Delgato, Margaret H.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science education, including indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional tool and framework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing the mainstream content to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the student and teacher editions of 34 textbooks adopted in Florida within the last four adoption cycles occurring from 1990 to 2006. The investigation involved a content analysis framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods. The investigation incorporated five strategies to assess the extent of multicultural content: (1) calculation of frequency of indigenous representations through the use of a tally; (2) assessment of content in the teacher editions by coding the degree of incorporation of multicultural content; (3) development of an archaeology of statements to determine the ways in which indigenous representations were incorporated into the content; (4) use of the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) to determine extent of multicultural terminologies within content; and (5) analysis of visuals and illustrations to gauge percentages of depictions of minority groups. Results indicated no solid trend in an increase of inclusion of multicultural content over the last four adoption cycles. Efforts at most reduced the inclusion of indigenous representations and other multicultural content to the level of the teacher edition distributed among the teacher-interleafed pages or as annotations in the margins. Degree of support of multicultural content to the specific goals and objectives remained limited across all four of the adoption cycles represented in the study. Emphasis on
Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo
This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…
Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun
Textbooks were centrally selected in Taiwan until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…
Robinson, T. Jared; Fischer, Lane; Wiley, David; Hilton, John, III
Given the increasing costs associated with commercial textbooks and decreasing financial support of public schools, it is important to better understand the impacts of open educational resources on student outcomes. The purpose of this quantitative study is to analyze whether the adoption of open science textbooks significantly affects science…
Rodés, Virginia; Hernández, Yosly; Collazos, Cesar
Open textbook initiatives have emerged as an alternative to traditional publications, boosting the creation of educational resources based on open licenses. In order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to define strategies for the adoption of these initiatives by the different actors involved in the education institutions where they will be…
Van Horne, Sam; Russell, Jae-eun; Schuh, Kathy L.
Researchers have more often examined whether students prefer using an e-textbook over a paper textbook or whether e-textbooks provide a better resource for learning than paper textbooks, but students' adoption of mark-up tools has remained relatively unexamined. Drawing on the concept of Innovation Diffusion Theory, we used educational data mining…
Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Kasanda, Choshi; Kapenda, Hileni; Gaoseb, Noah; Kandjeo-Marenga, Utji
Presents the results of a study that focused on incidences of prescribed textbook usage in Namibian science classrooms. Indicates teacher dominated textbook use and restricted range of textbook references per lesson. States that the teachers used textbooks for diagrams and data and to verify factual information. (CMK)
Studied the similarity of the astronomy portion in five science textbooks at the fourth through sixth grade levels by comparing students' responses to text authors' requirements. Concluded that the texts had more in common across grade levels than within grade levels. (CC)
Gardner, Paul L.
One way of viewing curriculum content is to regard it as text: i.e. as a collection of narrative and argument which helps shape learners' views of the world. School and university textbooks form part of that collection. At university level, texts encountered by future teachers help shape views of the discipline which may be transmitted to later generations of school learners. This paper is concerned with how the relationships between science and technology are portrayed in school and university textbooks. Criteria are offered for evaluating these portrayals, and examples are presented of material which meets (or fails to meet) these criteria.
Andersen, Hans O.
The "layer-cake" curriculum of yearlong science courses and the "good science" approach are outdated. A new scope sequence is warranted, in which all sciences are taught every year K-12 and instruction proceeds systematically from concrete through empirical to theoretical. (SK)
Wiley, David; Barr, Elissa
Textbooks are often a core element of curricula and delivery of classroom instruction and have long been a source of controversy. The textbook adoption process has become less about content and more about political/cultural pressure. Special-interest groups from the right and left exert enormous influence on textbook content through bias and…
Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Furio, Carlos
This study aims to analyse, based on common characteristics of the Nature of Science, how first year university Physics textbooks present the introduction of the concept and theories of magnetic field. It shows that despite the increasing number of studies into the Nature of Science in Science Education, Physics textbooks fail to adopt the results…
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.
Over 50 years, two major reform efforts in science education took place. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the educational reforms were reflected in nine 6th grade science textbooks published in 1975, in 1985 and in 1997 in terms of (a) the materials used, (b) the contexts to which the electricity concept was related, (c) the type…
Binns, Ian C.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the representation of scientific methodology in secondary science textbooks. More specifically, this study looked at how textbooks introduced scientific methodology and to what degree the examples from the rest of the textbook, the investigations, and the images were consistent with the text's…
Petrides, Lisa; Jimes, Cynthia; Middleton-Detzner, Clare; Walling, Julie; Weiss, Shenandoah
The Community College Open Textbook Project (CCOTP) was developed to support the use of textbooks that are freely available and accessible online, and that can be adapted by teachers and learners to meet their unique needs and contexts. This article presents the findings of a research study conducted by the Institute for the Study of Knowledge…
McDonald, Christine V.
A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.
Hammad, Hamza Abed Alkarim
The study concludes that most Islamic sciences courses in schools and universities adopt a dogmatic or indoctrinatory approach combined with little room for dialogue and discussion. The study recommends reconsidering Islamic science textbooks through including additional higher-order thinking skills and reconsidering Sharia faculties' syllabi.
King, Chris John Henry
Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…
This paper initially presents the results of several studies concerning what kind of writing science teachers assign and what kind of writing science textbooks assign. By far, reporting was the most popular type of writing assigned in the surveyed textbooks, although other types of writing were in evidence. Exposition tended to take three forms:…
Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For
Wiley, David; Hilton, John Levi, III; Ellington, Shelley; Hall, Tiffany
Proponents of open educational resources claim that significant cost savings are possible when open textbooks displace traditional textbooks in the classroom. Over a period of two years, we worked with 20 middle and high school science teachers (collectively teaching approximately 3,900 students) who adopted open textbooks to understand the…
Binns, Ian C.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the representation of scientific methodology in secondary science textbooks. More specifically, this study looked at how textbooks introduced scientific methodology and to what degree the examples from the rest of the textbook, the investigations, and the images were consistent with the text's description of scientific methodology, if at all. The sample included eight secondary science textbooks from two publishers, McGraw-Hill/Glencoe and Harcourt/Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Data consisted of all student text and teacher text that referred to scientific methodology. Second, all investigations in the textbooks were analyzed. Finally, any images that depicted scientists working were also collected and analyzed. The text analysis and activity analysis used the ethnographic content analysis approach developed by Altheide (1996). The rubrics used for the text analysis and activity analysis were initially guided by the Benchmarks (AAAS, 1993), the NSES (NRC, 1996), and the nature of science literature. Preliminary analyses helped to refine each of the rubrics and grounded them in the data. Image analysis used stereotypes identified in the DAST literature. Findings indicated that all eight textbooks presented mixed views of scientific methodology in their initial descriptions. Five textbooks placed more emphasis on the traditional view and three placed more emphasis on the broad view. Results also revealed that the initial descriptions, examples, investigations, and images all emphasized the broad view for Glencoe Biology and the traditional view for Chemistry: Matter and Change. The initial descriptions, examples, investigations, and images in the other six textbooks were not consistent. Overall, the textbook with the most appropriate depiction of scientific methodology was Glencoe Biology and the textbook with the least appropriate depiction of scientific methodology was Physics: Principles and Problems. These findings
Doyle, Andrea; And Others
To aid secondary science instructors and supervisors in selecting texts that provide adequate coverage of population dynamics and impacts, 44 editions of life science, biology, advanced placement biology, and environmental science textbooks were surveyed. The matrices given in this document are designed to provide objective information on each…
Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.
Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…
Binns, Ian C.; Bell, Randy L.
This study explored how eight widely used secondary science textbooks described scientific methodology and to what degree the textbooks' examples and investigations were consistent with this description. Data consisted of all text from student and teacher editions that referred to scientific methodology and all investigations. Analysis used an…
Vinisha, K.; Ramadas, J.
Visual representations, including photographs, sketches and schematic diagrams, are a valuable yet often neglected aspect of textbooks. Visual means of communication are particularly helpful in introducing abstract concepts in science. For effective communication, visuals and text need to be appropriately integrated within the textbook. This study…
Shapiro, Adam R
Recruitment into the scientific community is one oft-stated goal of science education--in the post-Sputnik United States, for example--but this obscures the fact that science textbooks are often read by people who will never be scientists. It cannot be presupposed that science textbooks for younger audiences, students in primary and secondary schools, function in this way. For this reason, precollegiate-level science textbooks are sometimes discussed as a subset of literature popularizing science. The high school science classroom and the textbook are forums for exposing the public to science. The role of governments and educational institutions in regulating the consumption of these texts not only determines which books are used; it influences how they are written, read, and deemed authoritative. Therefore such science textbooks should not be seen as (at best) the disjunction of texts-for-training and books-for-popularization. A changing sense of what "textbooks" are compels a different understanding of their use in the history of science. PMID:22655341
Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…
This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which…
Terpend, Regis; Gattiker, Thomas F.; Lowe, Scott E.
Faculty and students are increasingly faced with the opportunity to use electronic versions of textbooks (e-texts). Despite the advantages of e-texts and recent advances in technology, evidence suggests that students are still reluctant to adopt and use e-texts. This situation leads us to investigate two research questions: What factors contribute…
Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)--a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by…
Lists textbook series for children (either grades K-6 or 1-6) with teachers' editions, data supplied by publisher including copyright or revision dates of 1973 or later. Also listed are widely used teacher education texts, copyrighted after 1970. Books are coded as to specific focus: activities, content, or methodology. Useful for classroom…
Liu, Yang; Khine, Myint Swe
Science education research emphasizes the irreplaceable value of textbooks in students' acquisition of scientific knowledge. Illustrations such as diagrams contained in science books are crucial modes of visual representations that facilitate learners' conceptual learning. Through classifying, coding, and analysing diagrams from twenty science…
Presents a theoretically grounded checklist developed for analyzing the historical content of science textbooks. Results of the analysis indicate that the checklist is able to reveal differences among textbooks. (Contains 65 references.) (DDR)
Al-Mashaqbeh, Ibtesam; Al Shurman, Muneera
This study aimed to investigate the effect of using e-textbooks, activities, games, and worksheets that loaded onto students tablets on first grade students' achievement on their core curriculum (science, math, English, Arabic) compared to the use of the traditional teaching method. It also, investigated the school administration reflection toward…
Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.
This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…
For many decades now there has been an ongoing debate about the way and extent to which physics ought to be popularized by appealing to a student's every day experience. Part of this debate has focused on how textbooks, a major factor shaping students' education, ought to be written and presented. I examine the background, passages, and problems of two examples drawn from the special genre of ``Household Physics'' textbooks which were published largely between 1910 and 1940. The pedagogy of applying or relating physics to the everyday experience engenders values defining how and by whom science is to be applied. These books are particularly evocative, as well, of the extent to which gender can be tied to differing everyday experiences and the consequences therefore of using experiential examples. Using popular science textbooks can alienate students by drawing an implicit division between the reader and the practicing scientist.
Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise
This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the science content expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which areas and in what way does the science content change? (3) Are new scientific findings reflected in 8th and 9th grade U.S. general science textbooks? Twenty-six themes were identified which reflect five areas in science: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology, and Process of Science. Trends in science content in U.S. 8th and 9th grade general science textbooks, as revealed by this data sample, indicated no statistically significant change in depth of coverage in Physics and Process of Science over the past 60 years, no significant change in depth of coverage in Earth Science and Biology in the last 40 years, and no significant change in coverage in Chemistry over the last 30 years. Additionally, a total of sixteen new discoveries were found in the textbook sample. For classroom teachers this information may alert them to the necessity of going beyond the textbook in preparing students for life in a global society. In educational practice, this research supports and reinforces the need for inquiry learning and socioscientific curricula. It may also influence educators to challenge assumptions regarding the value and selection of the traditional classic science content.
