Science.gov

Sample records for adopted policies aimed

  1. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  2. AASA's Leader Aims for Policy Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In hiring Daniel A. Domenech, the directors of the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) were looking for an advocate who could position the group in the front row of education policy debates in Washington. Domenech, who began his job as the executive director of the AASA in July, has battle scars from years spent in the…

  3. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  4. 7 CFR 1610.8 - Adoption of applicable RUS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of applicable RUS policy. 1610.8 Section 1610.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.8 Adoption of applicable RUS policy. The policies embodied...

  5. 7 CFR 1610.8 - Adoption of applicable RUS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of applicable RUS policy. 1610.8 Section 1610.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.8 Adoption of applicable RUS policy. The policies embodied...

  6. 7 CFR 1610.8 - Adoption of applicable RUS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of applicable RUS policy. 1610.8 Section 1610.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.8 Adoption of applicable RUS policy. The policies embodied...

  7. 7 CFR 1610.8 - Adoption of applicable RUS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption of applicable RUS policy. 1610.8 Section 1610.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.8 Adoption of applicable RUS policy. The policies embodied...

  8. 7 CFR 1610.8 - Adoption of applicable RUS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of applicable RUS policy. 1610.8 Section 1610.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.8 Adoption of applicable RUS policy. The policies embodied...

  9. Adoption of Obesity Prevention Policies and Practices by Australian Primary Schools: 2006 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, N.; Wolfenden, L.; Williams, C. M.; Yoong, S. L.; Lecathelinais, C.; Bell, A. C.; Wyse, R.; Sutherland, R.; Wiggers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investment in many countries, the extent of schools' adoption of obesity prevention policies and practices has not been widely reported. The aims of this article are to describe Australian schools' adoption of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices over an 8-year period and to determine if their adoption…

  10. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  11. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  12. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  13. [Alternatives for adopting policies centered on access to medicines].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico; Drake, Ignacio; Martich, Evangelina

    2012-12-01

    Latin America is adopting regulations that bear on medicinal costs and spending. The regulations have four main goals: i) to guarantee a competitive market, ii) to ensure affordability for individual consumers (commercial channel), iii) to contain public spending on medicines (institutional channel), and iv) to guarantee efficient spending on medicines. The experience of Latin America differs from that of countries in developed regions. In the latter, the countries tend to have similar policies, both in promoting generic medicines and in price control strategies, and in optimizing and containing pharmaceutical expense. In contrast, in Latin America, certain institutional weaknesses impede the consolidation and application of an effective regulatory policy. This paper reviews the experience gained through the adoption of economic regulations aimed at reducing spending and improving access to medicines, suggests lessons learned at the international level, and offers recommendations for the countries of Latin America. Its purpose is to offer key elements to decision-makers and the authorities of the countries concerned in pursuing economic regulation of medicines.

  14. History of the Academy in Manayunk (AIM): Adoption of the Lab School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patricia; Blair, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall how the Academy in Manayunk adopted the famous Sally Smith's club methodology. They share how the influence of Smith pushed the school faculty and staff to create a school that focuses on the individual child and celebrates the unique talents and interests that each brings to the learning community. It is based…

  15. Advancing smoke-free policy adoption on the Navajo Nation

    PubMed Central

    Nez Henderson, Patricia; Roeseler, April; Moor, Gregg; Clark, Hershel W; Yazzie, Alfred; Nez, Priscilla; Nez, Chantal; Sabo, Samantha; Leischow, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws are effective at protecting non-smokers and reducing tobacco use, yet they are not widely adopted by tribal governments. Methods A series of smoke-free policy initiatives on the Navajo Nation, beginning in 2008, were reviewed to identify key issues, successes and setbacks. Results It has been essential that proposed policies acknowledge the Navajo people's spiritual use of nát'oh, a sacred plant used for gift-giving, medicinal purposes and traditional ceremonies, while simultaneously discouraging a secular use of commercial tobacco. Concern that smoke-free policies economically harm tribal casinos has been a major barrier to broad implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws in Navajo Nation. Conclusions It is necessary for tobacco control researchers and advocates to build relationships with tribal leaders and casino management in order to develop the business case that will take comprehensive smoke-free policies to scale throughout tribal lands. PMID:27697945

  16. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  17. Evaluating local policy adoption campaigns in California: Tobacco Retail License (TRL) adoption.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Treiber, Jeanette; Haun, Sue; Cassady, Diana

    2014-06-01

    As part of its state-wide "denormalization" campaign, the California Tobacco Control Program has funded local tobacco control projects to secure tobacco retail licenses (TRLs) in their communities. TRL policies generate funding by requiring tobacco retailers within a jurisdiction to obtain a license, which is in addition to the state license that tobacco retailers are legally required to purchase to sell tobacco products. The funding provided by TRLs enables local law enforcement to carry out inspection and enforcement operations. This paper examines the unique processes by which local project campaigns attempt to get TRL policies adopted in communities across the State of California. Twenty-two local projects submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to the adoption of TRLs, and the reports from these projects form the basis of the analysis. Successful campaigns tended to include the following strategies: (1) determining policy readiness; (2) gathering local data; (3) identifying and working with a "champion"; (4) building relationships with local law enforcement agencies and decision makers; and (5) educating community and decision makers. The major challenges faced by local projects included budget cuts and staffing issues, concern about creating an unfavorable environment for business by imposing more regulations and fees, and complaints about using law enforcement resources for tobacco control in light of more "pressing" public safety issues. These challenges proved difficult for local projects to overcome, and also highlight the need for projects to create and carry out strong but flexible tactical plans that incorporate the aforementioned strategies.

  18. "That was then, but this is now": historical perspectives on intercountry adoption and domestic child adoption in Australian public policy.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Denise; Spark, Ceridwen; Murphy, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper brings historical perspectives to bear on the ambivalent and contradictory position of adoption in Australian public policy. It examines the divergent histories of Australian domestic and intercountry adoption (ICA) since the mid-1970s and the impact of these histories on adoption policy in Australia. It identifies tendencies in contemporary ICA to repeat elements of pre-reform era domestic adoption. In particular, it is argued that the resistance of ICA to the move to openness in local adoption has been an unacknowledged driver of ICA for many Australian families. We offer corrective readings of the rise of ICA in relation to domestic adoption and conclude by offering alternatives for adoption policy which better align the two kinds of adoption, focusing on the needs of children, as distinct from the desires of adults.

  19. Going to the Courts Twice: A Critical Appraisal of the UK's Policy of Re-Adoption for Intercountry Adoptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The policy of re-adoption for UK-citizen parents of intercountry adopted children is designed to protect children and safeguard their best interests, but in fact may breach a variety of rights and international Conventions, and when applied to specific cases can lead to more harm than good. In this review, I want to argue that the policy of…

  20. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented.

  1. When Neighbours Matter Most: Innovation, Diffusion and State Policy Adoption in Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Ingle, William Kyle

    2007-01-01

    We now have ample evidence that public policies diffuse across the American states; that is, policy adoption is due at least in part to the emulation of policies enacted in nearby states. But, policy adoption is the result of a complex process, a process that often takes years and sometimes decades to complete. According to the "stage"…

  2. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  3. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  4. Uniting Secondary and Postsecondary Education: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption of Dual Enrollment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine G.; McLendon, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study, as the first empirical test of P-16 policy antecedents, reports the findings from an event history analysis of the origins of state dual enrollment policies adopted between 1976 and 2005. First, what characteristics of states are associated with the adoption of these policies? Second, to what extent do conventional theories on policy…

  5. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  6. Adoption policy and evidence-based domestic adoption practice: a comparison of Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Groza, Victor; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (The Hague Permanent Bureau, 1993), and the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (2009) have provided a comprehensive, rights-based framework and guidance for developing domestic adoption and alternative, family based care programs. Domestic adoption is a critical component of any child-protection system and a core part of the range of alternative care options that the United Nations and other international organizations recommend be developed, resourced, and made accessible to children without parental care. This article uses data collected from adoptive parents' postadoption and governmental data in Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia to focus on domestic adoption in each of these countries. The article highlights both promising practices in domestic adoption as well as policies and practices that require additional research.

  7. Public Policy, Technology Adoption, and Aggregate Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, W.; Kopp, R.J.; Morgenstern, R.D.; Pizer, W.A.; Shih, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This research examines the factors that influence the adoption of new energy-saving technologies among U.S. manufacturing plants and explores their potential impact on aggregate energy efficiency. We conduct this analysis using two models: a conventional diffusion model and a stand-alone model of new technology adoption we develop in this paper. The latter model allows us to compute effects on aggregate efficiency based solely on adoption data.

  8. 7 CFR 4290.503 - RBIC's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RBIC's adoption of an approved valuation policy. 4290.503 Section 4290.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... adoption of an approved valuation policy. (a) Valuation guidelines. You must prepare, document and...

  9. 7 CFR 4290.503 - RBIC's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RBIC's adoption of an approved valuation policy. 4290.503 Section 4290.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... adoption of an approved valuation policy. (a) Valuation guidelines. You must prepare, document and...

  10. The bit in the middle: a synthesis of global health literature on policy formulation and adoption.

    PubMed

    Berlan, David; Buse, Kent; Shiffman, Jeremy; Tanaka, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Policy formulation and adoption are poorly understood phases of the health policy process. We conducted a narrative synthesis of 28 articles on health policy in low- and middle-income countries to provide insight on what kinds of activities take place in these phases, the actors crafting policies and the institutions in which policy making occurs. The narrative synthesis involved an inductive process to identify relevant articles, extract relevant data from text and reach new understandings. We find that actors exercising decision-making power include not just various governmental entities, but also civil society, commissioners, nongovernmental organizations and even clergy. We also find that most articles identified two or more distinct institutions in which policy formulation and adoption occurred. Finally, we identify seven distinct activities inherent in policy formulation and adoption: generation of policy alternatives, deliberation and/or consultation, advocacy of specific policy alternatives, lobbying for specific alternatives, negotiation of policy decisions, drafting or enacting policy and guidance/influence on implementation development. Health policy researchers can draw on these categories to deepen their understanding of how policy formulation and adoption unfolds.

  11. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  12. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  13. Assessing integrated pest management adoption: measurement problems and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM-for whatever reason-and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption-weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management-and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  14. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  15. Groundwater Governance in a Water-Starved Country: Public Policy, Farmers' Perceptions, and Drivers of Tubewell Adoption in Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khair, Syed Mohammad; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan faces the challenge of developing sustainable groundwater policies with the main focus on groundwater management rather than groundwater development and with appropriate governance arrangement to ensure benefits continue into the future. This article investigates groundwater policy, farmers' perceptions, and drivers of tubewell (groundwater bore) adoption and proposes possible pathways for improved groundwater management for Balochistan, Pakistan. Historical groundwater policies were mainly aimed at increasing agricultural production and reducing poverty, without consideration of adverse impact on groundwater availability. These groundwater policies and governance arrangements have resulted in a massive decline in groundwater tables. Tubewell owners' rankings of the drivers of groundwater decline suggest that rapid and widespread installation of tubewells, together with uncontrolled extraction due to lack of property rights, electricity subsidy policies, and ineffective governance, are key causes of groundwater decline in Balochistan. An empirical "tubewell adoption" model confirmed that the electricity subsidy significantly influenced tubewell adoption decisions. The article proposes a more rational electricity subsidy policy for sustaining groundwater levels in the short-run. However, in the long run a more comprehensive sustainable groundwater management policy, with strong institutional support and involvement of all stakeholders, is needed.

  16. Assessing Multilingual Competencies: Adopting Construct Valid Assessment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2011-01-01

    All assessment policies and practices are based on monolingual constructs whereby test-takers are expected to demonstrate their language proficiency in one language at a time. Thus, the construct underlying these assessment approaches and/or scales (e.g., the CEFR) is of language as a closed and finite system that does not enable other languages…

  17. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals. PMID:23805293

  18. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals.

    PubMed

    Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals.

  19. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Derek John

    This dissertation looks at the relationship between American subnational governments and clean air policy in three different cases. I investigate the impact of state reduction policies on the emission of Greenhouse emissions, the subnational adoption of Greenhouse Gas tracking and reduction policies, and the impact of Clean Air Act standards on the siting of coal-fired power plants. The major finding is that in both the adoption and business response to these policies, a state's political context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States.

  20. [Inequality in access to health care services. Policy recommendations aimed at achieving equity].

    PubMed

    Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    This article reveals the presence of inequalities in access to health care that may be considered unfair and avoidable. These inequalities are related to coverage of clinical needs, to the financial problems faced by families in completing medical treatments, or to disparities in waiting times and the use of services for equal need. A substantial proportion of inequalities appears to have increased as a result of the measures adopted to face the economic crisis. The recommendations aimed at improving equity affect different pillars of the taxpayer-funded health system, including, among others, the definition of the right to public health care coverage, the formulas of cost-sharing, the distribution of powers between primary and specialty care, the reforms of clinical management, and the production and dissemination of information to facilitate the decision-making processes of health authorities, professionals and citizens. Moreover, it is recommended to focus on particularly vulnerable population groups.

  1. Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2014-11-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  2. Expanding Downward: Innovation, Diffusion, and State Policy Adoptions of Universal Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Framed within the theoretical framework of policy innovation and diffusion, this study explores both interstate (diffusion) and intrastate predictors of adoption of state universal preschool policies. Event history analysis methodology is applied to a state level dataset drawn from the Census, the NCES Common Core, the Book of the States, and…

  3. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  4. Navigating Local Smoke-Free Multi-Unit Housing Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana

    2013-01-01

    California state-funded local tobacco control projects have instituted smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policy adoption campaigns in order to secure voluntary policy throughout the state. While landlords can legally prohibit smoking at MUH complexes in California, they often oppose such measures. The objective of this study was to analyze…

  5. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  6. Langues: Pour une politique forte et coherente (Languages: Aiming for a Strong, Coherent Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Claude

    1993-01-01

    France's Minister of Education and Culture favors a governmental language policy to provide the French with genuine communicative competence in other languages. His plan relies on four "D's": diversification, development, decentralization, and dynamic policy. A chart summarizes the 20 essential measures to be undertaken. (CNP)

  7. Applying observations from technological transformations in complex adaptive systems to inform health policy on technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Many complex markets such as banking and manufacturing have benefited significantly from technology adoption. Each of these complex markets experienced increased efficiency, quality, security, and customer involvement as a result of technology transformation in their industry. Healthcare has not benefited to the same extent. We provide initial findings from a policy analysis of complex markets and the features of these transformations that can influence health technology adoption and acceptance.

  8. Policies and initiatives aimed at addressing research misconduct in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2013-01-01

    David Resnik and Zubin Master review current policies and initiatives for preventing and managing research misconduct in high-income countries, summarize some high profile cases of misconduct, and make suggestions on ways forward.

  9. Policies, economic incentives and the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2015-07-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  10. A Statewide Movement to Promote the Adoption of Tobacco-Free School Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin-Long, Shelley K.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Since most tobacco users become addicted to nicotine as teenagers, prevention efforts for youth remain central to comprehensive prevention programs. National and state efforts that encourage adoption and enforcement of comprehensive tobacco-free school (TFS) policies can lead to significant reductions of youth tobacco use. In 2003,…

  11. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  12. Fundamental Assumptions and Aims Underlying the Principles and Policies of Federal Financial Aid to Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    As background to the National Dialogue on Student Financial Aid, this essay discusses the fundamental assumptions and aims that underlie the principles and policies of federal financial aid to students. These eight assumptions and aims are explored: (1) higher education is the province of states, and not of the federal government; (2) the costs of…

  13. Suggestions on how to do Successful Science and Contribute to the Broader Aims of Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    I would like make the following suggestions to early career scientists, especially if they want they want to contribute to science policy. First of all it is important that they first establish a reputation in their respective fields by the normal method of publishing papers and giving presentations at scientific meetings. They should become involved in the scientific societies by volunteering for committees and helping organize sessions at annual and specialized meetings. They should also develop a broader perspective of their field of research and be willing to serve on committees dealing with science priorities, science education, and science policy. I plan to cite my experience as well as others as examples of what can be done.

