C C

    1976-09-01

    Adopted children are emotionally vulnerable. Adoptive parents must cope with more complex problems than biologic parents. The family physician can provide valuable counseling. Preadoption counseling focuses on motivation and ambivalence. After adoption, however, serious, sometimes predictable, issues arise, such as: how and when to tell the child he is adopted; the child's search for knowledge; the problem of subsequent divorce; the birth of a natural sibling, and the involvement of other family members. New concepts include "open adoption" and "single parent adoption." PMID:961560

  8. Bicultural Socialization among Adoptive Families : Where There Is a Will, There Is a Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kristy A.; Tessler, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Although bicultural competence has been viewed as an advantage for immigrants and other ethnic minorities in American society, we do not know whether bicultural socialization is similarly advantageous for children in families formed through international, transracial adoption. This study examines what factors enable adoptive Chinese children to…

  9. Adoptions Without Agencies: A Study of Independent Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; And Others

    The purposes of this national study of independent, nonagency adoptions were: (1) to determine the experience of the parties involved (biological parents, adoptive parents, agencies, intermediaries, and law enforcement agents); (2) to identify agency policies, procedures and resources that deter agency adoptions and thus encourage independent…

  10. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  11. Experiences of school bullying among internationally adopted children: results from the Finnish Adoption (FINADO) Study.

    PubMed

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Mäkipää, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The children were identified through official adoption organizations. The response rate in the target sample was 49.4%: the study sample consisted of 364 children (190 girls, 52.2%). The children's background factors and symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) were evaluated using a FINADO questionnaire. Their learning difficulties and social and language skills were assessed using a standardized parental questionnaire (Five to Fifteen). Of the participants, 19.8% reported victimization by peers while 8% had bullied others. Both victimization and bullying were associated with severe symptoms of RAD at the time of adoption (RR 2.68, 95%CI 1.50-4.77 and RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.17-3.69 for victimization and bullying, respectively). Lack of social skills was associated with victimization (RR 1.74, 95%CI 1.06-2.85) but not independently with being a bully (RR 1.50, 95%CI 0.91-2.45). In a multivariate analysis the child's learning difficulties and language difficulties were not associated with either bullying others or victimization. PMID:22362203

  12. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally-adopted individuals show earlier puberty than non-adopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained by differences in pubertal timing. Relative to nonadopted controls (n = 153), domestically-adopted girls (n = 121) had earlier menarche, earlier sexual initiation, and more conduct disorder symptoms. Age at menarche partially mediated the relation of adoptive status to sexual initiation, but not to conduct disorder symptoms. Extending findings from international adoptees, results show that domestic adoption is also linked to earlier puberty, and suggest early puberty as one mechanism linking adoption to problematic outcomes. PMID:23335840

  13. "Just beyond my front door": public discourse experiences of children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Vashchenko, M; D'Aleo, M; Pinderhughes, E E

    2012-03-01

    The phenotypic differences between children and their adoptive parents in transracial adoptions make the child's adoptive status readily apparent in public. Consequently, adoptees field more frequent questions and comments about the adoption. The present study examines the nature of public conversations about ethnicity and adoption of 41 elementary school age girls adopted from China and the ecological factors related to less frequent occurrences of such conversations and to the positive nature of these experiences. Results indicate that family structure (single parent vs. two parents) and parental bicultural competence predict membership in the favorable condition (reporting fewer public interaction experiences and reporting more positive experiences, respectively). Child's age and racial diversity of the town of residence do not predict these outcomes. Implications for families, adoption professionals, teachers and researchers are discussed. PMID:21553096

  14. Education for girls: report from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Nunez, G; De Coti, O

    1994-01-01

    The school attendance rate in Guatemala is lower for girls than it is for boys, with a significantly higher drop-out rate for girls than for boys. In rural areas, 66% of girls who enroll in first grade drop out of school before they complete the third grade. The Guatemalan Association for Girls' Education in cooperation with different social and economic sectors of Guatemalan society as well as with nongovernmental and international organizations has therefore promoted a number of actions to strengthen formal primary education for girls based upon a national needs assessment and plan of action. The association has promoted the development of research, communications, advocacy, projects, and educational materials. Educational materials were developed to respond to the educational needs of Guatemalan girls, especially those of Mayan origin, and are comprised of a teacher's packet including a manual, flipchart, posters, books, and worksheets, as well as a collection of storybooks which all complement each other. The versatile materials were developed with the input of parents, community leaders, teachers, and boys and girls, and highlight the value of girls while encouraging the development of their self-esteem. The materials focus upon the ways in which the education of girls contributes to personal, family, and community well-being. Their versatility allows an emphasis to be placed throughout school curricula on girl's education. PMID:12288379

  15. Biopsychosocial correlates of dietary intent in middle school girls.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A; Martin, Scott B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent girls commonly engage in weight management and dietary restriction with the hopes of changing their bodies to more closely approximate social body ideals. The purpose of this study was to examine biopsychosocial factors that predict dietary restraint. Participants (n=774, Mage=12.38) completed measures of dietary intent, pubertal status, sociocultural pressures, body comparison, internalization, body dissatisfaction, social support, and general self-esteem. Height, weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness were objectively measured. Pressures to lose weight and gain muscle mass, internalization of social body ideals, and friend support predicted higher levels of dietary intent; cardiorespiratory fitness predicted lower levels of dietary intent. Girls who experience pressure, adopt social body ideals as their own, and experience social support from friends may be at increased risk for disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. Fitness may offer a protective effect against psychological and social risk factors. Additional research is needed to establish the causal nature of these relationships and determine effective methods for reducing disordered eating risk among adolescent girls. PMID:26094132

  16. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  17. A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

  18. Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

    1969-01-01

    Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

  19. Adoption Resources for Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1971-01-01

    The growing number of adoptions in this country, including racially mixed adoptions, attest to the general acceptance of adoption as a way of bringing love to children in need of families of their own and the satisfactions of parenthood to childless couples, single men and women, and families who have room for one more. (Author/AJ)

  20. Sixty Girls, Three Nuns, One Home.

    PubMed

    Smeltzer, Carolyn Hope

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse volunteer working with girls in India who had been trafficked and/or were children of mothers who were (are) prostitutes. The article describes how nuns who care, provide values and a safe home give the girls opportunities. The article illustrates how, with little recourse, three nuns care for 60 girls living in one home. The girls range in age from 4 to 18 years. The girls are motivated to live happily, work hard, study often, and play together. Lessons learned from the nurse volunteer who worked and lived with the girls are described. This article illustrates how nurses in retirement can still fulfill their passion of helping others. PMID:26193971

  1. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:25380232

  2. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  3. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  4. An Early-Stage Epidemic: A Systematic Review of Correlates of Smoking Among Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. Purpose We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. Method We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. Results A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Conclusion Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women. PMID:24222041

  5. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  6. Teen Girls and Technology: What's the Problem, What's the Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Are teenage girls being left behind in the technology race? According to author and professor Lesley Farmer, teenage girls are not embracing technology and all of its potential impact on their futures. In "Teen Girls and Technology", Farmer explores the developmental issues of teen girls, including the reality of girls and tech as it now stands.…

  7. We Roll Deep: Appalachian Girls Fight for Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatig, Linda; Parrott, Laurel; Carter, Carolyn; Kusimo, Patricia; Keyes, Marian

    This paper chronicles the experiences of nine adolescent girls who participated in a 3-year science, mathematics, and technology program for Appalachian girls. The girls lived in two West Virginia communities (one rural, one urban). Most of the girls were poor; six were African American. Descriptions of the girls' neighborhoods and local…

  8. Understanding Girls' Friendships, Fights and Feuds: A Practical Approach to Girls' Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besag, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…

  9. Promoting Girls' Participation in Sports: Discursive Constructions of Girls in a Sports Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…

  10. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  11. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  12. Resilient Girls--Factors That Protect against Delinquency. Girls Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…

  13. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  14. How Schools Shortchange Girls. A Study of Major Findings on Girls and Education. The AAUW Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Coll., MA. Center for Research on Women.