Analyzes the structure and skill level of the tasks in the practical activities prescribed in eight process-oriented integrated science textbooks for Caribbean students in grades seven through nine. Results indicate that most of the tasks are structured and deductive in approach. Contains 42 references. (DDR)
This study is based on the premise that research on science textbook content has not specifically dealt with patterned class and grade level differences in how the organization of the content orients students to the cognitive and personality characteristics identified as precursors to scientific careers. The investigation analyzed the effects of…
The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…
Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae
This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…
The inclusion of socioscientific issues (SSIs) in the science curriculum is a well-established trend internationally. Apart from claims about its innate value, one of the rationales for this approach is its potential for helping to counter declining interest and participation. SSIs involve the use of science and are of interest to society, also raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Introducing such problems presents a significant and usually cross-disciplinary challenge to curriculum developers and teachers. The aim of this paper is to examine how this challenge has been met when judged against contemporary views of the issues concerned. It first explores how SSIs have been interpreted in an important and innovative science course for students aged 14-16 in England, entitled Twenty First Century Science. This paper analyses the Twenty First Century Science textbooks, focusing in detail on two SSIs, reproductive genetic technology and climate change. For each of these issues, the key ideas present in the social science literature surrounding the problems are outlined. This review is then used as an analytical framework to examine how the issues are presented in the textbooks. It is argued in this paper that the perspectives the textbooks take on these issues largely do not include perspectives from social science disciplines. It goes on to suggest that the development of future SSI-based curricula needs to take account of these wider, often interdisciplinary, perspectives.
Green, Whitfield; Naidoo, Devika
The post-apartheid National Physical Science Curriculum was implemented for the first time in South Africa in grade 10 during 2006. A variety of new textbooks for grade 10 have been published. This study was a comparative analysis of three popular textbooks, one prepared to support the previous curriculum, and two prepared for the new curriculum.…
Allen, Gary R.
Digital interactive textbooks represent a major step forward in the quest to integrate technology into instructional methodology. Because this technology is new, virtually no research has been done as to the response of teachers to this innovation. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of change in relation to implementing these digital interactive textbooks in science classrooms at the high school level. The conceptual framework was based on Senge's theory of organizational change, Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, and Davis' research regarding factors involved in technology acceptance. Participants included 7 science teachers and 2 administrators who were members of a professional learning community at a Title I high school in the southeastern region of the United States. A case study design was used to collect data from teacher and administrator interviews and observations of instructional activities in the classroom and professional learning community meetings. Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed for common themes. Results indicated that the digital interactive textbook was met with teacher apprehension and anxiety regarding the transition from teacher-led to student-led instruction, and this apprehension manifested in resistance. During the course of the study, educators found that the digital interactive textbook engaged students and was demonstrated to be a successful tool of instruction. The study is important because educators will develop a better understanding of how to implement technology innovations in the classroom that minimize teacher resistance to instructional change.
Carvalho, Wanderley; Carvalho, Carmen Aparecida Basso
Over decades, a number of researchers in science curriculum and science teaching and learning have pointed out that the history of science plays a pivotal role in the achievement of science literacy. However, recent studies have shown that both practitioners and textbook writers often fail to deal with subjects such as history and philosophy of…
Fadhli, Fathi Ali
The Science Technology Society (STS) approach is a major science education reform through which a scientifically literate citizen could be produced. The teaching of science through STS approach is centered on science and technology related issues and problems. The purpose of this study was to analyze five earth science textbooks published in the 1990's for their inclusion of twelve sciences and technology related issues and problems and for their inclusion of activities focused on STS. The selected earth science textbooks were; Scott Foresman, Heath, Holt, Merrill and Prentice-Hall. The targeted twelve issues and problems were identified by Bybee (1987), as the most important global science and technology related issues and problems. The numbers of full text pages devoted to each topic were determined by classifying each segment to one of the targeted topics. In addition, the numbers of STS activities were also determined by using criteria developed for this study. ANOVA statistical analyses and t-tests showed that the analyzed earth science textbooks treated the studied STS issues and problems and treated the STS activities differently. It was found that six of the studied issues and problems were constantly receiving more attention in all the analyzed earth science textbooks than the rest of the topics. These topics were; Air Quality and Atmosphere, Energy Shortages, Water Resources, Land Use, Hazardous Substances, and Mineral Resources. The overall results revealed that only an average of 8.82% of the text pages in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were devoted to STS topics and 5.49% of the activities in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were focused on STS topics. However, none of the activities focused on STS topics were presented in STS approach as defined by NSTA. The percentage of STS topics inclusion and the percentage of activities focused on STS topics were considered to be very low. Accordingly, the objectives and goals of STS approach
King, Chris John Henry
Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.
Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis
The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…
Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle
Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…
Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen
Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…
Yore, Larry D.
Science textbooks are dominant influences behind most secondary science instruction but little is known about teachers' approach to science reading. The purpose of this naturalistic study was to develop and validate a Science and Reading Questionnaire to assess secondary science teachers' attitudes toward science reading and their beliefs or informed opinions about science reading. A survey of 428 British Columbia secondary science teachers was conducted and 215 science teachers responded. Results on a 12-item Likert attitude scale indicated that teachers place high value on reading as an important strategy to promote learning in science and that they generally accept responsibility for teaching content reading skills to science students. Results on a 13-item Likert belief scale indicated that science teachers generally reject the text-driven model of reading, but they usually do not have well-formulated alternative models to guide their teaching practices. Teachers have intuitive beliefs about science reading that partially agree with many research findings, but their beliefs are fragmented and particularly sketchy in regard to the cognitive and metacognitive skills required by readers to learn from science texts. The findings for attitude, belief, and total scales were substantiated by further questions in the Science and Reading Questionnaire regarding classroom practice and by individual interviews and classroom observations of a 15-teacher subsample of the questionnaire respondents.
Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis
Ten science textbooks (4,393 pages) for grades 6 and 7 were examined for their treatment of five top-ranked global problem issues (population growth, war technology, world hunger and food resources, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources). Implications for science education curricula from this content analysis are discussed. (SLD)
Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin
The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…
Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin
The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…
Dimopoulos, Kostas; Koulaidis, Vasilis; Sklaveniti, Spyridoula
Analyzes the pedagogic functions of visual images included in school science textbooks and daily press articles about science and technology. Indicates that the science textbooks (a) use 10 times more images, (b) use more images so as to familiarize their readers with the specialized techno-scientific content and codes, and (c) tend to create a…
Peterson, Matthew O.
Science education researchers have turned their attention to the use of images in textbooks, both because pages are heavily illustrated and because visual literacy is an important aptitude for science students. Text-image integration in the textbook is described here as composition schemes in increasing degrees of integration: prose primary (PP),…
Aziz, Majed S.; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md
The aim of this study is to compare and contrast the science process skills (SPS) included in the 10th-12th grade physics textbooks content utilized in Yemeni schools. The study revealed weaknesses and strengths in the textbooks' content. For instance, a number of science process skills (SPS), such as measuring, predicting and hypothesizing, have…
Kapici, Hasan Özgür; Savasci-Açikalin, Funda
Textbooks are one of the primary teaching tools frequently used in schools and most teachers use them in their classrooms (Sanchez and Valcarcel, 1999). Since there are a lot of abstract concepts in science education, images in science textbooks play a vital role in the learning process (Kenan et al., 2011). Concretization of abstract concepts may…
Smith, Derrick W.; Smothers, Sinikka M.
Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine how well tactile graphics (specifically data analysis graphs) in secondary mathematics and science braille textbooks correlated with the print graphics. Method: A content analysis was conducted on 598 separate data analysis graphics from 10 mathematics and science textbooks.…
Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)-a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of NOS; squared these with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing. As a result, the team developed and incorporated, in the textbook, representations of NOS they believed were the most pedagogically suitable. Analysis of the data in this study indicates that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of NOS, including representational accuracy (the degree to which representations of NOS conformed to informed views of the NOS), representational consistency (the degree to which representations of NOS in different parts of the book conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level appropriateness of the NOS representations), representational alignment (the degree to which NOS representations aligned with mandated curriculum), representational marketability (the degree to which NOS representations would affect sales of the textbook), and 'Workplace Resources' factors including availability of time, relevant expertise, and opportunities for professional development.
In the 19th century the textbook dominated the curriculum and methods of instruction. The most important textbook was the textbook of reading known as the reader. In the early 1800s science was not established as a separate primary grade subject. The science students encountered in these reading textbooks may have been their only formal science…
Brooks, Kristine M.
The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the
Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Chanetsa, Tarisai
This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the…
Moyer, Wayne A.
Reviews issues and events related to adopting high school biology textbooks in Texas. Specific reference is given to the viewpoints of Mel and Norma Gabler. It is argued that factors controlling textbook content should not result from past market forces, but from a permanent science constituency and an informed public. (DH)
Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.
Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…
Otuka, J. O. E.; Nkrumah, Clifford N.
Investigates whether the junior high school textbook 1 meets the requirements of a standards textbook that identifies with 12 criteria set by the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN). Includes the criteria of coverage of topics in the syllabus, currency suitability of language, and coherency. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)
Cheng, Ming-Chang; Chou, Pei-I; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chih-Ho
This study investigates how the illustrations in a science textbook, with their design modified according to cognitive process principles, affected students' learning performance. The quasi-experimental design recruited two Grade 5 groups (N?=?58) as the research participants. The treatment group (n?=?30) used the modified version of the textbook,…
Bizzo, Nelio; Monteiro, Paulo H. Nico; Lucas, Marcelo B.; Bianco, Andre Amaral G.
First-aid methods recommended for snakebites are included in Science textbooks in Brazil. Books published before 1996 provided misleading information in this respect and it is possible that such recommendations derived from North-American experiences conducted at the beginning of the 20th Century. The official evaluation of textbooks carried out…
French, Michelle; Taverna, Franco; Neumann, Melody; Paulo Kushnir, Lena; Harlow, Jason; Harrison, David; Serbanescu, Ruxandra
There are limited studies with conflicting results examining textbook use and student performance at the university level. To learn more, we surveyed instructors and over one thousand students in 12 undergraduate introductory science courses. The majority (77%) of the students reported reading the textbook either "often" (>75% of the…
Townsend, Brenda S.; Wilkie, Carolyn J.
The first phase of a study investigating textbook readability and students' reading levels used three traditional formulas to assess the readability levels of 51 primary textbooks from college introductory social science courses in 7 disciplines. The second phase investigated the relationship between the readability levels of students' texts,…
Terra, Luke; Bromley, Patricia
In this study the authors analyze 548 secondary social science textbooks to examine the extent to which multiculturalism-related content appears over time and around the world. Findings suggest significant global increases in textbook depictions of minority rights and groups experiencing discrimination over time and in many regions. (Contains 2…
Madsen, Poul Thois
Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension--implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An…
In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.
Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad
This study aims at investigating the use of critical thinking in high school social science textbooks based on Fars Province teachers' attitudes in order to present a model for textbook development. To achieve this goal, the use of the following skills in the social science textbooks was analyzed: reasoning, questioning, assessment of examples and…
Tessier, Jack T.
College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…
Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana
What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…
Sommer, Robert; Estabrook, Marina
Reports results of a survey of research university and community college faculty regarding perceived quality, estimated price, price-quality relationship, selection criteria, and publishers' policies for textbooks. Implications for librarians of the lack of faculty awareness of textbook prices is discussed. (Six references) (MES)
Chiappetta, Eugene L.; Fillman, David A.
Five high school biology textbooks were examined to determine the inclusion of four aspects of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of investigating, (c) science as a way of thinking, and (d) science and its interactions with technology and society. The textbooks analyzed were "BSCS Biology--A Human…
Brooks, Kristine M.