  14. Accelerating Policy Decisions to Adopt Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine: A Global, Multivariable Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Jessica C.; Stack, Meghan L.; Richmond, Marcie R.; Bear, Allyson P.; Hajjeh, Rana A.; Bishai, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Methods and Findings Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33–0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00–1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. Conclusions This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20305714

  15. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  16. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  17. What influences government adoption of vaccines in developing countries? A policy process analysis.

    PubMed

    Munira, Syarifah Liza; Fritzen, Scott A

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early Hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variable-centric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling 'causal diversity'-the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes-in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision-makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).

  18. Adoption, implementation and prioritization of specialist outreach policy in Australia: a national perspective

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Catherine M; McGrail, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of outreach to promote: efficient redeployment of the health-care workforce; continuity of care at the local level; and professional support for local, rural, health-care workers. Australia is the only country that has had, since 2000, a sustained national policy on outreach for subsidizing medical specialist outreach to rural areas. This paper describes the adoption, implementation and prioritization of a national specialist outreach policy in Australia. Adoption of the national policy followed a long history of successful outreach, largely driven by the professional interest and personal commitment of the workforce. Initially the policy supported only new outreach services but concerns about the sustainability of existing services resulted in eligibility for funding being extended to all specialist services. The costs of travel, travel time, accommodation, professional support, staff relief at specialists’ primary practices and equipment hire were subsidized. Over time, a national political commitment to the equitable treatment of indigenous people resulted in more targeted support for outreach in remote areas. Current priorities are: (i) establishing team-based outreach services; (ii) improving local staff’s skills; (iii) achieving local coordination; and (iv) conducting a nationally consistent needs assessment. The absence of subsidies for specialists’ clinical work can discourage private specialists from providing services in remote areas where clinical throughput is low. To be successful, outreach policy must harmonize with the interests of the workforce and support professional autonomy. Internationally, the development of outreach policy must take account of the local pay and practice conditions of health workers. PMID:25110376

  19. Adoption, implementation and prioritization of specialist outreach policy in Australia: a national perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; Joyce, Catherine M; McGrail, Matthew R

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of outreach to promote: efficient redeployment of the health-care workforce; continuity of care at the local level; and professional support for local, rural, health-care workers. Australia is the only country that has had, since 2000, a sustained national policy on outreach for subsidizing medical specialist outreach to rural areas. This paper describes the adoption, implementation and prioritization of a national specialist outreach policy in Australia. Adoption of the national policy followed a long history of successful outreach, largely driven by the professional interest and personal commitment of the workforce. Initially the policy supported only new outreach services but concerns about the sustainability of existing services resulted in eligibility for funding being extended to all specialist services. The costs of travel, travel time, accommodation, professional support, staff relief at specialists' primary practices and equipment hire were subsidized. Over time, a national political commitment to the equitable treatment of indigenous people resulted in more targeted support for outreach in remote areas. Current priorities are: (i) establishing team-based outreach services; (ii) improving local staff's skills; (iii) achieving local coordination; and (iv) conducting a nationally consistent needs assessment. The absence of subsidies for specialists' clinical work can discourage private specialists from providing services in remote areas where clinical throughput is low. To be successful, outreach policy must harmonize with the interests of the workforce and support professional autonomy. Internationally, the development of outreach policy must take account of the local pay and practice conditions of health workers.

  20. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies... best continue to support the implementation of smoke-free policies for both public housing and... of smoke-free policies and methods for supporting residents and housing providers in transitioning...

  1. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies.

  2. Regulating the New Borderlands: An Event History Analysis of State Cross-Border Distance Higher Education Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border state distance higher education policy is a complex web of complicated and often contradictory regulations stretching across 50 states and 14 US territories. This study examined the applicability of strategic choice theory to state higher education policy innovation in the context of the adoption of polices that regulate the distance…

  3. Assessing Drivers of Full Adoption of Test and Treat policy for Malaria in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Zelner, Jonathan; Brasseur, Philippe; Vaillant, Michel; Badiane, Malick; Cisse, Moustafa; Grenfell, Bryan; Olliaro, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Malaria treatment policy has changed from presumptive treatment to targeted “test and treat” (T&T) with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). This transition involves changing behavior among health providers, meaning delays between introduction and full implementation are recorded in almost every instance. We investigated factors affecting successful transition, and suggest approaches for accelerating uptake of T&T. Records from 2000 to 2011 from health clinics in Senegal where malaria is mesoendemic were examined (96,166 cases). The study period encompassed the implementation of national T&T policy in 2006. Analysis showed that adherence to test results is the first indicator of T&T adoption and is dependent on accumulation of experience with positive RDTs (odds ratio [OR]: 0.55 [P ≤ 0.001], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53–0.58). Reliance on tests for malaria diagnosis (rather than presumptive diagnosis) followed after test adherence is achieved, and was also associated with increased experience with positive RDTs (OR: 0.60 [P ≤ 0.001], 95% CI: 0.58–0.62). Logistic models suggest that full adoption of T&T clinical practices can occur within 2 years, that monitoring these behavioral responses rather than RDT or ACT consumption will improve evaluation of T&T uptake, and that accelerating T&T uptake by focusing training on adherence to test results will reduce overdiagnosis and associated health and economic costs in mesoendemic regions. PMID:25962776

  4. Direct consumer access to physical therapy in Michigan: challenges to policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Background. Michigan is 1 of only 4 states that require a physician referral or prescription before a consumer can receive treatment from a physical therapist.Objective. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine why the most recent attempts to pass direct access legislation in Michigan failed.Methods. The Policy Analysis Triangle approach, which considers the relevant actors, processes, and context in which a policy must be considered, was used to analyze legislative efforts to attain direct access in Michigan during the 2001–2002, 2003–2004, and 2005–2006 legislative sessions. Data sources included Michigan House and Senate legislative analyses, literature review, stakeholder position statements, political action committee contributions, and expert opinion.Results. Three successive direct access legislative attempts failed despite an increasing body of evidence supporting direct access and an increasing number of states allowing direct access. Proponents represented a relatively small number of individuals with limited political influence. Opponents represented a larger number of individuals who were able to exert greater political influence through large political action committee contributions and through physician legislators in positions of power who had influence over the bills' dispositions.Conclusions. Several prominent contextual and process-related barriers to policy adoption must be overcome in future attempts at direct access based on the findings from this analysis: (1) a limited constituency supporting direct access with regard to number of individuals and their political influence, (2) a perception that only the physician can independently diagnose and treat patient problems, and (3) legislators in positions of power who oppose a bill [corrected].

  5. Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Frank Albert

    The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

  6. Adopting, manipulating, transforming: tactics used by gender practitioners in South African NGOs to translate international gender policies into local practice.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-11-01

    This paper looks at what is lost and gained through the process of translating international policy from a global to a local space. It does this by sharing results from a multisite ethnographic study of gender practices in foreign-funded South African health organisations. This study identifies a number of tactics used by practitioners to deal with the funding constraints and unique knowledge systems that characterise local spaces, including: using policy to appeal to donors; merging gender with better resourced programmes; and redirecting funding allocations. These tactics point to how practitioners are adopting, manipulating and transforming international policies in order to suit their everyday working realities.

  7. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  8. Adoption by Policy Makers of Knowledge from Educational Research: An Alternative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The phrase knowledge adoption refers to the ways in which policymakers take up and use evidence. Whilst frameworks and models have been put forward to explain knowledge adoption activity, this paper argues that current approaches are flawed and do not address the complexities affecting the successful realisation of knowledge-adoption efforts.…

  9. [Optimization of policy aimed at forming a permanent access based on ultrasonographic duplex scanning for programmed dialysis].

    PubMed

    Fokin, A A; Baryshnikov, A A; Vladimirskiĭ, V V; Gasnikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at optimizing the policy of forming a permanent vascular access (PVA) by means of preoperative colour duplex scanning (CDS) of vessels in patients on programmed haemodialysis. The study included 420 patients undergoing from September 2003 to September 2011 a total of 595 PVAs. The Study Group (Group I) patients (351 PVAs) were subjected to preoperative PVA of vessels of limbs accompanied by assessing velocity parameters of the venous blood flow. The comparison group (Group II) patients (244 PVAs) underwent clinical examination only. The end point of the study was early diagnosis of incompetence of the PVA. Using preoperative PVA of vessels improved the outcomes of forming the PVA, significantly increasing the number of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) as a whole: (88.0% for Group I and 65.6% for Group II; p<0.01), their variants: radial-cephalic (I - 57.5%, II - 32.2%; p<0.01) and secondary radial-cephalic variants (I - 8.3%, II - 3.7%; p<0.01), leading to decreased frequency of using synthetic prostheses both totally (I - 12.0%, II - 34.4%; p<0.01) and in all positions (p<0.01) taken apart. Also decreased the frequency of the development of incompetence of all PVAs (I - 10.8%, II - 29.9%; p<0.01), AVFs as a whole (I - 7.4%, II - 18.0%; p<0.01) and accesses with a synthetic prosthesis both as a whole (I - 1.7%, II - 11.9%; p<0.01) and in all positions separately (p<0.01). Determining the velocity parameters of venous blood flow made it possible to exclude the development of significant proximal venous obstruction and to refuse phlebography. We consider it obligatory to perform CDS of vessels prior to forming a PVA.

  10. 40 CFR 132.4 - State adoption and application of methodologies, policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.4 State... when adopting or revising numeric water quality criteria for the purposes of section 303(c) of the... narrative water quality criteria adopted for purposes of section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act. (d)...

  11. 40 CFR 132.4 - State adoption and application of methodologies, policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.4 State... when adopting or revising numeric water quality criteria for the purposes of section 303(c) of the... narrative water quality criteria adopted for purposes of section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act. (d)...

  12. 40 CFR 132.4 - State adoption and application of methodologies, policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.4 State... when adopting or revising numeric water quality criteria for the purposes of section 303(c) of the... narrative water quality criteria adopted for purposes of section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act. (d)...

  13. 40 CFR 132.4 - State adoption and application of methodologies, policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.4 State... when adopting or revising numeric water quality criteria for the purposes of section 303(c) of the... narrative water quality criteria adopted for purposes of section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act. (d)...

  14. 40 CFR 132.4 - State adoption and application of methodologies, policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.4 State... when adopting or revising numeric water quality criteria for the purposes of section 303(c) of the... narrative water quality criteria adopted for purposes of section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act. (d)...

  15. Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P., Ed.; Freundlich, Madelyn, Ed.; Brodzinsky, David, Ed.

    As child welfare professionals have become aware of the impact of prenatal substance exposure on children in the adoption process or who are available for adoption, there is a heightened need for understanding a range of issues connected with prenatal alcohol and drug exposure. This book addresses many of these issues, including the impact of…

  16. Development and Evaluation of Public Policies Aimed at Meeting Needs for Educational Facilities: Thoughts on the French Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Francois

    The French experience of the last few decades provides some lessons for policymakers seeking to meet the needs for facilities at various educational levels. Two conclusions stand out: the lasting nature and impact of educational infrastructure; and (2) policy formation stands to gain from foreseeing as fully and clearly as possible the probable…

  17. Impact of the Adoption of Tobacco-Free Campus Policies on Student Enrollment at Colleges and Universities, North Carolina, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kimberly D.; Yu, Dongqing; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Ranney, Leah M.; Simons, Daniel J.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: College and university administrators have expressed concern that adoption of tobacco-free policies may reduce applications and enrollment. This study examines adoption and implementation of 100% tobacco-free campus policies by institutions of higher education on applications and enrollment. Participants: North Carolina private colleges…

  18. Evidence Use and the Common Core Standards Movement: From Problem Definition to Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite calls for research-based policies, other types of evidence also influence education policy, including personal experience, professional expertise, and normative values. This article focuses on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative, examining how research use varied over stages of the process and how it was integrated with other…

  19. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  20. Movements, Countermovements and Policy Adoption: The Case of Right-to-Work Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Research on social movements and public policy has expanded tremendously in recent years, yet little of this work considers the role of movement opponents in the political process or how the movement-countermovement dynamic is influential in contests over policy. This historical study begins to fill this void by analyzing the contestation between…

  1. Constructing Teacher Agency in Response to the Constraints of Education Policy: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on agency literature, this paper demonstrates how teachers' professional agency emerged when seemingly conflicting strategies were imposed on them in policy reform. Policy discourse is often linked to performance and accountability measures, which teachers respond to in a number of ways. Some education researchers identify tensions caused…

  2. The three Ts of adopting tobacco-free policies on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Fallin, Amanda; Darville, Audrey; Kercsmar, Sarah E; McCann, Melissa; Record, Rachael A

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a 3-pronged compliance strategy to implement a tobacco-free campus policy at 1 large, land grant public university in the South, and evaluates its impact on outcomes and costs. Although there has been a recent wave of tobacco-free colleges, policy restrictiveness and implementation vary, and compliance remains a challenge. The 3 Ts strategy (Tell-Treat-Train) involves regular, consistent communications, access to tobacco treatment medications and counseling, and ongoing training of supervisors and student leaders. Administrative support, access to tobacco treatment, campus buy-in, sustained communications, and careful implementation planning are critical to instituting a tobacco-free university policy.

  3. U.S. Congress Science Committee report aims to provide blueprint for “third era” in science policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Rep. Verne Ehlers (R-Mich.) often mentions that the end of the Cold War brought the United States into its third “mega-era” of science policy. The first period stretched until World War II. The second period was defined by the Cold War, which was influenced by Vannevar Bush's 1945 study, “Science: The Endless Frontier.” That document urged the federal government to fund research in support of national security, public health, and economic strength.

  4. Language Learning as Culture Keeping: Family Language Policies of Transnational Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…

  5. Technology Adoption and Welfare under a Monopoly: An Illustration of Microeconomic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a graphical analysis to determine the importance of quantity for consumer welfare and to examine the manner in which private and social welfare diverge in a monopoly. Criticizes the opinion that technology adoption by a monopoly always assumes a uniformly downward shift in the marginal cost curve. (MJP)

  6. The Desegregation Aims and Demographic Contexts of Magnet Schools: How Parents Choose and Why Siting Policies Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire; Honey, Ngaire

    2015-01-01

    This paper is designed to specify a set of new opportunities for educators, school administrators, and scholars to realize the practical aims and strategic advantages envisioned in magnet schools. The paper is divided into three distinct sections. In Section I, we examine the extensive research literature on parents' choice patterns and…

  7. Citizenship and Nationality in Changing Europe: A Comparative Study of the Aims of Citizenship Education in Russian and Finnish National Education Policy Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses how the formal aims of citizenship education, as declared in legislation and policy documents, have changed since the end of the 1980s in response to the transformation of the political scenery in Finland and the Russian Federation. One central question framing the analysis of Finnish citizenship education is whether…

  8. Teaching the Very Able Child: Developing a Policy and Adopting Strategies for Provision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Belle

    This guide is intended to provide guidelines, from a British perspective, for group discussion of issues relevant to developing a school policy to meet the needs of students who are very able. The guide utilizes short case studies and a series of mindmaps to illustrate issues and highlight key planning and decision-making points. The guide begins…

  9. Fair pricing law prompts most California hospitals to adopt policies to protect uninsured patients from high charges.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Glenn; Fonkych, Katya

    2013-06-01

    Millions of uninsured Americans rely on hospital emergency departments (EDs) for medical care. Throughout the United States, uninsured patients treated in or admitted to the hospital through the ED receive hospital bills based on what hospitals call "billed charges." These charges are much higher than those paid by insured patients. In 2006 California approved "fair pricing" legislation to protect uninsured patients from having to pay full billed charges. We found that by 2011 most California hospitals had responded to the law by adopting financial assistance policies to make care more affordable for the state's 6.8 million uninsured people. Ninety-seven percent of California hospitals reported that they offered free care to uninsured patients with incomes at or below 100 percent of the federal poverty level. California's approach offers a promising policy option to other states seeking to protect the uninsured from receiving bills based on full billed charges.