    The educational experience of girls has been largely ignored in the current education debate in the United States. This absence does not mean that boys and girls have identical educational experiences in school. This report challenges the common assumption that girls and boys are treated equally in U.S. public schools by providing a synthesis of…

  15. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  16. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-03-01

    A long-term collaboration between the JWST’s NIRCam E/PO team and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona brings STEM activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers, and in turn to their councils and girls.

  17. An Evaluation of Implementing Koha in a Chinese Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Tsai, Yuchin; Hopkinson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate issues of different scripts in the same record (in MARC21 and Chinese machine-readable cataloguing (CMARC)) and Chinese internal codes (i.e. double-byte character set) when implementing Koha. It also discusses successful efforts in promoting the adoption of Koha in Taiwan, particularly the…

  18. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  19. Smart Girls, Hard-Working Girls but Not yet Self-Assured Girls: The Limits of Gender Equity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…

  20. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  1. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  2. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  3. Openness in Adoption: Research with the Adoption Kinship Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes current research on the outcomes of open adoption. Discusses issues involved in conducting research on openness and offers methodological recommendations. Provides examples from one research program with adoptive kinship networks. Concludes that psychological outcomes were less related to the level of openness than to the dynamics of…

  4. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  5. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  6. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  7. Girls' and Women's Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…

  8. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  9. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  10. A Climbing Girl's Reflections about Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The main research question in this paper is whether a climbing discourse can be a resource for a school-geometry discourse. The text is based on a 12-year old girl's story from an exciting climbing trip during her summer holiday. The girl uncovers some of her knowledge that had been invisible to her; she is guided to see some relations between her…

  11. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  12. Preventing youth violence perpetration among girls.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls. PMID:21875306

  13. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  14. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  15. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  16. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  17. Science Camp: Just for the Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…

  18. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  19. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  20. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  1. Reading Girls: Living Literate and Powerful Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…

  2. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  3. Cyber Bullying and Our Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth

    2007-01-01

    This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…

  4. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  5. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  6. Girls and Physics: Continuing Barriers to "Belonging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses selected findings of a narrative review, funded by the Institute of Physics, in response to the continuing decline in the number of girls studying physics post-16 in England; 177 selected sources, of national and international research literature about girls' participation in physics, were reviewed. In the article, we argue…

  7. Why Girls Flock to Sweet Valley High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntwork, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the appeal of romance fiction for adolescent girls, particularly the "Sweet Valley High" series, and summarizes some research in the area. Topics addressed include reading preferences of teenage girls, sales and marketing of romances, literary criticisms, what readers gain from the books, and what constitutes good pleasure reading. (14…

  8. Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Susan Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    "Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies" looks at how girls learn, beginning with the time they are born through both the informal and formal education process. In the author's current role as professor of science education, Dr. Goetz has surveyed hundreds of female elementary education majors in their junior and senior year of…

  9. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  10. The Prevention of Social Aggression among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…

  11. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  12. Cinderella and Science: Career Counseling and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyden-Hilliard, Mary Ellen

    The need for educational and career counseling for girls and women is described in this paper. Expectations, the "Cinderella syndrome", independence, and adolescence are discussed. Factors which reduce girls' aspirations and options are identified. Career counseling that concerns itself with strength, independence, role model equality, and sharing…

  13. Little Girl, Where Are You Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue

    1974-01-01

    This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)

  14. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  15. Transforming an icon: Girl Scouts of America.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Michelle; Inzunza, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Girl Scouts is four years away from celebrating its centennial and has helped nurture courage, confidence, and character in more than fifty million girls. There are a quarter million troops, but mission, program, fundraising, and branding occur at the national level. These exciting programs are described here. PMID:18551845

  16. Girls Can! Community Coalitions Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.

    It is possible that the materials presented in this manual were used in implementing community action projects supported by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. These projects, part of the Girls Can! initiative, were intended to address the disparity between the educational experiences of girls and boys in…

  17. A Study on E-Learning Take-Up Intention from an Innovation Adoption Perspective: A Case in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; He, Qile; Feng, Weizhe; Li, Daoliang; Fu, Zetian

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to examine, from an innovation adoption perspective, Chinese students' intention of taking up e-learning degrees. A survey of Chinese students was conducted to reveal their perceptions concerning innovation attributes relevant to e-learning and their intentions of taking e-learning programmes provided by UK universities. Given…

  18. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  19. Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated a diverse sample of girls (6-12 years of age) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type (n = 93) and inattentive type (n = 47), plus age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88), who participated in research summer programs. Speech and language problems, grade retention, and adoption characterized the ADHD sample; documented abuse characterized the combined type. Girls with ADHD showed dysfunction in terms of externalizing and internalizing behaviors and comorbidities, cognitive and academic performance, authoritarian parenting, and peer status. The inattentive type was more socially isolated but less rejected by peers than the combined type. ADHD-related impairment was independent of age and disruptive comorbidity. Further examination of processes related to psychopathology and competencies in girls with ADHD is needed. PMID:12362959

  20. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  1. The use of fantasy play in the treatment of a six-year-old adopted girl.

    PubMed

    Gould, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    The traditional psychoanalytic practice with children focuses on the observation and the interpretation of the child's play. In contrast, in my treatment of Sara, my focus was on playing with the child. Since initially she was unable to play, Ifirst taught her how to act out fantasies in play until, gradually, she became an active participant and, finally, the creator of her own stories. This method was effective because it reproduced the "to and fro" or "optimal responsiveness" between the mother and infant in the first three years of life when the infant/child experience is of being found by the mother. Like the infant/child, my patient's response to our playing was to recognize that her actions evoked meaning for her therapist. Empowered by this selfawareness, she began to participate in the dialogue of fantasy play and, as our stories expanded, she experienced the affirmation and fulfillment of a reciprocal relationship. While lost in play, she experienced being found. Her story demonstrates, poignantly, how a child comes to choose aggression and cruelty as a source of power. For Sara, nurturing and goodness engendered feelings of weakness and helplessness because they stirred up her envy of and intense longing for the good enough mothering that she had never known. PMID:20578435

  2. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  3. Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2007-01-01

    Although faculty support has been identified as a critical factor in the success of educational-technology programs, many people involved in such efforts underestimate the complexities of integrating technology into teaching. In this article, the author proposes an adoption cycle to help tackle the complex issue of technology adoption for…

  4. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  5. Gender differences in brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2008-03-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.

  6. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  7. Adolescents' perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1998-09-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 429) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perception of parents' global parenting styles and specific parenting practices. Results showed that there were significant differences between reported paternal parenting and maternal parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived as relatively less responsive, less demanding, less concerned, and more harsh. Adolescent girls' perceptions of fathers' parenting characteristics generally did not differ from those of the boys, but the girls tended to perceive their mothers as more demanding but less harsh. The present findings provide some support for the popular Chinese saying, "strict father, kind mother," but they also suggest that it requires redefinition. PMID:9729846

  8. Educating girls: a model program from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Clay, S A

    1992-01-01

    A consistent, positive association has been found between female education and socioeconomic development indicators such as infant and child mortality, family nutrition, and family planning acceptance. The World Bank has estimated that investments in female primary education yield a return of 20%. In Guatemala, where fewer than one in every eight girls who enrolls in first grade graduates from the sixth grade, government and business leaders have developed a national plan of action aimed at encouraging female school attendance. A National Commission on Girls' Education, formed in 1991, has formulated 40 projects that can be implemented by public and private institutions. These projects emerged from an analysis of specific obstacles to primary school completion and the identification of the most effective incentives for encouraging family and community support of female education. The Educate Girls Project, scheduled to be implemented in the 20 Guatemalan communities with the highest differentials between the school attendance and graduation rates of girls and boys, will include tutoring for girls, scholarships to help offset the costs to families of the loss of daughters' labor, teacher training on strategies for motivating girls, training for parent committees, and educational materials that feature female role models. Examples of other projects are mobile schools for families who migrate to the coast during the harvest and weekend schools for girls whose families are unable to release them from economic responsibilities during the school week. PMID:12288849

  9. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  10. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  11. Global Literacy: Comparing Chinese and US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Rong; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare high school students' global literacy level in metropolitan areas of China and the USA. Design/methodology/approach: The authors adopted a global literacy instrument to surveyed 2,157 New York City (NYC) high school students and 2,220 Chinese high school students. This paper adopted an independent…

  12. Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

    This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

  13. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present. PMID:12321764

  14. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  15. Perspectives of best Practices for Learning Gender-Inclusive Science: Influences of Extracurricular Science for Gifted Girls and Electrical Engineering for Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Shaunda L.