The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the
Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.; Baker, Katie; Junglen, Angela
A critical component of science and math education is reasoning with data. Science textbooks are instructional tools that provide opportunities for learning science content (e.g. facts about force and motion) and process skills (e.g. data recording) that support and augment reasoning with data. In addition, the construction and design of textbooks…
Hsieh, Fu-Pei; Lee, Sung-Tao
The purpose of this study was to investigate the science topics that children felt interested and not interested in textbooks for compiling science texts to improve their learning. Four hundred and eighty-eight fifth and sixth graders were invited to finish ISTQ (interested science topics questionnaire) which was composed of three subscales: (1)…
Potter, Ellen F.; Rosser, Sue V.
In order to examine factors that may deter girls' interest in science, five seventh-grade life science textbooks were analyzed for sexism in language, images, and curricular content, and for features of activities that have been found to be useful for motivating girls. Although overt sexism was not apparent, subtle forms of sexism in the selection of language, images, and curricular content were found. Activities had some features useful to girls, but other features were seldom included. Teachers may wish to use differences that were found among texts as one basis for text selection.
Hussin, Ahamad; Folkestad, James E.; Makela, Carole
This study was conducted to explore the experiences of Malaysian secondary students with visual impairments in using digital talking textbooks (DTTs) to assist their learning. Data were obtained from individual in-depth interviews. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to understand the findings and confirm the emergent…
Assistive technology devices have become essential tools for students with visual impairments. In 2009, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced Digital Talking Textbooks (DTTs) for selected subjects to facilitate learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, describe, and interpret the experiences of students with visual…
This article sets out to examine the question: how do social science textbooks used in the Dominican public schools portray national identity and ethnicity to its students? This article examines how the popular contemporary Dominican perspective on "blackness" plays a fundamental role in the current Dominican social science public school…
Dimopoulos, Kostas; Koulaidis, Vasilis; Sklaveniti, Spyridoula
This study aims at presenting a grid for analysing the way the language employed in Greek school science textbooks tends to project pedagogic messages. These messages are analysed for the different school science subjects (i.e., Physics, Chemistry, Biology) and educational levels (i.e., primary and lower secondary level). The analysis is made…
This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…
In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses.…
Reviews efforts by science educators to reduce sexism in science textbooks. While there is agreement about the extent of sexism found in the books, there is some confusion as to the best method of changing it. An analytic framework for clarifying the problem and possible affirmative action are proposed. (JN)
Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh; Chanetsa, Tarisai
This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the USA. The three textbooks were scored on targeted NOS aspects on a scale of -3 to +3 that reflected the explicitness with which these aspects were addressed. The analysis revealed that the textbooks poorly depict NOS, and in particular, there was scant attention given to the social dimension of science, science versus pseudoscience and the 'myth of the scientific method'. The findings of this study are incommensurate with the strong emphasis in a reformed school science curriculum that underlies the need for learners to understand the scientific enterprise, and how scientific knowledge develops. In view of this, the findings of this research reinforce the need for a review on the mandate given to textbook publishers and writers so that a stronger focus be placed on the development of materials that better represent the tenets of NOS.
Simplicio, Nathan D. C. S.; Cordova, Bianca C.; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C.
Modifying the environment is a characteristic of the human species. With deforestation and the expansion of urban centers, diseases known in animals have begun to be described in humans. Science textbooks constitute an instrument of great importance in understanding this issue. This study evaluated the main science textbooks, recommended by the…
Nwafor, C. E.; Umoke, C. C.
This study was designed to evaluate the content adequacy and readability of approved basic science and technology textbooks in use in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. Eight research questions guided the study. The sample of the study consisted of six (6) approved basic science and technology textbooks, 30 Junior Secondary Schools randomly…
Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.
This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…
Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.
Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…
Kim, Seong-un; Lim, Sung-man; Kim, Eun-ae; Yang, Il-ho
This study is for the implication of editorial design in science textbooks which are designed for student-centered instruction, when the elements of the editorial design are different, we focus on how the students' eye movement and cognitive load change. For this, we produced a new book for 5th grade students in elementary school that is modified…
Karabag, S. Gulin
In this paper, it is aimed to analyze the acquirements and topics in Turkish secondary school history textbooks that are published by the Ministry of National Education (MEB) and by the private sector to determine to what extend the place given to history of science and history of medicine. In the study, the document and content analysis…
Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.
Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…
Glenn, William Harold
Secondary school earth-science textbooks in print from 1960 through 1979 were examined to determine how rapidly concepts of plate tectonics were incorporated into those texts during the period when scientists' views about these concepts were evolving most rapidly. Suggests that delays were probably due to an unwillingness to engage in speculation…
This paper examines the pro-science and technology discourse constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying analytical techniques of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the paper critically investigates how the discourse is constructed and what ideological forces are manifested…
In this study, the value types of 6, 7 and 8 class text books which take place in the primary education science and technology education program, have been targeted for investigation for the present rate of these values in different textbooks, and, whether they changed in accordance with class variables (class, subject content, and divisions of…
This article is an empirical study of science teaching practices using a Bernsteinian framework. It provides a comparative analysis through ethnographic examination of pedagogic recontextualisation in different school types--government, private unaided and international. Bernstein drew attention to the process of pedagogic recontextualisation and…
McDonald, Christine V.
A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has…
Is the print textbook--that old-fashioned, heavy, expensive staple of the 20th-century classroom--soon to be a thing of the past? While it's hard to imagine the K-12 world, known for its resistance to change, throwing out math, language, and science textbooks in favor of digital content, the nation's current fiscal crisis, combined with major…
Santos Baptista, Geilsa Costa; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cobern, William W.
This paper presents the results of research regarding approaches to the origin of life featured in science textbooks produced by an Evangelical publisher. The research nature was qualitative with document analysis and an interpretive framework based on Epistemological Pluralism. Overall, the results indicate that there are four perspectives on the…
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; McCarthy, Cameron
This paper deals with the discourses related to race and anti-racism in a social sciences textbook for grade 12 Ontario students that was published in 2002. It is argued that the complexities of race and anti-racism are not dealt with systematically and cohesively. The textbook does not adequately address the topics of race and racism within the…
Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun
Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…
Campanile, Megan F.; Lederman, Norman G.; Kampourakis, Kostas
The purpose of this study was to analyze seven widely used high school biology textbooks in order to assess the nature of science knowledge (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) aspects they, explicitly or implicitly, conveyed in the Mendelian genetics sections. Textbook excerpts that directly and/or fully matched our statements about NOS and SI were…
Babaei, Bahare; Abdi, Ali
The aim of this study is to analyze the content of social studies and natural sciences textbooks of the secondary school on the basis of the emotional intelligence components. In order to determine and inspect the emotional intelligence components all of the textbooks content (including texts, exercises, and illustrations) was examined based on…
Eight physical science textbooks were analyzed for coverage on acids, bases, and neutralization. At the level of the text, clarity and coherence of statements were investigated. The conceptual framework for this topic was represented in a concept map which was used as a coding tool for tracing concepts and links present in textbooks. Cognitive…
Lee, Victor R.
Visual representations are ubiquitous in modern-day science textbooks and have in recent years become an object of criticism and scrutiny. This article examines the extent to which changes in representations in textbooks published in the USA over the past six decades have invited those critiques. Drawing from a correlational analysis of a corpus…
Why is it that students entering Middle School do well and are enthusiastic about science and when they leave they do poorly and are turned off science? Under-prepared teachers without a background in physical science are part of the problem, but the fact that the most commonly used textbooks in use in our Middle Schools do very poorly when it comes to the facts, the procedures, and the explanations of what it is that scientists do and what they hope to accomplish is a much more serious problem, as the reasons for such poor texts permeate the whole educational system. What can physicists do about the problem? To gain some perspective on the textbook problem see the report at http://www.psrc-online.org/curriculum/book.html.
The inclusion of socioscientific issues (SSIs) in the science curriculum is a well-established trend internationally. Apart from claims about its innate value, one of the rationales for this approach is its potential for helping to counter declining interest and participation. SSIs involve the use of science and are of interest to society, also…
Chandler, Patricia Mcmillan
This descriptive study examined two high school biology textbooks for differences in opportunities for student inquiry as reported by Romey's Index of Student Involvement. The National Research Council's National Science Education Standards emphasizes the importance of students becoming "independent inquirers about the natural world." The systematic examination of student textbooks is an significant aspect in monitoring the state of science education in contemporary classrooms. Over 81% of text sampled in PRENTICE HALL Biology was categorized as fact, definition, or author's conclusion while 7% qualified as engaging students in inquiry. Biology: A Community Context had a more balanced distribution with 42% of sentences being categorized as fact, definition, or author's conclusion and 28% qualifying as engaging students in inquiry. Chi-square (chi2) statistics for the categories of non-inquiry/inquiry were significant, indicating that the two textbooks differ significantly as to their emphases on opportunities for inquiry. The investigation also compared two different sample sizes: the literature-recommended sample of 5% of text and a smaller 250-sentence sample. The frequency distribution across the 10 categories of non-inquiry/inquiry was very similar for the two sample sizes. PRENTICE HALL Biology fell below the recommended Index of Student Involvement range in both sampling techniques, while Biology: A Community Context fell in the recommended range for the Index of Student Involvement in both sampling techniques. This seems to indicate that the smaller sample size could be used appropriately to compare potential student textbooks by textbook adoption committees and curriculum planners. Biology textbooks that are judged to have relatively high amounts of inquiry are recommended for those who want to implement the national standards.
Gopalan, Valarmathie; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu
Science plays a major role in assisting Malaysia to achieve the developed nation status by 2020. However, over a few decades, Malaysia is facing a downward trend in the number of students pursuing careers and higher education in science related fields. Since school is the first platform where students learn science, a new learning approach needs to be introduced to motivate them towards science learning. The aim of this study is to determine whether the intervention of the enhanced science textbook using augmented reality contributes to the learning process of lower secondary school students in science. The study was carried out among a sample of 70 lower secondary school students. Pearson Correlation and Regression analyses were used to determine the effects of ease of use, engaging, enjoyment and fun on students' motivation in using the augmented reality science textbook for science learning. The results provide empirical support for the positive and statistically significant relationship between engaging, enjoyment and fun and students' motivation for science learning. However, Ease of use is not significant but positively correlated to Motivation.
Rothman, Alan H.
This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking
Wagamon, Barbara J.
This study was conducted to determine if analog domains in sixth grade science textbooks were common to the life experience of sixth grade students and if experience differed according to moderating variables. The researcher reviewed three sixth grade general science textbooks and selected analogies that were unsupported by extended text, photos, or diagrams. Analogies were limited to ones which were unsupported because the intent was to identify students who were ready by virtue of life experience to confront analogies unaided by contextual clues. The researcher designed the Life Experiences in Analog Domains (LEAD) Questionnaire to survey students in 50 analog domains. Subjects of the study were 331 sixth grade students from an urban school district. Thirty were tested with the instrument one year later. Data on age, gender, ethnicity and income were analyzed for variance. Standardized achievement test scores were correlated to the LEAD Questionnaire. Results revealed sharp contrasts of experience by analog domain. Experience in analog domains was indicated 52% of the time overall. There were significant differences in the experience of students grouped by moderating variables. Younger students reported more experience than older students. The higher income group reported more experience than the lower income group. Caucasian students reported more experience overall than African American students. Chi-square tests revealed that differences in scores by ethnicity were not controlled by income. of three skills, reading comprehension, mathematics, and science, reading comprehension was most closely correlated to questionnaire score. Results suggest that many of the sixth grade students in the study may be without experience in analog domains when they encounter analogies in a textbook. Assuming subsequent implementations of the Questionnaire confirm these results, teachers should survey life experience of students and help them develop experiences that complement
Contel, Teresa Muñoz; Ferrandis, Ignacio García; Ferrandis, Xavier García
Light pollution has emerged with the industrial development in recent decades. It is becoming a significant environmental issue for cities today and it will probably become more important in the near future. However, very little research has been carried out on this issue in the field of science teaching, despite there being a general agreement…
Doige, Carl A.; Day, Terence
The physics and chemistry education literature has grappled with an appropriate definition for the concept of heat for the past four decades. Most of the literature promotes the view that heat is 'energy in transit' or 'involves the transfer of energy' between the system and surroundings because of a difference in temperature. Given that many undergraduate students are not learning the concept of heat in physics and chemistry alone, the goal of this investigation is to explore the conceptions of heat as presented in textbooks from across the science disciplines. An analysis of the definitions of heat from physics, chemistry, the biological sciences and the earth sciences showed a significant variation in the definitions within a discipline and between the disciplines. Specifically, the physics and chemistry textbooks used 'energy in transit' or 'transfer of energy' definitions (Class I), whereas textbooks from other disciplines typically used definitions which relate heat to 'molecular kinetic energy' (Class II) or they used a hybrid of Class I and II definitions. Although a universal definition of heat across disciplines may not be possible (or even desirable), we suggest that discrepancies in definitions be acknowledged and clearly communicated to students.
