Science.gov

Sample records for adopted international standards

  1. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  2. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  3. India Needs International Standards in Accreditation Problems in Adoption and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines in brief, need and importance of introducing global quality standards in accreditation, prescribed by the international agreement "Washington Accord". This agreement is initially provisional and after scrutiny, if found fit, it is upgraded to Signatory status. It is this status which empowers students of engineering,…

  4. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  5. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  6. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  7. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  8. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  9. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  10. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  11. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  12. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  14. Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.

  15. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  16. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  17. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  18. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  19. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  20. Adopting Internet Standards for Orbital Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave

    2005-01-01

    After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.

  1. 45 CFR 162.910 - Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance of standards and adoption of... Transactions § 162.910 Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards. (a.... (ii) Receive and process requests for adopting a new standard or modifying an adopted standard....

  2. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  3. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  5. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  6. 45 CFR 162.910 - Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of standards and adoption of... Transactions § 162.910 Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards. (a... of existing standards and adoption of new standards. The Secretary considers a recommendation for...

  7. 45 CFR 162.910 - Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of standards and adoption of... Transactions § 162.910 Maintenance of standards and adoption of modifications and new standards. (a... of existing standards and adoption of new standards. The Secretary considers a recommendation for...

  8. International adoption families: a unique health care journey.

    PubMed

    Smit, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the health care experiences of families with an internationally adopted child. Content analysis of data from 107 adoptive parents was used to identify themes that characterized health care experiences of the families. Four themes were identified: a) Coming home: Like a lobster thrown into a boiling pot; b) Vigilance: Is my child healthy today? Will my child be healthy tomorrow?; c) Unique health care needs of international adoption families: We are different; and d) Importance of support by health care providers: Do they know or care? Health care providers need to be aware of the unique experiences of the increasing number of international adoption families. The themes identified provide insight into the health care experiences of international adoption families and the crucial role of health care providers in helping international adoption families feel supported on their journey.

  9. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  10. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., harmonization with current international standards will facilitate marketing of their products internationally... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed... adopted international standards affecting design, performance, and testing for such lifesaving...

  11. Why Your Campus Should Consider Adopting OSF's DCE Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plice, Samuel

    1995-01-01

    Reasons for adopting Open Software Foundation (OSF) standards for distributed computing environments (DCE) within colleges and universities are examined. Adoption would promote interoperability across heterogeneous systems within and between institutions, aid in transition to client/server computing, and facilitate sharing and leveraging across…

  12. Geographies of generation: age restrictions in international adoption

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2015-01-01

    International adoption relocates minors, and only minors, from one country to another. The centrality of age to adoptive migration may prevent us from seeing the significance of generation: the prospective parent’s age is also examined and evaluated for its relationship to the child’s age and what this relationship will mean for the creation of a family. Because international adoption results in children crossing borders to enter new kinship formations, the assumptions under which it operate require closer geographical analysis. Generation, or the age range that separates dependents and their caretakers, is a significant but unstated motivator of international adoption policies and practices. This article argues that a normative and biologised sense of intergenerational difference is embedded in international adoption. The presence of generational ideology in national laws and international norms regarding international adoption demonstrate a broader sense in which policies situate more privileged families as acceptable and others as inadequate. I draw material for this analysis from both legal documents and documents which aim to provide interpretation of those laws, with reference to international adoptions from Peru. PMID:26766924

  13. Social Competence in Internationally Adopted and Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Moreno, Carmen; Roman, Maite

    2013-01-01

    A growing, sizable proportion of school children do not live in conventional family environments. Among these, internationally adopted children have gained increasing visibility in recent years. While other areas of their behavior have been widely explored, little is known about adopted children's social competence and their integration into peer…

  14. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated “push factors” and actual “pull factors” of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these “migrants” and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees’ lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population. PMID:25598546

  15. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated "push factors" and actual "pull factors" of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these "migrants" and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees' lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population.

  16. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  17. International Lessons about National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

  18. Cultural socialization in families with internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Grotevant, Harold D; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gunnar, Megan R

    2006-12-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultural socialization. Individual variations in cultural socialization also are discussed in terms of child development and shifting adoption attitudes and practices.

  19. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  20. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  1. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  2. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-07

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  3. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  4. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  5. Certification Standards Adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document presents the standards adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education for qualification and certification of persons for instructional, supervisory, and administrative positions and services in Oklahoma public schools. Included are rules and regulations governing the issuance and revocation of certificates for county…

  6. The international standard for colistin*

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Bond, J. M.; Grab, B.

    1973-01-01

    An International Standard for Colistin has been established and the International Unit defined as the activity contained in 0.00004878 mg of this preparation. The unit was defined on the basis of a collaborative assay in which nine laboratories from six different countries participated. The material used to prepare the international standard had been manufactured in Japan; it was shown to have a composition similar to that of material produced in Europe and to be suitable for the assay of colistin from the existing sources of manufacture. PMID:4541149

  7. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Yarger, Heather A; Lind, Teresa; Fraley, R Chris; Leerkes, Esther; Dozier, Mary

    2017-05-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting adults' preoccupied and dismissing states of mind. Taxometric analyses indicated the variation in adults' preoccupied states of mind was more consistent with a dimensional than a categorical model, whereas results for dismissing states of mind were indeterminate. The second aim was to examine the degree to which the attachment states of mind of internationally adoptive and foster parents differ from those of poverty/CPS-referred parents and low-risk parents. After controlling for parental age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, (a) internationally adoptive parents had lower scores on the dismissing dimension than the sample of community parents described by Haltigan, Leerkes, Supple, and Calkins (2014); (b) foster parents did not differ from community parents on either the dismissing or the preoccupied AAI dimension; and (c) both internationally adoptive and foster parents had lower scores on the preoccupied dimension than poverty/CPS-referred parents. Analyses using the traditional AAI categories provided convergent evidence that (a) internationally adoptive parents were more likely to be classified as having an autonomous state of mind than low-risk North American mothers based on Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2009) meta-analytic estimates, (b) the rates of autonomous states of mind did not differ between foster and low-risk parents, and

  8. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  9. The use of International Standards Organization ISO 9000 quality assurance standards in place of military standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerdite, Stanley M.

    1992-06-01

    The implementation of quality standards within the European Community by the creation of International Quality Standards 9000 is another step toward development of a global marketplace. It is in the interests of DoD to support this trend in order to help maintain the defense industrial base. The first part of this study performs a comparison of DoD quality standards to the ISO 9000 Standards. The second part of the study consists of a survey of U.S. firms that have become ISO 9000 registered. This survey is intended to provide an assessment of the current movement within the defense industrial base toward adoption of ISO 9000 Standards. The survey also attempts to identify potential implementation issues relating to adoption of ISO 9000 Standards in place of military standards. It is concluded that DoD should implement ISO 9000 and that the impact of this implementation will be favorable.

  10. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  11. Imported giardiasis: impact of international travel, immigration, and adoption.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, Karl; Andersson, Yvonne

    2005-06-01

    From the Swedish national database, regarding notified Giardia cases, we could for the period 1997-2003 identify 3,697 cases of travel-associated giardiasis, 4,151 cases in newly arrived immigrants and refugees, and 455 cases in internationally adopted children. These were compared with data sets on the number of international travelers, immigrants/refugees, and adopted children. The overall risk of being notified with giardiasis in returning travelers was 5.3 of 100,000, with the highest incidences in travelers from the Indian Subcontinent (628 of 100,000), East Africa (358 of 100,000), and West Africa (169 of 100,000). A large proportion of the travel-related cases were seen in persons with family roots in the country of infection-a risk group deserving special attention. The overall risk in immigrants and refugees was 1,180/100,000 with the highest risk in persons from Afghanistan (3,800 of 100,000) and Iraq (2,990 of 100,000). The incidence was highest among internationally adopted children (8,110 of 100,000), with geographical risks not entirely correlating to those in travelers and immigrants.

  12. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  13. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  14. The Origins of the International Standard Classification of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This article recalls the earliest attempts to compile international educational statistics going back into the 19th century and retraces the steps that led up to the formulation and adoption of the International Standard Classification of Education in both its original and revised versions. It is in large part the story of how international…

  15. 29 CFR 500.101 - Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. 500.101... Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.101 Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. (a) General. All.... (d) Adoption of Department of Transportation (DOT) Standards. In accordance with section...

  16. 29 CFR 500.101 - Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. 500.101... Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.101 Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. (a) General. All.... (d) Adoption of Department of Transportation (DOT) Standards. In accordance with section...

  17. 29 CFR 500.101 - Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. 500.101... Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.101 Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. (a) General. All.... (d) Adoption of Department of Transportation (DOT) Standards. In accordance with section...

  18. 29 CFR 500.101 - Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. 500.101... Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.101 Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. (a) General. All.... (d) Adoption of Department of Transportation (DOT) Standards. In accordance with section...

  19. 29 CFR 500.101 - Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. 500.101... Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.101 Promulgation and adoption of vehicle standards. (a) General. All.... (d) Adoption of Department of Transportation (DOT) Standards. In accordance with section...

  20. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  1. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  2. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  3. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  4. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's...

  5. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64...

  6. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  7. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  8. 29 CFR 4903.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 4903.3 Section 4903.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT... § 4903.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? This part adopts...

  9. 29 CFR 4903.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 4903.3 Section 4903.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT... § 4903.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? This part adopts...

  10. 29 CFR 4903.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 4903.3 Section 4903.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT... § 4903.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? This part adopts...

  11. 29 CFR 4903.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 4903.3 Section 4903.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT... § 4903.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? This part adopts...

  12. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  13. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  14. How Well Do Children Who Are Internationally Adopted Acquire Language? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Glennen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present the results of a systematic and meta-analytic examination of the language outcomes of children who are internationally adopted. The study examined the questions of whether the early life experiences of children who are internationally adopted and the language switch that occurs after adoption hinder…

  15. Correlates and Predictors of Parenting Stress among Internationally Adopting Mothers: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-,…

  16. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  17. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  18. International and Transracial Adoptions: A Mental Health Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; And Others

    The key dependent variable in adoption research is the child's mental health, in the short and the long term. Defining mental health as the development of basic ego strength and a feeling of self-worth, which enable an individual to cope with stresses later in life, this book focuses on how well adolescents and young adults have fared in adoption.…

  19. The roles of major international standards organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Steven

    2004-05-01

    This review paper describes and analyzes the roles of the major international standards organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). In particular, it analyzes the relationships of ISO and IEC with ANSI, CEN (including the ISO/CEN Vienna Agreement), and CENELEC. This paper also addresses recent developments to ensure the global relevance of ISO and IEC standards. Lastly, this paper addresses the myths, perceptions, and realities of European participation and potential dominance in ISO.

  20. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Adoption of new water quality standards... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  1. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act to provide comprehensive and updated standards for all aspects of Class II gaming. These amendments replace the partial standards published in 2008 with a set of comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections......

  2. The International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.

    1961-01-01

    Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087

  3. Adopting Industry Standards for Control Systems Within Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, James Scott; Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a description of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) standards for process control and outlines the experiences at JSC with using these standards to interface with I/O hardware from three independent vendors. The I/O hardware was integrated with a commercially available SCADA/HMI software package to make up the control and monitoring system for the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS). OPC standards were utilized for communicating with I/O hardware and the software was used for implementing monitoring, PC-based distributed control, and redundant data storage over an Ethernet physical layer using an embedded din-rail mounted PC.

  4. A proposal for adopting a standard coordinate system for defining atmospheric nomenclature for the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R.

    1986-01-01

    Although the albedo of specific belts and zones varies as a function of time, there is evidence that wind maxima may be fixed in latitude. Before considering a standard notation for wind jets, it is necessary to establish a coordinate system within which the nomenclature would be defined. Traditionally, the BAA has used planetographic latitudes; however, this system is based not only on an accurate determination of the polar diameter but also on the assumption that the equipotential surfaces can be represented by biaxial ellipsoids. The International Astronomical Union strives to adopt unambiguous nomenclature that will be universally acceptable. It is proposed that planetocentric coordinates be utilized and that a standardized value of the ratio of the polar diameter to the equatorial diameter be established for each planet to facilitate transformation into planetographic coordinates.

  5. The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum

    PubMed Central

    Felix, A.

    1954-01-01

    The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, prepared in 1935, provided standards of the O and the Vi antibodies, both contained in a single serum preparation, and was used for standardizing the potency of therapeutic antityphoid serum. The “Provisional Standard Serum for Vi Agglutination”, which is one of the series of proposed Standard Agglutinating Sera for Typhoid and Paratyphoid A and B Fevers, is based on the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum. It is recommended that the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, in conjunction with a standard typhoid vaccine, be used in the test for the determination of the “functional efficacy” of the Vi antibody. This is one of the several tests recommended for the official control of the immunizing potency of typhoid vaccines. PMID:13199654

  6. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease.

  7. Next Generation Science Standards: Adoption and Implementation Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzman, Alissa; Rodriguez, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent the culmination of years of collaboration and effort by states, science educators and experts from across the United States. Based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" and developed in partnership with 26 lead states, the NGSS, when…

  8. The CARE International Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 American Evaluation Association conference in Atlanta featured a session on strategies to promote monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). At that time, there was a lengthy list of proposed initiatives to be undertaken in CARE. With the perspective of hindsight and reviewing the…

  9. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  10. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  11. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  12. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  13. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  14. Children's Drawings: Self-Perception and Family Function in International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Brittany L.; Tirella, Linda G.; Miller, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    No comprehensive studies have examined the utility of family drawings within the context of international adoption. We examined the relationship of Kinetic Family Drawings by 54 internationally adopted children in the USA (65% female; M age = 8.57 years, SD = 2.1) to demographics, child competencies (Child Behavior Checklist: CBCL/6-18) and…

  15. Idaho Adopted Higher Standards to Prepare All Students for College and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Luci

    2014-01-01

    Two years ago the state officially chose to adopt the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) as Idaho's new Core Standards in mathematics and English language arts. For Idaho's students these standards are not only higher but also comparable with those in any other country in the world. These new standards will bring significant changes for Idaho…

  16. Correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting mothers: A longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-, parent-, and family-related characteristics. Mother reports of higher depression symptoms, higher expectations of child developmental and behavioral/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption were significantly related to higher parenting stress six months post-adoption. In contrast, mother reports of higher expectations for child acceptance and higher perceived social support at pre-adoption were significantly related to lower parenting stress six months post-adoption. Higher maternal depression symptoms, higher expectations of child behavior/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption together accounted for 22% of the variance in parenting stress six months post-adoption. Concurrent higher maternal depression symptoms and higher reports of child behavioral/emotional problems predicted higher parenting stress six months post-adoption over and above pre-adoption predictors, and accounted for an additional 33% of the variance. Results and directions for future research are discussed from a transactional perspective, with particular emphasis on the importance of pre-adoptive information for adoption research and practice. PMID:24039321

  17. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  18. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve

  19. 40 CFR 1074.110 - Adoption of California standards by other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of California standards by other states. 1074.110 Section 1074.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES Procedures for Authorization § 1074.110 Adoption...