    Gifted girls in elementary school must follow the set curriculum, but their choices of extracurricular activities may indicate future subject preferences. This study attempted to explore the perceptions of gifted girls regarding how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. A mixed methodology was adopted: qualitative, to understand the girls' perceptions of influence, and quantitative, to measure their attitudes toward science. Influential factors identified in this study highlight fun as occurring with the highest frequency and four emergent factors: doubt, traditional sex roles, boredom, and group work. In addition, findings from a focused case study of a graduate electrical engineer are interwoven with the girls' perspectives of science. The varying ages and experiences with science of the participants provide interesting views. This study adds knowledge to the field of science education, specifically on withingender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering.

  16. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country. PMID:26330637

  17. Wirth: Key to slowing population growth -- education of girls.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J

    1998-09-01

    The president of the UN Foundation, Tim Wirth, cites education programs for girls as a key to slowing the pace of population growth. Wirth suggests stabilizing the world's population in order to be sure, particularly in the poorest countries, that people have opportunities. The security of the nation and the world hinges upon a sustainable, equitable balance between human numbers and the planet's capacity to support life. Disregarding the issue of population and consumption will destroy the habitat of the world and destroy the very systems that allow life to exist on Earth. The education of girls is a critical area for stabilizing population. Hence, inadequate education is a powerful determinant of high fertility and ensures that individuals do not live up to their potential. The Program of Action adopted at the 1994 ICPD held in Cairo showed that when women have control over their lives, they are better able to contribute to a society that presents them with choices. Conversely, the lack of decision-making power negatively affects a woman's productive role in the family. Wirth also emphasizes the importance of family planning as part of a comprehensive approach to slow population growth. Wirth believes that the Cairo Plus Five Conference to be held in the Hague on February 8-12, 1999, will be very important in making the Program of Action more visible and effective. PMID:12322266

  18. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…

  19. Educational Work of the Girl Scouts. Bulletin, 1921, No. 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Louise Stevens

    1921-01-01

    The Girl Scouts, a national organization, is open to any girl who expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the promise and the laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the opportunity for group experience outdoor life, and to learn through work, but more by play, to serve their community. Patterned after the Girl…

  20. What Every Girl in School Needs To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransome, Whitney

    This document provides a brief overview on the short-changing of girls in the education system. The paper suggests one solution may lie in the single-sex school for girls. Girls' schools are united in a long-standing commitment to learning environments that place girls first and foremost. All mentors and roles models provided are female, so that…

  1. Starting Now: Strategies for Helping Girls Complete Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea

    This report assesses the current situation of girls' participation in elementary education, suggesting approaches that may help increase girls' retention. It reviews research findings and conventional wisdom on constraints affecting girls' schooling and examines initiatives that have attempted to increase girls' retention. Chapter 1,…

  2. Promoting Girls' Interest and Achievement in Physics Classes for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated an intervention aimed at giving girls a better chance in science that focused on introductory physics at the secondary level and featured material and methods developed for use with girls. Results for German seventh graders (150 girls and 139 boys in the experimental group) show better learning achievements for both girls and boys in the…

  3. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  4. Girls Are Great. Contemporary Issues: Growing Up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others

    This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…

  5. Issues unique to psychotherapy with adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ponton, L E

    1993-01-01

    New research on development and risk factors has increased our knowledge of adolescent girls and given those of us working with them more available information to aid our understanding of psychotherapy. Advancing social theory has also promoted an understanding of the problems that adolescent girls begin to face including gender discrimination and conflict around social roles. Educated therapists can utilize this information with their adolescent female patients, providing knowledge about choices available to girls and promoting understanding and problem-solving. Growing knowledge about the importance of relationships for this population also informs us about the therapeutic alliance. In summary, therapists working with adolescent girls face many challenges and also have increasing access to information that can aid them with this process. PMID:8214214

  6. The Little Girl Who Would Not Listen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, MaryJo

    2000-01-01

    Relates the author's experiences as a year-long visiting poetry teacher with one third-grade girl in particular, an assertive, determined, and oppositional child. Muses on the author's difficulties working with her. (SR)

  7. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906

  8. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  9. Mainland Chinese students' concept of health.

    PubMed

    Wang, W

    2004-01-01

    This investigation, which was part of a larger project, was to describe and explain the concept of health as perceived by Chinese students. Data were collected through a questionnaire from students from two primary schools, two high schools and two universities (N=946) in Shanghai, China. The results showed that Chinese students not only considered themselves healthy but also viewed adolescents as the healthiest people in comparison with children, the middle and the old-aged. Their health concept consisted of components relating to physical, psychological, and social/moral dimensions. There were more boys than girls who considered mental health to be part of general health and a tendency for boys to perceive health status as poorer along with the increase in age. The categories of the concept of health and students' views on how to enhance health status are presented. PMID:15624784

  10. Gender Socialization in Chinese Kindergartens: Teachers’ Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-child interactions and peer exchanges were observed once a week for 10 months in four kindergartens in Hong Kong, China. A total of 206 anecdotes/scenes considered representative of the gender-related experiences of 109 4-year-old Chinese children in these kindergartens were analyzed. Descriptive codes, generated iteratively were clustered, categorized, integrated, recoded and recategorized and led to the identification of two major themes related to the socialization practices of teachers: Gendered Kindergarten Routines and Perpetuation of Gender Stereotypes. Findings indicated that these early years’ educational contexts were not gender neutral. Teachers interacted with boys significantly more than girls. They also subtly conveyed traditional Chinese gender values through their repeated use of gendered routines in the kindergartens and their behaviors reflected gender stereotypes. PMID:21297853

  11. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  12. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations. PMID:23568422

  13. Letting girls speak out about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  14. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  15. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  16. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. PMID:25752207

  17. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife. PMID:11648176

  18. Executive function and mental health in adopted children with a history of recreational drug exposures.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Corbett, Selena M; Birkett, Melissa A; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  19. Executive Function and Mental Health in Adopted Children with a History of Recreational Drug Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Gray, Hilary M.; Corbett, Selena M.; Birkett, Melissa A.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  20. "Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!": A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Jacqueline B.

    2012-01-01

    Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…

  1. Resilience of Girls with Incarcerated Mothers: The Impact of Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    Girl Scouts Beyond Bars, an in-prison mother-daughter visitation program, was designed using a resilience framework. This article describes the Girl Scouts Beyond Bars program and discusses current research findings about the effects of the program on participants' ability to form healthier relationships with their mothers and improve their sense…

  2. And Girl Justice for All: Blending Girl-Specific & Youth Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muno, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a Seattle-based nonprofit organization, Powerful Voices, designed to help girls realize their dreams, engage their communities, and shape a better world. One among many efforts to address the equity gap for girls of color, Powerful Voices intertwines gender- and race-specific practices with evidence-based…

  3. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  4. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide on Transitioning Girls from School to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Liza; Bertone, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Sometimes mentors will be able to help make their lives better; other times they will feel that they have not done very much. This guide serves as a road map for mentors. This guide focuses on a very important step in young women's journey toward…

  5. Girls Rule! TGIF: Thank God I'm Female: Girls Kick Butt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Elaine M.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)

  6. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  7. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  8. Girls Involved in Real Life Sharing: Utilizing Technology to Support the Emotional Development of Teenaged Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daily, Shaundra B.; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new digital technology to support emotional self-awareness and empathy, called G.I.R.L.S (Girls Involved in Real Life Sharing). The system invited users to reflect actively upon and interact with a dialogue about how the story made them feel through the construction of pictorial narratives. In a pilot study with teenage…

  9. Mean Girls, Homosociality and Football: An Education on Social and Power Dynamics between Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…

  10. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  11. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted by the new…

  12. Empowering Pre-Adolescent Girls: Girls on the Run Experiential Learning Program Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the extent of long-term participation in Girls on the Run (GOTR), an experiential learning program for pre-adolescent girls, and its effect on healthy living and self-esteem. To explore these relationships, an exploratory, mixed-methods study was conducted, which involved open- and closed-ended surveys and interviews.…

  13. Girls' Workplace Destinations in a Changed Social Landscape: Girls and Their Mothers Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…

  14. Missionary Girl Power: Saving the "Third World" One Girl at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…

  15. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  16. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl’s life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention. PMID:23163964

  17. Adoption Failure: A Social Work Postmortem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Alfred; Seidl, Frederick W.