Macian, Janice L.
Provides information about the curriculum characteristics of first- and third-year high school Spanish textbooks and determines what differences exist among the texts involved. Study results indicate that these textbooks are consistently "deficient" on nearly all of the dimensions examined. (Author/SED)
Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan
Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…
This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.
van Eijck, Michiel; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ellermeijer, Ton
Polysemy in graph-related practices is the phenomenon that a single graph can sustain different meanings assigned to it. Considerable research has been done on polysemy in graph-related practices in school science in which graphs are rather used as scientific tools. However, graphs in science textbooks are also used rather pedagogically to illustrate domain-specific textbook content and less empirical work has been done in this respect. The aim of this study is therefore to better understand polysemy in the domain-specific pedagogical use of graphs in science textbooks. From socio-cultural and cultural-historical perspectives, we perceive polysemy as irreducible to either the meaning-making (semiotic) resources provided by the graph or its readers who assign meaning to it. Departing from this framework, we simultaneously investigated: (a) the meanings 44 pre-university biology students assigned to the Cartesian plane of a graph that is commonly used as a pedagogical tool in Dutch high school biology textbooks (an electrocardiogram); (b) the semiotic resources provided by this graph; and (c) the educational practices of which it is supposedly a part according to the actions constituted by the textbooks that were to be conducted by students. Drawing on this case, we show polysemy in the pedagogical use of graphs in science textbooks. In turn, we show how this polysemy can be explained dialectically as the result of both the meaning-making resources provided by the textbooks and the graph-related practices in which students supposedly engaged by using their textbooks. The educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Smith, Betty Lou
Why-questions adjunct to reading material consistently help students remember unfamiliar information (recall) according to research investigating elaborative interrogation. Why-questions ask students to explain why statements pulled-out from a text are true. But no one apparently has assessed why-questions' effectiveness when measuring comprehension of paraphrased meaningful information and when students are learning in a naturalistic classroom context. This study investigated the use of why-questions in enhancing science reading comprehension. Undergraduates (123 males and 171 females) using a chapter from their introductory biology textbooks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 21 adjunct why-questions or to a control group with no adjunct why-questions. The treatment group was instructed to read the textbook material and to answer the why-questions. The control group was instructed to read the same textbook material twice, a standard methodological procedure used in such research. Posttest data was collected using a posttest only equivalent group design. A test for students' prior knowledge and a test for students' verbal ability were administered to the students prior to the study. Findings revealed that students in the treatment group using adjunct why-question outperformed (p < .05) students in the control group without why-questions on a comprehension posttest. Of interest is that students with low-verbal ability who answered adjunct why-questions significantly outperformed students with low-verbal ability in the control group. Why-questions seem to be a potentially powerful learning device to improve student comprehension of college biology textbooks.
... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...
Park, Mira; Park, Do-Yong; Lee, Robert E.
The purpose of this study is to investigate in what ways the inquiry task of teaching and learning in earth science textbooks reflect the unique characteristics of earth science inquiry methodology, and how it provides students with opportunities to develop their scientific reasoning skills. This study analyzes a number of inquiry activities in…
van Eijck, Michiel; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ellermeijer, Ton
Polysemy in graph-related practices is the phenomenon that a single graph can sustain different meanings assigned to it. Considerable research has been done on polysemy in graph-related practices in school science in which graphs are rather used as scientific tools. However, graphs in science textbooks are also used rather pedagogically to…
Chiang-Soong, Betty; Yager, Robert E.
Science-technology-society (STS) has been identified by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), the Departments of Education in a variety of states, and a variety of commissions and panels concerned with reform in science education as a new direction and goal for science education. Because most teachers are dependent upon textbooks for determining their curricula and teaching approaches, an investigation of 11 of the most frequently used secondary science textbooks in the U.S. were reviewed to determine the attention given to STS topics. The framework established by the Project Synthesis research team for STS was used to define STS topics. The 11 textbooks were examined in their entirety to determine space devoted to STS. Minimum interrater reliability was established at 0.80; any deviation resulted in further analysis. Comparisons were made of STS coverage by science disciplines and across the 7-12 grade levels. Results revealed that less than 7% of the narrative space is devoted to STS topics, with a range of 11.5% to 0.5%. Further, the coverage of STS topics decreases as grade level increases. A great discrepancy, therefore, exists between goals for science education (an STS emphasis) to actual coverage in the most frequently used textbooks.
Donnelly, Lisa A.; Argyle, Sean
The major science education reform documents emphasize the need for K-12 students to have a robust understanding of nature of science (NOS), and inservice teachers consequently need to develop their NOS teaching repertoires. This study investigated the extent to which science teachers were willing to adopt new strategies and activities for…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…
Reichard, Joshua D.
In context of legal battles over science textbooks in both public and private schools, this empirical case study examines student religiosity scores over a 3-year period following a school-wide curricular change from Christian-published to secular science textbooks in a K-12 Christian private school. The study found no statistically significant…
Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Mansour, Nasser S.; Alshamrani, Saeed M.; Almohi, Saeed
This study examines Saudi Arabian middle school science textbooks' coverage of the essential features of scientific inquiry. All activities in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks were analyzed by using the scientific inquiry "essential features" rubric. The results indicated that the essential features are included in about…
Hocutt, Martha M.
The purpose of this study was to examine three different methodologies used to present content to sixth-grade science students and determine which methodology benefited students most with regard to the acquisition of content knowledge and attitude toward science. The three methodologies examined were The University of Alabama's Center for Communication and Educational Technology's Integrated Science program, CCET's Integrated Science program enhanced with PowerPoint RTM technology, and traditional textbook methodology. Data were collected through the administration of a pretest prior to instruction and a posttest after 10 days of instruction. Data were also collected through researcher observations, nine additional assessments, and the completion of observation checklists by the classroom teacher. Data were collected for examining attitudes toward science through the administration of a survey both prior to and after instruction. Methodology was not found to affect student scores with regard to race, gender, or achievement level. Student achievement was not found to be affected by the method in which content was delivered, but by instructionally sound pedagogy used by an effective teacher. Using technology to present content information may not result in higher test scores when compared to traditional methodologies. However, multimedia may have a powerful impact on learning, but perhaps not in ways that are traditionally measured. Anecdotal evidence from researcher observations indicated that students were more motivated when instructed through methodologies that used technology. Further research should be conducted in exploring benefits students gain from being exposed to technology. In addition, further research needs to be conducted on different ways technology can be used with good pedagogy to improve student achievement. Teachers must accept that technology in the classroom is here to stay, and they cannot deny its use. The use of technology by teachers is a
Campanile, Megan F.; Lederman, Norman G.; Kampourakis, Kostas
The purpose of this study was to analyze seven widely used high school biology textbooks in order to assess the nature of science knowledge (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) aspects they, explicitly or implicitly, conveyed in the Mendelian genetics sections. Textbook excerpts that directly and/or fully matched our statements about NOS and SI were labeled as explicit and excerpts that partially and/or indirectly matched our statements about NOS and SI were labeled as implicit. There was a running count of each NOS and SI aspect that was identified in the textbooks and the instances were noted to be either implicit or explicit. There were 365 instances of NOS and SI aspects counted in 140 textbook excerpts. Of the 365 instances, 237 (65 %) were NOS aspects and 128 (35 %) were SI aspects. The analysis also revealed far more implicit than explicit instances of NOS and SI. Of the 365 instances, 362 (99 %) were implicit and three (1.0 %) were explicit. The three explicit instances were all SI aspects. In conclusion, the Mendelian genetics sections demonstrated a multitude of opportunities to teach NOS and SI explicitly, although what was included in textbooks was virtually all implicit. This study demonstrates the importance and value for science educators to examine how teachers use instances of NOS and SI in textbooks. Understanding how teachers use instances of NOS and SI would provide information that could be immediately implemented into professional development programs. Lastly, this research would provide textbook developers with compelling information to update the supplemental instruction materials provided to teachers.
Pop-Pacurar, Irina; Ciascai, Liliana
What is the quality of the Romanian biology textbooks? The article gives answers to this question by watching the evolution of a textbook and by suggesting an exercise for analyzing and assessing the alternative biology textbooks. The opportunity of this analysis has been offered to students, future teachers of biology, around the time when they…
Calado, Florbela M.; Bogner, Franz X.
Scientific literacy has been increasingly considered a major goal of science education. While textbooks remain the most widespread tools for pursuing this goal within classrooms, they have been slow to adapt to the most recent epistemological paradigms, often still conveying distorted views of science and technology. Accordingly, we present herein…
Soyibo, Kola; McKenzie-Briscoe, B. O.
This study examines the extent to which some students comprehend four integrated science textbooks and the relationships among their grade level, gender, school location and type, and ability to comprehend the texts. Jamaican high school students (N=160) were the subjects of the study which involved data sources such as cloze, comprehension,…
Nikonova, Elina I.; Sharonov, Ivan A.; Sorokoumova, Svetlana N.; Suvorova, Olga V.; Sorokoumova, Elena A.
The relevance of the study is conditioned by the changes in the content of socio-humanitarian education, aimed at the acquisition of knowledge, the development of tolerance, civic and moral education. The purpose of the paper is to identify the modern functions of a textbook on social sciences and humanities as an informational management tool of…
Lacin Simsek, Canan
In order to solve environmental problems, it is thought that education should be connected with values. For this reason, it is emphasized that environmental issues should be integrated with ethical and aesthetic values. In this study, 6th, 7th and 8th grade science and technology curriculum and textbooks were investigated to find out how much…
Holliday, William G.
A selective attentional model used to explain recent mathemagenic and related research findings also predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. Furthermore, the chances of such dysfunctional selective attention are increased when students are provided with a mere sampling (partial set) of study questions covering only portions of the diagram and are decreased when students are provided with a population (complete set) of questions or a no-question treatment. As predicted, using the Newman-Keuls procedure (p <0.05), the population and no-question treatment groups outperformed the sampling-question group which, in turn, outperformed a placebo-control group. It was concluded that researchers and teachers should be aware that encouraging students to concentrate on selective portions of critical information can result in inadequate processing of such specialized science materials as flow diagrams.
Jacobsen, Anja Skaar
This paper explores the relationship between H. C. Ørsted’s research and teaching programme in order to uncover the way he attempted to sustain a dynamical approach to science through his lectures and textbooks. The main focus is the relation between Ørsted’s didactics as presented in his textbooks and other documents, his pedagogic activity, and his theoretical ideas in natural philosophy.1 The paper further provides evidence of how Ørsted’s students appropriated his dynamical system, epistemology, and pedagogy.
Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary
The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation
Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou
Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.
In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…
Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Lavonen, Jari
The aim of this study was to assess how the different aspects of nature of science (NOS) were represented in Finnish and Swedish upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. The dimensions of NOS were analyzed from five popular chemistry textbook series. The study provides a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry…
Bertalan, John J.