  10. Fostering better policy adoption and inter-disciplinary communication in healthcare: A qualitative analysis of practicing physicians’ common interests

    PubMed Central

    Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Collins, Jeremy D.; Chrisman, Howard B.; Milad, Magdy P.; Vogelzang, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In response to limited physician adoption of various healthcare initiatives, we sought to propose and assess a novel approach to policy development where one first characterizes diverse physician groups’ common interests, using a medical student and constructivist grounded theory. Methods In 6 months, a medical student completed 36 semi-structured interviews with interventional radiologists, gynecologists, and vascular surgeons that were systematically analyzed according to constructivist grounded theory to identifying common themes. Common drivers of clinical decision making and professional values across 3 distinct specialty groups were derived from physicians’ descriptions of their clinical decision making, stories, and concerns. Results Common drivers of clinical decision making included patient preference/benefit, experience, reimbursement, busyness/volume, and referral networks. Common values included honesty, trustworthiness, loyalty, humble service, compassion and perseverance, and practical wisdom. Although personal gains were perceived as important interests, such values were easily sacrificed for the good of patients or other non-financial interests. This balance was largely dependent on the incentives and security provided by physicians’ environments. Conclusions Using a medical student interviewer and constructivist grounded theory is a feasible means of collecting rich qualitative data to guide policy development. Healthcare administrators and medical educators should consider incorporating this methodology early in policy development to anticipate how value differences between physician groups will influence their acceptance of policies and other broad healthcare initiatives. PMID:28235088

  11. Parent Adoption of School Communications Technology: A 12-School Experiment of Default Enrollment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Peter; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Providing parents access to their child's grades, missing assignment information, or personalized teacher suggestions has been shown to improve parental engagement and increase student achievement for low-income, minority students. This project aims to test an automated, scalable text-message system designed to improve outcomes for low-income…

  12. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  13. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Energy Policy Instruments for the Adoption of Renewable Energy: Case of Wind Energy in the Pacific Northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abotah, Remal

    The wide use of renewable energy technologies for generating electricity can be seen as one way of meeting environmental and climate change challenges along with a progression to a low-carbon economy. A large number of policy instruments have been formed and employed to support the adoption of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector. However, the success of these policies in achieving their goals relies on how effective they are in satisfying their targets and thus increasing renewable energy adoption. One measurement for effectiveness of policy instruments can be their contribution to the input of the process of renewable energy adoption and their effect on satisfying regional goal. The objective of this research is evaluate the effectiveness of energy policy instruments on increasing the adoption of renewable energy by developing a comprehensive evaluation model. Criteria used in this assessment depend on five perspectives that are perceived by decision makers as important for adoption process. The decision model linked the perspectives to policy targets and various energy policy instruments. These perspectives are: economic, social, political, environmental and technical. The research implemented the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized policy assessment framework. Data for wind energy adoption in the Pacific Northwest region were collected as a case study and application for the model. Experts' qualitative judgments were collected and quantified using the pair-wise comparison method and the final rankings and effectiveness of policy alternatives with respect to the mission were identified. Results of this research identified economic feasibility improvement of renewable energy projects as the most influential perspective and that renewable portfolio standards and tax credits are the two most effective criteria to accomplish that. The research also applied sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis to identify the

  15. Influence of regional development policies and clean technology adoption on future air pollution exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Bai, Song; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Handy, Susan L.; Gao, Shengyi; Lund, Jay R.; Sullivan, Dana Coe; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2010-02-01

    Future air pollution emissions in the year 2030 were estimated for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California using a combined system of land use, mobile, off-road, stationary, area, and biogenic emissions models. Four scenarios were developed that use different assumptions about the density of development and level of investment in transportation infrastructure to accommodate the expected doubling of the SJV population in the next 20 years. Scenario 1 reflects current land-use patterns and infrastructure while scenario 2 encouraged compact urban footprints including redevelopment of existing urban centers and investments in transit. Scenario 3 allowed sprawling development in the SJV with reduced population density in existing urban centers and construction of all planned freeways. Scenario 4 followed currently adopted land use and transportation plans for the SJV. The air quality resulting from these urban development scenarios was evaluated using meteorology from a winter stagnation event that occurred on December 15th, 2000 to January 7th 2001. Predicted base-case PM2.5 mass concentrations within the region exceeded 35 μg m -3 over the 22-day episode. Compact growth reduced the PM2.5 concentrations by ˜1 μg m -3 relative to the base-case over most of the SJV with the exception of increases (˜1 μg m -3) in urban centers driven by increased concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Low-density development increased the PM2.5 concentrations by 1-4 μg m -3 over most of the region, with decreases (0.5-2 μg m -3) around urban areas. Population-weighted average PM2.5 concentrations were very similar for all development scenarios ranging between 16 and 17.4 μg m -3. Exposure to primary PM components such as EC and OC increased 10-15% for high density development scenarios and decreased by 11-19% for low-density scenarios. Patterns for secondary PM components such as nitrate and ammonium ion were almost exactly reversed, with a 10

  16. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    PubMed Central

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  17. AN EARLY ADMISSIONS PROGRAM. A COMMITTEE REPORT ON SCHOOL PLANNING FOR ADOPTING AN EARLY ADMISSIONS POLICY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF MINNESOTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGSTROM, HOWARD E.; AND OTHERS

    IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT STUDY THE PROBLEM INVOLVED IN EARLY ADMISSION AND ADOPT A LOCAL POLICY PERMITTING THE ADMISSION OF QUALIFIED PUPILS REGARDLESS OF PRESENT AGE REQUIREMENTS. THE LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, AFTER AN INITIAL SCREENING OF APPLICANTS, ASSUMED THE COST OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING IN ALL CASES WHERE THE COST OF SUCH…

  18. The Elevation of Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine to the Status of an International Journal After Adopting an English-Only Policy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use bibliometric analyses to determine whether Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine (hereafter also referred to as Annals) became an international journal after adopting an English-only policy in 2011. Methods Articles from the third issue of 2011 to the third issue of 2015 were analyzed according to the following parameters: whether the research was supported by funding, country of authorship, impact factor, total citations, the countries of researchers who cited Annals; the journals that cited Annals; and the Hirsch index. Results One hundred twenty-eight (34.2%) of the 374 original articles were supported by research funds. The main authors were from Korea (550/556, 98.9%), the USA (3), Iran (2), Japan (1), Turkey (1), and the United Kingdom (1). The manually calculated impact factors in 2013 and 2014 were 0.582 and 0.667, respectively. The total annual citations from years 2012 to 2015 were 15, 130, 252, and 189, respectively. The countries of residence of the main authors who cited Annals were the USA (146), Korea (89), and China (49). The journals that cited Annals most frequently were the Journal of Physical Therapy (34), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (15), and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (13). The Hirsch index was 9. Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the change of the language policy of Annals to English-only was successful in elevating the journal to the international level. The journal's aim of sharing up-to-date knowledge dedicated to advancing the care of the disabled and enhancing their everyday abilities and quality of life has been satisfactorily realized. PMID:26605163

  19. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  20. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  1. Adoption of Knowledge Management by the Sri Lankan University Librarians in the Light of the National Policy on University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijetunge, Pradeepa

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of knowledge and provides a definition of Knowledge Management. It also gives an insight into the Sri Lankan University context and the background which required the national policy reforms on universities. It also describes the four key areas of the national policy on university education and the knowledge…

  2. On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Christopher C.

    On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy. Christopher C Lazzaro. The primary purpose of this research is to understand how and why members at each of the three levels of the education system within a local-control state made the decisions they did in supporting or hindering the adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards. This research concentrates on three levels of the education system in a local-control state; 1) the state level, 2) the district level, and 3) the school/teacher level, while investigating the following questions: 1. To what extent, and in what ways, do members in each of the three levels of the state education system advocate for adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards? 2. Are the members in each of the three levels motivated or compelled to consider adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards, why or why not? 3. To what extent, and in what ways, do the members in each of the three levels take into account science epistemology in their overall consideration of adoption/implementation of the NGSS? The data drew from a series of interviews from a prior study, "Challenges of Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards in Local-Control States in the U.S." (Sevian, Foster, & Scheff, 2012). After these data were coded and analyzed around the three research questions, this phenomenographic research study identified four key findings: Key Finding 1 - As the District Coordinators are uniquely situated within the state education system to be able to see both the on-the-ground practical implications and the high-level policy pressures of adopting and implementing the NGSS, they reflect the deepest level of awareness of how to best advocate for adoption and implementation of the NGSS. Key Finding 2 - Motivation to adopt and

  3. Classifying Adoption of Sustainability Policies and Programs: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Development of a Community Sustainability Typology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how and why different communities engage with sustainability policies and actions is of critical importance for furthering implementation of innovative and conventional sustainability strategies. Despite this importance, an understanding of how and why communities a...

  4. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  5. "If it isn't ultimately aimed at policy, it's not worth doing": interview of George W. Comstock by Alfredo Morabia.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    George W. Comstock (1915-2007), MD, MPH, DrPH, was lecturer and then professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health from 1956 to 2007 and served as editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Epidemiology from 1979 to 1988. This interview of George W. Comstock took place in Hagerstown, Maryland, in the spring of 1990. The selection of questions and answers published here represent approximately 10% of the whole interview, which had been reviewed and hand-corrected by Dr. Comstock. He first describes how epidemiology was taught at Hopkins in the 1950s and 1960s. He then distinguishes "epidemiology per se" from a "practical epidemiology" that works closely with local health departments, and he finally expresses his wish that in the future, epidemiology would become more widely involved in policy and accepted by policy makers.

  6. Conflict and Compromise in Public Health Policy: Analysis of Changes Made to Five Competitive Food Legislative Proposals Prior to Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinour, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Competitive foods in schools have historically been scrutinized for their ubiquity and poor nutritional quality, leading many states to enact legislation limiting the availability and accessibility of these items. Evaluations of these policy approaches show their promise in improving the healthfulness of school food environments, considered an…

  7. New Public Management as a Global Education Policy: Its Adoption and Re-Contextualization in a Southern European Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Curran, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In the education sector, new public management (NPM) has crystallized in policies such as school autonomy, professionalization of school principals, standardized evaluation and teachers' accountability, and it has been widely disseminated by international organizations, such as the OECD, which enjoy a great prestige when it comes to frame…

  8. Proliferation Security Initiative: Agencies Have Adopted Policies and Procedures but Steps Needed to Meet Reporting Requirement and to Measure Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Participation, Fiscal Years 2009-2011 12 Figure Figure 1: Sample Logic Model 18 Abbreviations 9/11 Act Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11...has previously identified such frameworks, called logic models , that agencies could adopt even if they face performance measurement challenges similar...31A logic model is an evaluation tool used to describe a program’s—or initiative’s, in the case of PSI—components and

  9. The Impacts of Changes to Nevada's Net Metering Policy on the Financial Performance and Adoption of Distributed Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben; Gleason, Mike

    2017-01-01

    As the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV) has continued to rapidly increase, a national conversation has begun about the efficacy of full-retail net metering as a means of achieving the diverse objectives of electricity pricing. This conversation has prompted studies that have primarily focused on the total costs and benefits of DPV. To compliment those studies, we here characterize the potential impacts of tariff design on the customer-economics and adoption of DPV, where recent changes in Nevada are taken as a case study. We show that an increase in fixed charges more strongly impacts the payback period of small systems, and a decrease in credit for exported electricity more strongly impacts the payback period of large systems. We project that these combined changes will reduce DPV adoption in Nevada; total capacity in 2030 was projected to reach up to 363 MW, with 226 MW having already been installed at the end of the second quarter of 2016. In contrast, if full retail net metering had continued, DPV capacity was projected to reach up to 1,280 MW at the end of 2030, which would account for an estimated 6.5% of the total sales of electricity by NV Energy at that time. We project that the DPV systems will decrease the gross revenue from bill collection by $48 million per year under the new tariffs, whereas the decrease in gross revenue could have reached $255 million per year if full retail net metering had been continued. Although these results are given in the context of Nevada, the trends shown are intended to help information similar upcoming decisions in other states.

  10. [The model of state health policy and the system of medical assistance adopted in present-day Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Vianna, A L

    1992-04-01

    A contribution to the analysis of the health reform presently occurring in Brazil is presented. The need to consolidate the theoretical background which supports the advances already achieved in order to understand recent events in the area is stressed. In this regard, the health reform is understood as a question transcending the mere administrative and managerial aspect of the health system, since it necessarily involves a redefinition of the concepts of health, disease and the medical practice adopted by the dominant mechanistic paradigm of medicine. The recent events which delineate the health system in Brazil are analysed and criticised in the light of this concern.

  11. Adopting a Water-Food-Energy nexus approach to explore the synergies and trade-offs of food-water policies in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Lechon, Yolanda; de la Rúa, Cristina; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Spain is a semi-arid country and faces a strong competition over scarce water resources by the different sectors. Agriculture is the largest water consumer and because of this it is often at the core of much of the disputes over water. Several policy measures have been implemented in the course of the last decades to ameliorate water scarcity problems. The irrigation modernization plan is probably one of the most ambitious plans implemented so far (with a total investment of nearly 3,800 mill € involving the modernization of over 1 million irrigated ha), and was developed with the double aim of increasing the efficiency of agricultural water use and strength the resilience and competitiveness of the Spanish irrigation sector. In this research we examine the implications of the irrigation modernization plan by adopting a nexus approach. In particular we assess the trends in water, land and energy footprints associated to agriculture during the period 2000-2011 to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. Likewise, we used a life cycle analysis approach to assess the implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Our results show that the land footprint of irrigated agriculture has increased 2% (from 3.4 mill ha in 2000 to 3,6 mill ha in 2011). Meanwhile, the water footprint of irrigated agriculture has decreased by 8% (from 17,078 hm3 in 2000 to 15,573 hm3 in 2011). Beyond the net water savings, there has been a major shift in the composition of the water footprint. In the year 2000, 77% of the blue agricultural water footprint was linked to surface water, while in the year 2011 over 55% of the water consumed by agriculture is groundwater. The modernization of irrigation technologies alongside with the shift from a predominantly surface water footprint to groundwater has boosted the energy footprint of irrigation by 56% (2442 GWh in 2000 to 3803 GWh in 2011). This rise in the energy bill has meant an increase of 9% in the GHG emissions. Yet, this GHG

  12. Structural violence in the context of drug policy and initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm in contemporary Brazil: a review.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco I

    2012-01-01

    Brazil, the 6th largest world economy, has experienced rapid economic, demographic, and social structural changes during the last decade. Notwithstanding, Brazil being one of the most unequal societies worldwide, 40 million of 200 million Brazilians have moved from poverty to middle-class standards during this period. This review analyzes the success of different Brazilian initiatives aiming to reduce drug consumption-related harms, as well as the failed attempts to curb structural violence, despite some very recent initiatives have yet to be fully implemented and evaluated.

  13. The professional psychiatric/mental health nurse: skills, competencies and supports required to adopt recovery-orientated policy in practice.

    PubMed

    Cusack, E; Killoury, F; Nugent, L E

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Nationally and internationally there has been a movement away from the traditional medical model towards a more holistic recovery-oriented approach to mental health care delivery. At every level of service provision the emphasis is firmly on recovery and on facilitating active partnership working and involvement of service users, their carers and family members. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to identify on a national level specific areas of care that are addressed most or least by psychiatric and mental health nurses in care planning for mental health service users in Ireland. In addition, this is the first study to identify nationally how the recovery approach is being implemented by psychiatric and mental health nurses in relation to current recovery-orientated policy. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental healthcare staff require more education on the recovery concept and this needs to be multidisciplinary team wide. Further research is required to establish how best to develop a shared approach to working with service users and their families within the mental healthcare environment. Further investigation is required to help determine how funding could be allocated appropriately for education and training and service development nationally.

  14. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  15. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  16. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  17. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  18. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  19. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development.