    1971-01-01

    Failed adoption is defined as removal of the adoptive child at any time between placement and legal adoption. A study of failed adoptions in a statewide adoption agency found a failure rate of less than 3 percent. Reasons for failure are analyzed and implications for practice are suggested. (Author)

  18. Canadian Adoption Statistics: 1981-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; Daly, Kerry J.

    1994-01-01

    Obtained data on Canadian adoptions (1981-90) from adoption coordinators of all 10 provinces and 2 territories. Found downward trends in use of adoption as means of family formation across decade. By 1990, most infant adoptions were facilitated by private practitioners and agencies whereas older children were primarily adopted through public…

  19. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. Methods Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper airway norms of Chinese adults were used to make age comparisons. Nine upper airway and 14 craniofacial variables were measured. Results Chinese boys tended to have a thicker soft palate (P = 0.008), and less depth in the retropalatal (P = 0.011), retroglossal (P = 0.034) and hypopharyngeal (P < 0.001) pharynx than Chinese girls, whereas no gender dimorphism was found in Caucasian children. Ethnic differences were found in the depth of the retroglossal oropharynx in both genders and the position of the hyoid bone in boys. Compared with Chinese adults, the overall size of the upper airway in Chinese children was smaller. The mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination were found to be statistically significantly, albeit weakly correlated with upper airway variables. Conclusions Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of Chinese 12-year-old children were established, indicating gender-specific differences, and some ethnic differences were found in comparison with those of 12-year-old Caucasian children. An association between the mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination with upper airway variables was also noticeable. PMID:25218804

  20. An Examination of the Behavioral Correlates of Subtypes of Nonsocial Play among Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Wu, Peixia; Jin, Shenghua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined via teacher reports the behavioral correlates of different forms of nonsocial play among Chinese preschoolers, as well as potential gender differences in the linkages in a sample of preschoolers (249 boys, 257 girls) from two cities in mainland China. Measurement models estimated with two-group confirmatory factor analyses…

  1. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  2. Life Satisfaction, Positive Youth Development, and Problem Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships among life satisfaction, positive youth development, and problem behaviour. A total of 7,975 Secondary One students (4,169 boys and 3,387 girls; with most aged 12) of Chinese ethnicity recruited from 48 schools responded to validated measures of life satisfaction, positive youth development and problem…

  3. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  4. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  5. Popularity and Acceptance as Distinct Dimensions of Social Standing for Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Tom, Shelley R.; Chang, Lei; Xu, Yiyuan; Duong, Mylien T.; Kelly, Brynn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to validate distinctions between popularity and social acceptance in the cultural context of Hong Kong. We recruited 280 Chinese children (132 girls, 148 boys, mean age = 9.5) from Hong Kong primary schools. These children completed a peer nomination inventory assessing popularity, social acceptance, social rejection,…

  6. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  7. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  8. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  9. Scaffolding Preschool Children's Problem Solving: A Comparison between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Multiple Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Chinese mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children in different problem solving tasks. Participants were 57 children (including 29 girls) from seven kindergartens in Beijing, their mothers and teachers. Mothers varied in educational levels while all teachers were professionally qualified. Children solved four…

  10. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  11. Space Science in Chinese Schools: Solar Eclipse 22nd July 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, John; Huang, Qian; ShongYi, Liu; Li, Li Su; Machell, James; Marley, Scott; Pickwick, Alan; Vlastuin, Marcel; Waley, Vlad; Zhang, Yie Niu

    2009-01-01

    In China, "Space Science" and "Our Place in the Universe" form part of the geography syllabus. Such cultural challenges are part of the everyday intellectual gymnastics necessary to sustain European-Chinese school collaborations. Belle Vue Girls' School in Bradford has an ongoing collaboration with Chang Zheng Secondary School (CZMS) in Shanghai…

  12. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  13. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  14. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. PMID:26261908

  15. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  16. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  17. Has the Academy Adopted TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert; Deshotels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 469 colleges and universities assessed the degree to which colleges and universities have adopted total quality management (TQM) or continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. Results suggest use of TQM/CQI is lower than predicted, at about 13% of institutions. Variations in extent of use of the approach are discussed. (MSE)

  18. Adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mittica, Gloria; Capellero, Sonia; Genta, Sofia; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The standard front-line therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is combination of debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence. Although extensive efforts to find new therapeutic options, cancer cells invariably develop drug resistance and disease progression. New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve prognosis of patients with advanced EOC.Recently, several preclinical and clinical studies investigated feasibility and activity of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC. Our aim is to highlight prospective of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC, focusing on HLA-restricted Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs), and MHC-independent immune effectors such as natural killer (NK), and cytokine-induced killer (CIK). Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has shown activity in several pre-clinical models. Available preclinical and clinical data suggest that adoptive cell therapy may provide the best benefit in settings of low tumor burden, minimal residual disease, or maintenance therapy. Further studies are needed to better define the optimal clinical setting. PMID:27188274

  19. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  20. Girls: a key to the future.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S

    1998-01-01

    Millions of girls are neglected, uneducated, and abused, wasted resources in the struggle to secure a sustainable future. 15 female adolescents aged 13-18 years from developing and industrialized countries from 7 regions of the world addressed delegates at the 42nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in March. The girl child was one of 4 themes considered at this third follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The young women described the status of girls in their countries from their own perspectives. Issues discussed include female genital mutilation, early marriage, harassment and gender discrimination in school, sexual and physical abuse at home, violence, and high levels of teen pregnancy. The girls clearly showed that injustice based upon gender knows no boundaries of age, country, or culture. Its manifestations have a harmful impact upon the healthy development of girls in both the most remote corners of the poorest countries and the largest urban centers of the wealthiest nations. PMID:12321768

  1. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. PMID:25655642

  2. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adoption Directory Search National Foster Care & Adoption Directory Search Many concerned individuals have expressed the desire to ... how to become a foster or adoptive parent. Search results for this category include contact information for: ...

  3. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation. PMID:12158003

  4. The Texas Adoption Project: Adopted Children and Their Intellectual Resemblance to Biological and Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Joseph M.

    1983-01-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar data available from the children's biological mothers. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences in intelligence. (Author/RH)

  5. Astronomy for Mile-Hi Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.

  6. The difficulties of 'living while girl'.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this Viewpoint, Judith Bruce answers questions from Journal of Virus Eradication Editor, Sabine Kinloch-de Loës, on the importance of fulfilling the basic human rights of adolescent girls and their relationship with viral epidemics such as HIV. Judith Bruce is a graduate of Harvard University and a Senior Associate and Policy Analyst at the Population Council, New York, USA, whose work is aimed at building the health, social and cognitive assets of girls in the poorest communities in the developing world. PMID:27482459

  7. Teacher learning from girls' informal science experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Daniel J.

    School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1

  8. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  9. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  10. "Spice Girls,""Nice Girls,""Girlies," and "Tomboys": Gender Discourses, Girls' Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary gendered power relations are complex, highlighting female British elementary students who assumed varied positions in relation to traditional femininities, though they all occasionally bolstered boys' power at the expense of their own. Students viewed girls as harder working, more mature, and more socially skilled, yet…

  11. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  12. Immunization status of internationally adopted children in Italy.