A determination of the reading grade placement levels (GPLs) and final course grades of community college students in relationship to the GPLs of their assigned social science textbooks was the focus of a study at Citrus Community College (Florida). Dale-Chall readability placement levels were calculated for eight textbooks used in 19 classes of…
Rupley, William H.; Paige, David D.; Rasinski, Timothy V.; Slough, Scott W.
Pavio's Dual-Coding Theory (1991) and Mayer's Multimedia Principal (2000) form the foundation for proposing a multi-coding theory centered around Multi-Touch Tablets and the newest generation of e-textbooks to scaffold struggling readers in reading and learning from science textbooks. Using E. O. Wilson's "Life on Earth: An Introduction"…
RIGGSBY, ERNEST DUWARD
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, AS PRESENTED IN SECONDARY AND COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS, IS COMPARED WITH THAT DESCRIBED BY SCIENTISTS. TEN TEXTBOOKS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM THOSE AVAILABLE FOR GRADES 7 THROUGH 9, 10 THROUGH 12, AND 13 AND 14. FORTY SCIENTISTS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM THE COMBINED MEMBERSHIPS OF A LEARNED SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY AND THREE…
Online Submission, 2009
The School Textbook Division from the Chilean Ministry of Education has carried out experience-sharing instances and reflection processes oriented to improve the quality of textbooks, adapting them to new learning strategies, to the demands of the school system as well as to the state-of-the-art in research in education worldwide. Since the…
Lorsbach, Anthony W.
The author describes how case study methods were used to understand the intricacies of curriculum adoption in one school district and the context in which an adoption decision was made. As data collection and interpretation commenced, understanding of the perceptions of the district stakeholders of their process of curriculum adoption became an…
In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.
Slough, Scott W.; McTigue, Erin M.; Kim, Suyeon; Jennings, Susan K.
Middle school teachers tend to rely heavily on texts that have become increasing more visual. There is little information available about the graphical demands of general middle grades' science texts. The purpose of this study was to quantify the type and quality of the graphical representations and how they interacted with the textual material in…
Altbach, Philip G.; Kelly, Gail P.
This volume of essays focuses on textbooks in developing nations of the world. Issues of concern are textbook supply in the schools, national policies and their relation to textbook supply and content, the role of national and international agencies in textbook publication and control, and the influence of textbooks on classroom practice. The…
This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study looks at how ethical questions/exercises found in four Ontario textbooks require students and teachers to think and act along specific lines. These include making ethical decisions within a legal-juridical frame; deciding what kinds of research should be publically funded; optimizing personal and population health; and regulation through policy and legislation. While engaging ethical issues in these ways is useful, educators should also question the kinds of (ethical) subjectivities that are partially constituted by discourses of science education. If science education is going to address twenty-first century problems such as climate change and social inequality, educators need to address how the possibilities for ethical engagement afforded to students work to constitute specific kinds of "ethical actors."
Link-Pérez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.
This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the photographs with plant and/or animal content and evaluated them for two features: (1) the subject of the photograph, and (2) the specificity of the label (name) provided. We found that photographs with animal subjects were more numerous than those with plant subjects; they also represented a greater diversity of animals and had a higher instance of repetition than did plant photographs. We also found a significant naming disparity: animal photographs were three times more likely to be provided with a specific label (common name) than were plant photographs. Not only were plant photographs less likely to be provided with a specific name for the plant (e.g. orchid or dandelion), but also they were commonly identified only by the name for a plant part (such as flower or leaf) or life-form (e.g. tree or shrub). To address the disparity revealed by this study, and to encourage student interest in and knowledge about plants, we recommend that educators go beyond textbooks to expose students to a diversity of named plants, and present plants as distinct organisms rather than as a collection of parts.
Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor
Recent research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presentation of the Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr models of the atom in general physics textbooks based on criteria derived from history and philosophy of science. Forty-one general physics…
Aydin, Sevgi; Tortumlu, Selma
To attain the goal of scientific literacy, the nature of science (NOS) is one of the areas that should be addressed. In many countries, the training of scientifically literate generations is a fundamental aim of science education, as a result there is an emphasis on NOS in science curricula and curricular materials. Textbooks prepared to teach…
Stone, Robert W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori J.
Textbooks have played an important role in education for decades. Given the significant number of technology applications in education, it is not surprising that at least one such application is the electronic textbook (e-textbook). There are a variety of motivations to adopt an e-textbook, including frequent content updates and low costs. The…
Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Lavonen, Jari
The aim of this study was to assess how the different aspects of nature of science (NOS) were represented in Finnish and Swedish upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. The dimensions of NOS were analyzed from five popular chemistry textbook series. The study provides a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry textbooks informed by domain-specific research on the philosophy of chemistry and chemical education. The selection of sections analyzed was based on the four themes of scientific literacy: knowledge of science, investigate nature of science, science as a way of thinking, and interaction of science, technology and society. For the second round of analysis the theme of science as a way of thinking was chosen for a closer inspection. The units of analysis in this theme were analyzed using seven domain specific dimensions of NOS: tentative, empirical, model-based, inferential, technological products, instrumentation, and social and societal dimensions. Based on the inter-rater agreement, the procedure and frameworks of analysis presented in this study was a reliable way of assessing the emphasis given to the domain specific aspects of NOS. All textbooks have little emphasis on the theme science as a way of thinking on a whole. In line with the differences of curricula, Swedish textbooks emphasize the tentative dimension of NOS more than Finnish textbooks. To provide teachers with a sufficiently wide variety of examples to discuss the different dimensions of NOS changes to the national core curricula are needed. Although changing the emphasis of the curricula would be the most obvious way to affect the emphasis of the textbooks, other efforts such as pre- and in-service courses for developing teachers understanding of NOS and pedagogic approaches for NOS instruction to their classroom practice might also be needed.
Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the emphasis given to human evolution in secondary biology textbooks historically and in the current state science standards. Prior to the 1960s, biology textbooks provided little emphasis to human evolution. In the 1970s and early 1980s textbooks reduced the coverage of human evolution. However, in the 1990s the coverage became quite comprehensive again. In 2004, the state science frameworks of only three states had standards concerned with human evolution.
Guthrie, Janice Marie
Statistics indicate that students in conservative Christian schools earn higher standardized test scores in mathematics, reading, science, and writing compared to their public school counterparts, while many are criticized for using curricular materials deemed inferior in quality and for employing uncertified and ill-trained teachers. This study investigates the effectiveness of Christian-published science textbooks in preparing students for college-level science courses as measured by the Science Reasoning subtest of the ACT college entrance examination. A questionnaire was sent to conservative Christian high schools in five Midwest states which are affiliated with the American Association of Christian Schools, Association of Christian Schools International, and Oral Roberts University Educational Fellowship. Information gathered on the schools, teachers, facilities, and ACT Science Reasoning scores and the resulting descriptive statistics provide a sketch of the typical Midwest Christian high school. Hypothesis testing resulted in acceptance of the Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between the mean ACT Science Reasoning scores of Midwest Christian high schools using Christian-published science textbooks as compared to those using secular-published science textbooks. Multiple regression analysis on the two publishers represented by the sample statistics, A Beka and Bob Jones University Press, showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of one publisher over the other. Analysis of the one open-ended question asking why each school chooses to use the type of publisher it does led to the issues of worldview instruction and academic rigor as the deciding factors for the selection of one type of publisher over the other.
Objectives Epidemiology is often described as ‘the science of public health’. Here we aim to assess the extent that epidemiological methods, as covered in contemporary standard textbooks, provide tools that can assess the relative magnitude of public health problems and can be used to help rank and assess public health priorities. Study Design Narrative literature review. Methods Thirty textbooks were grouped into three categories; pure, extended or applied epidemiology, were reviewed with attention to the ways the discipline is characterised and the nature of the analytical methods described. Results Pure texts tend to present a strict hierarchy of methods with those metrics deemed to best serve aetiological inquiry at the top. Extended and applied texts employ broader definitions of epidemiology but in most cases, the metrics described are also those used in aetiological inquiry and may not be optimal for capturing the consequences and social importance of injuries and disease onsets. Conclusions The primary scientific purpose of epidemiology, even amongst ‘applied’ textbooks, is aetiological inquiry. Authors do not readily extend to methods suitable for assessing public health problems and priorities. PMID:24507570
Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Mansour, Nasser S.; Alshamrani, Saeed M.; Almohi, Saeed
This study examines Saudi Arabian middle school science textbooks' coverage of the essential features of scientific inquiry. All activities in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks were analyzed by using the scientific inquiry `essential features' rubric. The results indicated that the essential features are included in about 59 % of the analyzed science activities. However, feature 2, `making learner give priority to evidence in responding to questions' and feature 3, `allowing learner to formulate explanations from evidence' appeared more frequently than the other three features (feature 1: engaging learner in scientifically oriented questions, feature 4: helping learner connect explanations to scientific knowledge, and feature 5: helping learner communicate and justify explanations to others), whether in the activities as a whole, or in the activities included in each of the four science domains (physical science, Earth science, life science and chemistry). These features are represented in almost all activities. This means that almost all activities in the middle school science textbooks and the workbooks include features 2 and 3. Meanwhile, the mean level of inclusion of the five essential features of scientific inquiry found in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks as a whole is 2.55. However, results found for features 1, 4, 5 and for in-level inclusion of the inquiry features in each of the science domains indicate that the inclusion of the essential inquiry features is teacher-centred. As a result, neither science textbooks nor workbooks provide students with the opportunity or encouragement to develop their inquiry skills. Consequently, the results suggest important directions for educational administrators and policy-makers in the preparation and use of science educational content.
Nakagawa, Mana; Wotipka, Christine Min
The invisibility of women in educational curricula and the effect this has on perpetuating women's marginal status in society has been well documented. This article examines (1) whether and how mentions of women and women's rights have expanded and changed in textbooks cross-nationally and over time and (2) to what extent these outcomes are driven…
de Berg, Kevin C.; Treagust, David F.
The presentation of gas properties in terms of the qualitative-quantitative mode and gas law sequence is examined by analysis of 14 chemistry textbooks used in Australia and on questionnaires concerning teaching approaches by 104 teachers. Findings indicate that teaching involves minimal use of qualitative relationships of the gas laws and…
Wong, Gabrielle K. W.
This paper describes classroom activities to help students understand the publication cycle and the characteristics of major publication channels (textbooks, books, encyclopedias, and periodicals) for first-year physics students. When designing these activities, the author considered the intellectual development characteristics and the…
Butler, Frances A.; Bailey, Alison L.; Stevens, Robin; Huang, Becky; Lord, Carol
This study expands on previous National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) work that has undertaken the articulation of the academic language construct for broad educational purposes. The primary goal was to describe the language of textbook selections in terms of vocabulary, grammar, and organization of…
AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.
Baker, Judy; Thierstein, Joel; Fletcher, Kathi; Kaur, Manpreet; Emmons, Jonathan
To address the high cost of textbooks, Rice University's Connexions and the Community College Open Textbook Project (CCOTP) collaborated to develop a proof-of-concept free and open textbook. The proof-of-concept served to document a workflow process that would support adoption of open textbooks. Open textbooks provide faculty and students with a…
Apple, Michael W.
This article focuses on the political and economic realities surrounding textbook publishing. A discussion of the publishing industry includes an examination of industry decision makers and the influence of profit. State textbook adoption policies are also explored. (IAH)
Nix, Sharon J.
Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.
Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Good, Ronald
This article is a report of elementary school teachers' beliefs about and uses of text material in science. Survey results from 522 K-8 teachers from 299 schools in the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were analyzed along three dimensions: teacher attitudes toward teaching of reading in science; teacher beliefs and understanding about models of reading, factors influencing science reading and reading skills; and teacher use of various teaching strategies. Results suggest that teachers do not see reading science as different from any other narrative material. And though most agreed to the importance of having students do activities to support and enhance the use of text material, responses suggest that covering topics is still a concern for most elementary teachers.