  20. 40 CFR 1074.110 - Adoption of California standards by other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of California standards by other states. 1074.110 Section 1074.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES Procedures for Authorization § 1074.110 Adoption...

  1. 40 CFR 1074.110 - Adoption of California standards by other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of California standards by other states. 1074.110 Section 1074.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES Procedures for Authorization § 1074.110 Adoption...

  2. 40 CFR 1074.110 - Adoption of California standards by other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of California standards by other states. 1074.110 Section 1074.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES Procedures for Authorization § 1074.110 Adoption...

  3. 40 CFR 1074.110 - Adoption of California standards by other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of California standards by other states. 1074.110 Section 1074.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES Procedures for Authorization § 1074.110 Adoption...

  4. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  5. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  6. 36 CFR 1011.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards? 1011.3 Section 1011.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal...

  7. 36 CFR 1011.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards? 1011.3 Section 1011.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal...

  8. 36 CFR 1011.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards? 1011.3 Section 1011.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal...

  9. 31 CFR 5.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 5.3 Section 5.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 5.3 Do these regulations adopt...

  10. 31 CFR 5.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 5.3 Section 5.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 5.3 Do these regulations adopt...

  11. 36 CFR 1011.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards? 1011.3 Section 1011.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal...

  12. 31 CFR 5.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 5.3 Section 5.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 5.3 Do these regulations adopt...

  13. 31 CFR 5.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 5.3 Section 5.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 5.3 Do these regulations adopt...

  14. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  15. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  16. 31 CFR 5.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 5.3 Section 5.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 5.3 Do these regulations adopt...

  17. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  18. 36 CFR 1011.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collections Standards? 1011.3 Section 1011.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.3 Do these regulations adopt the Federal...

  19. 75 FR 38026 - Medicare Program; Identification of Backward Compatible Version of Adopted Standard for E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... the National Council for the Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) Prescriber/ Pharmacist Interface... adopted NCPDP Prescriber/Pharmacist Interface SCRIPT standard, Version 8, Release 1 and its equivalent NCPDP Prescriber/Pharmacist Interface SCRIPT Implementation Guide, Version 8, Release 1...

  20. Report: EPA Needs to Accelerate Adoption of Numeric Nutrient Water Quality Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0223, August 26, 2009. EPA’s 1998 National Strategy and Plan to promote State adoption of nutrient water quality standards (which better protect aquatic life and human health) has been ineffective.

  1. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... and 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds... Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs) and Remittance Advice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS... facilitate health care EFT transmissions. DATES: Effective Date: These regulations are effective on...

  2. International adoption: what is fact, what is fiction, and what is the future?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dana E

    2005-10-01

    Despite the popularity of international adoption in North America and Western Europe as a means to build a family, the knowledge of health care professionals is often limited regarding the historical context of this phenomenon as well as the motivations and process experienced by adoptive parents. Although international adoption is viewed as an acceptable if not admirable method of forming kinships in accepting countries, opinions in the international community are mixed. Whether international adoptions increase or are drastically curtailed depends on addressing the misgivings that many countries have about placing their children abroad. Concerns center in two broad areas: sensitivity toward preservation of family and culture and whether the process has sufficient integrity to act in the best interests of children and birth parents.

  3. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  4. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVenia, Mark; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Lang, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Today, with states' near-universal adoption of the Common Core State Standards, the political system has achieved that which was not possible less than 2 decades ago. Just why this is so remains unanswered. Some observers have attributed states' embrace of the standards to the substantial financial incentives that the federal government embedded…

  5. The Adoption and Diffusion of an NHRD Standard: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aileen; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework to explain the adoption and diffusion of a national human resource development (NHRD) standard. NHRD standards are used by governments to promote training and development in organizations and increase the professionalization of practices used by organizations. Institutional theory suggests that adoption…

  6. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), identified as NAICS 2012, into its table of small..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May...

  7. The Voices of Non-Adopters: Members of the Virginia and Nebraska State Boards of Education on Why Their States Did Not Adopt the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On June 24, 2010, the Virginia Board of Education unanimously adopted a statement expressing its continuing commitment to Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) and opposition to making participation in federal grant and entitlement programs contingent on word-for-word adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards in reading and…

  8. Atypical EEG Power Correlates With Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, post-institutionalized children (n = 37) and comparison groups of non-adopted children (n = 47) and children internationally adopted from foster care (n = 39). For their age, post-institutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power concentrated in lower frequency bands compared to non-adopted children. Both internationally adopted groups had lower absolute alpha power than non-adopted children. EEG power was not related to growth at adoption or to global cognitive ability. Atypical EEG power distribution at 18 months predicted indiscriminate friendliness and poorer inhibitory control at 36 months. Both post-institutionalized and foster care children were more likely than non-adopted children to exhibit indiscriminate friendliness. Results are consistent with a cortical hypoactivation model of the effects of early deprivation on neural development and provide initial evidence associating this atypical EEG pattern with indiscriminate friendliness. Outcomes observed in the foster care children raise questions about the specificity of institutional rearing as a risk factor and emphasize the need for broader consideration of the effects of early deprivation and disruptions in care. PMID:21171750

  9. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  10. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  11. International Labour Standards. A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Concerned with the standard-setting work of the International Labor Organization (ILO), this manual is chiefly intended to provide guidance for worker's education instructors and trade union officials. It contains nine chapters: (1) the ILO origins and history are traced and the structure is explained; (2 & 3) procedures for the origination…

  12. Resolutions Adopted by the International Labour Conference; Shelter for the Homeless: Signs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Cites the text of resolutions adopted at the International Labour Conference, focusing on (1) homelessness, (2) the anniversary of the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, and (3) measures against substance abuse in working and social life. Outlines the International Labour Office's recent efforts to improve…

  13. Prelude to the Common Core: Internationally Benchmarking a State's Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolard, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As states struggle with the notion of international competitiveness, the quality and rigor of academic content standards has come into question. While Ohio's content standards are well regarded, the state initiated a process to revise the standards and eventually joined with the majority of states in adopting a voluntary set of national…

  14. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari

    2017-03-02

    Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Understanding the Perception of Very Small Software Companies towards the Adoption of Process Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Shuib; O'Connor, Rory V.

    This paper is concerned with understanding the issues that affect the adoption of software process standards by Very Small Entities (VSEs), their needs from process standards and their willingness to engage with the new ISO/IEC 29110 standard in particular. In order to achieve this goal, a series of industry data collection studies were undertaken with a collection of VSEs. A twin track approach of a qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups) and quantitative data collection (questionnaire) were undertaken. Data analysis was being completed separately and the final results were merged, using the coding mechanisms of grounded theory. This paper serves as a roadmap for both researchers wishing to understand the issues of process standards adoption by very small companies and also for the software process standards community.

  16. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  17. Structural language, pragmatic communication, behavior, and social competence in children adopted internationally: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2016-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.

  18. 77 FR 54663 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD- 10-CM) for diagnosis coding... of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure... health identifier for health care providers for use in the health care system and adopting the...

  19. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  20. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  1. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  2. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  3. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  4. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  5. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  6. International biological standards for coagulation factors and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Anthony R

    2007-04-01

    The use of international biological standards during the last 30 years has proved extremely successful in promoting global harmonization of estimates between laboratories and methods. Experience has led to the identification of physical criteria essential for standards to be suitable for long-term use. High precision of liquid filling coupled with low residual moisture and oxygen and the use of sealed glass ampoules have been found consistent with homogeneous and stable International Standards (ISs). Most plasma coagulation factors and inhibitors are calibrated in International Units (IU), which are defined as the amount of analyte in 1 mL of normal pooled plasma. Adoption of the IU has provided clarity in the definition of normal and abnormal states and has facilitated dose calculation for replacement therapy. The assay of like-versus-like materials (e.g., concentrate versus concentrate) has been found to improve interlaboratory agreement and there are now both plasma and concentrate ISs available for many coagulation factors and inhibitors. Studies into the assay of recombinant factor VIII have indicated that additional measures, such as modifications to assay methodology, are necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability. This experience may prove valuable in the future, when we have to deal increasingly with the challenges to standardization associated with the products of bioengineering.

  7. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-03

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  8. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  9. 77 FR 22949 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... April 17, 2012 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier; Addition to the National Provider... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 162 RIN...

  10. Potential Ramifications of Common Core State Standards Adoption on Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Jacob Paul

    2014-01-01

    As of this writing, 45 United States and four territories have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The quick implementation on the part of state policymakers is a marked response to the growing demand for career and college ready high school graduates. Current figures suggest that over the next 15 years the need for post-secondary…

  11. Critical factors influencing hospitals' adoption of HL7 version 2 standards: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, I-Chun; Roan, Jin-Sheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan

    2012-06-01

    Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the interchange of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Taiwan have actually adopted it. What are the reasons behind the hospitals' lack of intention to adopt HL7? Most prior studies on HL7 have focused on technical issues and general overlooked the managerial side. This has caused a lack of understanding of factors influencing hospitals' decision on HL7 adoption. In fact, main reasons behind a hospital's decision on whether to adopt an innovative technology are more often related to organizational than purely technical issues. Hence, we pay our attention to these organizational considerations over HL7 adoption. Based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory, we proposed a research model to explore the critical factors influencing Taiwan hospitals' adoption intention of HL7. 472 questionnaires were distributed to all accredited hospitals in Taiwan and 122 were returned. The valid response rate was 25.21% (119). Factor analysis, logistic regression and Pearson Chi-square test were conducted to verify the research model. The results showed that environmental pressure, top management attitude towards HL7, staff's technology capability, system integrity, and hospital's scale were critical factors influencing hospitals' intention on whether to adopt HL7. The research findings provided the government, the healthcare industry, the hospital administrators and the academia with practical and theoretical references. These factors should be considered in planning promotion plan to encourage hospital adoption of HL7. This study also opens up a new research direction as well as a new viewpoint, and consequentially

  12. Feasibility of piezoelectric tiles adoption: A case study at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Bohari, Izyan Adilah; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Kusumarwadani, Rini

    2017-03-01

    The basic function of an international airport is an aerodrome, provides not only the facilities for flights management, but also for customs and passport control. Nowadays, most of the international airports have established commercial outlets for food, products and services. As such, these airports are built with larger scale and more sophisticated on both infrastructure and infostructure which aim to be the most extensive air-travel service providers that connect the nations to the international gateways. Looking at the daily operations of an international airport, the energy consumption is apprehended to be enormous. Besides, knowing the fact that reliance on fossil fuels to power the airport buildings and to run the operations daily, this has led to many negative socioenvironmental implications. To date, some of the world major international airports have begun in renewable energy adoption-which mainly focused on solar energy as a way to reduce fossil energy consumption and towards greenhouse gases reduction. Inspired by thinking differently since solar energy has been adopted in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in 2014, through this study we proposed another form of renewable energy-piezoelectric technology adoption into our KLIA as a feasibility study. We believe that piezoelectric technology could complement the renewable energy mix, by tapping the crowd kinetic energy gathered internally in the airport buildings particularly at a few main entrances. Hence, the objectives of this study are (a) to examine the potential factors that will foster piezoelectric tiles adoption at KLIA and (b) to propose the ways for KLIA in speeding up piezoelectric tiles adoption within the airport terminals. The case study on the Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB which manages the KLIA) was based on primary data collected through a series of qualitative focus group conducted on 14 (8 senior managers and 6 technical professionals) who were interested and supportive

  13. Discussions about Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families: Links with Family Engagement, Warmth, & Control

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Rueter, Martha A.; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea (N = 111 families, 222 adolescents). Using data collected during mid-adolescence and again during late adolescence, higher levels of maternal control and positive adolescent engagement were independently associated with a greater likelihood that family members acknowledged the importance of racial and ethnic differences and constructed a multiracial and/or multiethnic family identity. Adolescent engagement was also related to a greater likelihood that family members disagreed about the importance of racial and ethnic differences, and did not build a cohesive identity about differences. PMID:26648791

  14. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…

  15. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  16. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  17. Far Away from the Tigers: A Year in the Classroom with Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…

  18. Medical Issues in International Adoption and Their Influence on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladage, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of international adoptions has increased over the past 2 decades, so has awareness and understanding of the risks associated with the conditions to which these children have been exposed. Prenatal alcohol and/or drug exposure, infectious diseases, malnutrition, and psychosocial deprivation all contribute to the profound growth and…

  19. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  20. Vitamin D Status and Predictors of Hypovitaminosis D in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Vierucci, Francesco; Ghetti, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate vitamin D status in internationally adopted children at first medical evaluation in Italy and to identify possible risk factors for hypovitaminosis D in this population. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were analyzed in internationally adopted children consecutively recruited at one Italian Center between 2010 and 2014 as part of the first screening protocol. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected. Serum 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL, <20 ng/mL, and <30 ng/mL were used to define severe vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and hypovitaminosis D, respectively. Results 962 internationally adopted children (median age: 5.47 years; IQR:3.14–7.93) were included in the study. Median 25(OH)D level was 22.0 ng/mL (IQR:15.0–30.0 ng/mL); 710/962 (73.8%) children showed hypovitaminosis D (<30 ng/mL), 388/962 (40.3%) had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL), and 92/962 (9.6%) had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/mL). No case of clinical rickets was observed. Hypovitaminosis D was particularly frequent (>90%) in children adopted from Ethiopia, Peru, India, Bulgaria and Lithuania. At multivariate analysis an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D was found to be associated with: age ≥ 6 years, time spent in Italy ≥ 3 months, blood sample taken in winter, spring or fall, compared to summer. Gender, ethnicity/continent of origin, tubercular infection, intestinal parassitosis and BMI-z-score < -2 were not associated with vitamin D status. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D is common in internationally adopted children, from all ethnic group. The evaluation of serum 25(OH)D level could be useful early after the adoption to promptly start vitamin D supplementation/treatment if needed. PMID:27685941

  1. Bidirectional Effects of Parenting and Child Behavior in Internationally Adopting Families.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Jamie M; Koss, Kalsea J; Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-03-06

    Adoption marks a radical transition in caregiving for thousands of children adopted internationally from institutional care; however, very little is known about the quality of this parenting compared with other populations or the transactional effects of parent and child characteristics in postadoption families during the transition to family care. The current study examined parental sensitivity/responsiveness and structure/limit-setting in a group of 68 children adopted internationally from institutions (41 girls, 27 boys; M age = 26.13 months, SD = 4.99) and their parents over the first year after adoption and compared them to a sample of nonadoptive families (26 girls, 26 boys; M age = 27.65 months, SD = 5.71). Results indicated no mean-level differences in parenting quality on either dimension between adoptive and nonadoptive parents. For postinstitutionalized youth, higher quality parental structure and limit-setting soon after adoption predicted reduced child regulation difficulties 8 months later; however, initial child regulation did not predict later parenting. There were no cross-lagged relations for parental sensitivity/responsiveness. Higher quality preadoptive care for children was associated with higher scores on both sensitivity/responsiveness and structure and limit-setting among adoptive parents. Less growth stunting, indicative of less preadoptive adversity, was associated with parents' use of more effective structure and limit-setting behaviors. Policies should promote better preadoptive care abroad, such as lower caregiver-child ratios, as well as early adoption. At least in families exhibiting generally high sensitivity/responsiveness, interventions should target parental structure and limit-setting to have the greatest effect on child behavioral regulation in the immediate years postadoption. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Internal Standards For FTIR Analysis Of Isocyanurates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, William C.; Pratz, Earl; Smith, Doris A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration of isocyanurate in polyurethane foam measured. Quantitative analysis important because concentration of isocyanurate affects chemical and physical properties of foam, and correlations between concentration and properties used to optimize foam formulations. Use of potassium ferricyanide as internal standard extended to other infrared spectral analyses of solids in which quantitative results required. Eliminates need to know thickness of sample. Synthesis of triphenylisocyanurate extended to production of pure compounds from substituted phenylisocyanates added to test foam formulations to determine improvements in thermal properties with pure or substituted triphenylisocyanurate.