    PubMed

    Viviano, Enza; Cataldo, Francesco; Accomando, Salvatore; Firenze, Alberto; Valenti, Rosalia Maria; Romano, Nino

    2006-05-01

    An increasing number of internationally adopted children is coming to Italy, and their immunization status is unknown. We evaluated the immunization status of such children in Palermo, Italy. We searched for the presence of a BCG scar in 88 children, 49 boys and 39 girls (mean age 76+/-32 months), most of whom (98%) came from Eastern Europe. Presence of BCG scar was observed in 59 (67.1%) of them, included five children without any pre-adoptive medical records. Twenty-three out of 29 children without any evidence of BCG scar were tested by Mantoux. Seven (30.4%) of 23 were tuberculin positive and diagnosed as having latent tuberculosis infection. We also examined immunization status against poliovirus 1-3, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis B of 70 internationally adopted children and we compared it with the pre-adoptive immunization records of their birth country. Protective titers (>1:8) against poliovirus 1-3, were found respectively in 67.1%, 91.4%, 42.8% of 70 immunized children, and only 38.5% of them had at the same time full protection against all three types of poliovirus. Protective titers against tetanus and diphtheria were found in 91.4% and 95.7% of 70 vaccinated children. Presence of antibodies against pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella was observed respectively in 16 (32.6%) of 49, 40 (62.5%) of 64, 28 (56%) of 50 and 24 (85.7%) of 28 children who had received the vaccine. As regards hepatitis B, only 20 of 29 vaccinated children had detectable hepatitis B surface antibodies, while four of 29 vaccinated and two of 41 not vaccinated children were positive for both hepatitis B surface antibodies and hepatitis B core antibodies. Finally three of 41 not vaccinated children were both hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antibodies positive. No relation was found between health status and immunization and between age and antibody positiveness of vaccinated children except for hepatitis B, therefore the

  13. Helping Girls Take a Byte Out of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Carol J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes several strategies principals can use to improve girls' confidence in using computer and information technology, such as making technology instruction "girl friendly," stressing active and cooperative learning, and demonstrating the positive impact of technology on society. (PKP)

  14. What Girls Say About: The Pressure to Be Pretty

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Girls Say About: The Pressure to Be Pretty KidsHealth > ... presión que existe para ser bonita Survey Says: Girls Worry About Their Looks Imagine a group of ...

  15. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  16. Eating-Disordered Behavior of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Martha C. Rhyne; Vacc, Nicholas A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined variables associated with eating-disordered adults to determine whether they correlate with scores on Adapted Eating Attitudes Test (AEAT). Results from fourth, sixth, and eighth grade girls (N=144) revealed no significant difference in AEAT scores across grades. Only two of seven independent variables, Test of Cognitive Skills scores and…

  17. Snack consumption among underprivileged adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, M; Thomas, S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted this school based cross-sectional study to assess the snack consumption pattern of 702 adolescent girls (11-14 years) in nine government schools selected from three districts of Delhi. The results indicated high preference for snacks. Parents and teachers were identified as the most influential factors determining their food choices. PMID:21048243

  18. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  19. Women without Class: Girls, Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettie, Julie

    This book examines Mexican American and white girls coming of age in California's Central Valley, offering tools for understanding the ways in which class identity is constructed, and at times fails to be constructed, in relationship to color, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Chapter 1, "Portraying Waretown High," introduces the issue. Chapter 2,…

  20. Igniting Girls' Interest in Science Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ride, Sally K.

    2005-01-01

    Encouraging students' interest in science has never been more important. Science plays a greater role in everyones lives than ever before, and students who have a solid foundation in science are prepared to pursue a wide range of opportunities in high school, college, and the workplace. Yet many students--particularly girls and students from…

  1. "Dolly" Girls: Tweenies as Artefacts of Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Fiona; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The apparent sexualization and exploitation of young girls by the consumer media is a much debated topic in the advanced liberal democracies. This paper will develop the argument that the "consumer-media culture" has established itself as one of the most powerful influences in processes of self-formation for young people, and that a tweenie self…

  2. Girl dropouts helped to return to school.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-02-01

    This news brief presents some findings about the nature and extent of school dropouts in southwestern Zhejiang Province. 345 girls who had dropped out returned to school to continue their primary education. Funding for this return to education up to the senior middle school level was provided by the Ma Yinchu Population Foundation. The Foundation is a nongovernmental organization that was founded in 1994 in Hangzhou City in memory of Dr. Ma Yinchu. Dr. Yinchu was a well-known demographer, economist, educator, and president of Peking University. The present Foundation director is Mme. Xu Aiguang, a former director of the Zhejiang Province Family Planning Committee for over 10 years. The new director is credited with improvements in the provincial quality of life due to population control efforts. The Foundation conducted a survey and found that only about 20% of girls aged 12-15 years were able to afford to attend primary school in Wencheng, Taishun, and Songyang counties. These girls were children of parents who were committed family planning acceptors. Low attendance is attributed to the traditional cultural bias against girls among farmers and to underdevelopment. PMID:12320703

  3. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  4. Why Girls Don't Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasset, Nike

    1991-01-01

    Examines the texts of 12 historians with access to educational directives produced by the Victorian Department of Education since the 1850s to determine the effects of curricular requirements on female enrollment in mathematics courses. Argues that girls were prohibited from taking arithmetic and mathematics because of other curricular…

  5. Girls in Education: Citizenship, Agency and Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    Education has been expected to maintain status quo through regulation of citizens, but also to contribute to social change and emancipation. In a collective ethnographic project we have proposed that these contradictions manifest themselves in everyday life at school through tensions between control and agency. Girls encounter practices whereby…

  6. A Mediated Lifespace: Working Relationally with Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.

    2004-01-01

    A lifespace has to do with how selves are mediated by combining multiple cultural symbols to construct an identity in the world. The authors cite examples from media texts, as well as from a narrative study conducted with 10 adolescent girls in a treatment program for eating disorders, that illustrate the importance of practitioners considering…

  7. Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

    A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

  8. Girls' Understanding and Social Construction of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assessed Australian girls' (n=87) beliefs and feelings about menarche and menstruation. Results revealed limited knowledge about menstruation, accompanied by incorrect and negative myths. Attitudes to menstruation were characterized by embarrassment, discomfort, and ambivalence about growing up. Themes in story completion results reflected these…

  9. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  10. American Girls: Their Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Leona; Rand, William M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents statistics of a girl's age, height, and weight at menarche, and the possible effect on these variables of various factors such as her health, genetic inheritance, socioeconomic circumstances, and environment. The behavior of present day adolescents cannot be attributed to earlier physical and sexual development. (Author/IRT)

  11. Explaining the Aspirations of Working Class Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    Until recently research on women's educational and occupational aspirations has ignored the role of sex role ideology (SRI) and has concentrated primarily on college women. This study was implemented with 270 grade 12 girls, 25 percent of whom were from lower class backgrounds. Four scales of SRI were administered: femininity, power, division of…

  12. Girls Disengage from High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High school girls are bored, disengaged, and stressed in science classes, according to preliminary results of a study led by Northern Illinois University researchers Jennifer Schmidt and M. Cecil Smith. The two professors in the College of Education's Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations studied 244 high school…

  13. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  14. [A girl with a painful red skin].

    PubMed

    Bakker, M E C Mariëlle; Oberndorff, Karin M E J

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with increasing erythroderma since one day in combination with impetigo vulgaris. As exfoliative lesions and bullae developed within hours, the patient was diagnosed with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. She was successfully treated with flucloxacillin. PMID:23369814

  15. Creating Passages for Young Minority Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    The gender gap - what is it? After all these years of gender equity in schools, does the gap still exist? Can it be closed? The answers to these questions are both simple and complex. For instance, there are still gender gaps between girls and boys in various aspects of achievement and other performance outcomes in schools. In some areas, girls…

  16. Preadolescent Clues to Understanding Depression in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2005-01-01

    Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine…

  17. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  18. The Road Less Traveled by Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Natalie Carter

    1991-01-01

    Recent surveys show significant gaps between men's and women's performance on NAEP and SAT math sections and little change in career choices along gender lines. Sex equity advocates believe that subtle practices in school classrooms are denying girls the opportunity to reach their full potential. This article offers advice on addressing gender…

  19. Cholas, Mexican-American Girls, and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary G.

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)

  20. Library Materials and Services for Teen Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Katie

    This book describes how libraries can define their service goals to better serve and empower young women, including how to establish partnerships with organizations, offer developmentally appropriate programming, and provide timely reader's advisory services. Chapter 1, "Girls in the Spotlight: A Short History," addresses the search for nonsexist…

  1. Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  2. [Necrophilia in a 17 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Foerster, K; Foerster, G; Roth, E