Ridgway, Judith Sulkes
This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational
Shapiro, Valerie B; Hawkins, J David; Oesterle, Sabrina
The widespread adoption of science-based prevention requires local infrastructures for prevention service delivery. Communities That Care (CTC) is a tested prevention service delivery system that enables a local coalition of community stakeholders to use a science-based approach to prevention and improve the behavioral health of young people. This paper uses data from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a community-randomized trial of CTC, to examine the extent to which better internal team functioning of CTC coalitions increases the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention within 12 communities, relative to 12 matched comparison communities. Specifically, this paper examines the potential of both a direct relationship between coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention and a direct relationship between functioning and the coalition capacities that ultimately enable the adoption of science-based prevention. Findings indicate no evidence of a direct relationship between four dimensions of coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, but suggest a relationship between coalition functioning and coalition capacities (building new member skills and establishing external linkages with existing community organizations) that enable science-based prevention.
Pine, Jerome; Aschbacher, Pamela; Roth, Ellen; Jones, Melanie; McPhee, Cameron; Martin, Catherine; Phelps, Scott; Kyle, Tara; Foley, Brian
A large number of American elementary school students are now studying science using the hands-on inquiry curricula developed in the 1990s: Insights; Full Option Science System (FOSS); and Science and Technology for Children (STC). A goal of these programs, echoed in the National Science Education Standards, is that children should gain abilities to do scientific inquiry and understanding about scientific inquiry. We have studied the degree to which students can do inquiries by using four hands-on performance assessments, which required one or three class periods. To be fair, the assessments avoided content that is studied in depth in the hands-on programs. For a sample of about 1000 fifth grade students, we compared the performance of students in hands-on curricula with an equal number of students with textbook curricula. The students were from 41 classrooms in nine school districts. The results show little or no curricular effect. There was a strong dependence on students' cognitive ability, as measured with a standard multiple-choice instrument. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. Also, there was no difference on a multiple-choice test, which used items released from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). It is not completely clear whether the lack of difference on the performance assessments was a consequence of the assessments, the curricula, and/or the teaching.
Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…
Kim, Jackie Hee-Young; Jung, Hye-Yoon
South Korea has adopted the widespread use of digital textbooks. Part school reform and part an effort to prepare today's children for tomorrow's challenging world, the way in which this effort was implemented and the lessons learned are valuable. This article highlights the history of the digital textbook project and compares printed textbooks…
Boujemaa, Agorram; Silvia, Caravita; Adriana, Valente; Daniela, Luzi; Nicola, Margnelli
The study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship" that joined 18 European and North-African countries. We report here the methodology and some of the conclusions drawn from an analysis of science textbooks that considered the topics ecology and environmental…
Describes a study that was designed to develop a framework for examining the way in which chemistry textbooks describe the kinetic theory and related issues. The framework was developed by a rational reconstruction of the kinetic molecular theory of gases based on historians and philosophers of science. (Contains 102 references.)(Author/LRW)
Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor
The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…
Pine Ridge Reservation schools use an interdisciplinary culture-based hands-on approach to science education. During a two-week summer science camp, elementary school teachers receive training in hands-on science instruction and apply their training with students. High school science classes incorporate Lakota culture and community problem…
Shipman, Harry L.; Finkelstein, N.; McCray, D.; Mac Low, M.; Zollman, D.
In May 2006, a group of scientists, publishers, technology gurus, National Science Foundation officers, and other interested parties met for a few days to think collectively about the future of the textbook. We met because: -The Web and search engines like Google change the relationship between students and information. If the textbook no longer needs to be encyclopedic, then what is its role? --Knowing information is not enough. Our students, whether they follow academic or other careers, will need to know how to get information, evaluate it, and use it to solve real world problems. How can a textbook help students in these environments? --The static, comprehensive narrative of a textbook does not always lend itself well to inquiry learning, which is strongly encouraged by science education research and by national science k-12 education standards. How can textbooks support active, student-centered learning and support new faculty as they adopt it? The workshop generated partial and uncertain answers to these questions, providing some ideas for the future, though not a complete roadmap. A metaphor that generated considerable support among the group was the idea of a textbook as a compact travel guide, like the Lonely Planet guides. It should be adaptable, and thus web-based, but it might still exist in paper form. The participants discussed barriers on the path ahead. How will peer review, which many workshop participants value, be incorporated? What incentives could motivate textbook authors and publishers to produce truly innovative products? How will new technologies such as computer simulations & animations, electronic readers, and widely accessible databases reshape the role of the textbook in education? Many workshop participants including this paper’s authors acknowledge support from the NSF Distinguished Teaching Scholars Program and the NSF CAREER awards program.
Fischer, Lane; Hilton, John, III; Robinson, T. Jared; Wiley, David A.
In some educational settings, the cost of textbooks approaches or even exceeds the cost of tuition. Given limited resources, it is important to better understand the impacts of free open educational resources (OER) on student outcomes. Utilizing digital resources such as OER can substantially reduce costs for students. The purpose of this study…
Bacon exhorted the natural philosophers of his day to read and interpret the book of nature by clever and cunning experimentation. The increasing scientific activity after Bacon and Galileo, however, quickly produced a second book. This was a book of interpretations of nature, namely the the book of science. Newton went beyond Bacon and Galileo and developed an ongoing dialogue between these two books, a repeated give and take between mathematical construct and physical reality. Unfortunately, the physics textbook, the book of science the students read, does not acquaint them with this style of reasoning. As an example of high-grade scientific thinking this paper discusses Newton's long struggle with the concepts of inertia and especially of centrifugal force. In his quest to understand the dynamics of circular motion Newton clearly progressed through four levels of conceptualizations, leading to progressively less severe discrepancies, in his ascent to a full understanding of centripetal acceleration. While it is not possible or desirable to expect teachers or students to recapitulate high-grade scientific thinking, partial retelling of the intellectual struggle that was involved in establishing important scientific concepts must be seen as important. This kind of pedagogy, however, requires that physics teachers have a good understanding of the history of scientific ideas as well as the findings of cognitive science.
This essay considers the effort to transform child adoption into a modern scientific enterprise during the first half of the twentieth century via a case study of Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), a Yale developmentalist well known for his studies of child growth and the applied technologies that emerged from them: normative scales promising to measure and predict development. Scientific adoption was a central aspiration for many human scientists, helping professionals, and state regulators. They aimed to reduce the numerous hazards presumed to be inherent in adopting children, especially infants, who were not one's "own." By importing insights and techniques drawn from the world of science into the practical world of family formation, scientific adoption stood for kinship by design. This case study explores one point of intersection between the history of science and the history of social welfare and social policy, simultaneously illustrating the cultural progress and power of scientific authority and the numerous obstacles to its practical realization.
This essay considers the effort to transform child adoption into a modern scientific enterprise during the first half of the twentieth century via a case study of Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), a Yale developmentalist well known for his studies of child growth and the applied technologies that emerged from them: normative scales promising to measure and predict development. Scientific adoption was a central aspiration for many human scientists, helping professionals, and state regulators. They aimed to reduce the numerous hazards presumed to be inherent in adopting children, especially infants, who were not one's "own." By importing insights and techniques drawn from the world of science into the practical world of family formation, scientific adoption stood for kinship by design. This case study explores one point of intersection between the history of science and the history of social welfare and social policy, simultaneously illustrating the cultural progress and power of scientific authority and the numerous obstacles to its practical realization. PMID:11921680
Oguz, Ayse; Fortner, Rosanne; Adadan, Emine; Gay, Kyle; Kim, Chan Kook; Yalcinoglu, Pelin; Bektasli, Behzat; Cook-Hoggarth, Karen L.; McDonald, Craig; Mishler, Kristy; Manzo, Lyndsey
The importance of teaching environmental issues within science curriculum is getting more important, because environmental education offers an opportunity to learn not only science subject matter but also introduce social and cognitive skills. The purpose of this paper is to look at the relationship between science education and environmental…
An Evaluation of Integrated Curriculum as It Exists in Mathematics and Science SSS as Well as the Subsequent Supportive Presentation of Those Standards in Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Textbooks
Gill, Clara Joanne Schneberger
This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and…
Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)
Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary
Reports on a study designed to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. The discussion of the finding focuses on the comparison of the results to recommendations of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). (TW)
Students in elementary classrooms are not receiving science instruction that is engaging and challenging. The review of the literature indicates that the way that the information is presented has more of an impact on the students than simply whether they comprehend the information. Studies show that hands-on science instruction allows success…
National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION PERTAINING TO CURRENT BOOKS AND RECENTLY PREPARED COURSES OF STUDY FOR SCIENCE IN GRADES 7 THROUGH 12 COMPOSE THE TWO DIVISIONS OF THE VOLUME. APPROXIMATELY 120 COURSES OF STUDY FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE ARE LISTED. ALL HAVE BEEN PREPARED SINCE 1960, AND ALL ARE AVAILABLE FROM STATE OR LOCAL SCHOOL UNITS…
Zinser, Brian; Brunswick, Gary
The rate of textbook revision cycles is examined in light of the recent trend towards more rapid revisions (and adoptions of textbooks). The authors conduct background research to better understand the context for textbook revision cycles and the environmental forces that have been influencing what appears to be more rapid textbook revisions. A…
Hilton, John, III; Laman, Carol
The high cost of textbooks is of concern not only to college students but also to society as a whole. Open textbooks promise the same educational benefits as traditional textbooks; however, their efficacy remains largely untested. We report on a case study about one community college's adoption of a free online psychology textbook. During the fall…
The purpose of this study was to obtain Science faculty concerns and professional development needs to adopt blended learning in their teaching at Taibah University. To answer these two research questions the survey instrument was designed to collect quantitative and qualitative data from close-ended and open-ended questions. The participants'…
This study analyzed treatment of geometric transformations in presently available middle grades (6, 7, 8) student mathematics textbooks. Fourteen textbooks from four widely used textbook series were evaluated: two mainline publisher series, Pearson (Prentice Hall) and Glencoe (Math Connects); one National Science Foundation (NSF) funded curriculum…
The purpose of this study was to obtain Science faculty concerns and professional development needs to adopt blended learning in their teaching at Taibah University. To answer these two research questions the survey instrument was designed to collect quantitative and qualitative data from close-ended and open-ended questions. The participants' general characteristics were first presented, then the quantitative measures were presented as the results of the null hypotheses. The data analysis for research question one revealed a statistically significant difference in the participants' concerns in adopting BL by their gender sig = .0015. The significances were found in stages one (sig = .000) and stage five (sig = .006) for female faculty. Therefore, null hypothesis 1.1 was rejected (There are no statistically significant differences between science faculty's gender and their concerns in adopting BL). The data analysis indicated also that there were no relationships between science faculty's age, academic rank, nationality, country of graduation and years of teaching experience and their concerns in adopting BL in their teaching, so the null hypotheses 1.2-7 were accepted (There are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's age and their concerns in adopting BL, there are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's academic rank and their concerns in adopting BL, there are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's nationality and their concerns in adopting BL, there are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's content area and their concerns in adopting BL, there are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's country of graduation and their concerns in adopting BL and there are no statistically significant differences between Science faculty's years of teaching experience and their concerns in adopting BL). The data analyses for research question
This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study…
Discusses Newton's long struggle with the concepts of inertia and centrifugal force as an example of high-grade scientific thinking. Discusses the role of textbooks and how they largely emphasize memorization. Suggests that the historical approach can be more time-consuming than textbook-based teaching and that it requires a good understanding of…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
How widely adopted world history textbooks cover Islam and the history of the Middle East is a timely and important subject to explore. In 2001 the American Textbook Council began a comprehensive review of middle school and high school world history textbooks. The Council relied on respected historians and standard sources, influential articles…
Troost, Dirk; And Others
Discusses in detail the intricate and fascinating series of problems surrounding the production, distribution, and extended use of lessons in marine sciences that utilize remotely sensed images as the underlying medium of instruction. Focuses on computer-based learning activities because remotely sensed images are derived from the interpretation…
Sullivan, John P.