  3. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    PubMed

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  4. Office International des Epizooties international standards for bluetongue.

    PubMed

    Schudel, A; Wilson, D; Pearson, J E

    2004-01-01

    Preventing the spread of disease through international trade is one of the primary objectives of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), the World Organisation for Animal Health. This is accomplished by establishing international standards that facilitate trade while minimising the risk of introducing diseases such as bluetongue (BT). The OIE standards for BT are contained in the Terrestrial animal health code (Code) and the Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (Manual). These standards include procedures for prompt reporting of BT outbreaks; requirements that should be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of bluetongue virus (BTV); recommendations for the safe importation of live animals, semen and embryos into a BTV-free country or zone; and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of BTV through trade. The Manual describes in detail the various tests for the diagnosis of BT. It provides a list of prescribed tests; these are the tests that are required by the Code for the testing of animals in connection with international trade. There are 24 serotypes of BTV and infected countries have the right to restrict imports from countries that have different types of BTV. However, this should only be done if a surveillance and monitoring programme has confirmed that the other types are not present. Zoning for an arbovirus is difficult to apply but zoning for vectors is practicable. Some countries have demonstrated that there is no evidence of infection in their country or parts of their country even though there has been unrestricted animal movement between endemic zones and free zones. This freedom is due to the absence of vectors in the free zone. Based on this observation, free countries and zones can be established if an appropriate surveillance and monitoring programme is in place to define their boundaries. Consequently, there have been extensive changes in the Code to allow the

  5. Regulatory convergence and harmonization: barriers to effective use and adoption of common standards.

    PubMed

    Pombo, María Luz; Porrás, Analía; Saidon, Patricia Claudia; Cascio, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Objective To evaluate 1) the level of use and adoption of eight Technical Documents (TDs) published by the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH) member states and 2) identify the hurdles that can prevent countries from successfully adopting a common standard. Methods An in-depth analysis of the incorporation of PANDRH Technical Document No. 1 ("TDNo1") recommendations in member states' national requirements was carried out. Results The results illustrate the role of PANDRH in promoting convergence/harmonization among its members. Conclusions The study results show that the rate of use of TDs varied greatly by product/area and country. Timing, TD content, and product/area, and, more importantly, national capacities, are critical determinants of the level of TD guideline adoption. While PANDRH TDs have proven instrumental for the harmonization/convergence of member states' national requirements, as shown by the level of convergence across a majority of the national requirements issued for vaccine licensing, several countries had yet to incorporate common standards due, in large part, to weak national regulatory capacities. Therefore, harmonization/convergence initiatives should include the strengthening of national regulatory capacities as part of their core strategy, which will, in turn, allow for the incorporation and deployment of common standards in all participating countries.

  6. Generation of CAR T cells for adoptive therapy in the context of glioblastoma standard of care.

    PubMed

    Riccione, Katherine; Suryadevara, Carter M; Snyder, David; Cui, Xiuyu; Sampson, John H; Sanchez-Perez, Luis

    2015-02-16

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy offers a promising strategy for specifically targeting and eliminating malignant gliomas. T cells can be engineered ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for glioma antigens (CAR T cells). The expansion and function of adoptively transferred CAR T cells can be potentiated by the lymphodepletive and tumoricidal effects of standard of care chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We describe a method for generating CAR T cells targeting EGFRvIII, a glioma-specific antigen, and evaluating their efficacy when combined with a murine model of glioblastoma standard of care. T cells are engineered by transduction with a retroviral vector containing the anti-EGFRvIII CAR gene. Tumor-bearing animals are subjected to host conditioning by a course of temozolomide and whole brain irradiation at dose regimens designed to model clinical standard of care. CAR T cells are then delivered intravenously to primed hosts. This method can be used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells in the context of standard of care.

  7. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  8. The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements.

  9. Factors Affecting Attachment in International Adoptees at 6 Months Post Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of five child and maternal factors on the attachment security of international adoptees at six months post adoption. Results from the sample of 22 adoptive mother-infant dyads showed that age at adoption, developmental status, length and quality of preadoption care, and maternal attachment representations were not significant predictors of child attachment status. The number of preadoption placements and the child's stress level did significantly predict attachment status, accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in attachment security. Number of preadoption placements uniquely contributed 14% of that variance (p=.007) while stress level uniquely contributed 12% (p=.01). Children who had fewer preadoption placements had higher attachment security; similarly, children who had lower stress levels had higher attachment security. Results suggest that consistency of preadoption care was more important than its length or quality. Further, the relationship between stress level and attachment security raises the possibility that a lower stress level functions as a protective factor for the developing attachment with the adoptive mother. PMID:22267885

  10. Linguistic interference between L1 and L2 in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Rosinsky-Grunhut, Ariella; Tracy, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Bilingual children learning two languages either simultaneously or successively experience patterns of cross-language interference or facilitation due to similarities and differences between the languages. Internationally adopted toddlers are only truly bilingual for a short period of time because the first language disappears quickly after adoption. Yet residual effects of the disappearing first language might impact patterns of learning the new language. To determine if cross-language patterns affected language learning in very young children, language samples were collected from 23 children adopted from Eastern Europe between 11 and 23 months of age. Samples were collected at 6-month intervals during the first year after adoption, then annually up through age 4. Age and order of acquisition of several grammatical morphemes including V + ing, articles, contracted and uncontracted copulas, and contracted and uncontracted auxiliary were explored. These morphological structures developed in the same sequence observed in monolingual children speaking English and were not notably impacted by cross-linguistic factors from language 1. Guidelines for professionals and parents are discussed.

  11. Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by internationally adopted children from China.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lara J; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-11-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results from spontaneous and elicited speech showed that IA children acquired grammatical morphemes similarly to L1 learners; namely, (1) non-tense-marking morphemes were acquired earlier than tense-marking morphemes; (2) BE was acquired in synchrony with other tense-marking morphemes; and (3) a high percentage of omission errors and a low percentage of commission errors were observed.

  12. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  13. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

  14. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  15. Early experience shapes amygdala sensitivity to race: an international adoption design.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Shapiro, Mor; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan D; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-08-14

    In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

  16. Call for the international adoption of microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Schurek, Kristen N; Adam, Heather J; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2006-09-01

    The use of current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute levofloxacin breakpoints for assessing fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is inadequate for detecting isolates possessing first-step parC mutations. Consequently, the risk for development of fluoroquinolone resistance is greatly underestimated. Adopting microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and S. pneumoniae, where parC mutations are rare in susceptible isolates, more accurately describes the emergence of resistance and may help to prevent a number of future fluoroquinolone treatment failures. Additionally, we propose that the use of a second fluoroquinolone marker, such as ciprofloxacin, offers the best prediction for detecting an isolate possessing a first-step parC mutation.

  17. International Quality Standards in College. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, F. Craig; Birch, Derek W.

    A study was conducted to examine the application of quality standards developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to colleges in England and Wales. The British Standards Institution (BSI) has applied these standards to service industries, thus providing a framework for case studies in colleges. Six colleges in England and Wales…

  18. HIPAA administrative simplification: modifications to medical data code set standards to adopt ID-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-01-16

    This final rule adopts modifications to two of the code set standards adopted in the Transactions and Code Sets final rule published in the Federal Register pursuant to certain provisions of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). Specifically, this final rule modifies the standard medical data code sets (hereinafter "code sets") for coding diagnoses and inpatient hospital procedures by concurrently adopting the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, as maintained and distributed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), hereinafter referred to as ICD-10-CM, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, as maintained and distributed by the HHS, hereinafter referred to as ICD-10-PCS. These new codes replace the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volumes 1 and 2, including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, hereinafter referred to as ICD-9-CM Volumes 1 and 2, and the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volume 3, including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, hereinafter referred to as ICD-9-CM Volume 3, for diagnosis and procedure codes, respectively.

  19. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating.

  20. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  1. International Space Data Systems Standardization: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowen, Andrew Z.

    2004-01-01

    Standardization of products and services is the only way world Space Agencies and their providers can achieve substantial reduction in development and operations cost. Current and future CCSDS tasks will continue to center around providing tools for it to happen. NASA and other Space Agencies welcome efforts of companies and technology and standards organizations to provide our missions with even more tools to succeed.

  2. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  3. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  4. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  5. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  6. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  7. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international standards. (a) This subpart and subparts B, C, and D of this part are based on Chapter III, SOLAS....

  8. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  9. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  10. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international standards. (a) This subpart and subparts B, C, and D of this part are based on Chapter III, SOLAS....

  11. Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families

    PubMed Central

    Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

  12. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West Åkerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  13. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  14. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  15. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  16. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  17. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  18. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  19. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  20. Cross-Cutting Issues in International Standards Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russon, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This issue has presented seven previous chapters on international program evaluation standards. Chapter One defined terms and identified major themes. Subsequent chapters examined evaluation standards created in North America, Europe, and Africa; those contemplated in Australasia; and the evaluation standards created by the European Commission and…

  1. Exposures from environmental radioactivity: international safety standards.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.

  2. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is

  3. Birth and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms moderate the link between infant attention control and internalizing problems in toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2014-05-01

    Attention control plays an important role in the development of internalizing symptoms in children. We explored the degree to which infants' genetic and environmentally based risk moderated the link between attention control and internalizing problems during toddlerhood. These associations were examined within a prospective adoption design, enabling the disentanglement of genetic and environmental risk for internalizing problems. Attention control in adopted infants was observed during periods of distress at age 9 months. Birth parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of genetic risk, while adoptive parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of environmental risk. Adoptive mothers and fathers reported on children's internalizing problems when children were 18 and 27 months old. Greater attention control in infancy appeared to mitigate genetically based risk for internalizing problems during toddlerhood when children were raised by adoptive parents who were low in anxiety. Findings suggest that for genetically susceptible children who are raised in low-risk environments, attention control may provide a protective factor against developing internalizing problems across early life.

  4. 2009 Review and Revisions of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M.J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI. PMID:21061894

  5. _ 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

  6. International Standards for Genomes, Transcriptomes, and Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christopher E; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Tighe, Scott; Wu, Shixiu; Levy, Shawn

    2017-03-17

    Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous. Fortunately, a variety of methods, standards, and technologies have recently emerged that improve measurements in genomics and sequencing, from the initial input material to the computational pipelines that process and annotate the data. Here we review current standards and their applications in genomics, including whole genomes, transcriptomes, mixed genomic samples (metagenomes), and the modified bases within each (epigenomes and epitranscriptomes). These standards, tools, and metrics are critical for quantifying the accuracy of NGS methods, which will be essential for robust approaches in clinical genomics and precision medicine.

  7. International Standards for Genomes, Transcriptomes, and Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Christopher E.; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Tighe, Scott; Wu, Shixiu; Levy, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous. Fortunately, a variety of methods, standards, and technologies have recently emerged that improve measurements in genomics and sequencing, from the initial input material to the computational pipelines that process and annotate the data. Here we review current standards and their applications in genomics, including whole genomes, transcriptomes, mixed genomic samples (metagenomes), and the modified bases within each (epigenomes and epitranscriptomes). These standards, tools, and metrics are critical for quantifying the accuracy of NGS methods, which will be essential for robust approaches in clinical genomics and precision medicine. PMID:28337071

  8. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  9. The Second International Standard for Vitamin D: crystalline vitamin D3*

    PubMed Central

    Coward, K. H.; Irwin, J. O.

    1954-01-01

    This report was presented to the Subcommittee on Fat-Soluble Vitamins of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 1949 by the Vitamin D Sub-Committee of the Accessory Food Factors Committee of the Medical Research Council of Great Britain and formed the evidence on which the first-mentioned subcommittee based its recommendation of the adoption of crystalline vitamin D3 as the International Standard for Vitamin D, replacing the solution of irradiated ergosterol which had been adopted as Standard in 1931. The Vitamin D Sub-Committee organized a collaborative assay in which 32 laboratories in seven countries participated. In addition to 29g of crystalline vitamin D3 generously contributed by five firms, the following preparations were compared for vitamin D activity by biological tests on rats or chicks or both: the then current International Standard, a preparation of the purest calciferol obtainable, the British Standards Institution (BSI) Standard, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Cod Liver Oil, and the Swedish provisional standard. Altogether 29 rat assays and 25 chick assays were carried out, and the results were subjected to standard methods of analysis. The BSI Standard and the pure calciferol were found less potent than the Old Standard (potency ratios: 0.916 and 0.933, respectively); and the New Standard may be slightly less potent (0.981), but it is more potent than the BSI Standard (1.071). The USP Reference Oil is less potent than the BSI Standard (0.949), the Old Standard (0.896), and the New Standard (0.886). The fiducial range is generally less than 10%, but even where it is greater, it is still satisfactory for a biological test. PMID:13199651

  10. Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

    2014-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies.

  11. The California Clinical Data Project: a case study in the adoption of clinical data standards for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter; Chang, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    The California Clinical Data Project is a statewide initiative to remove barriers to the widespread and effective use of information technology to improve chronic disease care. The project is a case study in the development and widespread adoption of clinical data standards by varied and often competing stakeholders. As an initial step, the project defined precise data standards for the batch reporting of pharmacy claims data and laboratory results data. These uniform standards facilitate the flow of existing electronic clinical information into disease registries and electronic health record systems. Pharmacy and lab results data now are being exchanged electronically with this standard among the largest health plans, medical groups, and clinical laboratories participating in California's pay-for-performance programs. Lessons from this project may apply to the development and adoption of data standards for other states and locales and for the emerging national health information infrastructure.