    1976-01-01

    Case report of true necrophilia in a seventeen-year-old girl, which is the first description of such a behaviour in a woman. The possible development of the abnormal behaviour is discussed. A complete theory of necrophilia semms to be not yet possible because of the few cases described. PMID:981988

  3. Listening to Girls Talk about Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)

  4. Communication Skills in Girls with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Zipp, Genevieve P.; Simpkins, Susan D.; Glazewski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RS) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs primarily in females and causes significant impairment in cognition, motor control, and communication. Teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) encounter girls with RS with increasing frequency as awareness of the disorder increases, yet the literature on clinical…

  5. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2012-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and neurobiological basis of these deficits is less consistently observed. There is growing evidence that boys’ and girls’ brains develop and mature at different rates, suggesting that the trajectory of early anomalous brain development in ADHD may also be sex-specific. It remains unclear, however, whether earlier brain maturation observed in girls with ADHD is protective. In this review, we outline the current theory and research findings that seek to establish a unique neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD, highlighting sex differences in typical brain development and among children with ADHD. The review highlights findings from neurological, neurocognitive, and behavioral studies. Future research directions are suggested, including the need for longitudinal neuroimaging and neurobehavioral investigation beginning as early as the preschool years, and continuing through adolescence and adulthood, with consideration of identified sex differences in the development of ADHD. PMID:19072756

  6. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  7. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  8. Educating Girls and Women: A Moral Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…

  9. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  10. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  11. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  12. Health Counseling for the Overweight Adolescent Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Elizabeth J.

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of seeing how a health counseling program for overweight girls could be developed in a secondary high school setting. The study first reviews the health literature on obesity, surveys school nurse-teacher health counseling programs, and investigates relaxed community characteristics. The report on a…

  13. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  15. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  16. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  17. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  18. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  19. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  20. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  1. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  2. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  3. Experiences of Black Families as Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Gwendolyn S.; King, Lula T.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted descriptive study in which 12 Black families shared their ideas about adoptive parenthood. Found most common reason for adopting was inability to have children biologically. Found need for post-adoptive services for Black families on an as-needed basis. Recommends adoption agencies and communities build on positive experiences of Black…

  4. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  5. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  6. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has ... Reports of serious reactions to Chinese food first appeared in ... thought to be the cause of these symptoms. There have been many ...

  7. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  8. It's Just a Grade 8 Girl Thing: Aggression in Teenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    We cannot live there any more. We are selling our home, pulling our children from their schools and moving, not far, only 20 kilometres, to a new community, to a new beginning. The reason--bullying or "what girls do".

  9. NASA Science4Girls: Engaging Girls in STEM at Their Local Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B.; Smith, D.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; NASA SMD EPO Community

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. The initiative has expanded from the successful 2012 Astro4Girls pilot to engage girls in all four NASA science discipline areas, which broadens the impact of the pilot by enabling audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  10. Influence of involvement in the girls on track program on early adolescent girls' self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jennifer J

    2007-12-01

    The Model of Competence Motivation (Harteg 1978) higlights how self-perceptions are influenced by individual and socialization fac tors. Using this model the present study investigated, quantitatively with a pretest and posttest design (N=34) and qualitatively via individual interviews (N=8), how involvement in the Girls on Track pogram (GOT) influenced the perceived competence and self-worth of sixth-grade girls. GOT is a program that uses training for a 5-km race as a means to teach life skills. The self-perceptions of the particapants showed increasing trends from pre- to posttest. Interviewed girls discussed their acquisition of interpersonal skills and ofpositive feelings about themselves. The discussion emphasizes how program involvement can influence the development of self-perceptions in early adolescent girls. PMID:18274223

  11. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  12. Adoption: Pediatric, Legislative and Social Issues

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.

    1981-01-01

    Physicians may find themselves involved in many phases of the adoption process, ranging from advising infertile couples who wish to adopt a child to caring for adopted children, adolescents or adults. Recent legislation has been aimed at making it possible for children to be adopted who have been receiving foster care and at providing financial assistance to implement the adoption of children with handicaps and with medical problems. The adoption process is becoming more open. Adoptees are searching for and finding their biological parents and all parties in the “adoption triangle” are developing relationships with one another. PMID:7257384

  13. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide about HIV and AIDS. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The issue of HIV and AIDS is a serious global issue that affects girls and boys, women and men, from all communities. Girls and women are particularly vulnerable to contracting HIV which can develop into AIDS. This guide for mentoring contains important information about HIV and AIDS related to young women and girls. The guide also provides ideas…

  14. Getting Girls out of Work and into School. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Records show that school enrollment for girls is still lagging behind in some areas in the Asia and Pacific region, which poses challenge for the region to achieve Education for All (EFA) by 2015. And girls' labor in the Asia and Pacific region continues to constitute a major obstacle towards gender parity in education, another EFA target. Girls'…

  15. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  16. The Benefits Associated with Dance Education for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine

    Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…

  17. Identifying Girls Who Use Relational Aggression: A Proposed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2012-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to compare perceptions of relational aggression (RA) of adolescent girls (n = 282) and their teachers (n = 15) in New Zealand, and to explore strategies for teachers to effectively manage RA in the classroom. Results indicated that younger adolescent girls view physical aggression as more acceptable than older girls,…

  18. Bullying Among Teenage Girls: An Interview with Dr. Harriet Mosatche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Harriet Mosatche is an advice columnist on a web site for teen girls, as well as the Senior Director of Research and Programs at the Girl Scouts of the USA. Because of these dual roles, she has a unique perspective on the bullying issue. In this interview she answers a number of questions about bullying among teenage girls, including how boys…

  19. Girls' Visual Representations of Literacy in a Rural Ugandan Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Jones, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This Ugandan-based study examined how visual modes of communication provide insights into girls' perceptions of literacy, and open broader dialogues on literacy, women, and development. Twenty-nine primary school girls used drawing and 15 secondary school girls used photography to depict local literacy practices in relation to their own lives and…

  20. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  1. Girls' Engagement with/in Science: Teacher Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Patricia A.; Brickhouse, Nancy

    This study is an extension of an on-going longitudinal study, the Girls Engagement With/In Science (GEIS) Project. The GEIS Project was designed to understand how girls who are poor, minority or both, engage in science. The two teachers who form the focus for this study are these girls' 7th and 8th grade teachers. Data for this interpretive…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Muslim Girls' Understanding of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Z.; Bhana, K.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between age and understanding of death among 20 Muslim girls aged 7 and 8 and 20 Muslim girls aged 9 and 10. Girls completed biographical inventory, classification and conservation tasks, and death understanding questionnaire. Found significant differences in children's understanding of life in hereafter and ideas…

  3. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  4. A Sense of Self: Listening to Homeschooled Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Susannah

    Research has documented that the self-esteem of girls plunges at adolescence. Whether this is true for girls educated outside the school system was studied through interviews with 20 homeschooled girls, a questionnaire completed by 20 more, and tape-recorded responses of 5 others. Subjects were asked to describe themselves and their interests,…

  5. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are constructed within local…

  6. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  7. Are There Stable Factors in Preadolescent Girls' Externalizing Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Keenan, Kate; Sembower, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the factor structure of disruptive behavior among preadolescent girls. The present study reports on exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of disruptive girl behavior over four successive data waves as rated by parents and teachers in a large, representative community sample of girls (N = 2,451). Five factors…

  8. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  9. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  10. Girls and Boys Like to Read and Write Different Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisuo-Storm, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…

  11. "Connecting with Courage," An Outward Bound Program for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Terry

    Research on girls' development has found that girls see the world that coheres through human relationships rather than through systems of rules, and that 12 or 13 is a watershed age for girls, a time of "central relational crisis." As their bodies enter the physiological transformations that culminate in womanhood, they face an onslaught of social…

  12. Growing Up in Kenya: Rural Schooling and Girls. Rethinking Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungai, Anne M.

    This book examines the education of rural girls in Kenya and reports on a study of factors influencing girls' educational success or failure. Three chapters provide background on traditional values and practices affecting girls' education; describe Kenya's education system, including preprimary, primary (grades 1-8), secondary, university,…

  13. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  14. Blurring Boundaries: Two Groups of Girls Collaborate on a Wiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillinger, Trace

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, a secondary English and feminist studies teacher created a course and designed a study around a reading exchange for eighth-grade girls from two vastly different communities. Girls from a school in a northeastern state read young adult novels and wrote about their reading and related topics with girls from Washington, DC on a wikispace…

  15. Girls & Technology: An Idea Book for Educators & Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Girls' Schools, Concord, MA.