  20. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  1. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  2. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  3. AIM High Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    The AIM High Program was developed for elementary school children in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District who demonstrate unusually high ability, interest, and motivation in language arts, mathematics, science, and art. Students are identified for the program through standardized test scores, teacher recommendation, student interest,…

  4. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  5. The financial impact of a state adopting a personal/philosophical belief exemption policy: modeling the cost of pertussis disease in infants, children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wells, Katelyn B; Omer, Saad B

    2012-09-07

    State school immunization exemption policies help reduce the risk of individual and community disease. Assessing the costs of vaccine preventable disease associated with a state adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy is useful for making future policy decisions. Two formulas were developed to estimate the infant, child and adolescent hospitalization and non-medical costs of pertussis disease that are associated with adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy. The parameter estimates were obtained from peer reviewed literature and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The state of Iowa was used as an example in order to demonstrate how the formulas can be applied. The annual projected impact of pertussis disease in Iowa is $273,365 without a philosophical/personal belief exemption policy and an average of $410,047 (range of $281,566-$582,267) with adding a personal belief exemption policy. We project that adding a philosophical/personal belief exemption will cost 50% more dollars annually.

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. Elementary Classroom Teachers' Adoption of Physical Activity Promotion in the Context of a Statewide Policy: An Innovation Diffusion and Socio-Ecologic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Caputi, Peter; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) is an effective means for increasing children's school-based physical activity. In the context of a South Carolina policy requiring elementary schools to provide children with 90 min of physical activity beyond physical education every week, the purpose of this study was to test a…

  8. Geographies of generation: age restrictions in international adoption

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2015-01-01

    International adoption relocates minors, and only minors, from one country to another. The centrality of age to adoptive migration may prevent us from seeing the significance of generation: the prospective parent’s age is also examined and evaluated for its relationship to the child’s age and what this relationship will mean for the creation of a family. Because international adoption results in children crossing borders to enter new kinship formations, the assumptions under which it operate require closer geographical analysis. Generation, or the age range that separates dependents and their caretakers, is a significant but unstated motivator of international adoption policies and practices. This article argues that a normative and biologised sense of intergenerational difference is embedded in international adoption. The presence of generational ideology in national laws and international norms regarding international adoption demonstrate a broader sense in which policies situate more privileged families as acceptable and others as inadequate. I draw material for this analysis from both legal documents and documents which aim to provide interpretation of those laws, with reference to international adoptions from Peru. PMID:26766924

  9. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  10. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  11. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  12. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    PubMed

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  13. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  14. The Impact of Adoption on Members of the Triad. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the third in a series to use an ethics-based…

  15. The Role of Race, Culture, and National Origin in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the first in a series to use an ethics-based…

  16. Alexandra Masaitis, UNR NV, USA. PhD Grad St. Principles of Adoption of the Successful Environmental Policies and Practices Used in Developed Countries into the Russian Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for mining operations in Russia. Where the fundamental principals were public health, environmental and biodiversity impact, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. Every criterion has grade level of probability that directly affects quarterly fees. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, international exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices. The study showed the necessity for the Russian Federation mining industry to adopt the more successful environmental policies and practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation, and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  17. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  18. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  19. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  20. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  1. Lawmakers Take Aim at Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on the issue of bullying that rose on state legislative agendas this year, with 21 states passing anti-bullying laws--some of which expanded schools' responsibilities to keep a check on any harassment that goes on among students. States set out to write clear definitions of bullying and to regulate school policies and…

  2. Data-driven agent-based modeling, with application to rooftop solar adoption

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haifeng; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Letchford, Joshua; ...

    2016-01-25

    Agent-based modeling is commonly used for studying complex system properties emergent from interactions among many agents. We present a novel data-driven agent-based modeling framework applied to forecasting individual and aggregate residential rooftop solar adoption in San Diego county. Our first step is to learn a model of individual agent behavior from combined data of individual adoption characteristics and property assessment. We then construct an agent-based simulation with the learned model embedded in artificial agents, and proceed to validate it using a holdout sequence of collective adoption decisions. We demonstrate that the resulting agent-based model successfully forecasts solar adoption trends andmore » provides a meaningful quantification of uncertainty about its predictions. We utilize our model to optimize two classes of policies aimed at spurring solar adoption: one that subsidizes the cost of adoption, and another that gives away free systems to low-income house- holds. We find that the optimal policies derived for the latter class are significantly more efficacious, whereas the policies similar to the current California Solar Initiative incentive scheme appear to have a limited impact on overall adoption trends.« less

  3. Data-driven agent-based modeling, with application to rooftop solar adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haifeng; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Letchford, Joshua; Lakkaraju, Kiran

    2016-01-25

    Agent-based modeling is commonly used for studying complex system properties emergent from interactions among many agents. We present a novel data-driven agent-based modeling framework applied to forecasting individual and aggregate residential rooftop solar adoption in San Diego county. Our first step is to learn a model of individual agent behavior from combined data of individual adoption characteristics and property assessment. We then construct an agent-based simulation with the learned model embedded in artificial agents, and proceed to validate it using a holdout sequence of collective adoption decisions. We demonstrate that the resulting agent-based model successfully forecasts solar adoption trends and provides a meaningful quantification of uncertainty about its predictions. We utilize our model to optimize two classes of policies aimed at spurring solar adoption: one that subsidizes the cost of adoption, and another that gives away free systems to low-income house- holds. We find that the optimal policies derived for the latter class are significantly more efficacious, whereas the policies similar to the current California Solar Initiative incentive scheme appear to have a limited impact on overall adoption trends.

  4. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  7. Essays on Policy Evaluation with Endogenous Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, experimental and quasi-experimental methods have been favored by researchers in empirical economics, as they provide unbiased causal estimates. However, when implementing a program, it is often not possible to randomly assign subjects to treatment, leading to a possible endogeneity bias. This dissertation consists of two…

  8. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  9. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  10. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  11. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  12. Language Policy and Language Planning in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjioannou, Xenia; Tsiplakou, Stavroula; Kappler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the…

  13. TRICARE Policy and Operations: Evolving to Support the Quadruple Aim

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Services Demonstration - Background  Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) – A promising educational / training intervention for treatment of autism ...Option (ECHO) – Statute permits provision of special education and training services to ADFMs 2011 MHS Conference 13 Autism Services Demonstration...as those receiving only ECHO services 2011 MHS Conference 16 Autism Services Demonstration - Experience  Autism Survey results: – Half the parents

  14. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  15. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  16. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  17. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  18. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  19. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory.

  20. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  1. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  2. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption...

  4. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional...

  7. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  11. 10 CFR 1021.103 - Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. 1021.103 Section 1021.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES General § 1021.103 Adoption of CEQ NEPA regulations. DOE adopts the regulations for...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional...

  13. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  14. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  15. Families made by science. Arnold Gesell and the technologies of modern child adoption.

    PubMed

    Herman, E

    2001-12-01

    This essay considers the effort to transform child adoption into a modern scientific enterprise during the first half of the twentieth century via a case study of Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), a Yale developmentalist well known for his studies of child growth and the applied technologies that emerged from them: normative scales promising to measure and predict development. Scientific adoption was a central aspiration for many human scientists, helping professionals, and state regulators. They aimed to reduce the numerous hazards presumed to be inherent in adopting children, especially infants, who were not one's "own." By importing insights and techniques drawn from the world of science into the practical world of family formation, scientific adoption stood for kinship by design. This case study explores one point of intersection between the history of science and the history of social welfare and social policy, simultaneously illustrating the cultural progress and power of scientific authority and the numerous obstacles to its practical realization.

  16. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  17. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  18. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  19. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  20. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  1. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  2. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Moran, Dominic; Barnes, Andrew P; Baret, Philippe V

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS) that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives, and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality, and policy implementation for SI.

  3. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  4. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  5. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  6. 77 FR 47800 - Adoption of Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... authority among agencies. The recommendation proposes some reforms aimed at improving coordination of agency... Policies on Families (Pub. L. 105-277, sec. 654), an agency might add an entry to the chart stating...-legislative rules (such as interpretive rules, policy statements, and guidance documents) as compared to...

  7. Healthy public policy A conceptual cognitive framework.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, France; Turgeon, Jean; Dallaire, Clémence

    2007-04-01

    More than three decades ago, the report A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (1974) highlighted the significance of other determinants than the healthcare system. The adoption of healthy public policy was identified in the Ottawa Charter (1986) as one of five strategies aiming to promote health. It must now be acknowledged that even if we have a better understanding of health determinants, the latter are not necessarily taken into consideration when developing public policies. The purpose of this paper is to help foster a better understanding of the healthy public policies by presenting a conceptual framework that is inspired by the Advocacy Coalition Framework developed by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999). On the one hand, this paper intends to show the relevance of the notion of subsystem of public policies in healthy public policy process. On the other, it aims to convince that it is necessary to channel the analysis around the decision-making process, the prospective evaluation of public policies and the knowledge transfer and appropriation process. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the role of knowledge, values or beliefs in the formulation and adoption of public policies. After briefly summarizing the theoretical developments in studies on public policies, the logic and components of the ACF are introduced. The main criticisms regarding the ACF are then examined, followed by an introduction of the conceptual framework that is adapted to the reality of healthy public policies. The notions of the subsystem of public policy(ies), of process and of learning process are central to this framework.

  8. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  9. A Descriptive Study of the Intent of State Level Textbook Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulley, Michael A.

    In an effort to better understand the intents of those policies that prescribe state-level textbook adoption, a study collected and analyzed data from (1) the textbook adoption statutes of each of the 22 "state adoption" states, (2) documents and policy manuals produced by the state departments of education of each of these 22 states,…

  10. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  11. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  12. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  13. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Vogt, T M; Boles, S M

    1999-01-01

    Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the authors propose a model (termed the RE-AIM model) for evaluating public health interventions that assesses 5 dimensions: reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels (e.g., individual, clinic or organization, community) and interact to determine the public health or population-based impact of a program or policy. The authors discuss issues in evaluating each of these dimensions and combining them to determine overall public health impact. Failure to adequately evaluate programs on all 5 dimensions can lead to a waste of resources, discontinuities between stages of research, and failure to improve public health to the limits of our capacity. The authors summarize strengths and limitations of the RE-AIM model and recommend areas for future research and application. PMID:10474547

  14. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  15. 24 CFR 10.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 10.16 Section 10.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.16 Adoption of a final rule. All timely...

  16. 24 CFR 10.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 10.16 Section 10.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.16 Adoption of a final rule. All timely...

  17. 24 CFR 10.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 10.16 Section 10.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.16 Adoption of a final rule. All timely...

  18. 24 CFR 10.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 10.16 Section 10.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.16 Adoption of a final rule. All timely...

  19. 24 CFR 10.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 10.16 Section 10.16 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.16 Adoption of a final rule. All timely...

  20. 44 CFR 1.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adoption of a final rule. 1.16 Section 1.16 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Rulemaking § 1.16 Adoption of...

  1. Intercountry Adoption: A Comparison between France and England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    Examined the intercountry adoption experiences of 100 French and 100 English families, comparing policy in each country. Found a lack of effective and sensitive management of the introductory meetings between prospective parents and adoptive children, and of adequate birth records information. (HTH)

  2. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  3. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  4. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  5. Pragmatics of Policy: The Compliance of Dutch Environmental Policy Instruments to European Union Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today’s environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  6. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    PubMed

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  7. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  8. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  9. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  10. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  11. Partitioning the adoption process to better predict permanency.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tom; Press, Alan; Billings, Peggy; Moore, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Under federal outcome standards established by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, discharges to adoption are expected to occur within 24 months of the most recent removal from home for at least 32% of cases. In the research recounted here, adoption is treated as a process composed of two discrete steps: adoptive placement and adoption finalization. It was hypothesized that the predictors of completion may differ for each step, offering direction for practice and policy. Predictors included child characteristics, maltreatment history, placement history, system variables, and service delivery variables. Children's adoption event history was viewed through five annual entry cohorts, including all children with adoption case plans, rather than the exit cohorts of the federal measure, which includes only adopted children. Over this five-year period, the length of time from removal to adoption finalization decreased significantly, primarily as a result of decreased time from adoption placement to finalization. Child and family characteristics and abuse/neglect history were found to be much more predictive in the analysis of timely adoption placement than of time from placement to finalization. These and other significant predictors suggest strategies for improving timely adoption outcomes.

  12. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  13. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  14. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  15. Faculty Members' Instructional Priorities for Adopting OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…

  16. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  17. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  18. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  19. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  20. Enhancing adoptive parenting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan; Monck, Elizabeth; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Sharac, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate two parenting programmes designed for adopters of children late placed from care. Adoptive parents, with children between 3 and 8 years who were screened to have serious behavioural problems early in the placement, participated in home-based, manualized, parenting programmes delivered by trained and supervised family social workers. The adopters who agreed to join the study were randomly allocated to one of two parenting interventions or to a "services as usual" group. Baseline, immediate post-intervention and six-month follow-ups were assessed using questionnaires and adopter interviews. No cases were lost to follow-up at any point and satisfaction was high with both parenting interventions. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference (p < 0.007) was found for "satisfaction with parenting" in favour of the intervention group (Effect Size d = 0.7). Negative parenting approaches were reduced in the intervention group. However, no significant differences in child problems were found between the intervention groups and control group, adjusting for baseline scores. Costs analysis showed that a relatively modest investment in post-adoption support would be well spent in improving adopters' satisfaction with parenting in the intervention group compared to the routine service group.

  1. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  2. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  3. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    PubMed

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  4. ENHANCING PRESCRIPTION DRUG INNOVATION AND ADOPTION

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, G. Caleb; O’Connor, Alec B.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its Innovation and cost-effectiveness. The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a market place in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

  5. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  6. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  7. The Adoption of Prepaid Tuition and Savings Plans in the American States: An Event History Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; McLendon, Michael K.; Hearn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of far-reaching policy experimentation in state financing of higher education. Between 1986 and 1999, 21 states adopted prepaid college tuition plans. Thirty-one states adopted some form of college savings plan. Both kinds of policies were designed to enhance the affordability of higher education during a…

  8. Marksmanship Aiming and Tracking Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    1 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 91- 10218 ®Disk...2 THEN - ISO .- ’ DEINE X AIM POINT ADJUSTMENTS 8125, 3 ThEN G3E - DEFINE Y AIM POINT ADJUSTMKSTS 18130 *F -. - ,:.NE’S. 780 SEFINE BAiMLESIGT RANGE

  9. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  10. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual…

  11. Improving the Textbook Adoption Process in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks were centrally selected in Taiwan until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…

  12. Policy Analysis: A Tool for Setting District Computer Use Policy. Paper and Report Series No. 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.

    This report explores the use of policy analysis as a tool for setting computer use policy in a school district by discussing the steps in the policy formation and implementation processes and outlining how policy analysis methods can contribute to the creation of effective policy. Factors related to the adoption and implementation of innovations…

  13. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  14. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  15. Who Adopts Queer and Pansexual Sexual Identities?

    PubMed

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2016-12-02

    Some nonheterosexual individuals are eschewing lesbian/gay and bisexual identities for queer and pansexual identities. The present study aimed to examine the sexual and demographic characteristics of nonheterosexual individuals who adopt these labels. A convenience sample of 2,220 nonheterosexual (1,459 lesbian/gay, 413 bisexual, 168 queer, 146 pansexual, and 34 other "write-in") individuals were recruited for a cross-sectional online survey. In support of our hypotheses, those adopting pansexual identities were younger than those adopting lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities, and those adopting queer and pansexual identities were more likely to be noncisgender than cisgender, and more likely to be cisgender women than men. The majority of pansexual individuals demonstrated sexual orientation indices within the bisexual range, and showed equivalent patterns of sexual attraction, romantic attraction, sexual behavior, and partner gender as bisexual-identified men and women. In contrast, three-quarters of queer men, and more than half of queer women, reported sexual attraction in the homosexual range. This study found that rather than a general movement toward nontraditional sexual identities, queer and pansexual identities appear most appealing to nonheterosexual women and noncisgender individuals. These findings contribute important information regarding who adopts queer and pansexual identities in contemporary sexual minority populations.