  12. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of the energy and water conservation standards that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010. The standards covered include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. We estimate that energy efficiency standards for consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment that have been adopted from 1987 through 2010 saved 3.0 quads in 2010, have had a cumulative energy savings of 25.9 quads through 2010 and will achieve cumulative energy savings of 158 quads over the period 1990-2070. Thus, the majority of the savings are still to come as products subject to standards enter the stock. Furthermore, the standards will have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $851 billion and $1,103 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. In addition, we estimate the water conservation standards, together with those energy conservation standards that also save water, saved residential consumers 1.5 trillion gallons of water in 2010, have had cumulative water savings of 11.7 trillion gallons through 2010, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 51.4 trillion gallons.

  13. Comparability of Examination Standards between Subjects: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2009-01-01

    Heated discussions about the comparability of standards between examination subjects have kept Qualification Authorities, Testing Services, independent researchers and academics around the world busy for many years. As a result, many countries have adopted statistical techniques which aspire to make aggregated scores based on different subjects…

  14. ISBD(M), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. First Standard Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monograph Publications [ISBD(M)] provides a format for the international communication on bibliographic information, so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(M) standards are limited to the…

  15. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... of Nutrition and Health Claims. Mandatory Nutrition Labeling. Guidelines for the Production... on Certain Mushrooms. Proposed draft Codex Standard for Canned Bamboo Shoots. The Committee continues... risk. In this process, work undertaken in this field at national, regional, and international...

  16. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  17. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  18. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  19. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  20. An international standard for observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    , the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new

  1. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: (A) The aggregate monetary value of transactions processed by the FMU; (B) the aggregate exposure of... standards, as well as policy and analytical work by other international committees including the Basel... international policy organizations to develop and promote effective regulatory, supervisory and other...

  2. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity Among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E; Baden, Amanda L; Grotevant, Harold D; Lee, Richard M; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host culture are important socialization contexts that engage transracial adoptees in transactional processes that promote ethnic identity development. New directions in research were identified, including developmental processes in navigating ethnic and other identities, similarities and differences in ethnic identity between ITRAs and immigrants, the effectiveness of interventions targeting ethnic identity in ITRAs, and the impact of discrimination on ethnic identity construction and the role of social and national contexts. Implications for policies and practices were discussed, such as pre- and postadoption supports for adoptees and parents that provide developmentally appropriate support for positive ethnic identity; training for professionals working with ITRAs and their families; and intercountry practices that promote connection with cultures of origin. Lessons about ITRAs and their ethnic identity in transaction with multiple social contexts enhance understanding of how all individuals navigate multiple identities.

  3. Challenges of Standards-Based Reform: The Example of California's Science Content Standards and Textbook Adoption Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Debates the strengths and limitations of standards-based science education reform in the United States. Examines California science content standards and critiques it and the ways that such standards narrowly frame science education for the state's teachers and students. Suggests awareness of the challenges in using standards to achieve education…

  4. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  5. Summary Brief: International Baccalaureate Standards Development and Alignment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Ward, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Although the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme is offered by many high schools in the United States and considered to be challenging and rich in content, the curriculum has not been analyzed to determine its alignment with college readiness standards or state educational standards in the U.S. The research methodology employed by…

  6. Using the international normalized ratio to standardize prothrombin time.

    PubMed

    Stern, R; Karlis, V; Kinney, L; Glickman, R

    1997-08-01

    The international normalized ratio, or INR, was introduced in 1983 by the World Health Organization, or WHO, Committee on Biological Standards to more accurately assess patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. The INR mandates the universal standardization of prothrombin time. This article describes the method used to calculate INR, as well as its clinical relevance to the practice of dentistry.

  7. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  8. International Standards: The Road to Universal Bibliographic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Elizabeth L.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of modern practices in bibliographic description is traced to provide a frame of reference for consideration of the new ISBD(M) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. The origin and objectives of the standard are discussed, and the American experience in its application is reviewed. (Author)

  9. A Proposal for an International Standard Object Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses extand paradigms (ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, and the emerging ISAN). Models a procedure for assigning ISONs (International Standard Object Number) to objects and their surrogates. Describes resources requisite to the construction of the ISON, and outlines the necessarily cooperative work ahead if an ISON is to become a standard for visual…

  10. Revisiting Vertical Models To Simulate the Line Shape of Electronic Spectra Adopting Cartesian and Internal Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2016-10-11

    Vertical models for the simulation of spectroscopic line shapes expand the potential energy surface (PES) of the final state around the equilibrium geometry of the initial state. These models provide, in principle, a better approximation of the region of the band maximum. At variance, adiabatic models expand each PES around its own minimum. In the harmonic approximation, when the minimum energy structures of the two electronic states are connected by large structural displacements, adiabatic models can breakdown and are outperformed by vertical models. However, the practical application of vertical models faces the issues related to the necessity to perform a frequency analysis at a nonstationary point. In this contribution we revisit vertical models in harmonic approximation adopting both Cartesian (x) and valence internal curvilinear coordinates (s). We show that when x coordinates are used, the vibrational analysis at nonstationary points leads to a deficient description of low-frequency modes, for which spurious imaginary frequencies may even appear. This issue is solved when s coordinates are adopted. It is however necessary to account for the second derivative of s with respect to x, which here we compute analytically. We compare the performance of the vertical model in the s-frame with respect to adiabatic models and previously proposed vertical models in x- or Q1-frame, where Q1 are the normal coordinates of the initial state computed as combination of Cartesian coordinates. We show that for rigid molecules the vertical approach in the s-frame provides a description of the final state very close to the adiabatic picture. For sizable displacements it is a solid alternative to adiabatic models, and it is not affected by the issues of vertical models in x- and Q1-frames, which mainly arise when temperature effects are included. In principle the G matrix depends on s, and this creates nonorthogonality problems of the Duschinsky matrix connecting the normal

  11. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  12. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter; Price, Sarah

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  13. Developmental delays at arrival, early intervention enrollment, and adopted Chinese girls' academic performance and internalizing problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2014-01-01

    The author investigated the extent of developmental delays in girls adopted from China, their subsequent early intervention (EI) enrollment, and how the delays and EI were related to their academic performance and internalizing problems in adolescence. The sample included 180 adolescent girls (M = 13.4 years, SD = 2.0 years) who were adopted at 3-23.5 months (M = 11.5 months, SD = 3.7 months). Data on the adopted Chinese girls' delays at arrival and EI enrollment in physical therapy (PT) and speech-language therapy (SLT) were collected from the adoptive mothers at the Baseline; data on the adopted Chinese girls' present academic performance and internalizing problems were collected from the adoptive mothers and adopted girls at Wave 4 six years later. Data analyses revealed that 55% of the adoptees had moderate-to-severe delays when first arrived at the adoptive homes. Motor delays significantly increased the odds for PT (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98, 95% CI [2.18, 7.82], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 2.36, 95% CI [1.50-3.72, p <.001). Social-cognitive delays also significantly increased the odds for PT (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.36, 2.63], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.22, 2.17], p <.001). Motor delays were negatively associated with academic performance but positively associated with internalizing problems. General linear modeling showed that the adoptees who had developmental delays at arrival and subsequently enrolled in EI scored significantly lower on academic performance than their peers who had delays but did not enroll in EI, as well their peers who had no delays and did not enroll in EI. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Plans to Adopt and Implement Common Core State Standards in the Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kim; Harrison, Tiffany; Lewis, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews with state officials in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina), this study describes state processes for adopting the Common Core State Standards (a common set of expectations across states for what students are expected to know in English language arts and…

  15. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  16. International reference preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Minor, P

    2014-10-01

    International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working reference materials are calibrated against international standards giving a common unit of measurement between laboratories. The references are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single reference method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The process has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary reference must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the reference with real life analytes.

  17. Calibration of replacement international standards of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids for use in flocculation test.

    PubMed

    Preneta-Blanc, R; Rigsby, P; Wilhelmsen, E Sloth; Tierney, R; Brierley, M; Sesardic, D

    2008-09-01

    The 1st International Reference Reagents (IRR) of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids for Flocculation Test (DIFT and TEFT) were established by the WHO in 1988. These reagents are essential for the standardization of assays used to calculate Lf units of toxoids. Candidate replacement materials were provided by several European vaccine manufacturers and were formulated and freeze-dried at NIBSC. This paper provides a summary of the results of an international collaborative study including 18 laboratories from 16 countries, which examined the candidate replacement materials in a variety of methods. Materials 02/176 and 04/150 were proposed and adopted by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of WHO in October 2007 as 2nd WHO International Standards of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for use in Flocculation Test. The replacement standards were assigned the value of 1100 and 690Lf/ampoule, respectively, based on results of flocculation tests carried out using provided reagents. Material coded 02/176 fully complied with the WHO specifications for stability, residual moisture content, precision of fill and sterility. Stability of material coded 04/150 was slightly lower than expected but predictions were based only on 2-year data and were to be further monitored, post-adoption.

  18. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  19. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  20. A Proposed Framework between Internal, External and Pedagogy Dimensions in Adoption of Interactive Multimedia e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahwal, Fathia; Al-Ajlan, Ajlan S.; Amain, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on interactive multimedia e-learning aims to improve our understanding about the dynamics of e-learning. The objective is to critical evaluate and better understand the interrelationships in the proposed framework between internal, external and the pedagogy dimensions in adoption of interactive multimedia and e-learning. It…

  1. "We-Research": Adopting a Wiki to Support the Processes of Collaborative Research among a Team of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Perez, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the adoption of a wiki to support the processes of collaborative research between members of an international team involved in the project MyPlace: MyMusic. The focus is on how new technological communications, here specifically the wiki, can enable and transform the methods and processes of research. We propose two main…

  2. Is There "Space" for International Baccalaureate? A Case Study Exploring Space and the Adoption of the IB Middle Year Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre (1991) wrote, "[representational] space is alive: it speaks" (p. 42). This article explores how we might "listen" to space in education by examining the role of space in one school's decision to adopt the International Baccalaureate's Middle Years Programme [IB MYP]. It builds upon recent scholarship that applies…

  3. Fulfilling the Promise of the Common Core State Standards: Moving from Adoption to Implementation to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASCD, 2012

    2012-01-01

    First launched in April 2009, the Common Core State Standards Initiative was conceived to identify and develop college- and career-readiness standards that address what students are expected to know and be able to do when they have graduated from high school. The initiative introduced the final version of the standards in June 2010, and by…

  4. The international standardization of the medical certification of civil aircrew.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W R

    1984-05-01

    The extremely heterogeneous nature of the various peoples and states of today's world makes the development of a satisfactory set of medical standards for the certification of civil aircrew extremely difficult. This difficulty is compounded by the varying roles aviation plays in different parts of the world. Essential to the understanding of this difficulty is a comprehension of the concept of the sovereignty of nations. Emphasis on aviation medical standards is affected by the variation in health care priorities seen amongst the worldwide community of nations. Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation sets regulations and recommendations for aircrew licensure. The capability of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to enforce regulations is restricted by the same factors which restrict the power of any supernational organization. Nonetheless ICAO remains the most effective means available for achieving the diplomatic consensus so essential to the development of international standards.

  5. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

  6. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum.

    PubMed

    McGiven, J; Taylor, A; Duncombe, L; Sayers, R; Albert, D; Banai, M; Blasco, J M; Elena, S; Fretin, D; Garin-Bastuji, B; Melzer, F; Muñoz, P M; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Scacchia, M; Tittarelli, M; Dias, I Travassos; Walravens, K; Stack, J

    2011-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) 1/64 and 1/750, competitive ELISA (cELISA) 1/8 and 1/300, fluorescent polarisation assay (FPA) 1/16 and 1/200, Rose Bengal test (RBT) 1/16 and 1/200. The OIE International Standard Serum (OIEISS) will remain the primary standard for the RBT; the ISaBmS is an additional standard. It was impossible to set criteria for the complement fixation test, therefore the OIEISS will remain the primary standard. The ISaBmS can be used to standardise iELISA, cELISA and FPA to diagnose sheep and goat brucellosis. This standard should facilitate harmonisation of tests used for brucellosis surveillance and international trade in these species.

  7. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E.; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  8. 75 FR 13715 - Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers... Rulemaking (NPRM) on the Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping...

  9. 76 FR 48101 - Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers...) entitled ``Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training... ``Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification...

  10. Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Karine; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The French language development of children adopted (n=24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional adjustment or intellectual abilities. However, the adopted children's expressive language skills were significantly lower than those of the nonadopted children at both assessments. The receptive language skills were also significantly weaker for the adopted children at the second assessment. The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language.

  11. Metadata - an international standard for clinical knowledge resources.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gunnar O

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new European and International standard, ISO 13119 Health informatics - Clinical knowledge resources - Metadata that is intended for both health professionals and patients/citizens. This standard aims to facilitate two issues: 1) How to find relevant documents that are appropriate for the reader and situation and 2) How to ensure that the found knowledge documents have a sufficient or at least declared quality management? Example of use is provided from the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.

  12. 39 CFR 254.1 - Adoption of U.S. Access Board Standards as Postal Service Standards of Facility Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Barriers Act (ABA) “Standards for Facility Accessibility,” the following sections of 36 CFR part 1191... Barriers Act, Scoping (which contains ABA Chapter 1, Application and Administration, and ABA Chapter...

  13. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  14. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  15. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  16. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  17. International reference standards: antibody standards for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wright, P F; Tounkara, K; Lelenta, M; Jeggo, M H

    1997-12-01

    Reference standards are used to calibrate similar assay systems against an international reference protocol and to provide a template for the preparation of secondary and/or working standards. Three reference standards are recommended for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: a strong positive standard, a weak positive standard and a negative serum standard. The negative standard should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which exhibits typical background activity in the reference protocol. The strong and weak positive standards should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which typifies the humoral response (antibody) to natural infection. Suitable candidates for the positive reference standards should exhibit dose/response curves in the mid-range of antibody activity. The strong and weak positive standards should each be prepared from a one-time dilution in the negative standard, to yield antibody activities which are defined by specific points on the linear portion of the dose/response curve. The strong positive standard should represent an antibody activity (absorbance value) midway between the upper and central points and the weak positive standard should represent an antibody activity midway between the central and lower points of the linear portion of the curve. Owing to inherent differences among assay systems, antibody activities should be expressed in relative rather than in absolute terms. It is recommended that the antibody activity of the strong positive standard should denote 100% positivity. The activities of the weak positive and negative standards should then be expressed as relative percentages. Every set of international reference standards should be accompanied by an information sheet which includes, among other things, a plot of the dose/response curve and an indication of the dilutions used to prepare the standards.