    This booklet represents an effort to combine research findings, strategies, teaching and parenting tips, activities, career profiles, and print and online information that can help make technology more accessible to girls. Chapters include: "Why a Focus on Girls & Technology: New Priorities"; "Girls & Technology: Different Styles of Learning";…

  16. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…

  17. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  18. Science education for girls: A partnership between Girl Scouts and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisham, Anne

    This study investigated the evolution of the relationship between NASA and the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA). The stories of three groups of key players; NASA, Girl Scout National Staff, and Girl Scout volunteers explained the scope and depth of this unique partnership. Common goals between GSUSA and NASA of encouraging girls to seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) were studied to determine if the goals were met as a result of this collaboration. Outcomes such as the Memorandum of Understanding, numbers of attendees at workshops, and artifact reviews aided in the collection of data. The partnership between the Girl Scouts and NASA has not been without strife, and barriers such as funding and communication has delayed the goals of both organizations. Nevertheless, a partnership was forged and has grown since its inception in early 2001. Each of these national organizations has its own way of work and its own culture. How then can two such large organizations find the common ground to partner together and create a new culture shared between them with a common mindset? The timeline of how and when the two organizations began their collaborations and the outcome of their partnership was evaluated. Examination of the Girl Scout culture and goals as they are related to science was compared to the NASA goals of introducing more girls to STEM careers. The impact effect of how many different workshops, events, camps with space themes was analyzed. Girl Scout adult volunteers' attitudes and beliefs about science were explored to determine if changes in beliefs occurred as a result of the experiences with NASA. Ultimately, data were scrutinized to determine if the relationship is sustainable and what efforts each organization must take to maintain a high-leveled partnership.

  19. Social development and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general. PMID:12158018

  20. Integrated health of the girl child.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care. PMID:12158016

  1. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    PubMed

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  2. Decline in menarcheal age among Saudi girls

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ibrahim A. Al; Ibrahim, Areej A.; Badri, Motasim A.; Dubayee, Mohammed S. Al; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate age at menarche and to assess trends in menarcheal age among Saudi women. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted among healthy prepubertal female school children and adolescents from September 2006 to July 2012 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were invited from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, body mass index, and socioeconomic parameters including parent’s level of education were collected. Age at menarche was compared with maternal age at menarche. Results: The study included 265 girls and mothers. Mean±standard deviation (SD) age at menarche for girls was 13.08 ± 1.1 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 4 (1.5%), 11-14 years was 239 (90.2%), and ≥15 years was 22 (8.3%) girls. Anthropometric measurements, mother’s level of education, and family income were not statistically significant determining factors associated with age at menarche. Mean ± SD age at menarche for mothers was 13.67 ± 1.4 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 7 (2.6%), 11-14 years was 172 (64.9%), and ≥15 years was 86 (32.5%). Girls attained menarche at younger age compared with their mothers (p<0.0001). A downward secular trend in age of menarche was observed (Cuzick test for trend = 0.049). Conclusion: Saudi girls attain menarcheal age earlier than their mothers, reflecting a downward secular trend in menarcheal age. PMID:26593166

  3. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  4. Council Adopts Two Major Statements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council approved an update to the Union's vision statement and adopted a position statement concerning the U.S. plans for a Moon-Mars initiative. The vision statement, which is reproduced in this section of Eos, describes what the AGU is expected to look like 10 years in the future. The Planning Committee, under the chairmanship of President-elect Tim Killeen, and with input from the policy committees, Sections, and Focus Groups, is updating AGU's strategic plan, which is intended to move measurably toward the vision.

  5. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  6. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  7. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  8. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  9. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  10. Chinese Language Reform in Singapore: Teacher Perceptions of Instructional Approaches and Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Zhao, Shouhui; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2012-01-01

    In a multiracial and multilingual society where bilingualism is adopted as the cornerstone of education policy, mother tongue maintenance is a significant issue. An innovative initiative termed as "modular curriculum" was introduced in Singapore primary schools to cater to Chinese students, the major ethnic group, with varying Chinese language…

  11. Broca's Area Plays a Role in Syntactic Processing during Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Suiping; Zhu, Zude; Zhang, John X.; Wang, Zhaoxin; Xiao, Zhuangwei; Xiang, Huadong; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI) was adopted to examine brain activation of syntactic processing in reading logographic Chinese. While fMRI data were obtained, 15 readers of Chinese read individually presented sentences and performed semantic congruency judgments on three kinds of sentences: Congruous sentences (CON),…

  12. Learning to Express Motion Events in an L2: The Case of Chinese Directional Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The present study adopted a cognitive linguistic framework--Talmy's (1985, 1991, 2000) typological classification of motion events--to investigate how second-language (L2) Chinese learners come to express motion events in a targetlike manner. Fifty-five U.S. university students and 20 native speakers of Chinese participated in the study. A…

  13. The Face of Digital Literacy for Muslim Teenage Girls: A Comparative Study of Bradford Muslim Girl Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…

  14. What a Girl Wants, What a Girl Needs: Findings from a Gender-Specific Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Crystal A.; Lane, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Most arrests among girls are attributable to status offenses and property crimes; however, the number of girls arrested for assault and other violent crimes is increasing. Although arrest patterns among girls may be changing, the way the system responds has not. Correctional programs have almost always been designed with the male offender in…

  15. Invisible Girls: At Risk Adolescent Girls' Writing within and beyond School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2012-01-01

    "Invisible Girls" is an examination of twenty-four at-risk adolescent girls' writing practices in a Third Space setting located within a school but outside of the confines of a regular classroom. Through a description of the girls' writing over a three-and-a-half-year period in this setting, Mellinee Lesley details phenomena that both support and…

  16. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  17. Music in the "Common" Life of the School: Towards an Aesthetic Education for All in English Girls' Secondary Schools in the Interwar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Andrea; Goodman, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This article adopts a Bourdieusian and gendered frame of analysis to examine how the aesthetic education increasingly extended to the "ordinary" pupil in English girls' secondary schools during the interwar period, and the music curriculum in particular, related to the reproduction of culture, class and gender for secondary schoolgirls. In a…

  18. Adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, H M; Liebowitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the transfer of immunocompetent cells, has been shown to be a promising new strategy for treatment of a variety of malignancies, including leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The possibility that it may likewise benefit patients with multiple myeloma is now being explored by researchers in Europe and the United States. Two alternatives, one using donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and the other using autologous T cells, are described. In the Netherlands, researchers studied the use of DLIs in 17 patients with multiple myeloma who relapsed after bone marrow transplant (BMT). Of 16 evaluable patients, 10 (62%) responded, with six (37%) achieving a complete response (CR). After a median follow-up duration of 28 months, five patients relapsed and five remained in remission. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in nine patients. In the United States, adoptive immunotherapy is currently being tested in eight patients with chemotherapy-resistant lymphoma. Autologous T cells were obtained prior to BMT and expanded using an anti-CD3/CD28 culture system. After BMT, the cells were reinfused into the patient. At approximately day 14, granulocyte levels began to recover in the six evaluable patients, and levels remained relatively stable over the posttreatment course. Two patients developed severe autoimmune toxicity, which responded to treatment in one and resolved spontaneously in the other. PMID:9989486

  19. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  20. Elementary girls' science reading at home and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie

    2006-03-01

    Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.

  1. Characteristics of Violence among High Risk Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of violence involvement among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Method Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Results Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. Discussion It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls pay attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. PMID:23623540

  2. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  3. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community. PMID:26262001

  4. A decade of debate on the schooling of girls in physics: Where are we now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Dorothy

    1993-12-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion of interest in issues concerned with girls and science education, and the nature of the dialogue has become increasingly sophisticated. Current writing stresses the importance of acknowledging differences between women, as well as differences between women and men. This paper will outline some of the positions it is possible to adopt in the discussion. It will raise some questions concerning the implications of the choice of a position for classroom teachers of science and, in particular, physics teachers.