  16. Perceptions about community applications of RE-AIM in the promotion of evidence-based programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-03-01

    Despite the growing literature about the RE-AIM framework as a planning, implementation, and evaluation tool, little is known about practitioners' adoption of the framework, confidence to utilize framework elements, or perceptions of its usefulness. To assess how RE-AIM was implemented by state aging service providers and public health partners, data were collected using an Internet-delivered, cross-sectional survey from 40 stakeholders in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults. Most participants agreed the framework was useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation and relevant for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet nearly half felt monitoring RE-AIM requirements requires special expertise, and one third felt the different RE-AIM elements were difficult to measure. Findings indicate the RE-AIM's appropriateness and utility for planning and evaluating the dissemination of evidence-based programs to older adults; however, additional trainings, resources, and technical assistance are warranted to enhance uptake in community-wide intervention efforts.

  17. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  18. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  19. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  20. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  1. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  2. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  3. Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

  4. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  6. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  7. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  8. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  9. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  10. AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2016-11-01

    AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

  11. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  12. A review of school drug policies and their impact on youth substance use.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Beyers, Jennifer M; Lloyd, Sian; Lafazia, Andrea N; Toumbourou, John W; Arthur, Michael W; Catalano, Richard F

    2004-06-01

    Youth substance use is an important social and health problem in the United States, Australia and other Western nations. Schools are recognized as important sites for prevention efforts and school substance use policies are a key component of health promotion in schools. The first part of this paper reviews the known status of school policies on tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs in a number of Western countries and the existing evidence for the effectiveness of school drug policy in preventing drug use. The review shows that most schools in developed countries have substance use policies but that there is substantial variation in the comprehensiveness of these policies (i.e. the breadth of people, places and times of day that are explicitly subject to policy prohibitions), and the orientation of their enforcement (e.g. punitive versus remedial), both across and within schools. The few studies of policy impact focus solely on tobacco policy and provide preliminary evidence that more comprehensive and strictly enforced school policies are associated with less smoking. The second part of the paper introduces the International Youth Development Study, a new longitudinal research project aimed at comparing school policies and the developmental course of youth drug use in the United States, where drug policies are abstinence-based, with Australia, which has adopted a harm minimization approach to drug policy.

  13. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  14. Developing a Broadband Adoption Model in the UK Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Mustafee, Navonil; Williams, Michael D.; Lal, Banita

    This research examines the factors affecting the consumer adoption of broadband in the United Kingdom. A conceptual model of broadband adoption was developed by selecting and justifying a number of relevant constructs from the technology adoption literature. The model was then empirically tested by employing survey data that was randomly collected from 358 UK broadband consumers. The findings suggest that, with the exception of one construct that was included in the conceptual model (namely, knowledge), all of the con structs significantly influence consumers when adopting broadband in a UK household. The significant constructs include relative advantage, utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes, primary influence, facilitating conditions resources, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, when considering the behavioral intention and facilitating conditions resources constructs together, they significantly explain UK broad band adoption behavior. The theoretical contri bution of this research is that it determines and integrates the appropriate constructs from the technology adoption literature in order to enhance the knowledge of technology adoption from the consumer's perspective. This research has implications for policy makers and broadband providers since the results of this study can be exploited by the aforementioned stakeholders in order to encourage and promote the adoption and usage of broadband among the general population.

  15. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  16. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  17. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  18. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  19. 78 FR 22771 - Statement of Policy on the Development and Review of Regulations and Policies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... well as take into account various organizational changes since the Policy Statement was adopted. DATES... various organizational changes. These revisions highlight important rulemaking processes and procedures... regulations and statements of policy, the FDIC considers the document's organizational structure, as well...

  20. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  1. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally.

  2. Health policy evolution in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People’s Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. PMID:24740710

  3. [Coping strategies adopted by parents of children with intellectual disabilities].

    PubMed

    Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pereira-Martins, Maria Laura de Paula Lopes

    2016-10-01

    The tasks of caregiving for children with disabilities involve contextual life stressors. The study aimed to investigate the coping strategies used by parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The search included articles published between 2001 and 2015 on the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following key words: intellectual disability, coping, parents, caregivers, family. Thirteen articles were selected, the majority of which adopt a cross-sectional, comparative and quantitative approach. Results indicated that caring for a person with ID is stressful for the family. Parental stress generates changes in the family dynamic and coping strategies are used to facilitate the interaction of the caregiver with the person with ID. Seeking social support in family and professional services, the union of spouses, and search for information, among others, are the main strategies used. Social support was strongly associated with strengthening of the family unit. In contrast, wishful thinking, self-blame, distancing and social isolation were negatively associated with family unity. It is necessary to sensitize health professionals and educators to embrace the theme in public policies and preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  4. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de.

  5. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-08

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statisti-cally analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommenda-tions, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria.

  6. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  7. Thinking Upstream: A 25-Year Retrospective and Conceptual Model Aimed at Reducing Health Inequities.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia G

    Thinking upstream was first introduced into the nursing vernacular in 1990 with the goal of advancing broad and context-rich perspectives of health. Initially invoked as conceptual framing language, upstream precepts were subsequently adopted and adapted by a generation of thoughtful nursing scholars. Their work reduced health inequities by redirecting actions further up etiologic pathways and by emphasizing economic, political, and environmental health determinants. US health care reform has fostered a much broader adoption of upstream language in policy documents. This article includes a semantic exploration of thinking upstream and a new model, the Butterfield Upstream Model for Population Health (BUMP Health).

  8. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design.

  9. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  10. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  11. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  12. Personal Health Record Use in the United States: Forecasting Future Adoption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Background Personal health records (PHRs) offer a tremendous opportunity to generate consumer support in pursing the triple aim of reducing costs, increasing access, and improving care quality. Moreover, surveys in the United States indicate that consumers want Web-based access to their medical records. However, concerns that consumers’ low health information literacy levels and physicians’ resistance to sharing notes will limit PHRs’ utility to a relatively small portion of the population have reduced both the product innovation and policy imperatives. Objective The purpose of our study was 3-fold: first, to report on US consumers’ current level of PHR activity; second, to describe the roles of imitation and innovation influence factors in determining PHR adoption rates; and third, to forecast future PHR diffusion uptake among US consumers under 3 scenarios. Methods We used secondary data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) of US citizens for the survey years 2008, 2011, and 2013. Applying technology diffusion theory and Bass modeling, we evaluated 3 future PHR adoption scenarios by varying the introduction dates. Results All models displayed the characteristic diffusion S-curve indicating that the PHR technology is likely to achieve significant market penetration ahead of meaningful use goals. The best-performing model indicates that PHR adoption will exceed 75% by 2020. Therefore, the meaningful use program targets for PHR adoption are below the rates likely to occur without an intervention. Conclusions The promise of improved care quality and cost savings through better consumer engagement prompted the US Institute of Medicine to call for universal PHR adoption in 1999. The PHR products available as of 2014 are likely to meet and exceed meaningful use stage 3 targets before 2020 without any incentive. Therefore, more ambitious uptake and functionality availability should be incorporated into future goals. PMID:27030105

  13. Security and Policy for Group Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Foster; Carl Kesselman

    2006-07-31

    “Security and Policy for Group Collaboration” was a Collaboratory Middleware research project aimed at providing the fundamental security and policy infrastructure required to support the creation and operation of distributed, computationally enabled collaborations. The project developed infrastructure that exploits innovative new techniques to address challenging issues of scale, dynamics, distribution, and role. To reduce greatly the cost of adding new members to a collaboration, we developed and evaluated new techniques for creating and managing credentials based on public key certificates, including support for online certificate generation, online certificate repositories, and support for multiple certificate authorities. To facilitate the integration of new resources into a collaboration, we improved significantly the integration of local security environments. To make it easy to create and change the role and associated privileges of both resources and participants of collaboration, we developed community wide authorization services that provide distributed, scalable means for specifying policy. These services make it possible for the delegation of capability from the community to a specific user, class of user or resource. Finally, we instantiated our research results into a framework that makes it useable to a wide range of collaborative tools. The resulting mechanisms and software have been widely adopted within DOE projects and in many other scientific projects. The widespread adoption of our Globus Toolkit technology has provided, and continues to provide, a natural dissemination and technology transfer vehicle for our results.

  14. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data.

  15. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  16. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-442 AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be... Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module sec - seconds STD - Standard TV - Technical View AIM-9X Blk II December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:14:10

  17. Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    The Los Angeles Unified School District's Adopt-A-School Program is described as a program where a business or an industry sponsors a school. Some of the ways business and industry can help students are to provide role models, tutor students, give mini-course lectures, share hobbies, offer counseling, give club sponsorship, provide summer…

  18. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  19. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  20. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  1. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  2. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  3. Adoption of new drugs by physicians: a survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background New drugs often substitute others cheaper and with a risk-benefit balance better established. Our aim was to analyse the diffusion of new drugs during the first months of use, examining the differences between family physicians and specialists. Methods Prescription data were obtained of cefditoren, duloxetine, etoricoxib, ezetimibe, levocetirizine, olmesartan, pregabalin and tiotropium 36 months after their launching. We obtained the monthly number of prescriptions per doctor and the number prescribers of each drug by specialty. After discarding those with less than 10 prescriptions during this period, physicians were defined as adopters if the number of prescriptions was over the 25th percentile for each drug and level (primary or secondary care). The diffusion of each drug was studied by determining the number of adopter family physicians throughout the study period. Among the group of adopters, we compared the month of the first prescription by family physicians to that of other specialists using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The adoption of the drugs in primary care follows an exponential diffusion curve that reaches a plateau at month 6 to 23. Tiotropium was the most rapidly and widely adopted drug. Cefditoren spread at a slower rate and was the least adopted. The diffusion of etoricoxib was initially slowed down due to administrative requirements for its prescription. The median time of adoption in the case of family physicians was 4-6 months. For each of the drugs, physicians of a specialty other than family physicians adopted it first. Conclusions The number of adopters of a new drug increases quickly in the first months and reaches a plateau. The number of adopter family physicians varies considerably for different drugs. The adoption of new drugs is faster in specialists. The time of adoption should be considered to promote rational prescribing by providing timely information about new drugs and independent medical education. PMID:22401169

  4. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  5. Rethinking Policy Diffusion: The Interstate Spread of "Finance Innovations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, T. Austin; Tandberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a number of studies have focused on states' adoptions of postsecondary-specific policies. Cutting across much of this research is the presence and influence of interstate diffusion of policy adoptions, a phenomenon for which support is scant. This paper seeks to address this through broadening the categorization of policies beyond…

  6. A roadmap for comparing readmission policies with application to Denmark, England, Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren Rud; Bech, Mickael; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-03-01

    Hospital readmissions receive increasing interest from policy makers because reducing unnecessary readmissions has the potential to simultaneously improve quality and save costs. This paper reviews readmission policies in Denmark, England, Germany and the United States (Medicare system). The suggested roadmap enables researchers and policy makers to systematically compare and analyse readmission policies. We find considerable differences across countries. In Germany, the readmission policy aims to avoid unintended consequences of the introduction of DRG-based payment; it focuses on readmissions of individual patients and hospitals receive only one DRG-based payment for both the initial and the re-admission. In Denmark, England and the US readmission policies aim at quality improvement and focus on readmission rates. In Denmark, readmission rates are publicly reported but payments are not adjusted in relation to readmissions. In England and the US, financial incentives penalise hospitals with readmission rates above a certain benchmark. In England, this benchmark is defined through local clinical review, while it is based on the risk-adjusted national average in the US. At present, not enough evidence exists to give recommendations on the optimal design of readmission policies. The roadmap can be a tool for systematically assessing how elements of other countries' readmission policies can potentially be adopted to improve national policies.

  7. Research misconduct definitions adopted by U.S. research institutions.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Neal, Talicia; Raymond, Austin; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. federal government adopted a uniform definition of research misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP), which became effective in 2001. Institutions must apply this definition of misconduct to federally-funded research to receive funding. While institutions are free to adopt definitions of misconduct that go beyond the federal standard, it is not known how many do. We analyzed misconduct policies from 183 U.S. research institutions and coded them according to thirteen different types of behavior mentioned in the misconduct definition. We also obtained data on the institution's total research funding and public vs. private status, and the year it adopted the definition. We found that more than half (59%) of the institutions in our sample had misconduct policies that went beyond the federal standard. Other than FFP, the most common behaviors included in definitions were "other serious deviations" (45.4%), "significant or material violations of regulations" (23.0%), "misuse of confidential information" (15.8%), "misconduct related to misconduct" (14.8%), "unethical authorship other than plagiarism" (14.2%), "other deception involving data manipulation" (13.1%), and "misappropriation of property/theft" (10.4%). Significantly more definitions adopted in 2001 or later went beyond the federal standard than those adopted before 2001 (73.2% vs. 26.8%), and significantly more definitions adopted by institutions in the lower quartile of total research funding went beyond the federal standard than those adopted by institutions in the upper quartiles. Public vs. private status was not significantly associated with going beyond the federal standard.

  8. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs in each State or territory. State Postadoption ...

  9. Adoption Factors of the Electronic Health Record: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    incentives in the HITECH Act. Limited financial backing and outdated technology were also common barriers frequently mentioned during data review. Future public policy should include incentives commensurate with those in the HITECH Act to maintain strong adoption rates. PMID:27251559

  10. Disease management in Canada: surmounting barriers to adoption.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Christopher R; MacKinnon, Neil J; Sprague, Denise A

    2007-01-01

    Disease Management (DM) programs are used to optimize economic outcomes and improve patient outcomes. Despite this, relative to the United States, Canadian health care organizations have been slow to adopt them. The objective of this article is to examine the concept of DM programs, the existing evidence to support their use and the barriers to their adoption in Canada. Several solutions aimed at overcoming the barriers to DM in Canada are proposed.

  11. 29 CFR 1401.21 - Information policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information policy. 1401.21 Section 1401.21 Labor... Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.21 Information policy. (a) Except for matters specifically... for the public as to statements of policy and interpretation adopted by the agency and still in...

  12. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  13. Impact of Perceived Security on Organizational Adoption of Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Ibrahim; Yardimci Cetin, Yasemin; Turetken, Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Organizational adoption of new technologies is a practically important research area. The present study aims to investigate the impact of perceived security on organizational adoption of mobile communication technologies, specifically smartphones. For this purpose, a research model is developed extending the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The research model is tested using a structural equation modeling based on data that were collected from senior managers of 201 private sector organizations in Turkey. The results show that, along with the traditional constructs of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, perceived security significantly affects organizations' adoption of smartphones. Both the theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  15. Critique and Complexity: Presenting a More Effective Way to Conceptualise the Knowledge Adoption Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The process of "knowledge adoption" is defined as the means through which policy-makers digest, accept then "take on board" research findings. It is argued in Brown, however, that current models designed to explain knowledge adoption activity fail to fully account for the complexities that affect its operation. Within this…

  16. The 2005 Minnesota Internet Study: An Examination of Metro/Rural Differences in Digital Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Policy and Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the Center for Rural Policy & Development (CRPD) has annually conducted surveys of rural Minnesota households to discern the level of computer ownership, Internet connectivity and broadband adoption throughout rural Minnesota. Since the beginning of this longitudinal effort, significant increases in technology adoption have been…

  17. Alternative agriculture adoption: Effects of ground water contamination and other factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cyphers, D.; D'Souza, G. )

    1992-12-01

    The factors influencing adoption of alternative agriculture are quantified using a logit model and survey data. The likelihood of adoption of alternative agriculture is affected most by the environmental characteristic of whether or not ground water contamination exists. This creates an awareness effect' upon which to formulate policies leading to a sustainable agriculture.

  18. Human adoption in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1990-03-01

    Exploitation is a fundamental element of the parental strategies of many species of birds. Cuckoos, for example, lay their eggs in the nest of other birds, who often unwittingly rear the alien nestlings as their own. Nest parasitism is an efficient reproductive strategy for cuckoos, who do not have to worry about building a nest, incubating their eggs, or feeding their nestlings. But not all hosts respond passively to such intrusions. In response to parasitic cowbirds, for example, robins have evolved the ability to detect and selectively eject alien young from their nests. Human parenting strategies differ sharply from the strategies of cuckoos and robins. Unlike cuckoos, we are reluctant to allow our children to be raised by others. Unlike robins, we knowingly rear strange young. What makes human behavior toward children so different from that of cuckoos and robins? Humans seem to share a number of predispositions that facilitate successful adoptive relationships, and the desire to raise children seems to be pervasive among modern humans. Despite these commonalities, patterns of adoption transactions vary greatly among contemporary human societies. This paper considers the origins and causes of cross-cultural variation in human adoptive behavior from an evolutionary perspective.