This study examined how photographs in six introductory environmental science texts portrayed the urban environments in which most U.S. students lived. All photographs from all texts were coded to determine whether they depicted urban areas. The urban photographs were then coded to determine what they communicated about the urban environment. The…
Problem Statement: Since the 1970s, scientific literacy has been a major goal of national educational systems throughout the world, and thus reform movements in science education call for all students to be scientifically literate. Despite some good curricular changes and developments across the globe, much remains to be achieved. Given that…
A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)
This study aims to report an attempt to design and organise a content-based EAP reading course in political science and economics at a university in Japan, and to shed some light on learners' actual practices and preferences through the use of survey- and interview-based research participated in by 438 students. A principal axis of this project…
While accuracy in Middle School science texts is most important, the texts should also read well, stimulating the student to want to go on, and the material must be relevant to the subject at hand as the typical student is not yet prepared to ignore that which is irrelevant. We know that children will read if the material is of interest (witness The Lord of the Rings and the Harry Potter book sales) and so we must write in a way that stimulates the student to want to examine the subject further and eliminate that which adds nothing to the discipline. Examples of the good and the bad will be presented.
In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…
Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis
I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses:
Sharma, Ajay; Buxton, Cory A.
Science education has a central role to play in preparing a scientifically literate citizenry that is capable of understanding complex environmental challenges facing human societies and making well-informed and evidence-based decisions that help resolve these challenges. However, evidence suggests that most Americans are poorly equipped with the…
Gerhart, Natalie; Peak, Daniel A.; Prybutok, Victor R.
Students have been slow to adopt e-textbooks even though they are often less expensive than traditional textbooks. Prior e-textbook research has focused on adoption behavior, with little research to date on how students perceive e-textbooks fitting their needs. This work builds upon Task-Technology Fit (TTF) and Consumer Acceptance and Use of…
Kelly, Michael Patrick
The researcher's purpose in this study was to examine the process used by the Minot Public Schools to adopt and implement a new elementary science program from Silver Burdett Ginn called Discovery Works. Using case study methods within a naturalistic design, the researcher investigated teachers' concerns as they adopted and implemented Discovery Works in their classrooms. Data were gathered using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) instrument, interviews with adoption committee members, classroom teachers, grade level meetings, and document analysis of field notes related to each phase of the study. Content analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Emergent themes were presented and substantiated in the data, in terms of six research questions that guided this research. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to provide a rich, thick description that and enabled the researcher to confirm and triangulate the concerns of teachers in this study. The quantitative data revealed a general nonuser profile by teachers as they implemented Discovery Works. Three major themes of concerns emerged from a qualitative analysis of the data. The first theme was implementation, including issues related to teacher attitudes and inservice needs. The second theme, management issues, had five concerns subsumed within it. These included concerns related to time, materials, storage, reorder, and cooperative groups. The third theme, effects on students, included issues concerning hands-on methods of teaching science, vocabulary, especially at the upper elementary, and assessment issues. Possible solutions to resolve each of the concerns were presented. Major conclusions are that teacher concerns about Discovery Works were normal for any group experiencing a new innovation. Teachers and students enjoyed using the hands-on materials, and that Minot Public Schools has taken a small, but important step forward on the road to science education reform. Although
Lee, Victor Raymond
Modern-day middle school science textbooks are heavily populated with colorful images, technical diagrams, and other forms of visual representations. These representations are commonly perceived by educators to be useful aids to support student learning of unfamiliar scientific ideas. However, as the number of representations in science textbooks has seemingly increased in recent decades, concerns have been voiced that many current of these representations are actually undermining instructional goals; they may be introducing substantial conceptual and interpretive difficulties for students. To date, very little empirical work has been done to examine how the representations used in instructional materials have changed, and what influences these changes exert on student understanding. Furthermore, there has also been limited attention given to the extent to which current representational-use routines in science classrooms may mitigate or limit interpretive difficulties. This dissertation seeks to do three things: First, it examines the nature of the relationship between published representations and students' reasoning about the natural world. Second, it considers the ways in which representations are used in textbooks and how that has changed over a span of five decades. Third, this dissertation provides an in-depth look into how middle school science classrooms naturally use these visual representations and what kinds of support are being provided. With respect to the three goals of this dissertation, three pools of data were collected and analyzed for this study. First, interview data was collected in which 32 middle school students interpreted and reasoned with a set of more and less problematic published textbook representations. Quantitative analyses of the interview data suggest that, counter to what has been anticipated in the literature, there were no significant differences in the conceptualizations of students in the different groups. An accompanying
Sun, Jun; Flores, Javier; Tanguma, Jesus
The contribution of the e-textbooks can be enormous considering their additional supporting features, but adoption has not crystallized yet. This study examines the relevant experiences of college students in terms of how the use of e-textbooks may enhance their learning. A survey study was conducted to measure the perceptions of each student on…
Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia; Skordoulis, Constantine
This work investigates the presence of Thought Experiments (TEs) which refer to the theory of relativity and to quantum mechanics in physics textbooks and in books popularizing physics theories. A further point of investigation is whether TEs--as presented in popular physics books--can be used as an introduction to familiarize secondary school…
Maria, Katherine; Junge, Kathleen
A study investigated whether children reading an informational story recalled more information and perform better on a delayed test than those who read a textbook containing many of the same ideas. Subjects, 58 fifth-grade students from a suburban public school with approximately equal percentages of African-American and Caucasian children from a…
Longhurst, Max L.
Understanding factors that impact teacher utilization of learning from professional development is critical in order maximize the educational and financial investment in teacher professional learning. This study used a multicase mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology to investigate the factors that influence teacher adoption, adaption, or abandonment of learning from science teacher professional development. The theoretical framework of activity theory was identified as a useful way to investigate the phenomenon of teacher appropriation of pedagogical practices from professional development. This framework has the capacity to account for a multitude of elements in the context of a learning experience. In this study educational appropriation is understood through a continuum of how an educator acquires and implements both practical and conceptual aspects of learning from professional development within localized context. The variability associated with instructional changes made from professional development drives this inquiry to search for better understandings of the appropriation of pedagogical practices. Purposeful sampling was used to identify two participants from a group of eighth-grade science teachers engaged in professional development designed to investigate how cyber-enabled technologies might enhance instruction and learning in integrated science classrooms. The data from this investigation add to the literature of appropriation of instructional practices by connecting eight factors that influence conceptual and practical tools with the development of ownership of pedagogical practices in the appropriation hierarchy. Recommendations are shared with professional development developers, providers, and participants in anticipation that future science teaching experiences might be informed by findings from this study.
Bauman, Robert P.
Examines inconsistencies in science textbook discussions of vector quantities and force. Provides illustrations of textbook inconsistencies related to Newton's laws of motion and the concepts of centrifugal and coriolis force. (MDH)
Huetteman, Julie Doidge
An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…
Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Johnson, Nadia L.
Emily Martin's (Signs J Women Cult Soc 16(31):485-501, 1991) article, "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles," was published in Signs over 20 years ago. In this groundbreaking article, she discusses how gender roles are often projected onto reproductive biology, leading to the portrayal of eggs as passive and sperm as active. We were interested in seeing if many of her findings are still relevant today. We analyzed science textbooks from the middle school to the medical school level to determine if fertilization in human reproduction is described in gender-biased language regarding the sentence structure, amount of information provided for female and male processes/parts, and neutrality in describing female and male processes/parts. Although there has been much improvement, there is still a long way to go. Sexist language in scientific textbooks is troubling because it negatively affects both female and male students and undermines teachers' ability to teach in an accurate and gender-neutral way.
Slough, Scott Wayne
The purpose of this study was to describe high school science teachers' perceptions of telecommunications. The data were collected through open-ended ethnographic interviews with 24 high school science teachers from five different high schools in a single suburban school district who had been in an emerging telecommunications-rich environment for two and one-half years. The interview protocol was adapted from Honey and Henriquez (1993), with the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) (Bailey & Palsha, 1992) providing a conceptual framework for data analysis. For this study, the emerging telecommunications-rich environment included a district-wide infrastructure that had been in place for two and one-half years that included a secure district-wide Intranet, 24 network connections in each classroom, full Internet access from the network, four computers per classroom, and a variety of formal and informal professional development opportunities for teachers. Categories of results discussed include: (a) teacher's profession use of telecommuunications; (b) teachers' perceptions of student's use of telecommunications; (c) teachers' perceptions of barriers to the implementation of telecommunications; (d) teachers' perceptions of supporting conditions for the implementation of telecommunications; (e) teachers' perceptions of the effect of telecommunications on high school science instruction; (f) teachers' perceptions of the effect of telecommunications on student's learning in high school science; and (g) the demographic variables of the sex of the teacher, years of teaching experience, school assignment within the district, course assignment(s), and academic preparation. Implications discussed include: (a) telecommunications can be implemented successfully in a variety of high school science classrooms with adequate infrastructure support and sufficient professional development opportunities, including in classes taught by females and teachers who were not previously
Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.
As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Some course and curriculum improvement projects funded by the National Science Foundation have produced definitive editions of textbooks, other printed materials, and instructional films. This bulletin lists materials available in 1968 through commercial or college and university sources. The publications include textbooks, laboratory guides,…
Lisovskaya, Elena; Karpov, Vyacheslav
Explores patterns of recent ideological changes in the content of 12 Russian secondary school textbooks in the social sciences and humanities. Shows that textbook content has shifted from a consistent representation of key dogmas of Marxism-Leninism toward a contradictory combination of the ideological symbols of nationalism, Westernism, and…
Moyer, Wayne A.; Mayer, William V.
Presented are critical reviews of 18 biology textbooks submitted for consideration by the Texas State Board of Education during 1984. These reviews are provided in three categories: (1) general biology textbooks: "Biology and Human Progress"--Prentice Hall; "Scott, Foresman Life Science"--Scott, Foresman; "Living Things"--Holt, Rinehart, and…
Pine, Jerome; Aschbacher, Pamela; Roth, Ellen; Jones, Melanie; McPhee, Cameron; Martin, Catherine; Phelps, Scott; Kyle, Tara; Foley, Brian
A large number of American elementary school students are now studying science using the hands-on inquiry curricula developed in the 1990s: Insights; Full Option Science System (FOSS); and Science and Technology for Children (STC). A goal of these programs, echoed in the "National Science Education Standards," is that children should gain…
This action research project investigated fourth grade students¡¦ motivation to learn science using a digital science techbook. Participants in the study included 29 fourth grade students in two different classrooms. One classroom of 16 students used a digital science techbook to learn science while the other classroom of 13 students used a traditional paper science textbook to learn science. Students in both classrooms answered five sets of questions regarding their experience using a digital science techbook and a paper science techbook to understand science, find science information, solve science problems, learn science, and assess learning science was fun. Results were compiled and coded based on positive and negative responses to conditions. A chi-square was used to analyze the ordinal data. Overall differences between techbooks vs. textbook were significant, X2 (1, N = 29) = 23.84, p = .000, justifying further examination of individual survey items. Three items had statistically significant difference for finding science information, solving science problems, and learning science. A gender difference was also found in one item. Females preferred to use paper science textbooks to understand science, while males preferred digital techbooks to learn science. The fourth graders in this study indicated that digital techbooks were a powerful learning tool for increasing interest, excitement and learning science. Even though students reported paper science textbooks as easy to use, they found using digital science techbooks a far more appealing way to learn science.