  18. A blessing in disguise: international standards for the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Lonien, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Regardless of the industry, standards are ubiquitous in our everyday lives and essential to the interconnection of people, businesses, and countries. Standardization seeks to consensually establish the best technical application forany given process in order to ensure consistent quality, minimization of risks,and interoperability. As a life scientist, I was surprised to see my natural reservation towards draconic documentation change. Life science standards aref undamentally important for the smooth transaction of data and repetition of experiments, and may help small and medium enterprises gain the international attention they deserve and require, in order to get their innovations noticed.

  19. How Can International Standards Support Scientific Lineage Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recording the provenance of large-scale scientific datasets is an incredible challenge that will attracted a significant number of creative solutions. Many of these solutions will likely be customized in order to address specific needs of organizations that develop them. At the same time, standard representations of the provenance are required for preservation and ease of understanding by a wide variety of non-expert users. Emerging international metadata standards include mechanisms for describing provenance that are necessarily general and simplified. We will describe these mechanisms and some applications to begin to characterize situations in which these standards are useful.

  20. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  1. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  2. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  4. 78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages...

  5. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For... lifejackets, if carried, must be of the same or similar design as required by § 108.580(b). (d) Containers...

  6. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For... lifejackets, if carried, must be of the same or similar design as required by § 108.580(b). (d) Containers...

  7. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  8. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Ryan J.; Kuhmuench, Christoph; Richard, Stephen M.

    2013-03-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.

  9. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  10. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  11. 77 FR 27490 - Plant-Specific Adoption, Revision 4 of the Improved Standard Technical Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Specifications, Combustion Engineering Plants,'' NUREG-1433, ``Standard Technical Specifications,...

  12. Early Adversity, Hypocortisolism, and Behavior Problems at School Entry: A Study of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Mliner, Shanna B.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  13. 77 FR 60629 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ..., 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) Medical Data Code Sets; Corrections AGENCY: Office of the... for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) Medical Data Code Sets'' that appeared in the September 5, 2012 Federal Register. DATES: Effective Date: November...

  14. Report on the Desirability of Adopting an International Instrument for the Protection of Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains the formal documents leading to the inclusion on the provisional agenda of UNESCO's 1972 General Conference of a discussion considering the desirability of adopting an instrument for the protection of translators. Included in the document is the "Preliminary Study of the Technical and Legal Aspects of Copyright Protection for…

  15. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  16. Adopting, manipulating, transforming: tactics used by gender practitioners in South African NGOs to translate international gender policies into local practice.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-11-01

    This paper looks at what is lost and gained through the process of translating international policy from a global to a local space. It does this by sharing results from a multisite ethnographic study of gender practices in foreign-funded South African health organisations. This study identifies a number of tactics used by practitioners to deal with the funding constraints and unique knowledge systems that characterise local spaces, including: using policy to appeal to donors; merging gender with better resourced programmes; and redirecting funding allocations. These tactics point to how practitioners are adopting, manipulating and transforming international policies in order to suit their everyday working realities.

  17. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions.

    PubMed

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3-10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively.

  18. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  19. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  20. Forging Ahead! Teachers Reflect on the Early Adopter Program to Implement the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koning, Erin; Houghtby, Beth; Izard, Patrice; Schuler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This "water cooler" column features e-mail conversations between Erin Koning and three teachers--Beth, Jenna, and Patrice--and is a reflection of their participation in a Chicago Public School (CPS), professional development series designed to support the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in grades K-12. At the…

  1. Evidence Use and the Common Core Standards Movement: From Problem Definition to Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite calls for research-based policies, other types of evidence also influence education policy, including personal experience, professional expertise, and normative values. This article focuses on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative, examining how research use varied over stages of the process and how it was integrated with other…

  2. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... / Friday, September 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121... System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is correcting an interim...

  3. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    PubMed

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards.

  4. International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total-scattering draft standard.

    PubMed

    Kadkhoda, P; Müller, A; Ristau, D; Duparré, A; Gliech, S; Lauth, H; Schuhmann, U; Reng, N; Tilsch, M; Schuhmann, R; Amra, C; Deumie, C; Jolie, C; Kessler, H; Lindström, T; Ribbing, C G; Bennett, J M

    2000-07-01

    An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

  5. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  6. Preparing to meet foreign bugs. Travel, immigration, and international adoptions require special precautions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K

    2001-07-01

    As the world's population becomes increasingly mobile, children are more likely to be exposed to exotic and troublesome pathogens. These exposures raise concerns about protecting not only kids but the general population as well. In this article, Dr Petersen presents ways to avoid illness in children who travel to other parts of the world. She also discusses concerns about communicable disease as it relates to immigration or adoption of foreign-born children, especially those from developing nations.

  7. [About international adoption: the double strangeness of the child from abroad].

    PubMed

    Golse, B

    2011-06-01

    The foster child through an intercountry adoption is a "foreigner" in two ways: as a support for parental unconscious projections (as any child, including biological children) on the one hand, and because of the strangeness ethnic often involved in this framework in the other hand. After recalling the main parental representations concerning the unborn child, the author then proposes to think the approval procedure as a kind of imaginary and symbolic equivalent of the usual psychic pregnancy.

  8. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... international standards and regulations. 171.22 Section 171.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... the Use of International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.22 Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations. (a) Authorized international standards...

  9. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... international standards and regulations. 171.22 Section 171.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... the Use of International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.22 Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations. (a) Authorized international standards...

  10. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low.

  11. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  12. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  14. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the

  15. Translating Radiometric Requirements for Satellite Sensors to Match International Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Aaron; Datla, Raju; Kacker, Raghu; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    International scientific standards organizations created standards on evaluating uncertainty in the early 1990s. Although scientists from many fields use these standards, they are not consistently implemented in the remote sensing community, where traditional error analysis framework persists. For a satellite instrument under development, this can create confusion in showing whether requirements are met. We aim to create a methodology for translating requirements from the error analysis framework to the modern uncertainty approach using the product level requirements of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will fly on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R). In this paper we prescribe a method to combine several measurement performance requirements, written using a traditional error analysis framework, into a single specification using the propagation of uncertainties formula. By using this approach, scientists can communicate requirements in a consistent uncertainty framework leading to uniform interpretation throughout the development and operation of any satellite instrument. PMID:26601032

  16. Psychological assessment in XLMR: a proposal for setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S

    2000-01-01

    The need for an agreed upon set of standards for assessing individuals with XLMR was made quite evident this past year at the Fragile X and XLMR Workshop in Strasbourg. Several affected individuals from different families may have been incorrectly diagnosed as MR. Many factors can have a negative affect on IQ testing. As a result, evaluating individuals with cognitive deficits can be problematic. To be effective, psychological assessments must produce uniform results that are consistent with the definition of MR. Therefore, to foster international research in XLMR. I propose a two-stage standardized protocol. To determine which tests may be suitable. I review an assortment of instruments for psychological assessment at each stage, noting their strengths and weaknesses. Afterward, I present a set of standardized protocols based on age and language ability.

  17. Final Document Adopted by the 47th Session of the International Conference on Education (ICE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braslavsky, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    This document, derived from the works of the 47th session of the UNESCO International Conference on Education (ICE) (Geneva, 8-11 September 2004) with a theme "Quality Education for all Young People: Challenges, Trends and Priorities", will be taken into consideration in order to enrich the reflection and to reinforce, in the short,…

  18. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  19. Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

    This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational

  20. Adopting ambulatory breast cancer surgery as the standard of care in an asian population.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yvonne Ying Ru; Chan, Patrick Mun Yew; Chen, Juliana Jia Chuan; Seah, Melanie Dee Wern; Teo, Christine; Tan, Ern Yu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ambulatory surgery is not commonly practiced in Asia. A 23-hour ambulatory (AS23) service was implemented at our institute in March 2004 to allow more surgeries to be performed as ambulatory procedures. In this study, we reviewed the impact of the AS23 service on breast cancer surgeries and reviewed surgical outcomes, including postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day readmission. Methods. Retrospective review was performed of 1742 patients who underwent definitive breast cancer surgery from 1 March 2004 to 31 December 2010. Results. By 2010, more than 70% of surgeries were being performed as ambulatory procedures. Younger women (P < 0.01), those undergoing wide local excision (P < 0.01) and those with ductal carcinoma-in situ or early stage breast cancer (P < 0.01), were more likely to undergo ambulatory surgery. Six percent of patients initially scheduled for ambulatory surgery were eventually managed as inpatients; a third of these were because of perioperative complications. Wound complications, 30-day readmission and reoperation rates were not more frequent with ambulatory surgery. Conclusion. Ambulatory breast cancer surgery is now the standard of care at our institute. An integrated workflow facilitating proper patient selection and structured postoperativee outpatient care have ensured minimal complications and high patient acceptance.

  1. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

    2005-11-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

  2. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  3. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  4. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  5. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  6. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  7. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  8. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  9. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  10. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  11. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-02-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and 'alterstandardization' in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field.

  12. Factors Influencing Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzeban, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges faced by accounting educators in their attempts to incorporate IFRS materials in their teaching and explores the impact of various factors (instructor's attitude, size of accounting department, teaching load, type of institution, teaching experience and teaching materials) on the time spent on…

  13. National and international standards and calibration of thermoluminescence dosimetry systems.

    PubMed

    Soares, C G

    2002-01-01

    Radiation protection for radiation workers, the public, and the environment is of international concern. The use of thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) is an acceptable method for dose recording in most countries. For reasons of consistency and data gathering (research) it is important that a Sievert (Sv) in one part of the world equals an Sv on the other side of the globe. To this end, much work has gone into the development of standards and calibration practices for TLD systems so that they compare not only with similar systems, but also with other forms of radiation measurement. While most national laboratories provide calibration services for these systems some, as in the United States, depend on services of secondary calibration laboratories that are traceable to the national laboratories through accreditation programmes. The purpose of this paper is to explain how TLD measurements are traceable to their respective national standards for both personnel and environmental dosimetry.

  14. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  15. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  16. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  17. Competitor internal standards for quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, M K; Rashidbaigi, A; Testa, D; Liao, M J

    1995-05-01

    Homologous internal controls were used as competitor DNA in the polymerase chain reaction for the quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA. PCR primer sets were designed on the basis of the most conserved nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of mycoplasma species. Amplification of this gene was examined in five different mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma orale, M. hyorhinus, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. pneumoniae. To evaluate the primers, a number of different cell lines were assayed for the detection of mycoplasma infections. All positive cell lines showed a distinct product on agarose gels while uninfected cells showed no DNA amplification. Neither bacterial nor eukaryotic DNA produced any cross-reaction with the primers used, thus confirming their specificity. Internal control DNA to be used for quantitation was constructed by modifying the sizes of the wild-type amplified products and cloning them in plasmid vectors. These controls used the same primer binding sites as the wild-type and the amplified products were differentiated by a size difference. The detection limits for all the mycoplasma species by competitive quantitative PCR were estimated to range from 4 to 60 genome copies per assay as determined by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. These internal standards also serve as positive controls in PCR-based detection of mycoplasma DNA, and therefore accidental contamination of test samples with wild-type positive controls can be eliminated. The quantitative PCR method developed will be useful in monitoring the progression and significance of mycoplasma in the disease process.

  18. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR.

  19. Outline of the International Organization for Standardization Standard for Circulatory Support Devices (ISO 14708-5).

    PubMed

    Imachi, Kou; Mussivand, Tofy

    2010-09-01

    The rapid progress of artificial heart and circulatory support devices enables us to apply them to severe heart failure patients. Many types of circulatory support devices have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This situation urged the establishment of an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard for the circulatory support devices. A new work, "Cardiac Ventricular Assist Devices," was proposed to the ISO/TC150/SC6 (TC150: Technical Committee of Implants for Surgery, SC6: Sub-committee of Active Implants) in 2000, and the work was finalized for publication at a 2009 meeting of the ISO/TC150 in Kyoto. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the ISO system and the outline of the ISO Standard for Circulatory Support Devices.

  20. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed...) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards'' in the... publishing an interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization...

  1. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific.

  2. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    . Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

  3. Objectives And Structures Of The International Organization For Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihlen, Helmut

    1989-04-01

    I am certainly pleased to be with you here today, and to speak to you on the subject of international standardization. The work of some of the ISO technical committees, such as ISO/TC 36 "Cinematography", ISO/TC 42 "Photograhy" and, of course, ISO/TC 172 "Optics and optical instruments" may be familiar to many of you and their activities will be presented in your technical sessions. Rather than going into the detail of these technical committees it might be appropriate that, in my capacity as Vice-President of ISO, I present to you an overview of the organization, what it aims to do, with what means, what its achievements are and how it does its job in practice.

  4. Whole proteomes as internal standards in quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shao-En

    2010-07-30

    As mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics approaches become increasingly powerful, researchers are taking advantage of well established methodologies and improving instrumentation to pioneer new protein expression profiling methods. For example, pooling several proteomes labeled using the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method yields a whole-proteome stable isotope-labeled internal standard that can be mixed with a tissue-derived proteome for quantification. By increasing quantitative accuracy in the analysis of tissue proteomes, such methods should improve integration of protein expression profiling data with transcriptomic data and enhance downstream bioinformatic analyses. An accurate and scalable quantitative method to analyze tumor proteomes at the depth of several thousand proteins provides a powerful tool for global protein quantification of tissue samples and promises to redefine our understanding of tumor biology.

  5. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0... for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: The... standards of performance for new stationary compression ignition internal combustion engines under...