  19. Adoption of the EU SEA Directive in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Unalan, Dilek; Cowell, Richard

    2009-07-15

    This paper analyses the adoption of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) in Turkey as part of a programme of environmental policy harmonisation for EU accession, to explore the extent to which this is driving wider shifts in modes of environmental governance. To do this, rather than simply assess compliance with Directive in narrow, formal, statutory terms, we use Jaenicke and Weidner's concept of capacity building, which focuses on the constraints facing societal action to promote sustainable development. Despite the resources invested in pre-accession training and pilot SEA projects, Turkey's adoption of the Directive is still likely to be affected by the centralised nature of the bureaucracy (affecting the scope for sectoral integration), its politicised nature (interrupting the accumulation of policy learning), the limited capacity of civil society and environmental organisations to engage with the process, and the political dominance of economic development objectives.

  20. Regional variation in physician adoption of antipsychotics: Impact on US Medicare expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie M.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Men, Aiju; Berndt, Ernst R.; Huskamp, Haiden A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regional variation in US Medicare prescription drug spending is driven by higher prescribing of costly brand-name drugs in some regions. This variation likely arises from differences in the speed of diffusion of newly-approved medications. Second-generation antipsychotics were widely adopted for treatment of severe mental illness and for several off-label uses. Rapid diffusion of new psychiatric drugs likely increases drug spending but its relationship to non-drug spending is unclear. The impact of antipsychotic diffusion on drug and medical spending is of great interest to public payers like Medicare, which finance a majority of mental health spending in the U.S. Aims We examine the association between physician adoption of new antipsychotics and antipsychotic spending and non-drug medical spending among disabled and elderly Medicare enrollees. Methods We linked physician-level data on antipsychotic prescribing from an all-payer dataset (IMS Health's Xponent™) to patient-level data from Medicare. Our physician sample included 16,932 U.S. psychiatrists and primary care providers with ≥10 antipsychotic prescriptions per year from 1997-2011. We constructed a measure of physician adoption of 3 antipsychotics introduced during this period (quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole) by estimating a shared frailty model of the time to first prescription for each drug. We then assigned physicians to one of 306 U.S. hospital referral regions (HRRs) and measured the average propensity to adopt per region. Using 2010 data for a random sample of 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 138,680 antipsychotic users. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log link was used to estimate the effect of region-level adoption propensity on beneficiary-level antipsychotic spending and non-drug medical spending adjusting for patient demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, eligibility category, and whether the antipsychotic was

  1. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  2. Problems and policies regarding the socio-economic integration of returnees and foreign workers in Greece.

    PubMed

    Glytsos, N P

    1995-01-01

    "The integration of repatriating Greek migrants, ethnic Greeks and foreign workers has individual and macroeconomic aspects, both of which must be addressed within a dynamic perspective.... This article analyses the problems involved, and the policies and programmes adopted (or the lack of policies), for the integration of incoming workers to the Greek economy. Wherever possible, the suitability and effectiveness of measures taken are evaluated against the experience gained.... It may be concluded from this analysis that policies adopted for the integration of various migrant groups to Greece (i.e. Greek migrant returnees, ethnic-Greek foreigners and illegal migrants) lack a central aim, orientation and strategy, as well as a long-term perspective." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  3. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  4. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  5. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Applicable O&S - Operating and Support Oth - Other PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element Proc - Procurement...IATO - Interim Authorization to Operate IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture in - Inches IP - Internet Protocol IT - Information Technology ...Block II SAR. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 07 0207161N Project Name 0457 Tactical Aim Missile (Shared) Air Force 3600 07 0207161F

  6. Barriers to open source software adoption in Quebec's health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Paré, Guy; Wybo, Michael D; Delannoy, Charles

    2009-02-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 CIOs to identify the principal impediments to adoption of open source software in the Quebec health sector. We found that key factors for not adopting an open source solution were closely linked to the orientations of ministry level policy makers and a seeming lack of information on the part of operational level IT managers concerning commercially oriented open source providers. We use the case of recent changes in the structure of Quebec's health care organizations and a change in the commercial policies of a key vendor to illustrate our conclusions regarding barriers to adoption of open source products.

  7. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  8. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  9. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  10. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  11. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  12. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  13. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own

  14. RE-AIM Checklist for Integrating and Sustaining Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas A.; Yong, Minglee

    2014-01-01

    Even though evidence-based Tier 2 programs are now more commonly available, integrating and sustaining these interventions in schools remain challenging. RE-AIM, which stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, is a public health framework used to maximize the effectiveness of health promotion programs in…

  15. Electricity diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization: The role of U.S. state energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Sanya

    In response to mounting concerns about climate change and an over-dependence on fossil fuels, U.S. state governments have assumed leadership roles in energy policy. State leaders across the country have constructed policies that target electricity sector operations, and aim to increase the percentage of renewable electricity generation, increase the use of distributed generation, and decrease carbon footprints. The policy literature, however, lacks compelling empirical evidence that state initiatives toward these ends are effective. This research seeks to contribute empirical insights that can help fill this void in the literature, and advance policy knowledge about the efficacy of these instruments. This three-essay dissertation focuses on the assessment of state energy policy instruments aimed at the diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization of the U.S. electricity sector. The first essay considers the effects of state efforts to diversify electricity portfolios via increases in renewable energy. This essay asks: are state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS) effective at increasing renewable energy deployment, as well as the share of renewable energy out of the total generation mix? Empirical results demonstrate that RPS policies so far are effectively encouraging total renewable energy deployment, but not the percentage of renewable energy generation. The second essay considers state policy efforts to decentralize the U.S. electricity sector via instruments that remove barriers to distributed generation (DG) deployment. The primary question this essay addresses is whether the removal of legal barriers acts as a primary motivating factor for DG deployment. Empirical results reveal that net metering policies are positively associated with DG deployment; interconnection standards significantly increase the likelihood that end-users will adopt DG capacity; and utility DG adoption is related to standard market forces. The third essay asks: what are

  16. The adoption of sustainable remediation behaviour in the US and UK: a cross country comparison and determinant analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Guthrie, Peter

    2014-08-15

    The sustainable remediation concept, aimed at maximizing the net environmental, social, and economic benefits in contaminated site remediation, is being increasingly recognized by industry, governments, and academia. However, there is limited understanding of actual sustainable behaviour being adopted and the determinants of such sustainable behaviour. The present study identified 27 sustainable practices in remediation. An online questionnaire survey was used to rank and compare them in the US (n=112) and the UK (n=54). The study also rated ten promoting factors, nine barriers, and 17 types of stakeholders' influences. Subsequently, factor analysis and general linear models were used to determine the effects of internal characteristics (i.e. country, organizational characteristics, professional role, personal experience and belief) and external forces (i.e. promoting factors, barriers, and stakeholder influences). It was found that US and UK practitioners adopted many sustainable practices to similar extents. Both US and UK practitioners perceived the most effectively adopted sustainable practices to be reducing the risk to site workers, protecting groundwater and surface water, and reducing the risk to the local community. Comparing the two countries, we found that the US adopted innovative in-situ remediation more effectively; while the UK adopted reuse, recycling, and minimizing material usage more effectively. As for the overall determinants of sustainable remediation, the country of origin was found not to be a significant determinant. Instead, organizational policy was found to be the most important internal characteristic. It had a significant positive effect on reducing distant environmental impact, sustainable resource usage, and reducing remediation cost and time (p<0.01). Customer competitive pressure was found to be the most extensively significant external force. In comparison, perceived stakeholder influence, especially that of primary stakeholders

  17. Influences on Adoption of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets among US States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Cale, Tabitha M; Reams, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    While the United States has not established federal regulations for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, many US states have adopted their own standards and guidelines. In this study we examine state adoption of targets for GHG reductions during the ten-year period of 1998-2008, and identify factors that explain variation in target adoption. Potential influences are drawn from research from the public policy formulation and diffusion literature, and from studies specific to climate policy adoption. Potential influences on GHG reduction efforts among US states include socioeconomic attributes of residents, political and ideological orientations of citizens and state government, interest group activities, environmental pressures, and proximity to other states that have adopted GHG reduction targets. The findings of the multinomial logistic regression analysis indicate that states are more likely to adopt GHG reduction targets if they share a border with another state with a similar climate program and if their citizens are more ideologically liberal. Other factors including socioeconomic resources and interest group activities were not found to be associated with policy adoption. The findings yield insights into the conditions under which states are more likely to take action to reduce GHG's, and are relevant both to state policy makers and residents with an interest in climate planning, and for researchers attempting to estimate future greenhouse gas reduction scenarios.

  18. 12 CFR 1261.11 - Conflict-of-interests policy for Bank directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict-of-interests policy for Bank directors... § 1261.11 Conflict-of-interests policy for Bank directors. (a) Adoption of conflict-of-interests policy. Each Bank shall adopt a written conflict-of-interests policy that applies to all members of its...

  19. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  20. Galvanising the NHS to Adopt Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Stuart; Cochrane, Gavin; Marjanovic, Sonja; Ling, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Department of Health and the Wellcome Trust, in co-operation with NHS England, asked RAND Europe to conduct a limited consultation with key stakeholders about the practicality of measures and incentives proposed as part of the NHS Accelerated Access Review (AAR), which aims to assess the pathways for the development, assessment, and adoption of innovative medicines and medical technology. Through a focused engagement exercise with key healthcare stakeholders this project explored the implications of selected interim AAR propositions and feasibility of implementation for key actors, in primary and secondary care as well as commissioners and academia. Specifically, the project investigated the feasibility of implementation of three specific propositions including: a new earmarked fund to encourage AHSNs and other key innovation actors to re-design systems to embrace innovation; mobilising the influence of clinical system leaders to champion change; and encouraging secondary care organisations to take on “innovation champion” roles linked to financial incentives and a new emphasis on accountable care organisations. Data was collected on the feasibility of the three AAR propositions from a workshop with AHSN CEOs and Commercial Directors and interviews with senior NHS staff in three AHSN regions (South West, University College London Partners, and North East, North Cumbria). The study concludes with reflections on the feasibility of each recommendation and identifies factors expected to facilitate or challenge their implementation, as well as considering the wider cross cutting issues that may influence the adoption and diffusion of innovation in the NHS. PMID:28083436

  1. An empirical study of opinion leader effects on mobile information technology adoption in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haijing; Padman, Rema; Telang, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    Given the increasing number of applications but slow adoption of IT, including mobile IT, in healthcare, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contextual factors that motivate IT adoption by physicians. Although studies have shown that age or gender may affect physicians' IT adoption, those factors cannot be controlled when deploying a new IT. Therefore, the current research examines empirical evidence of a contextual factor, opinion leader effects, on IT adoption in healthcare that can be influenced by organizational policies. Using a unique panel dataset of physicians' usage of a mobile clinical IT from a community hospital, we observe a significant result that physicians under the influence of opinion leaders are three times more likely to adopt the IT than otherwise. This finding suggests that incentivizing a small proportion of opinion leaders to adopt a new IT has the potential to motivate wider adoption across the organization.

  2. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  3. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Interim policy; amendment to sponsor grant assurance 5. SUMMARY: This action adopts an interim policy amending...

  4. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".

    PubMed

    Kwok, R Y

    1987-10-01

    The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.

  5. mHealth adoption in low-resource environments: a review of the use of mobile healthcare in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chib, Arul; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The acknowledged potential of using mobile phones for improving healthcare in low-resource environments of developing countries has yet to translate into significant mHealth policy investment. The low uptake of mHealth in policy agendas may stem from a lack of evidence of the scalable, sustainable impact on health indicators. The mHealth literature in low- and middle-income countries reveals a burgeoning body of knowledge; yet, existing reviews suggest that the projects yield mixed results. This article adopts a stage-based approach to understand the varied contributions to mHealth research. The heuristic of inputs-mechanism-outputs is proposed as a tool to categorize mHealth studies. This review (63 articles comprising 53 studies) reveals that mHealth studies in developing countries tend to concentrate on specific stages, principally on pilot projects that adopt a deterministic approach to technological inputs (n = 32), namely introduction and implementation. Somewhat less studied were research designs that demonstrate evidence of outputs (n = 15), such as improvements in healthcare processes and public health indicators. The review finds a lack of emphasis on studies that provide theoretical understanding (n = 6) of adoption and appropriation of technological introduction that produces measurable health outcomes. As a result, there is a lack of dominant theory, or measures of outputs relevant to making policy decisions. Future work needs to aim for establishing theoretical and measurement standards, particularly from social scientific perspectives, in collaboration with researchers from the domains of information technology and public health. Priorities should be set for investments and guidance in evaluation disseminated by the scientific community to practitioners and policymakers.

  6. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  7. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  8. Parental Alcohol Dependence and the Transmission of Adolescent Behavioral Disinhibition: A Study of Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Families

    PubMed Central

    King, Serena M.; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M.; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. Design We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the lifetime of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998-2004. Participants Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. Measurements For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes, and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. Findings A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were biologically related to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the lifetime of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is largely attributable to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families. PMID:19215604

  9. Adoption law: a district nurse's guide.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-04-01

    The Government wants to see a large rise in the use of adoption as a means of giving children a secure, loving and permanent home. Guidance coming into effect from April calls for a more pragmatic approach to adoption placements, and calls for the active promotion of the adoption process by health and social care professionals. District nurses will encounter people interested in becoming prospective adopters, but who are unsure if their background or lifestyle makes them eligible. It is essential that district nurses have a working understanding of the guidance and provisions of the Adoption and Children Act 2002 to confidently advise others about adoption and clarify any issues raised.

  10. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  11. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  12. Science Teachers Benefit from Clarkson University's "Adopt a School" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    Clarkson University's Space Grant Program provides an opportunity for students to consider engineering as a career option and aims to increase science literacy, promote critical thinking skills, and positive science attitudes. These goals are met through an adopt-a-school project which is described in detail to provide a model program for science…

  13. The Adoption of e-Learning: An Institutional Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, Pi-Tzong; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chou, Tzu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Several models have been proposed in the literature to understand e-learning acceptance in which social environmental factors are not primarily addressed. This paper aims to improve understanding of what social forces influence employee's attitude and intention of e-learning adoption within an organizational context. Drawing upon the institutional…

  14. How Do Dentists Understand Evidence and Adopt It in Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sbaraini, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy M.; Evans, R. Wendell

    2012-01-01

    Although there is now a large evidence-based dentistry literature, previous investigators have shown that dentists often consider research evidence irrelevant to their practice. To understand why this is the case, we conducted a qualitative study. Objective: Our aim was to identify how dentists define evidence and how they adopt it in practice.…

  15. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  16. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  17. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclosed and 40 percent being mediated (Siegel & Livingston Smith, 2012). Although the context around each adoption is ... Society, 78 , 522–529. Siegel, D. H., & Livingston Smith, S. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and stigma ...

  18. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  19. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of...