  5. Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose. PMID:20587459

  6. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  7. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  8. GIRL - The German infrared laboratory for spacelab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, D.; Grewing, M.; Offermann, D.; Drapatz, S.; Klipping, G.

    GIRL's principal components are a large cryostat, which contains a 300-liter tank for liquid helium, and a long cooled baffle system. The cryostat contains a 50-cm telescope and 4 scientific experiments. These focal plane experiments make GIRL a universal astronomical observatory, equipped with all the instruments necessary to analyze radiation from celestial objects. To fully exploit the high sensitivity of modern infrared detectors attainable under low background conditions (less than 10 to the 8th photons per sq cm per sec), the telescope, the lower part of the baffle system, and all the experiments are cooled to less than 10 K. The IR camera will be used for surveying and mapping extended regions. The photopolarimeter will be used for measuring low resolution spectra of the faintest objects, in particular galaxies. The Ebert-Fastie spectrometer is designed primarily for aeronomical measurements by limb scanning.

  9. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  10. The smell of success? You go, girl!

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, S

    1999-08-01

    Feminism has been declared dead, so I'm not sure what to call the assertive culture of modern girls and women. You can find it in marketing and pop-culture phenomena-the thrust of the jaw in The Gap's model, Vivian Solari, or Shania Twain's hit single ("That Don't Impress Me Much," a wry comment on male vanities). You can listen to kids talk ("You go, girl!"). Or you can look at the serious strides women are taking: Women own 38% of all US businesses; women now outpace men in college degrees earned (56% to 44% in 1999); and they are expected to take a similar lead at the graduate level in a few years. PMID:20086735

  11. Unilateral rash on a baby girl.

    PubMed

    Khachemoune, Amor; Lockshin, Ben N; El-Gamal, Hazem

    2005-04-01

    An 11-month-old baby girl came to the clinic with a pruritic rash. The rash initially appeared in her popliteal fossa 2 weeks before the visit. The eruption extended to the right leg, arm, and flank the week before the visit, subsequently spreading to the contralateral flank. Three weeks before to the eruption's appearance, the patient had an upper respiratory infection with a dry nonproductive cough, which resolved spontaneously without antibiotics. The physical examination revealed a healthy-appearing infant girl with excoriated erythematous papules coalescing into plaques on her right flexural arm that continued to the axilla and down the right flank to the flexural aspect of her leg (Figure 1). Her left side was essentially free of any rash (Figure 2). No cervical or axillary lymphadenopathy was noted, and the remainder of her exam was normal. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition? PMID:15833225

  12. Associations between Maternal Physical Discipline and Peer Victimization among Hong Kong Chinese Children: The Moderating Role of Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…

  13. [A girl with hypopigmented skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Martens, Bibi; Abdul Hamid, Myrurgia; Martens, Herm

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl visited the department of Dermatology with an asymptomatic hypopigmented skin eruption on her upper legs, groins and trunk since 7 years. Histopathological analysis established the diagnosis of hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which is most commonly seen at younger age. The lesions are successfully treated with clobetasol 0.05% ointment 4 days a week. PMID:25027222

  14. The girl child and the family.

    PubMed

    Mojumdar, M

    The appalling conditions of the Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Sikh female children in India are emphasized. There is systematic neglect and exploitation of girls from birth through death. Dowries are still expected at the time of marriage and for years to come, regardless of the illegality. Within marriage, there is cruelty and insult, and even bride killing, known as dowry death. Parents can be accomplices in permitting the injury to begin or continue with impunity. Patience and tolerance is expected of daughters; the husband is the commanding presence. Spinsterhood is shameful. Suicide is a viable option for widowhood. Over the 40 years of freedom from British rule, antiquated norms and superstitions persist. Fundamentalism in increasing. A daughter is pitied at birth and a mother is blamed. Mothers-in-law are notorious for the blaming. These beliefs occur in spite of scientific evidence that it is the male who carries the chromosome in the sperm for sex determination. A modern practice helps to perpetuate female infanticide: amniocentesis and abortion. When food shortages occur, the pecking order favors males over pregnant women and children. Illiteracy is high among girls, who are kept home and given household chores. Better education is given to males even in middle class homes. Peer pressure and societal attitudes maintain the subservience of females. Orphanages are filled with unwanted female babies. The rape of a girl is considered shameful for life, while the rape of a boy is disregarded as unfortunate and forgotten. Expectations are that boys will be decision makers and girls can cope with domestic matters. The brainwashing to inferiority continues until the son marries and is then perpetuated. PMID:12285903

  15. Empowering the family for girl child development.

    PubMed

    Desai, M

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses family interactions that devalue female children in India and the role of government in enriching family life. Child development is dependent upon the family and the social environment. Patriarchy establishes the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the family through hierarchies of age, gender, and generation. Males hold authoritative positions because of their control over resources and the assumption of their superiority. Family unity and stability is based on conformity with the community and kinship norms. The Indian family places a low priority on the development of individual family members and children. Female children are a low priority both as children and as girls. Girls carry a heavy domestic workload in the family, but girls do not receive recognition for their contributions. The family socializes children based on norms of gender and age inequalities. Deviation from patriarchal norms results in ostracism. Families without resources are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation. Gaps have widened between rich and poor, and men and women. Particularly vulnerable groups are women in single-parent families and female-headed households. The combination of patriarchy, increased consumerism, and structural adjustment programs marginalizes girl children. Every family should be considered equal in dignity and worth and have the right to freedom, choices, life, security of person and privacy, and protection from domestic violence. Vulnerable family members need special attention. Every family member should take responsibility for promoting sensitivity and responsiveness, positive communication, companionable relationships, democratic decision making, respect for individual needs and differences, peaceful and nonviolent approaches for resolving conflicts, and support in crisis situations. PMID:12158015

  16. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  17. Gender differences in Chinese adolescents' subjective well-being: the mediating role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ze-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Nan; Ye, Kai-Yin

    2015-02-01

    Although gender differences in self-efficacy and subjective well-being have been reported in previous studies, little published research has investigated the interrelationships between these variables in adolescents. 648 Chinese adolescents were administered a series of questionnaires to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between gender and subjective well-being. The results indicated that adolescent girls had lower general self-efficacy than adolescent boys, which explained girls' lower subjective well-being. The theoretical and practical implications may help parents and educators to strengthen adolescents' happiness. PMID:25650641

  18. STEM Education for Girls of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kam H.

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields struggle to increase recruitment and retention of girls of color. The dominant framework in STEM education is the pipeline which assumes girls in general lack motivation and interest to persist in STEM fields. Recent public discourse shifts to address institutionalized discrimination and systemic barriers in STEM culture that filter out underrepresented populations. Informal education or complementary learning STEM programs offer alternative opportunities for students to explore outside of rigid school academic and social systems. Few articles look specifically at STEM complementary learning programs, and even fewer focus on the effects on girls of color. This research is a quantitative study to categorize existing mission statements and training behind organizations that provide STEM programs. The results will provide a better understanding of the relationship between practices of STEM education organizations and the programs they create. Diversity training and inclusive language in mission statements had weak correlations with increased cultural responsiveness in the program offerings. The results suggest organizations must be more intentional and explicit when implementing diversity goals.

  19. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  20. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs. PMID:26559074

  1. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  2. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... adopted youngsters need to be told about their origins, ideally even before middle childhood. Introducing the Information ... needs to have an honest understanding of his origin. Adopted children who have not been told seem ...

  3. Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanpour, Fariborz

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies on the impact of organizational factors on the adoption of innovations along three dimensions (innovation type, innovation radicalness, and stages of adoption), finding considerable agreement. Proposes a research agenda for future studies. (SR)

  4. Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Attachment, and Temperament in Early Childhood Predict Adjustment in Middle Childhood: The Case of Adopted Children and Their Biologically Unrelated Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2002-01-01

    Followed from infancy to age 7 internationally adopted children placed before 6 months. Found that girls were better adjusted than boys, except in cognitive development, and that easy temperament related to higher levels of social, cognitive, and personality development and fewer behavior problems. Attachment security and maternal sensitivity…

  5. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  6. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  7. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  8. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  9. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  10. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  11. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  12. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  13. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  15. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  16. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  17. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  18. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  19. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  20. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...