  6. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  7. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  8. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  9. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  10. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

  11. The Times They Are A-Changing: The Influence of Railroad Technology on the Adoption of Standard Time Zones in 1883.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathaniel

    2000-01-01

    Presents the story of the role railroad technology had in the adoption of Standard Time Zones in 1883 and also considers the influence of astronomers at the time. Includes the map of the standard railway time used by W. F. Allen and an annotated bibliography with primary and secondary sources. (CMK)

  12. Illinois Department of Children and Family Services Text of Adopted Rules. Subchapter e: Requirements for Licensure. Part 407: Licensing Standards for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    Reprinted in this document are day care center licensing standards adopted and codified, effective August 1983, by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services and amended June 1984 and January 1985. Sections of the report concern purpose, definitions, effective date of standards, application for license and license renewal, provisions…

  13. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = −.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

  14. International Docking Standard (IDSS) Interface Definition Document (IDD) . E; Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    This International Docking System Standard (IDSS) Interface Definition Document (IDD) is the result of a collaboration by the International Space Station membership to establish a standard docking interface to enable on-orbit crew rescue operations and joint collaborative endeavors utilizing different spacecraft. This IDSS IDD details the physical geometric mating interface and design loads requirements. The physical geometric interface requirements must be strictly followed to ensure physical spacecraft mating compatibility. This includes both defined components and areas that are void of components. The IDD also identifies common design parameters as identified in section 3.0, e.g., docking initial conditions and vehicle mass properties. This information represents a recommended set of design values enveloping a broad set of design reference missions and conditions, which if accommodated in the docking system design, increases the probability of successful docking between different spacecraft. This IDD does not address operational procedures or off-nominal situations, nor does it dictate implementation or design features behind the mating interface. It is the responsibility of the spacecraft developer to perform all hardware verification and validation, and to perform final docking analyses to ensure the needed docking performance and to develop the final certification loads for their application. While there are many other critical requirements needed in the development of a docking system such as fault tolerance, reliability, and environments (e.g. vibration, etc.), it is not the intent of the IDSS IDD to mandate all of these requirements; these requirements must be addressed as part of the specific developer's unique program, spacecraft and mission needs. This approach allows designers the flexibility to design and build docking mechanisms to their unique program needs and requirements. The purpose of the IDSS IDD is to provide basic common design parameters

  15. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar

  16. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  17. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we

  18. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    captured are presently working on this task. The international geotechnical data dictionary and schema development is a highly collaborative effort funded by a pooled fund study coordinated by state DOTs and FHWA. The technical development of the standards called DIGGS (Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists) is lead by a team consisting of representatives from the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering (UF), AGS, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), UKHA, Ohio DOT, and COSMOS. The first draft of DIGGS is currently in preparation. A Geotechnical Management System Group (GMS group), composed of representatives from 13 State DOTs, FHWA, US EPA, USACOE, USGS and UKHA, oversees and approves the development of the standards. The ultimate goal of both COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 and the international GMS working group is to produce open and flexible, GML-compliant XML schema-based data structures and data dictionaries for review and approval by DOTs, other public agencies, and the international engineering and geoenvironmental community at large, leading to adoption of internationally accepted geotechnical and geophysical data transfer standards. Establishment of these standards is intended to significantly facilitate the accessibility and exchange of geotechnical information world wide.

  19. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  20. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  2. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rulemaking (NPRM) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International... interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With...

  3. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  4. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or...

  5. 77 FR 49167 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    .... Adopt Chemical Under Pressure Provisions: We are proposing to revise the HMT to include entries for chemical under pressure as well as incorporate other safety requirements including but not limited to.... There is often confusion with regard to the proper classification of chemical under pressure....

  6. Plans to Adopt and Implement Common Core State Standards in the Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kim; Harrison, Tiffany; Lewis, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews with state officials in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina), this study describes state processes for adopting the Common Core State Standards (a common set of expectations across states for what students are expected to know in English language arts and…

  7. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  9. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  10. International Standards. U.S. Metric Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Robert D.; And Others

    In this first interim report on the feasibility of a United States changeover to a metric system stems from the U.S. Metric Study, a series of conclusions and recommendations, based upon a national survey of the role of SI (System's International) units in international trade and other areas of foreign relations, includes the following…

  11. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  12. On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Christopher C.

    On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy. Christopher C Lazzaro. The primary purpose of this research is to understand how and why members at each of the three levels of the education system within a local-control state made the decisions they did in supporting or hindering the adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards. This research concentrates on three levels of the education system in a local-control state; 1) the state level, 2) the district level, and 3) the school/teacher level, while investigating the following questions: 1. To what extent, and in what ways, do members in each of the three levels of the state education system advocate for adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards? 2. Are the members in each of the three levels motivated or compelled to consider adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards, why or why not? 3. To what extent, and in what ways, do the members in each of the three levels take into account science epistemology in their overall consideration of adoption/implementation of the NGSS? The data drew from a series of interviews from a prior study, "Challenges of Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards in Local-Control States in the U.S." (Sevian, Foster, & Scheff, 2012). After these data were coded and analyzed around the three research questions, this phenomenographic research study identified four key findings: Key Finding 1 - As the District Coordinators are uniquely situated within the state education system to be able to see both the on-the-ground practical implications and the high-level policy pressures of adopting and implementing the NGSS, they reflect the deepest level of awareness of how to best advocate for adoption and implementation of the NGSS. Key Finding 2 - Motivation to adopt and

  13. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  14. A Simple Method for International Standardization of Photographic Documentation for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Chul

    2017-02-03

    Due to the lack of internationally standardized, objective, and scientific photographic standardization methods, differences in photographic documents have gravely affected the truth of surgical outcomes by visual misperception or illusion, thus hindering the development of plastic surgery clinically and scholastically. Here I suggest a simple method for standardization of facial photographs. The method consists of an imaginary transverse line (tentatively the "PSA line") rather than the Frankfort horizontal plane and uses a white background with black grids and standard RGB with CMYK circles. This simplified method of photographic standardization would help our professional society to make international standards on facial photographic documentation to maintain scholastic ethics, conscience, and morals.

  15. Implementing quality: a study of the adoption and implementation of quality standards in the contracting process in a general practitioner multifund.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J I; Calnan, M

    1997-10-01

    The increase in managerialism in the 1980s and the 1990 NHS reforms have had major implications for the regulation of providers. Purchasers of health care in the UK are now expected to specify three factors in their contracts: volume, cost and quality. This paper focuses on one of these: i.e. the quality standards purchasers now include within their health service contracts. The case study is of a general practitioner multifund and the analysis focuses on how quality standards are derived and adopted in outpatient contracts. The data were derived from in-depth face-to-face interviews with the key participants in the contracting process. The evidence shows that the standards were derived and adopted with very little participation from the providers. The impact of the quality standards on hospitals consultants' behaviour was negligible, there was very little monitoring of the standards by the multifund, and providers accepted standards which they knew they could not meet. It is concluded that this non-participatory method of developing the quality standards is likely to mean that their impact on service delivery will be limited.

  16. International Metadata Standards and Enterprise Data Quality Metadata Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Well-documented data quality is critical in situations where scientists and decision-makers need to combine multiple datasets from different disciplines and collection systems to address scientific questions or difficult decisions. Standardized data quality metadata could be very helpful in these situations. Many efforts at developing data quality standards falter because of the diversity of approaches to measuring and reporting data quality. The one size fits all paradigm does not generally work well in this situation. I will describe these and other capabilities of ISO 19157 with examples of how they are being used to describe data quality across the NASA EOS Enterprise and also compare these approaches with other standards.

  17. International standards for research integrity: An idea whose time has come?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-07-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition.

  18. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  19. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  20. Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

  1. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY: AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition. PMID:20183162

  2. What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

  3. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  4. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  5. Disentangling the effects of cognitive development and linguistic expertise: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted children.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2012-08-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally-adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for 1 year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children's ability to learn some abstract words.

  6. Meeting the international standard ISO 9002/BS5750.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J A; Smithson, P H

    1990-05-01

    In this paper we outline the rationale for applying British Standard BS5750 to a medical equipment management service and introduce some of the concepts of the standard as they apply to this field. We see this application as essential in today's legal and commercial environment and indicate the ways in which this work is being carried forward by the Medical Equipment Management Organisation into total quality management systems.

  7. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained.

  8. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  9. The Emerging Global Bibliographic Network: The Era of International Standardization in the Development of Cataloging Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growing interdependence of catalogers to provide uniform bibliographic control and access. Topics include the international applications of AACR2 (Anglo American Cataloging Rules 2); the PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging); ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description); and activities of IFLA (International Federation…

  10. Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs adopts standards for the Practice Doctorate and Post-graduate CRNA Fellowships.

    PubMed

    Gombkoto, Rebecca L Madsen; Walker, James R; Horton, Betty J; Martin-Sheridan, Denise; Yablonky, Mary Jean; Gerbasi, Francis R

    2014-06-01

    The Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs appointed a Standards Revision Task Force to develop new accreditation standards. After 3 years of research and development (2011-2013) by the task force, the Council approved the first entry-level Practice Doctorate Standards and the first voluntary Post-graduate CRNA Fellowship Standards in January 2014. This defining moment in accreditation history marks a transition in the educational preparation of entry-level nurse anesthetists and provides opportunities for learning in a variety of post-graduate fellowships for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists.

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice; Germi, Raphaële

    2016-07-01

    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P < 0.001 for six of seven samples and P < 0.05 for one sample with a low mean EDL of 2.62 log IU/ml). This study showed that the use of the WHO EBV standard could improve the homogeneity of whole-blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases.

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard

    PubMed Central

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P < 0.001 for six of seven samples and P < 0.05 for one sample with a low mean EDL of 2.62 log IU/ml). This study showed that the use of the WHO EBV standard could improve the homogeneity of whole-blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases. PMID:27076661

  13. The Birth of a Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), which was adopted as an international standard for data description, data modeling, and interchange in October 1986, and explores its evolution from its technical completion to its adoption by the international market. (four references) (LAE)

  14. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  15. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the

  16. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... the speed of the Codex standard-setting process, consider the Codex Strategic Plan and the capacity of... of a proposal for a re-evaluation process of substances in light of new data and new scientific... guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of organically produced foods (CAC/ GL...

  17. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... for Hydrocyanic Acid for Cassava Flour and Gari (transfer from commodity standards to the General... Edible Cassava Flour, Gari and Sweet Cassava To be considered at Step 5/8: Proposed draft Maximum Levels... and Barley), including Sampling Plans, and in Flour, Semolina, Meal and Flakes Derived from...

  18. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  19. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  20. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  1. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  2. Enabling Quantitative Analysis in Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Internal Standard Coated Capillary Samplers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a sampling method using glass capillaries for quantitative analysis of trace analytes in small volumes of complex mixtures (~1 μL) using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The internal surface of a sampling glass capillary was coated with internal standard then used to draw liquid sample and so transfer both the analyte and internal standard in a single fixed volume onto a substrate for analysis. The internal standard was automatically mixed into the sample during this process and the volumes of the internal standard solution and sample are both fixed by the capillary volume. Precision in quantitation is insensitive to variations in length of the capillary, making the preparation of the sampling capillary simple and providing a robust sampling protocol. Significant improvements in quantitation accuracy were obtained for analysis of 1 μL samples using various ambient ionization methods. PMID:23731380

  3. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  4. Technological Adoption and Organizational Adaptation: Developing a Model for Human Resource Management in an International Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A model of technological training has two dimensions: level of cultural stability and employee's level of cognitive ability. Each dimension has two variables. The variables of cultural stability are (1) technological adoption and organizational adaptation and (2) structure of work and work processes. For cognitive ability, the variables are…

  5. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  6. Teaching optical dimensional metrology of surfaces and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    Dimensional metrology is a demanding subject that requires an in-depth knowledge not only of the characteristics of the object of the measurement and the method and system to be used to perform the measurement but also of the standards to followed and strictly respected. This is especially true for surface metrology. The definition of surface, particularly when using optical methods in the measuring process, is a first problem to be understood. From this definition discussion, in our pedagogical approach, we move to the study of the characteristics of light and light/matter/surface interaction. Surface characterization parameters and the main ISO standards are studied. Particular attention is given within the study of the sensing/measuring processes to the definition of uncertainty of a measurement. ISO' Guide of Expression of Uncertainty of a Measurement, GUM, is studied (as well as the VIM). A review of the main optical surface inspection system is made. We believe on the importance of an active student centred learning and on the resource to hands-on experimental practice and therefore all this teaching approach evolves from practical examples and actual experiments and observations.

  7. Metabolomics Standards Workshop and the development of international standards for reporting metabolomics experimental results.

    PubMed

    Castle, Arthur L; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Lindon, John C

    2006-06-01

    Informatics standards and controlled vocabularies are essential for allowing information technology to help exchange, manage, interpret and compare large data collections. In a rapidly evolving field, the challenge is to work out how best to describe, but not prescribe, the use of these technologies and methods. A Metabolomics Standards Workshop was held by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to bring together multiple ongoing standards efforts in metabolomics with the NIH research community. The goals were to discuss metabolomics workflows (methods, technologies and data treatments) and the needs, challenges and potential approaches to developing a Metabolomics Standards Initiative that will help facilitate this rapidly growing field which has been a focus of the NIH roadmap effort. This report highlights specific aspects of what was presented and discussed at the 1st and 2nd August 2005 Metabolomics Standards Workshop.

  8. Survey and qualification of internal standards for quantification by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; Mathiasson, Marie; Bekiroglu, Somer; Hakkarainen, Birgit; Bowden, Tim; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2010-09-05

    In quantitative NMR (qNMR) selection of an appropriate internal standard proves to be crucial. In this study, 25 candidate compounds considered to be potent internal standards were investigated with respect to the ability of providing unique signal chemical shifts, purity, solubility, and ease of use. The (1)H chemical shift (delta) values, assignments, multiplicities and number of protons (for each signal), appropriateness (as to be used as internal standards) in four different deuterated solvents (D(2)O, DMSO-d(6), CD(3)OD, CDCl(3)) were studied. Taking into account the properties of these 25 internal standards, the most versatile eight compounds (2,4,6-triiodophenol, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethyl terephthalate, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid) were qualified using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR spectroscopy employing highly pure acetanilide as the reference standard. The data from these two methods were compared as well as utilized in the quality assessment of the compounds as internal standards. Finally, the selected internal standards were tested and evaluated in a real case of quantitative NMR analysis of a paracetamol pharmaceutical product.

  9. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  10. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics, Environmental... regulations, the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall issue an Accounting... ASC. The ASC issued by the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration will...

  11. Teachers' Practices in High School Chemistry Just Prior to the Adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Staude, Kristin D.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development that influences teachers' classroom practices starts with what teachers know, understand, and do in their classroom. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge teachers to make changes to their classroom; to help teachers make these changes, it is necessary to know what they are doing in their…

  12. The Role of District Office Leaders in the Adoption and Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Francesca T.; Lawson, Hal A.; Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This multiple case study investigated district leaders' orientations and strategies as their elementary schools proceeded with state-mandated implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). We identified differences between schools achieving above-predicted outcomes on state CCSS assessments ("odds-beaters") and…

  13. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics, Environmental... regulations, the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall issue an Accounting... ASC. The ASC issued by the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration will...

  14. Calibration and commutability assessment of the 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human.

    PubMed

    Stickings, Paul; Rigsby, Peter; Coombes, Laura; von Hunolstein, Christina; Ralli, Luisa; Pinto, Antonella; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2013-11-01

    The 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human (coded 10/262) was established by the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012. This paper describes the production, characterization and calibration of the new standard which is intended for use in the standardization of assays used to measure diphtheria antibody responses in human serum. The new standard was calibrated in terms of the International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Equine in an international collaborative study. A total of 8 participants from 8 different countries performed in vivo and/or in vitro toxin neutralization tests and returned data that was used to assign units to the proposed new standard. The new standard has a diphtheria antitoxin potency of 2 IU/ampoule and is predicted to be stable. A follow up study was performed to assess commutability of the new standard. The follow up study was an existing external quality assessment, modified to include the new standard. Results obtained suggest that the new standard is commutable, showing comparable behaviour to native human serum samples in the majority of the assays compared, and is therefore suitable for use as a reference preparation in assays used to measure the level of anti-diphtheria antibodies in human serum.