  20. Peaceful Cooperation Is the Aim of Oregon School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the peace-oriented instructional materials and classroom activities developed by Pat Feller for use in her sixth-grade class. Discusses the adoption of these techniques in another Oregon Catholic school. (LAL)

  1. Adoption of Electronic Health Records: A Roadmap for India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to create a roadmap for the adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) in India based an analysis of the strategies of other countries and national scenarios of ICT use in India. Methods The strategies for adoption of EHR in other countries were analyzed to find the crucial steps taken. Apart from reports collected from stakeholders in the country, the study relied on the experience of the author in handling several e-health projects. Results It was found that there are four major areas where the countries considered have made substantial efforts: ICT infrastructure, Policy & regulations, Standards & interoperability, and Research, development & education. A set of crucial activities were identified in each area. Based on the analysis, a roadmap is suggested. It includes the creation of a secure health network; health information exchange; and the use of open-source software, a national health policy, privacy laws, an agency for health IT standards, R&D, human resource development, etc. Conclusions Although some steps have been initiated, several new steps need to be taken up for the successful adoption of EHR. It requires a coordinated effort from all the stakeholders. PMID:27895957

  2. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  3. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  4. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  5. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  6. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  7. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  8. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  9. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  10. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  11. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  12. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  13. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  14. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  15. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  16. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  17. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  18. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  19. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  20. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  1. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  2. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  3. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  4. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  5. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  6. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  7. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  8. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  9. Talking with Young Children about Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Mary; Fisher, Susan

    Even though current wisdom holds that adoptive parents should talk with their child about adoption as early as possible, no guidelines exist to prepare parents for the various ways their children might respond when these conversations take place. This book discusses how young children make sense of the fact that they are adopted, how their…

  10. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and stand... parents and children. This month, we celebrate adopted children, teenagers, and their diverse families....

  11. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  12. Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Eyles, John; Campbell, H Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.

  13. Adoption of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Grabenbauer, L; Fraser, R.; McClay, J.; Woelfl, N.; Thompson, C.B.; Cambell, J.; Windle, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Less than 20% of hospitals in the US have an electronic health record (EHR). In this qualitative study, we examine the perspectives of both academic and private physicians and administrators as stakeholders, and their alignment, to explore their perspectives on the use of technology in the clinical environment. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 74 participants who were asked a series of open-ended questions. Grounded theory was used to analyze the transcribed data and build convergent themes. The relevance and importance of themes was constructed by examining frequency, convergence, and intensity. A model was proposed that represents the interactions between themes. Results Six major themes emerged, which include the impact of EHR systems on workflow, patient care, communication, research/outcomes/billing, education/learning, and institutional culture. Academic and private physicians were confident of the future benefits of EHR systems, yet cautious about the current implementations of EHR, and its impact on interactions with other members of the healthcare team and with patients, and the amount of time necessary to use EHR’s. Private physicians differed on education and were uneasy about the steep learning curve necessary for use of new systems. In contrast to physicians, university and hospital administrators are optimistic, and value the availability of data for use in reporting. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that both private and academic physicians concur on the need for features that maintain and enhance the relationship with the patient and the healthcare team. Resistance to adoption is related to insufficient functionality and its potential negative impact on patient care. Integration of data collection into clinical workflows must consider the unexpected costs of data acquisition. PMID:23616868

  14. Urban Policies and Earthquake Risk Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlo, Antonella

    2008-07-08

    The paper aims at proposing some considerations about some recent experiences of research carried out on the theme of earthquake risk mitigation and combining policies and actions of mitigation with urban development strategies. The objective was to go beyond the classical methodological approach aiming at defining a 'technical' evaluation of the earthquake risk through a procedure which can correlate the three 'components' of danger, exposure and vulnerability. These researches experiment, in terms of methodology and application, with a new category of interpretation and strategy: the so-called Struttura Urbana Minima (Minimum urban structure).Actually, the introduction of the Struttura Urbana Minima establishes a different approach towards the theme of safety in the field of earthquake risk, since it leads to a wider viewpoint, combining the building aspect of the issue with the purely urban one, involving not only town planning, but also social and managerial implications.In this sense the constituent logic of these researches is strengthened by two fundamental issues:- The social awareness of earthquake;- The inclusion of mitigation policies in the ordinary strategies for town and territory management. Three main aspects of the first point, that is of the 'social awareness of earthquake', characterize this issue and demand to be considered within a prevention policy:- The central role of the risk as a social production,- The central role of the local community consent,- The central role of the local community capability to planTherefore, consent, considered not only as acceptance, but above all as participation in the elaboration and implementation of choices, plays a crucial role in the wider issue of prevention policies.As far as the second point is concerned, the inclusion of preventive mitigation policies in ordinary strategies for the town and territory management demands the identification of criteria of choice and priorities of intervention and, as a

  15. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  16. Understanding evidence-based public health policy.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Stamatakis, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence.

  17. 12 CFR 917.4 - Bank Member Products Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank Member Products Policy. 917.4 Section 917... Products Policy. (a) Adoption and review of member products policy—(1) Adoption. Beginning November 15...'s management of products offered by the Bank to members and housing associates, including but...

  18. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  19. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-08

    does not dIsplay a currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy , and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s...SUBJECT TERMS Economic policy , trade, national security, Trans-Pacific Partnership, China, Asia-Pacific 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18

  20. Determinants of clinician adoption of regenerative therapies in the UK and Canada: an ophthalmology perspective.

    PubMed

    Rose, James B; May, Michael; Williams, David J

    2015-05-01

    The determinants of adoption of regenerative medicine therapies are currently poorly understood. This study aims to draw comparison between the UK and Canada in terms of factors likely to affect healthcare adoption of future regenerative therapies in ophthalmology. Conducting semi-structured interviews with senior ophthalmologists in the UK and Canada, their perceptions of factors either enabling or limiting adoption were recorded and analyzed. A number of key concepts were extracted from the interview data, perceived by stakeholders to contribute to adoption. The core factors developed in this work will be of use to those looking to understand the opportunities and risks involved in securing clinician adoption in both the UK and Canada.

  1. Vaccines to promote and protect sexual health: policy challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Sarah; Kismödi, Eszter; Larson, Heidi; Buse, Kent

    2014-03-20

    Vaccines aim to improve the well-being of everyone and are seen as a public health success story in the prevention and control of communicable infections. However, decisions to use vaccinations are not without controversy, and the introduction of vaccines targeting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly contentious. In this paper we investigate the underlying policy challenges and opportunities for rolling out STI vaccines. Looking in detail at the experience of delivering HPV vaccine, we explore the lessons that can be learnt, including policy and human rights dimensions, for future STI vaccine introduction and scale up. Policies arise from the interaction of ideas, interests and institutions. In the case of HPV vaccine, ideas have been particularly contested, although interests and institutions have impacted on policy too. A review of human rights in relation to STI vaccine policies highlights the specific needs and rights of adolescents, and the paper details concepts of consent and evolving capacity which can be used to ensure that adolescents have full access to health interventions. Policy options for vaccines include mandatory approaches - and these have been utilized in some settings for HPV vaccines. The paper argues, and outlines the rationale, against adopting mandatory STI vaccine policy approaches. The paper concludes by identifying policy opportunities for introducing new vaccines targeting STIs.

  2. The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge…

  3. Population distribution policies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Population distribution policies have received increasing attention in recent years, especially in developing countries. One reason is that, especially in heavily primate developing countries, the spacial distribution of population (and economic activity) has generated conditions that conflict with important societal goals, such as interpersonal and interregional equity, national security, political stability, improvement in the quality of life, optimal resource exploitation, and long-term economic efficiency. Moreover, in many cases, the overall development strategy as reflected in macro and sectoral policies, has strong implicit spatial impacts that have, more often than not, reinforced an "unfavorable" population distribution, that is, one that conflicts with national goals and priorities. The only way to correct that is to modify the overall development strategy or to implement offsetting explicit population distribution policies. Many countries have adopted population distribution policies in recent years, but they have varied greatly in degree of implementation. Clear failures have been very common, and there have been almost no undiluted successes. This indifferent success should not be used as an argument against planned population distribution. The present article provides an overview of population distribution policies with special but not total reference to developing countries. Population goals are analyzed and the argument that rural-metropolitan migration is excessive is critically discussed. Policy instruments to influence the location of both households and firms are evaluated. It is argued that strategies to control primate city growth, to promote small towns and secondary cities and to implement rural-development programs are complementary rather than alternatives. Partial strategies, such as relocation of the national capital, countermagnets, new towns, border region policies and land colonization schemes, should be adopted only in rare cases

  4. High-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals: an empirical study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Min; Lin, I-Chun; Tseng, Ling-Tzu

    2014-02-01

    Prior researches have indicated that an appropriate adoption of information technology (IT) can help hospitals significantly improve services and operations. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is believed to be the next generation innovation technology for automatic data collection and asset/people tracking. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigated high-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals. This research reviewed literature related IT adoption in business and followed the results of a preliminary survey with 37 practical experts in hospitals to theorize a model for the RFID adoption in hospitals. Through a field survey of 102 hospitals and hypotheses testing, this research identified key factors influencing RFID adoption. Follow-up in-depth interviews with three high-level managers of IS department from three case hospitals respectively also presented an insight into the decision of RFID's adoption. Based on the research findings, cost, ubiquity, compatibility, security and privacy risk, top management support, hospital scale, financial readiness and government policy were concluded to be the key factors influencing RFID adoption in hospitals. For practitioners, this study provided a comprehensive overview of government policies able to promote the technology, while helping the RFID solution providers understand how to reduce the IT barriers in order to enhance hospitals' willingness to adopt RFID.

  5. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  6. Factors affecting adoption of improved management practices in the pastoral industry in Great Barrier Reef catchments.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, John; Gregg, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Substantial efforts are being made by industry and government in Australia to reduce adverse impacts of pastoral operations on water quality draining to the Great Barrier Reef. A key target is to achieve rapid adoption of better management practices by landholders, but current theoretical frameworks provide limited guidance about priorities for improving adoption. In this study information from direct surveys with landholders in the two largest catchments draining into the Great Barrier Reef has been collected and analysed. Study outcomes have important implications for policy settings, because they confirm that substantial variations in adoption drivers exist across landholders, enterprises and practices. The results confirm that the three broad barriers to adoption of information gaps, financial incentives and risk perceptions are relevant. This implies that different policy mechanisms, including extension and incentive programs, remain important, although financial incentives were only identified as important to meet capital and transformational costs rather than recurrent costs.

  7. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  8. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  9. Schools and National Telecommunications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George A.

    The National Geographic Society believes that schools are the last major institutions in the United States to adopt new information technologies because of fear of change, fear of technology, and narrowly focused public policies. The results of this failure to modernize schools has been to graduate workers who can't meet minimum job requirements…

  10. A History of Indian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, S. Lyman

    The study brings together in one work a brief history of American Indian policy in the United States for the use of students, teachers, government employees, and the general reader. More detail has been supplied for the period since 1930 to enable the reader to see the processes involved in the adoption, administration, and eventual changes in…

  11. Tenure Policies. SPEC Kit 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of tenure policies in academic and research libraries contains: "Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure Adopted by the American Association of University Professors", including the "Model Statement of Criteria and Procedures for Appointment, Promotion in Academic Rank, and Tenure for College and University…

  12. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model: A Developmental Conceptualization of the Adoption Process Within Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a representation of the process by which an educational institution adopts an innovation, views adoption as a developmental process involving complex interaction between an adopting institution, a user system, and a resource system. The resource system is usually a formal organization whose expert…

  13. "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Maintains that its narrative/comment format and accounts of those involved in adoption validate the feelings of the adoption-triad members. Suggests that the book lacks information on individuals who contributed comments and contains few narratives from…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse: Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others

    The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…

  15. Influencing HIV / AIDS policy in Kenya: NGOs build consensus. Policy profile.

    PubMed

    Rau, B

    1996-07-01

    Despite widespread public awareness in Kenya about the HIV/AIDS epidemic, most policy makers in government and other sectors as of 1994 chose not to adopt and implement HIV/AIDS prevention and control policies. Since then, however, the HIV/AIDS policy situation has changed in many ways. Officials now hope to see practical policies adopted and implemented. The government is preparing a national HIV/AIDS policy and has sought input from a broad range of technical, legal, ethical, and policy opinion makers. With support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project, MAP International facilitated policy-oriented discussions among church leaders, while the Kenya AIDS Nongovernmental Organizations Consortium solicited the experiences and views of local constituents during a series of district and provincial policy workshops. These and other efforts to shape HIV/AIDS policy include improvements in the policy climate in Kenya, better mechanisms for strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and some specific changes in policy. Policy development, the policy climate, improved mechanisms, and policy change are discussed.

  16. Spatial effects on hybrid electric vehicle adoption

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaoli; Roberts, Matthew C.; Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2017-03-08

    This paper examines spatial effects on hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) adoption. This is in contrast to most existing analyses, which concentrate on analyzing socioeconomic factors and demographics. This paper uses a general spatial model to estimate the strength of ‘neighbor effects’ on HEV adoption—namely that each consumer’s HEV-adoption decision can be influenced by the HEV-adoption decisions of geographic neighbors. We use detailed census tract-level demographic data from the 2010 United States Census and the 2012 American Community Survey and vehicle registration data collected by the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles. We find that HEV adoption exhibits significant spatial effects. We furthermore » conduct a time-series analysis and show that historical HEV adoption has a spatial effect on future adoption. Lastly, these results suggest that HEVs may appear in more dense clusters than models that do not consider spatial effects predict.« less

  17. 75 FR 6398 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to the National ] Coordinator on a policy framework for the development and adoption of...

  18. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  19. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    PubMed

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  20. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  1. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  2. Technology identity: the role of sociotechnical representations in the adoption of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Ulucanlar, S; Faulkner, A; Peirce, S; Elwyn, G

    2013-12-01

    This study explored the sociotechnical influences shaping the naturally-occurring adoption and non-adoption of device technologies in the UK's National Health Service (NHS), amid increasing policy interest in this area. The study was informed by Science and Technology Studies and structuration and Actor Network Theory perspectives, drawing attention to the performative capacities of the technology alongside human agentic forces such as agendas and expectations, in the context of structural and macro conditions. Eight technologies were studied using a comparative ethnographic case study design and purposive and snowball sampling to identify relevant NHS, academic and industry participants. Data were collected between May 2009 and February 2012, included in-depth interviews, conference observations and printed and web-based documents and were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methods. The study suggests that while adoption decisions are made within the jurisdiction of healthcare organisations, they are shaped within a dynamic and fluid 'adoption space' that transcends organisational and geographic boundaries. Diverse influences from the industry, health care organisation and practice, health technology assessment and policy interact to produce 'technology identities.' Technology identities are composite and contested attributes that encompass different aspects of the technology (novelty, effectiveness, utility, risks, requirements) and that give a distinctive character to each. We argue that it is these socially constructed and contingent heuristic identities that shape the desirability, acceptability, feasibility and adoptability of each technology, a perspective that policy must acknowledge in seeking to intervene in health care technology adoption.

  3. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  4. Birth-spacing patterns in Huaning County, Yunnan Province, PRC: is the adoption of a small family norm sustainable?

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Petra; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Johansson, Annika

    2007-01-01

    China's family planning programs have emphasized delayed marriage and longer spacing between births. Since 1970, the fertility has declined from 6 to 1.8 births and the mean age at first marriage has gone up but the recommended spacing intervals have not been fully realized. Despite the fertility decline it is being debated among scholars whether China has completed a sustainable demographic transition or not, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in the timing and patterns of marriage and childbearing in relation to successive family planning policies. A cluster random sample of 1,336 women aged 15-64 at the time of the survey (2000) was selected in one rural county in Yunnan province. Life-table techniques were used to analyze the cumulative proportion of women marrying and having a certain number of births. Cox's hazard regression model was used to estimate the effects of various covariates on the "hazard" for a woman to have a second birth. Our findings demonstrate how childbearing patterns have changed in the direction of delayed marriage, a decreased interval between first marriage and first child, and significantly longer spacing between the first and second child. This transformation of childbearing patterns corresponds well with the requirements of the policies. Considering the characteristics of Yunnan, it seems likely that the changing fertility behavior has been more influenced by a strictly enforced family planning policy than by societal changes leading to the adoption of a new, smaller family norm.

  5. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  6. Non-market valuation of the coastal environment--uniting political aims, ecological and economic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Östberg, Katarina; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using an approach for estimating Willingness-To-Pay for marine environmental improvements, based on a holistic, policy-determined scenario. Conducting valuation studies based on a policy-determined scenario is beneficial for decision-makers in terms of practical applicability but also for research in terms of e.g. data availability. Using a case study in two Swedish coastal areas, we examine whether respondents are able to understand and attach a monetary value to these types of scenarios. The tested scenarios are based on improving water quality according to the EU Water Framework Directive and reducing noise and littering according to standard-type measures in a Swedish archipelago setting. The results are promising, paving the ground for future valuation studies using this approach. However, there might be tradeoffs, since the use of scenarios like this require much preparation by researchers and much efforts by respondents. We recommend environmental managers to adopt this approach when possible, but to have these potential tradeoffs in mind. Mean monthly WTP per household for the water quality improvement scenario is estimated to 71 and 102 SEK(1) in the two study areas, respectively. The corresponding numbers for the less noise and littering scenario are 38 and 46 SEK. Valuation of noise and littering in archipelago areas has previously not been very common, making these estimates especially important for marine policy.

  7. The effect of hospital-physician integration on health information technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The US federal government has recently made a substantial investment to enhance the US health information technology (IT) infrastructure. Previous literature on the impact of IT on firm performance across multiple industries has emphasized the importance of a process of co-invention whereby organizations develop complementary practices to achieve greater benefit from their IT investments. In health care, employment of physicians by hospitals can confer greater administrative control to hospitals over physicians' actions and resources and thus enable the implementation of new technology and initiatives aimed at maximizing benefit from use of the technology. In this study, I tested for the relationship between hospital employment of physicians and hospitals' propensity to use health IT. I used state laws that prohibit hospital employment of physicians as an instrument to account for the endogenous relationship with hospital IT use. Hospital employment of physicians is associated with significant increases in the probability of hospital health IT use. Therefore, subsidization of health IT among hospitals not employing physicians may be less efficient. Furthermore, state laws prohibiting hospitals from employing physicians may inhibit adoption of health IT, thus working against policy initiatives aimed at promoting use of the technology.

  8. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  9. Political Influences on State Policy: Higher-Tuition, Higher-Aid, and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Carolyn P.; Marine, Ginger Minton

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of five proposals to change state higher education tuition and aid policies suggests that tuition and aid must be explicitly linked for efficient and equitable results. However, it is extremely difficult to adopt explicitly linked policies. The findings support critics who warn that attempts to adopt high-tuition/high-aid policies will…

  10. Stabilization precision control methods of photoelectric aim-stabilized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoru; Chen, Hua; Xue, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    To solve the question that photoelectric aim-stabilized system can be controlled with high precision and stability, this paper researches a new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm, analyzes the photoelectric aim-stabilized system architecture, sets up stability control system mathematical model, designs the stability of the photoelectric aim-stabilized LSSVM identification and control system, discusses uncertain factors and calculates the LSSVM parameters by the Chaos theory, gives the predictive controller model by the LSSVM and designs new photoelectric aim-stabilized system. Through the simulation calculation and experimental analysis, new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm was verified; the results show the new photoelectric aim-stabilized control method can meet the demand of high precision control in photoelectric aim-stabilized system.

  11. Prosocial Behavior in Advertising Aimed at Children: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Daniel A., Jr.; Mouritsen, Russell H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes network, independent, and cable television advertisements aimed at children in terms of their beneficial or "prosocial" examples. Reveals that several commercials aimed at children are rich in examples of sharing, courtesy, and physical affection. (MM)

  12. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  13. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  14. Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Ayers-Lopez, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children’s birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means. PMID:23956791

  15. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  16. The EU Clinical Trials Regulation: key priorities, purposes and aims and the implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Flear, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    The replacement of the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Directive by the new Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR), which entered into force on 16 June 2014 but will not apply before 28 May 2016, provides an opportunity to review the legal and political context within which this important aspect of research law and policy sits and to reflect on the implications for public health. My aim in this article is to relate the context to the key purposes and aims of EU law and policy on clinical trials in order to explain and clarify its orientation. On that basis, I argue that the CTR and the changes it introduces to the law on clinical trials are part of the EU's continued focus on market optimisation. It is this focus that orients and directs the wider pharmaceutical development pipeline, but that undermines the achievement of key public health objectives.

  17. Evaluation of a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling: A RE-AIM analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Originating from the interdisciplinary collaboration between public health and the transportation field a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling, ‘Bike to Work: cyclists are rewarded’, was implemented. The intervention consisted of two cycling contests, an online loyalty program based on earning ‘cycling points’ and the dissemination of information through folders, newsletters, posters and a website. The study purpose was to evaluate the dissemination efforts of the program and to gain insights in whether free participation could persuade small and middle-sized companies to sign up. Methods The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation. Two months after the start of the intervention a questionnaire was send to 4880 employees. At the end of the intervention each company contact person (n = 12) was interviewed to obtain information on adoption, implementation and maintenance. Comparison analyses between employees aware and unaware of the program were conducted using independent-samples t-tests for quantitative data and chi-square tests for qualitative data. Difference in commuter cycling frequency was assessed using an ANOVA test. Non-parametric tests were used for the comparison analyses between the adopting and non-adopting companies. Results In total seven of the twelve participating companies adopted the program and all adopting companies implemented all intervention components. No significant differences were found in the mean number of employees (p = 0.15) or in the type of business sector (p = 0.92) between adopting and non-adopting companies. Five out of seven companies had the intention to continue the program. At the individual level, a project awareness of 65% was found. Employees aware of the program had a significantly more positive attitude towards cycling and reported significantly more commuter cycling than those unaware of the program (both p < 0.001). Participation was mainly because of health

  18. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  19. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  20. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  1. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  2. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... countless American lives, and to encourage the adoption of children from foster care. Currently, thousands of children await adoption or are in foster care, looking forward to permanent homes. These children... children out of foster care. Last year, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius was...

  3. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  4. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  5. MSW Students' Attitudes toward Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaegoo; Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of MSW students ("N"?=?147) toward transracial adoption and included an investigation of the students' personal experiences that may affect their attitudes. Statistical analyses revealed that although the majority of students supported the practice of transracial adoption, a number of students gave…

  6. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  7. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  8. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  9. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    PubMed

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  10. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  11. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice to... nurture their development and well-being. Later this month, many Americans will also mark...

  12. Predictors of Adopting Motivational Enhancement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard; Roahen-Harrison, Stephanie; Toriello, Paul J.; Kissinger, Patricia; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward; Carney, Linton; Rice, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors have shown limited success in adopting evidence-based practices (EBPs). The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers and facilitators of adopting an EBP called motivational enhancement therapy (MET). One hundred thirty-six predominantly female (60%) African American (68%) addiction counselors representing over…

  13. Understanding Innovation Adoption in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Production Management, 22: 152-194 (Spring 2002). Frambach, Ruud T. “An Integrated Model of Organizational Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations...European Journal of Marketing, 27: 22-41 (May 1993). Frambach, Ruud T. and Niels Schillewaert. “Organizational Innovation Adoption. A Multi

  14. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  15. Adoptive Parents' Attitudes Toward Open Birth Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissinger, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Investigated adoptive parents' (N=42) attitudes toward the open birth record issues using a mail survey. Analysis indicated that parental fear was the most important variable. Most supported a measure allowing adult adoptees access to birth records, provided such access was agreeable to birth and adoptive parents. (JAC)

  16. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions…

  17. Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348

  18. The Teacher's Role in the Research-Policy-Praxis Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohi, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of relationships exist between educational policy, research and the professional knowledge of the teachers that implement these policies in practice? This article reports research that examined the role of teachers working in an environment formed by links between research, policy and practice. By adopting a contextual focus upon the…

  19. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  20. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  1. Population increases and educational policies in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fapohunda, O J

    1976-09-01

    Most governments today accept in principle that provision of education is a basic human right as embodied in article 26 of the Declaration of Human Rights. Through education, peace, good international relations, better prospects for economic developments, and improvement of human resources are possible. Despite this awareness, most governments cannot fulfill this requirement of education due to large population sizes, rapid growth and competition for scarce natural resources. An historical survey of the development of educational policies in Nigeria reveals that the Machiavellian policy of the colonial period largely created the present imbalance in the educational development of the Moslem north (where slow development was encouraged) compared to the Christian south. The 1st government participation in education by 1877 was minimal. The colonial government relied heavily on missionary educational activities. Political motives and religious conflicts between the northern and southern regions retarded missionary activities. Not until 1926 did active cooperation begin between the government and local states, reinforced by Elliot's Commission Report, the Phillipson Commission Report and the memorandum on Educational Policy in Nigeria. These reports laid out guidelines for government's aid and participation in provision of educational facilities. Post independence requirements for skilled manpower led to the adoption of the Ashby Commission Report as a basis for higher education. 1980 was set as the desired date for free compulsory education by a conference of African states. Nigeria, persuing this ideal goal, aimed at making education free at all levels and for every citizen. The burden and implications of these policies are examined in the context of projections of primary and secondary school enrollments, costs, and manpower needs. The cost of education is seen to rise with demand. By 1990, Nigeria will have about 24 million children to educate. With global

  2. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular…

  3. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  4. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  5. Comparing HE Policies in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Michelsen, Svein

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for a comparative analysis of Higher Education policies that enables us to investigate the explanatory power of structural characteristics of politico-administrative systems. The policies that are studied aim at improving the efficiency and quality of institutional performance. The…

  6. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  7. Online Learning Adoption: Effects of Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Perceived Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watjatrakul, Boonlert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individual differences and perceived values of technology have received much attention in technology adoption literature. However, there is a lack of understanding of their relationships and effects on online learning adoption. The study aims to investigate the effects of two important personality traits (i.e. openness to experience and…

  8. Not All on the Same Page: E-Book Adoption and Technology Exploration by Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan-Haase, Anabel; Martin, Kim; Schreurs, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to understand the adoption of e-books and e-readers by persons aged sixty and above. This includes an investigation into where seniors are in the stages of e-book adoption. Method: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews in a mid-size city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Analysis: Interviews were…

  9. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  10. An Evaluation of Consultation Sessions for Foster Carers and Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Cara; Alfano, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether consultation sessions provided by educational psychologists (EPs) offer a useful way of supporting foster and adoptive parents. Feedback was collected from 101 EPs and 78 foster and adoptive parents through the use of a short questionnaire at the end of each session. As might be expected, educational…

  11. Basic Trust: An Attachment-Oriented Intervention Based on Mind-Mindedness in Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Wissink, Inge B.; Noom, Marc J.; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Polderman, Nelleke; Kellaert-Knol, Marijke G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated a new attachment-oriented intervention aimed at improving parental mind-mindedness, promoting positive parent-child relationships, and reducing child psychopathology in families with adopted children. Method: The sample consisted of 20 families with adopted children (2-5 years of age). After the pretest, the intervention…

  12. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Yarger, Heather A; Lind, Teresa; Fraley, R Chris; Leerkes, Esther; Dozier, Mary

    2017-05-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting adults' preoccupied and dismissing states of mind. Taxometric analyses indicated the variation in adults' preoccupied states of mind was more consistent with a dimensional than a categorical model, whereas results for dismissing states of mind were indeterminate. The second aim was to examine the degree to which the attachment states of mind of internationally adoptive and foster parents differ from those of poverty/CPS-referred parents and low-risk parents. After controlling for parental age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, (a) internationally adoptive parents had lower scores on the dismissing dimension than the sample of community parents described by Haltigan, Leerkes, Supple, and Calkins (2014); (b) foster parents did not differ from community parents on either the dismissing or the preoccupied AAI dimension; and (c) both internationally adoptive and foster parents had lower scores on the preoccupied dimension than poverty/CPS-referred parents. Analyses using the traditional AAI categories provided convergent evidence that (a) internationally adoptive parents were more likely to be classified as having an autonomous state of mind than low-risk North American mothers based on Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2009) meta-analytic estimates, (b) the rates of autonomous states of mind did not differ between foster and low-risk parents, and

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  14. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  15. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones.

  16. Authorship policies of scientific journals

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Tyle, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. PMID:26714812

  17. Anticipating the Gap: The Reality Between Aim and the Object

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    1976), 311. Quote from Alfred Thayer Mahan is clear on the effect of flawed strategy no matter the efficiency of the operational and tactical efforts...York: Rutledge, 2002), 254. 23 Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy (Bloomington...sort of societal DNA that affects how we think about and view the world. Russell Weigley believes that the remote past affects our actions more than

  18. Internet Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-17

    activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure

  19. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  20. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  1. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  2. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  3. Factors Influencing the Adoption Decision: An Analysis of Adopters and Nonadopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert N.; Rollins, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An agricultural innovation (nitrogen testing) had been used by 127 of a sample of 220 farmers. Adoption of the technique was influenced by information and change agents' attitudes. Adopters were also motivated by cost savings. Both adopters and nonadopters either did not have or use soil sampling skills needed to perform the test correctly.…

  4. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  5. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  6. Global Models for the National Research University: Adoption and Adaptation in Indonesia and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerkens, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the way in which global university models are adopted in research universities in Indonesia and Malaysia. It first provides the global context in which these models have evolved and the processes through which they spread. How these global models interact with local policies and institutions is the topic of the empirical part…

  7. A Framework for Institutional Adoption and Implementation of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Charles R.; Woodfield, Wendy; Harrison, J. Buckley

    2013-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in blended learning implementation and research focused on course-level issues such as improved learning outcomes, but very limited research focused on institutional policy and adoption issues. More institutional-level blended learning research is needed to guide institutions of higher education in strategically…

  8. Exploring the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Open Source Software in Western Cape Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kevin; Begg, Shameemah; Tanner, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) presents many benefits to both the private and the public sectors, and has proven to be a viable solution in schools. Although a policy mandating the use of OSS exists in the Western Cape province of South Africa, very few schools in the province have adopted OSS. The education system in South Africa is currently facing…

  9. [Final Resolutions Adopted by the Conference on Planning of Rural Areas in Europe, 7 October 1978].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Two final resolutions were adopted by the Council of Europe at the October 1978 European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning. Resolution 1 focused on guidelines for the planning of rural areas in Europe. Strategies and policies called for: a more balanced development which makes the living conditions of different regions as…

  10. Thai Hospitals' Adoption of Information Technology: A Theory Development and Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theera-Ampornpunt, Nawanan

    2011-01-01

    Background: With documented benefits and recent public policies, health information technology (IT) has received increasing attention in recent years. However, knowledge about Thailand's state of hospital IT adoption is lacking. The literature also identifies organizational management practices that are important to health IT implementation, but…

  11. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  12. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  13. Commentary on the new sex and gender editorial policy of the Canadian Journal of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-08-15

    While the concepts of both "sex" and "gender" are widely recognized as important considerations in health research, the presence of these and other key determinants of health in research findings remains quite variable in the published literature. In an effort to close this knowledge gap in relation to the implications of both sex and gender in the public health research evidence base, the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) has recently adopted an editorial policy requiring authors to ensure that their manuscripts speak to these concepts, where applicable. In keeping with the international trend in sex and gender reporting in health research, the aim of this policy shift is for CJPH to continue to advance excellence in the field of public health research, policy and practice in Canada and internationally.

  14. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on “Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health,” a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination polices, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities. PMID:25806425

  15. The security concern on internet banking adoption among Malaysian banking customers.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Raju; Thiagarajan, A S; Seetharaman, A

    2007-01-01

    The existing literatures highlights that the security is the primary factor which determines the adoption of Internet banking technology. The secondary information on Internet banking development in Malaysia shows a very slow growth rate. Hence, this study aims to study the banking customers perception towards security concern and Internet banking adoption through the information collected from 150 sample respondents. The data analysis reveals that the customers have much concern about security and privacy issue in adoption of Internet banking, whether the customers are adopted Internet banking or not. Hence, it infers that to popularize Internet banking system there is a need for improvement in security and privacy issue among the banking customers.

  16. ADOPTION OF MELD SCORE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF LIVER TRANSPLANT

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772

  17. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  18. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  19. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  20. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  1. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  2. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  3. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  4. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  5. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  6. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  7. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  8. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    PubMed

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  9. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  10. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  11. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  12. 76 FR 81 - Adoption of Recommendation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Adoption of Recommendation AGENCY: Administrative Conference of... the attached recommendation at its Fifty-third Plenary Session. The recommendation addresses issues... makes recommendations for improvements to the agencies, collectively or individually, and to...

  13. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  14. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  15. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  16. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...