  15. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  16. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  17. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the transportation in commerce of hazardous materials in accordance with the International Civil... international transport standards and regulations authorized in paragraph (a) of this section (e.g., paragraph 1... transported in the United States in full compliance (i.e., packaged, marked, labeled, classed,...

  18. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  19. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  20. International Symposium on Information Technology: Standards for Bibliographic Control (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thammasat Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Univ. Libraries.

    This document which covers the proceedings of the 1989 International Symposium on Information Technology, begins with several opening ceremony messages and includes the following papers: (1) "Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards" (Winston D. Roberts); (2) "Bibliographic Control from the User's Perspective" (Ruth…

  1. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the risks associated with fungi moving on wood commodities; and directed a TAG to report advances on... International Plant Protection Convention, and the North American Plant Protection Organization, and we are... specific information regarding the standard-setting activities of the International Plant...

  2. International Labour Standards and Technical Co-Operation: The Case of Special Public Works Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…

  3. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  4. International Cooperation for a Single World Production Standard of High Definition Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcharu, Boonchai

    Broadcasters, television engineers and the production industry have encountered many problems with diverse television standards since the introduction of color television. With the advent of high definition television (HDTV), the chance to have a common production standard for international exchange of programs and technical information has…

  5. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  6. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  7. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  8. Mycotoxin risk assessment for the purpose of setting international regulatory standards.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Mycotoxin report states that one 21st century goal is the development of uniform regulations worldwide for foodborne mycotoxin contamination. This study informs that endeavor by a risk assessment and economic analysis of two important mycotoxins: fumonisins and aflatoxins. The goals are to identify the nations that would be most heavily impacted by tighter mycotoxin regulations, examine costs and benefits as a function of regulatory stringency, and address risk-risk tradeoffs between health benefits and economic losses from compliance with those regulations. Among industrial nations, the United States would experience the heaviest economic losses from more precautionary mycotoxin standards. Environmental conditions in the developing world, however, are more conducive to mycotoxin accumulation in crops. Contrary to concerns expressed among policymakers, the less developed countries that would likely experience the greatest loss from tighter mycotoxin standards are not sub-Saharan African nations, but China and Argentina. If a fumonisin standard of 0.5 mg/kg were adopted worldwide, total export losses from fumonisins in corn may exceed 300 million dollars annually: 3-fold higher than if the less stringent U.S. standard of 2 mg/kg were adopted. Likewise, export losses from aflatoxins in peanuts may exceed 450 million dollars under the current EU regulatory standard of 4 microg/kg: almost 5-fold higher than if the U.S. standard of 20 microg/kg were adopted. Stricter standards are unlikely to improve health significantly. In developing nations such as China where hepatitis B and C are prevalent, tighter aflatoxin standards may increase health risks until improved control methods for aflatoxins are found, as high-quality crops may be exported instead of being consumed domestically.

  9. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  10. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  11. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2016-11-24

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.

  12. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  13. Standardization of therapeutic, urinary gonadotrophins: an update on the use and availability of International Standards for Menotrophin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jackie; Hockley, Jason; Tiplady, Richard; Burns, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The potencies of therapeutic preparations of gonadotrophins of human, urinary origin, which comprise a heterogenous mix of isoforms with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) bioactivities, are standardized by WHO International Standards (IS). We report here, the evaluation, through an international collaborative study, of a candidate preparation, coded 10/286, to replace the 4th IS, 98/704, for human, urinary FSH and LH (Menotrophin) which has been used for many years for the potency assignment of therapeutic preparations using bioassays. The mean FSH and LH bioactivities of 10/286, determined by in vivo bioassays in terms of 98/704, were 183 IU per ampoule (95% confidence limits 165-202) and 177 IU per ampoule (95% confidence limits 159-197), respectively.

  14. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  15. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2

  16. International standards for the assessment of the risk of thermal strain on clothed workers in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Parsons, K C

    1999-07-01

    The International Standards Organisation (ISO) has produced an integrated series of international standards for the assessment of human responses to thermal environments. They include standards for the assessment of thermal comfort, heat stress and cold stress and many have been adopted as European and British standards. This paper describes the series of standards and in particular those concerned with the assessment of risk in hot environments. A three tier approach is taken which involves a simple thermal index that can be used for monitoring and control of hot environments (ISO 7243), a rational approach which involves an analysis of the heat exchange between a worker and his or her environment (ISO 7933) and a standard that describes the principles of physiological measurement which can be used in the establishment of personal monitoring systems of workers exposed to hot environments (ISO 9886). The standards are self-contained and can be used independently. In any comprehensive assessment however they would be used in conjunction. The simple index provides a first stage analysis and can confirm whether or not there is likely to be unacceptable thermal strain. Where a more detailed analysis is required then ISO 7933 provides an analytical method that can provide a more extensive assessment and interpretation leading to recommendations for improvement to the working environment. Where a method needs to be confirmed, or conditions are beyond the scope of ISO 7243 and ISO 7933, then ISO 9886 provides guidance on physiological measurement and interpretation. This would be used in extreme environments where individual responses are required to ensure health and safety or, in the case where personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn, which is beyond the scope of ISO 7243 and ISO 7933. The ISO system therefore covers almost all exposures to hot environments. It would be useful however to extend the scope of the standards that provide a simple index or analytical

  17. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    PubMed

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively.

  18. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, John L.; Gonzalo, Jed D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency programs, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman’s rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Results Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of ≥80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (ρ=0.19, p<0.001). The area underneath the receiver operative characteristic curve was 0.69 (95% Confidence Interval [0.63-0.75]), suggesting programs with less than 12 examinees/year are less likely to meet the minimum Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard (sensitivity 63.8%, specificity 60.4%, positive predictive value 82.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Although a majority of Internal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance. PMID:25341205

  19. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  20. Trends for International Standards of the High Speed Powerline Communication Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Michimasa; Koga, Hisao; Atsuta, Akira

    The high speed powerline communication (PLC) technology is useful for a variety of applications especially for Smart Grid. Although the standardization of this technology has been desired for a long time, recently IEEE P1901 and ITU-T SG15 made significant progress and both of the Standards are expected to be completed by the end of 2010. The frame work of the coexistence mechanism among the different types of PLC technologies is also going to be resolved with the collaborative work between IEEE and ITU-T. In this paper, the authors introduce the summary of the International Standardizations of this technology, and also the future prospects of the Standards.

  1. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  2. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  3. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of the International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) draft standard method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant food formulas.

    PubMed

    Besse, Nathalie Gnanou; Leclercq, Alexandre; Maladen, Véronique; Tyburski, Corinne; Bertrand, Lombard

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the growing recognition of Enterobacter sakazakii as an emergent pathogen, the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have standardized a reference method for the detection of E. sakazakii in milk powder products and powdered infant food formulas (IFF). The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of the ISO-IDF draft standard, and to compare several chromogenic selective media for E. sakazakii [ready-to-use ESIATM, homemade E. sakazakii isolation agar, and Druggan-Forsythe-lversen (DFI) agar], and a selective media for Enterobacteriaceae Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG). We found that the method is sensitive, selective, and applicable to the analysis of powdered IFF, provided that some modifications are added. In particular, definition of typical colonies on chromogenic media should be less restrictive, and the possibility of using chromogenic media other than ESIA should be introduced. Any of the chromogenic media tested here could be used initially, since their performances were similar. In these media, alpha-glucosidase-positive but non-yellow-pigmented isolates should be also considered. Consequently, the yellow pigmentation test should be abandoned, or completed with another test in order to select colonies to confirm. Although the specificity of VRBG was relatively poor, it could be used as a second nonchromogenic medium.

  5. Avoiding ISO-lation: What international standards mean for U.S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crognale, G.; Walter-Slepicka, M.

    1996-03-01

    US companies are awash in an effort to promote and self-proclaim conformance to ISO 9000, the series of quality standards established by the International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland). One only needs to drive along any roadway to note another banner proclaiming a company`s conformance or certification, or pick up a magazine or newspaper to read that a company is ISO 9001-certified. Quality standards are not quite the same as environmental standards, however. As a result, some companies may be receiving mixed signals with how ISO 9000 compares to the proposed ISO 14000 standards series for environmental management systems. This article clarifies some of these perceptions, and describes in greater detail what the environmental standards are, what they mean for industry and what they can do for companies that implement them.

  6. International standards on mental work-load--the ISO 10,075 series.

    PubMed

    Nachreiner, F

    1999-04-01

    After a short review of the history and an introduction into the background of standardization in the field of mental work-load an overview over the ISO 10,075 series of standards on ergonomic principles related to mental work-load is given. The review also presents relationships of these standards with some other ergonomic standards and some of the problems associated with standardization in the field of mental work-load. The stress-strain model, the concepts and the terminology used in ISO 10,075 are presented in the overview, together with the basic ideas and the frame of reference of the design guidelines provided by ISO 10,075-2. An outline of the state of discussion and possible developments of a working draft for ISO 10,075-3 on diagnostic methods concludes the presentation of the international standards on mental work-load.

  7. Open System Interconnection - NASA program communications of the future. [developed by International aorganization for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards are being developed by the ISO and the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph with the support of industry. These standards are being developed to allow the interconnecting of computer systems and the interworking of applications such that the applications can be independent of any equipment manufacturer. Significant progress has been made, and the establishment of government OSI standards is being considered. There is considerable interest within NASA in the potential benefits of OSI and in communications standards in general. The OSI standards are being considered for possible application in the Space Station onboard data management system. The OSI standards have reached a high level of maturity, and it is now imperative that NASA plan for future migration to OSI where appropriate.

  8. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  9. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2017-02-03

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p < 0.001), and all in English. Handoff was streamlined from 7 possible pathways to 3. Most post-intervention survey respondents reported improved workflow (77.8%) and safety (83.3%); none reported patient harm. Respondents and observers noted reduced inefficiency (p < 0.05). Our standardized tool increased face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  10. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  11. WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for Standardization/Technical Standard (ISO/TS) 13499

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TR-7619•MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7619•MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to...ABSTRACT    c. THIS PAGE    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area  code )   Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98)    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 March 2016 Final

  12. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  13. International standards on working postures and movements ISO 11226 and EN 1005-4.

    PubMed

    Delleman, N J; Dul, J

    2007-11-01

    Standards organizations have given considerable attention to the problem of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The publication of international standards for evaluating working postures and movements, ISO 11,226 in 2000 and EN 1,005-4 in 2005, may be considered as a support for those involved in preventing and controlling these disorders. The first one is a tool for evaluation of existing work situations, whereas the latter one is a tool for evaluation during a design/engineering process. Key publications and considerations that led to the content of the standards are presented, followed by examples of application.

  14. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  15. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  16. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  17. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  18. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  19. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  20. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  1. 77 FR 62434 - Policy Letters on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    .... Issuing Endorsements and Approving Training This policy letter provides guidance on issuance of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 104 46 CFR Parts 10, 11, 12, and 15 Policy Letters on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 AGENCY: Coast...

  2. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged…

  3. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation…

  5. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  6. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  7. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the WHO International Standard for Hepatitis B Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Adrian; Minhas, Rehan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The World Health Organization (WHO) international standard (IS) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA for use in nucleic acid amplification assays was characterized by determining the complete genome sequence, which was assigned genotype A. This information will aid the design, development, and evaluation of HBV DNA amplification assays. PMID:28209818

  9. An Illustrated Guide to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, John L., Comp.; Hamburger, Roberta, Comp.

    Illustrations are provided for descriptive cataloging of monographs in the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) format. Sample cards, mostly from the Library of Congress, illustrate the cataloging rules of the newly revised Chapter 6 of the "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules." Arranged in the same order as in Chapter 6,…

  10. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  11. FORUM: Eco-Labeling and ISO 14000: An Analysis of US Regulatory Systems and Issues Concerning Adoption of Type II Standards

    PubMed

    Lathrop; Centner

    1998-03-01

    / Current private and public regulatory systems may not provide an optimal degree of regulation for labels bearing environmental information, and established institutions may detract from efforts to provide for better environmental management. The advent of ISO 14000 offers new opportunities for making eco-labeling a meaningful tool to encourage environmental stewardship. While new federal legislation offers the best vehicle to introduce these standards into US law, the slow pace of the legislative process may recommend an alternative system. Multinational and civic-minded firms may be expected to employ private programs to nurture benevolent environmental management practices until more definitive governmental institutions can be put in place.KEY WORDS: Eco-labels; Environmental labeling; International standards; ISO 14000

  12. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  13. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  14. RNA internal standard synthesis by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for competitive quantitative amplification reactions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wan-Yu; Baeumner, Antje J

    2007-02-15

    Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reactions have been demonstrated to successfully synthesize new sequences based on deletion and insertion reactions. Two RNA internal standards were synthesized for use in competitive amplification reactions in which quantitative analysis can be achieved by coamplifying the internal standard with the wild type sample. The sequences were created in two consecutive NASBA reactions using the E. coli clpB mRNA sequence as model analyte. The primer sequences of the wild type sequence were maintained, and a 20-nt-long segment inside the amplicon region was exchanged for a new segment of similar GC content and melting temperature. The new RNA sequence was thus amplifiable using the wild type primers and detectable via a new inserted sequence. In the first reaction, the forwarding primer and an additional 20-nt-long sequence was deleted and replaced by a new 20-nt-long sequence. In the second reaction, a forwarding primer containing as 5' overhang sequence the wild type primer sequence was used. The presence of pure internal standard was verified using electrochemiluminescence and RNA lateral-flow biosensor analysis. Additional sequence deletion in order to shorten the internal standard amplicons and thus generate higher detection signals was found not to be required. Finally, a competitive NASBA reaction between one internal standard and the wild type sequence was carried out proving its functionality. This new rapid construction method via NASBA provides advantages over the traditional techniques since it requires no traditional cloning procedures, no thermocyclers, and can be completed in less than 4 h.

  15. World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Blümel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nübling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter. PMID:23647659

  16. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  17. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  18. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-06

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  19. A collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Sands, Dawn; Whitton, Colin M; Merton, R Elizabeth; Longstaff, Colin

    2002-08-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to replace the 2nd International Standard (IS) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The 2nd IS for tPA (86/670) was used to calibrate the replacement Standard, which was selected from two candidate materials included in the collaborative study. Participants were provided with five sets of four samples (A, B, C, D) and asked to use sample A (2nd IS, 86/670, 850 IU/ml) to determine the activity of B (86/624, approximately 850 IU/ml), C and D (coded duplicates of the same material, 98/714 approximately 11,000 IU/ml). A total of 14 laboratories returned results from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, providing data from 60 independent assays. Four laboratories used a reference method based on a published monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia for Alteplase for Injection, 1998, and the remaining 10 used their own method. Fibrin was used as promoter of tPA activity by 12 out of the 14 laboratories, the remaining two used kits where fibrinogen fragments were the promoter. Data from this collaborative study and the previous study to establish the 2nd IS for tPA show that tPA from melanoma cells and recombinant tPA from CHO cells are both suitable materials as International Standards. It was agreed that sample C, D, recombinant tPA, 98/714, be established as the 3rd International Standard for tPA with a potency of 10,000 IU per ampoule, calculated as the mean value from laboratories using fibrin as a promoter of tPA activity. The standard was established by WHO in November 2000.

  20. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  1. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  2. Progress, innovation and regulatory science in drug development: the politics of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2002-06-01

    This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s, which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organization known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation, regulatory science and 'progress' may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. An assessment of the ICH's claims about the implications of 'technical' harmonization of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety, via toxicological testing, and the delivery of therapeutic progress, via innovation, is presented. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims, it is argued that, within the ICH, a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimize the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. The mobilization and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH's transformation of reductions in safety standards, which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health, into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients, and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the 'technical trajectories' of regulatory science.

  3. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  4. International Standards and Reference Materials for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing

    PubMed Central

    Madej, Roberta M.; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J.; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives. PMID:20075208

  5. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  6. International standards and reference materials for quantitative molecular infectious disease testing.

    PubMed

    Madej, Roberta M; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J

    2010-03-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.

  7. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  8. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kirshblum, S. C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D. E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Rodriguez, G. M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J. D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:24559416

  9. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Biering-Sørensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D.E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J.D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:25477729

  10. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: cases with classification challenges.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  11. Internal standards: a source of analytical bias for volatile organic analyte determinations.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, Michael H

    2011-01-21

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity between the analyte and internal standard physical properties that influence how easily analytes are separated from a matrix and concentrated during analysis. Method 5032 is a vacuum distillation procedure for extracting analytes from a sample for use with Method 8260C. Vacuum distillation is also incorporated within another GC/MS analytical procedure, Method 8261A. Method 8260C/5032 and Method 8261A are experimentally identical, however, Method 8261A uses internal standards differently by relating the recovery of each compound to its boiling point and relative volatility. By processing each analysis (water, soil, and biota) using both Method 8260C and Method 8261A, the two approaches are compared on the basis of analyte bias and the failure rate of the quality controls. Analytes were grouped by how similar their boiling points and natural log of their relative volatilities (lnRVs) were to their Method 8260C recommended ISTDs. For the most similar analytes, the Method 8260C determinations yielded an average bias less than 10% and a failure to meet calibration criteria less than 7%. However, as the difference between analyte and ISTD became greater the bias increased to over 40% (matrix dependent) and its calibration failure rate approached 70%. In comparison, when the Method 8260C data were reprocessed as Method 8261A determinations, this trend for groupings was minimized with biases increasing from 6% to only 20% and the calibration failure rate went from 0% to 15%.

  12. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  13. Evaluation of internal standards for the analysis of ignitable liquids in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Locke, Amanda K; Basara, Gene J; Sandercock, P Mark L

    2009-03-01

    An evaluation of eight compounds for use as an internal standard in fire debris analysis was conducted. Tests were conducted on tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, n-octylbenzene, 3-phenyltolune, and deuterated compounds toluene-d8, styrene-d8, naphthalene-d8, and diphenyl-d10 to measure the extraction efficiency of each compound in the presence of an interfering volatile compound (carbon disulfide). Other tests were conducted to evaluate whether or not the presence of an ignitable liquid or pyrolysis/combustion products from fire debris would interfere with the identification of these compounds when used as an internal standard. The results showed that while any of the eight compounds could be used as an internal standard in fire debris analysis, the more volatile compounds (toluene-d8, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and styrene-d8) showed better extraction efficiencies at room temperature than when heated to 60 degrees C. Each of the less volatile compounds (naphthalene-d8, diphenyl-d10, n-octylbenzene, and 3-phenyltolune) performed well during extraction at 60 degrees C, while naphthalene-d8 showed better extraction efficiency in the presence of competing volatiles when extracted at room temperature.

  14. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the “1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection” (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing. PMID:26070671

  15. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  16. Polymerization Kinetics: Monitoring Monomer Conversion Using an Internal Standard and the Key Role of Sample "t[subscript 0]"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombani, Olivier; Langelier, Ophelie; Martwong, Ekkachai; Castignolles, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    The use of an internal standard is a conventional and convenient way to monitor the conversion of one or several monomers during a controlled radical polymerization. However, the validity of this technique relies on an accurate determination of the initial monomer-to-internal standard ratio, A[subscript 0], because all subsequent calculations of…

  17. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  18. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  19. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  20. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  2. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  3. International comparison of a hydrocarbon gas standard at the picomol per mol level.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Apel, Eric; Baldan, Annarita; Hall, Bradley; Harling, Alice; Helmig, Detlev; Heo, Gwi Suk; Hueber, Jacques; Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Steve; Riemer, Daniel

    2014-03-04

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low picomoles per mol (ppt) to nanomoles per mol (ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have accurate, stable, calibration standards. In February of 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed and reported on picomoles per mol standards containing 18 nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds covering the mole fraction range of 60 picomoles per mol to 230 picomoles per mol. The stability of these gas mixtures was only characterized over a short time period (2 to 3 months). NIST recently prepared a suite of primary standard gas mixtures by gravimetric dilution to ascertain the stability of the 2008 picomoles per mol NMHC standards suite. The data from this recent chromatographic intercomparison of the 2008 to the 2011 suites confirm a much longer stability of almost 5 years for 15 of the 18 hydrocarbons; the double-bonded alkenes of propene, isobutene, and 1-pentene showed instability, in line with previous publications. The agreement between the gravimetric values from preparation and the analytical mole fractions determined from regression illustrate the internal consistency of the suite within ±2 pmol/mol. However, results for several of the compounds reflect stability problems for the three double-bonded hydrocarbons. An international intercomparison on one of the 2008 standards has also been completed. Participants included National Metrology Institutes, United States government laboratories, and academic laboratories. In general, results for this intercomparison agree to within about ±5% with the gravimetric mole fractions of the hydrocarbons.

  4. Standardization of bleeding assessment in immune thrombocytopenia: report from the International Working Group.

    PubMed

    Rodeghiero, Francesco; Michel, Marc; Gernsheimer, Terry; Ruggeri, Marco; Blanchette, Victor; Bussel, James B; Cines, Douglas B; Cooper, Nichola; Godeau, Bertrand; Greinacher, Andreas; Imbach, Paul; Khellaf, Mehdi; Klaassen, Robert J; Kühne, Thomas; Liebman, Howard; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Newland, Adrian; Pabinger, Ingrid; Tosetto, Alberto; Stasi, Roberto

    2013-04-04

    In a previous publication on new terminology, definitions, and outcome criteria for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), the International Working Group (IWG) on ITP acknowledged that response to treatment should consist of clinically meaningful end points such as bleeding manifestations and that platelet count may not be the ideal parameter for capturing the benefits of therapy. The IWG now proposes a consensus-based ITP-specific bleeding assessment tool (ITP-BAT) with definitions and terminology consistent with those adopted for other bleeding disorders. Bleeding manifestations were grouped into three major domains: skin (S), visible mucosae (M), and organs (O), with gradation of severity (SMOG). Each bleeding manifestation is assessed at the time of examination. Severity is graded from 0 to 3 or 4, with grade 5 for any fatal bleeding. Bleeding reported by the patient without medical documentation is graded 1. Within each domain, the same grade is assigned to bleeding manifestations of similar clinical impact. The "worst bleeding manifestation since the last visit" (observation period) is graded (a suitable database collection form is provided), and the highest grade within each domain is recorded. The SMOG system provides a consistent description of the bleeding phenotype in ITP, and the IWG unanimously supports its adoption and validation in future clinical studies.

  5. The Elevation of Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine to the Status of an International Journal After Adopting an English-Only Policy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use bibliometric analyses to determine whether Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine (hereafter also referred to as Annals) became an international journal after adopting an English-only policy in 2011. Methods Articles from the third issue of 2011 to the third issue of 2015 were analyzed according to the following parameters: whether the research was supported by funding, country of authorship, impact factor, total citations, the countries of researchers who cited Annals; the journals that cited Annals; and the Hirsch index. Results One hundred twenty-eight (34.2%) of the 374 original articles were supported by research funds. The main authors were from Korea (550/556, 98.9%), the USA (3), Iran (2), Japan (1), Turkey (1), and the United Kingdom (1). The manually calculated impact factors in 2013 and 2014 were 0.582 and 0.667, respectively. The total annual citations from years 2012 to 2015 were 15, 130, 252, and 189, respectively. The countries of residence of the main authors who cited Annals were the USA (146), Korea (89), and China (49). The journals that cited Annals most frequently were the Journal of Physical Therapy (34), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (15), and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (13). The Hirsch index was 9. Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the change of the language policy of Annals to English-only was successful in elevating the journal to the international level. The journal's aim of sharing up-to-date knowledge dedicated to advancing the care of the disabled and enhancing their everyday abilities and quality of life has been satisfactorily realized. PMID:26605163

  6. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  7. Electrophysiologic recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: international standards guideline statement.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gregory W; Dralle, Henning; Abdullah, Hisham; Barczynski, Marcin; Bellantone, Rocco; Brauckhoff, Michael; Carnaille, Bruno; Cherenko, Sergii; Chiang, Fen-Yu; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Finck, Camille; Hartl, Dana; Kamani, Dipti; Lorenz, Kerstin; Miccolli, Paolo; Mihai, Radu; Miyauchi, Akira; Orloff, Lisa; Perrier, Nancy; Poveda, Manuel Duran; Romanchishen, Anatoly; Serpell, Jonathan; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; Sloan, Tod; Van Slycke, Sam; Snyder, Samuel; Takami, Hiroshi; Volpi, Erivelto; Woodson, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) during thyroid and parathyroid surgery has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Despite the increasing use of IONM, review of the literature and clinical experience confirms there is little uniformity in application of and results from nerve monitoring across different centers. We provide a review of the literature and cumulative experience of the multidisciplinary International Neural Monitoring Study Group with IONM spanning nearly 15 years. The study group focused its initial work on formulation of standards in IONM as it relates to important areas: 1) standards of equipment setup/endotracheal tube placement and 2) standards of loss of signal evaluation/intraoperative problem-solving algorithm. The use of standardized methods and reporting will provide greater uniformity in application of IONM. In addition, this report clarifies the limitations of IONM and helps identify areas where additional research is necessary. This guideline is, at its forefront, quality driven; it is intended to improve the quality of neural monitoring, to translate the best available evidence into clinical practice to promote best practices. We hope this work will minimize inappropriate variations in monitoring rather than to dictate practice options.

  8. Collaborative study for the calibration of a replacement International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Rob; Stickings, Paul; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Iwaki, Masaaki; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a collaborative study for the establishment of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Two candidate preparations were included in the study, one of which was established as the 4th IS for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed at the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2010. This preparation was found to have a unitage of 490 IU/ampoule, based on calibration in guinea pig challenge assays. Results from mouse challenge assays suggest that the relative performance of two candidate preparations may differ significantly between guinea pigs and mice. The authors note that the number of laboratories that performed guinea pig challenge assays, which are used to calibrate and assign IU, is much lower than in previous collaborative studies and this may have implications for calibration of replacement standards in the future. The issue of assigning separate units to the IS for guinea pig and mouse assays is discussed. The study also assessed performance of the replacement standard in serological assays which are used as alternative procedures to challenge assays for tetanus potency testing. Results suggest that the replacement standard is suitable for use as the reference vaccine in serological assays.

  9. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  10. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  11. Valid internal standard technique for arson detection based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Pedro A S; Borges, Carlos M F; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N

    2012-09-28

    The most popular procedures for the detection of residues of accelerants in fire debris are the ones published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E1412-07 and E1618-10). The most critical stages of these tests are the conservation of fire debris from the sampling to the laboratory, the extraction of residues of accelerants from the debris to the activated charcoal strips (ACS) and from those to the final solvent, as well as the analysis of sample extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the interpretation of the instrumental signal. This work proposes a strategy for checking the quality of the sample conservation, the accelerant residues transference to final solvent and GC-MS analysis, using internal standard additions. It is used internal standards ranging from a highly volatile compound for checking debris conservation to low volatile compound for checking GC-MS repeatability. The developed quality control (QC) parameters are not affected by GC-MS sensitivity variation and, specifically, the GC-MS performance control is not affected by ACS adsorption saturation that may mask test performance deviations. The proposed QC procedure proved to be adequate to check GC-MS repeatability, ACS extraction and sample conservation since: (1) standard additions are affected by negligible uncertainty and (2) observed dispersion of QC parameters are fit for its intended use.

  12. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943

  13. Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.

    PubMed

    Sempos, Christopher T; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Thienpont, Linda M; Coates, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University established the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) in November 2010. VDSP objectives include: (1) standardize 25(OH)D concentration measurements in national health surveys around the world, (2) evaluate survey differences, (3) extend standardization efforts to assay manufacturers, and to clinical, commercial, and research laboratories, (4) promote standardization of emerging metabolites of vitamin D status, and (5) enable the use of standardized data in patient care and public health. An interlaboratory comparison study is being conducted to assess measurement variability among current assays. Participants include national health surveys from Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, South Korea, UK and USA, 15 assay manufacturers, and two external quality assurance programs. CDC will implement a formal laboratory certification program. Standardization activities will use single-donor, fresh-frozen serum collected using the CLSI C37 protocol. Initial assay performance criteria, based on biological variability data, are ≤ 10 % imprecision and ≤ 5 % bias in relation to the reference values. An ancillary study on commutability of NIST SRM 972a, external quality assurance testing materials is included. To increase the comparability of existing data from different national surveys, master equations will be developed to facilitate the conversion of already existing national survey data to the NIST-Ghent University reference measurement procedures.

  14. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative

  15. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on Reducing Wood Borer Infestation Rates in Wood Packaging Material Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Robert A.; Britton, Kerry O.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Cavey, Joseph F.; Garrett, Lynn J.; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J.; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports

  16. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on reducing wood borer infestation rates in wood packaging material entering the United States.

    PubMed

    Haack, Robert A; Britton, Kerry O; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Cavey, Joseph F; Garrett, Lynn J; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to "practically eliminate" the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005-2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003-2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36-52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984-2008.

  17. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  18. Updates for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, Steven; Waring, William

    2014-08-01

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is the most widely used classification in the field of spinal cord injury medicine. Since its first publication in 1982, multiple revisions refining the recommended examination, scaling, and classification have taken place to improve communication, consistency, and clarity. This article describes a brief historical perspective on the development and changes over the years leading to the current ISNCSCI, detailing the most recent updates of 2011 and the worksheet 2013 as well as issues facing the ISNCSCI for the future.

  19. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  20. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414