Recalls the development of the International Textbook Institute whose main aim was to overcome prejudice and the outmoded values of the national state as contained in textbooks. Discusses the contributions of the Council of Europe and UNESCO in revising textbooks and suggests methods of textbook research. (Author/RK)
Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.
As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks.…
The author publishes and freely distributes three online textbooks. "Introduction to Physical Oceanography" is available as a typeset book in Portable Document Format (PDF) or as web pages. "Our Ocean Planet: Oceanography in the 21st Century" and "Environmental Science in the 21st Century" are both available as web pages. All three books, which…
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A number of Muslim countries have stepped up plans for revising school textbooks as part of the continuing U.S. driven campaign to combat terrorism. Critics maintain that the efforts are superficial and that the books continue to portray dangerous stereotypes and promote extremist views. Some books for religious and social sciences classes in use…
Atkinson, Terry S.; Matusevich, Melissa N.; Huber, Lisa
Teachers often use science trade books in the classroom for a number of reasons: to enhance science instruction, to augment an adopted science textbook, or to integrate literacy with subject-area content. Using Patricia Hunsader's mathematics trade book evaluation rubric published in the April 2004 issue of "Reading Teacher" as a model, the…
Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)
Debates concerning how the issue of human life’s origins should be handled within the confines of American public schools still continue. In order to mitigate the impact that evolution has on students, some school boards and state legislatures have recommended that stickers voicing a disclaimer about evolution be placed in biology textbooks. Even though supporters maintain that textbook stickers promote good science, this kind of approach invariably raises the concern that public education might be unduly intertwined with religion. In this article, it is argued that regardless of whether a textbook sticker can pass constitutional scrutiny, the use of such a sticker is a flawed approach to science education.
Textbooks have a low status in the history of science because they have been seen as mere repositories for scientific knowledge. But historians have recently shown how they play a number of roles that can illuminate different aspects of the history of science, from priority disputes to pedagogical practices. The essays in this Focus section aim to expand our vision of textbooks further by showing how they perform various hybrid functions in scientific development.
Yager, Robert E.; Akcay, Hakan
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Science, Technology, and Society (STS) learning increases student concept mastery, general science achievement, use of concepts in new situations, and attitudes toward science in middle school classrooms. The study involved two teachers and fifty-two students in grades 6 through 8. Two sections of…
Lazzaro, Christopher C.
On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy. Christopher C Lazzaro. The primary purpose of this research is to understand how and why members at each of the three levels of the education system within a local-control state made the decisions they did in supporting or hindering the adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards. This research concentrates on three levels of the education system in a local-control state; 1) the state level, 2) the district level, and 3) the school/teacher level, while investigating the following questions: 1. To what extent, and in what ways, do members in each of the three levels of the state education system advocate for adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards? 2. Are the members in each of the three levels motivated or compelled to consider adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards, why or why not? 3. To what extent, and in what ways, do the members in each of the three levels take into account science epistemology in their overall consideration of adoption/implementation of the NGSS? The data drew from a series of interviews from a prior study, "Challenges of Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards in Local-Control States in the U.S." (Sevian, Foster, & Scheff, 2012). After these data were coded and analyzed around the three research questions, this phenomenographic research study identified four key findings: Key Finding 1 - As the District Coordinators are uniquely situated within the state education system to be able to see both the on-the-ground practical implications and the high-level policy pressures of adopting and implementing the NGSS, they reflect the deepest level of awareness of how to best advocate for adoption and implementation of the NGSS. Key Finding 2 - Motivation to adopt and
Noell, Laura K.
A new textbook designed for first- or second-year courses in mythology as an introduction to literature shows that a community college faculty member who writes a textbook adds teaching experience to scholarship.
Bob Jones University Press (BJU Press) is a publishing house owned by the Greenville, South Carolina university of the same name. Fulfilling Bob Jones' mission beyond the college classroom, BJU Press prints a full K-12 educational program that spans all subjects and meets national core content standards. These materials are nationally circulated in homeschooling environments and conservative Christian private schools, a growing portion of America's educational landscape: according to a Department of Education 2009 report, enrollment in these schools represented 885,000 students. Research in rhetoric facilitates our understanding of various discourse communities, especially those that appropriate the discourse of a separate community to forward an argument that runs counter to the purposes of the original community. An interesting example of this rhetorical strategy is BJU Press' educational philosophy called Biblical Integration, in which teachers are invoked to "call into question the secular assumptions of each subject and then encourage the student to rebuild the discipline from biblical presuppositions." Using this technique, teachers using BJU Press materials attempt to shape students' ideologies by teaching a literal reading of the Bible dictating a 6,000-year-old Earth. The most interesting subject area in which BJU Press deploys Biblical Integration is the natural sciences, wherein to achieve this goal, textbook authors must make two rhetorical moves: first, re-frame a biblical ideology as being equally scientific to its secular counterparts; and, second, argue for the superiority of a science based in the Bible. This thesis analyzes a science textbook produced by BJU Press, exploring how the authors meet these exigencies. Specifically, I argue that the authors of the eighth grade title Earth Science both adopt and adapt the discourse of science in order to validate Evangelical Christian Science as being legitimately engaged in scientific endeavors. Within
Baglione, Stephen L.; Sullivan, Kevin
This article describes two separate studies: a survey of students' textbook perceptions, purchases, and usage for e-textbooks and print textbooks and a conjoint analysis on e-textbook attributes. Print textbooks were perceived as easier to read, understand, and navigate, whereas e-textbooks were perceived to be cheaper. Students were willing to…
Ciampa, Mark; Thrasher, Evelyn; Marston, Sean; Revels, Mark
Researchers have looked extensively into the adoption and satisfaction level of academic electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) by students. The majority of research to date has indicated that either students prefer print textbooks to e-textbooks or the results are inconclusive. In this study a survey consisting of questions related to the use of an…
Stern, Luli; Roseman, Jo Ellen
The transfer of matter and energy from one organism to another and between organisms and their physical setting is a fundamental concept in life science. Not surprisingly, this concept is common to the "Benchmarks for Science Literacy" (American Association for the Advancement of Science, ), the "National Science Education Standards"…
Hahn, Carole L.; Blankenship, Glen
A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks revealed the textbooks to be less sex-biased than the books examined in earlier studies. However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks, and little attention is given to economic realities which women face. (Author/RM)
Yohon, Teresa; Zimmerman, Don; Keeler, Leslie
The study investigated liberal arts and science faculty's (1) overall adoption of WebCT, a course management software, (2) use of different WebCT functions, (3) perceptions of technology's impact on teaching, and (4) demographic factors that might explain the differences between WebCT adopters and non-adopters. Only 37% of respondents reported…
Though the notion of a scientific textbook has been around for almost three centuries, the category has hardly been stable. The plasticity of the textbook genre may be illustrated by recent variations as well as long-term trends. In this brief essay I examine two idiosyncratic but highly successful physics books, each published in the mid 1970s, whose production, marketing, and adoption reveal some of the slippage between such categories as textbook, scholarly monograph, and popular best seller. PMID:22655343
Fuselier, Linda C.; Jackson, J. Kasi; Stoiko, Rachel
The nature of science (NOS) as described by education scholars is a critical component of scientific literacy and includes both rational and social aspects taught best in an explicit and reflective manner. NOS is frequently tied to a critical contextual empiricism (CCE) framework for knowledge production. Central to CCE is that objectivity is…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.
Presented is an annotated bibliography based on selected materials from a preliminary survey of existing bibliographies, publishers' listings, and other sources. It is intended to serve educators and researchers, especially those in countries where marine sciences are just developing. One hundred annotated and 450 non-annotated entries are…
The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a conceptual framework for assessing the potential of "world view" as a concept for understanding important issues in science education. The framework is based on Stephen C. Pepper's treatment of six world hypotheses (animism, mysticism, formism, mechansim, contextualism, and…
Kim, Mijung; Chin, Christine
Despite inquiry-based teaching was introduced and encouraged as significant tool to develop students' scientific knowledge and habits of mind, its implementation has not been well established in science classrooms in Korea. To understand the challenges and difficulties of the practice of inquiry practical work, this study particularly aims to…
Fox, Mary Frank; Sonnert, Gerhard; Nikiforova, Irina
This article focuses upon programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering, which are a strategic research site in the study of gender, science, and higher education. The design involves both quantitative and qualitative approaches, linking theory, method, questions, and analyses in ways not undertaken previously. Using a comprehensive,…
Upahi, Johnson Enero; Jimoh, Mutaheer
Textbooks are a prominent part of science teaching and learning. For science teachers and students, textbooks are the major source of information for planning and classroom practice. In addition to the content of textbooks, are end-of-chapter questions that should consolidate students learning and enhance their thinking processes. Therefore, this…
Kong, Fanzhe; Shi, Ningzhong
Teachers and textbooks are two important elements in curriculum implementation. Based on Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a curriculum implementation measurement model designed by G. Hall and S. M. Hord, this paper analyzes the general process of curriculum implementation in terms of textbook use, establishes a model that gauges the level of…
To a large extent, undergraduate physical-science curricula remain firmly rooted in pencil-and-paper calculation, despite the fact that most research is done with computers. To a large extent, undergraduate life-science curricula remain firmly rooted in descriptive approaches, despite the fact that much current research involves quantitative modeling. Not only does our pedagogy not reflect current reality; it also creates a spurious barrier between the fields, reinforcing the narrow silos that prevent students from connecting them. I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional undergraduate courses: •Basic modeling skills; •Probabilistic modeling skills; •Data analysis methods; •Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python; •Pulling datasets from the Web for analysis; •Data visualization; •Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.
This article outlines the development of a tool designed to take forward the practice of science teachers through subject-specific guidance and discourse that promotes dialogue and deep critical reflection on practice.
Zhou, Ping; Wang, Qinwen; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingqiu; Guo, Junming; Gong, Zhaohui
This study aimed to investigate the statuses on the publishing and usage of college biochemistry textbooks in China. A textbook database was constructed and the statistical analysis was adopted to evaluate the textbooks. The results showed that there were 945 (~57%) books for theory teaching, 379 (~23%) books for experiment teaching and 331 (~20%)…
Schneider, David E.
More research is needed that examines textbooks intended for the entry level college classroom. This study offers valuable information to academics that adopt a public speaking textbook for instruction as well as objective feedback to the collective authors. Readability levels of 22 nationally published textbooks, based on McGlaughlin's (1969)…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Jamalvandi, Behrouz
This study reflects on the presentation of culture in the English textbooks adopted in Chinese high school level. The categorization by Ramirez and Hall (1990) shaped the basis of the textbook analysis. The main objectives of the inquiry were to examine the quality of representation of source, target and other cultures in the ELT textbooks.…
Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard; Lamb, Richard; Bowling, Brandy
Innovation is a term that has become widely used in education; especially as it pertains to technology infusion. Applying the corporate theory of diffusing innovation to educational practice is an innovation in itself. This mixed-methods study examined 38 teachers in a science educational gaming professional development program that provided…
Robelen, Erik W.
New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…
Ketcham, Allen F.; Rossman, Joseph E., Jr.
The 66th and 67th Texas legislatures mandated that an economics course with an emphasis on the free enterprise system and its benefits be a required course for all students graduating from Texas high schools. This paper presents an analysis of the 1982-1988 textbooks adopted for that course. The key concepts evaluated were: definition of…
Yang, C.; Huang, Q.; Xia, J.; Liu, K.; Li, J.; Xu, C.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.
Cloud computing is emerging as the future infrastructure for providing computing resources to support and enable scientific research, engineering development, and application construction, as well as work force education. On the other hand, there is a lot of doubt about the readiness of cloud computing to support a variety of scientific research, development and educations. This research is a project funded by NASA SMD to investigate through holistic studies how ready is the cloud computing to support geosciences. Four applications with different computing characteristics including data, computing, concurrent, and spatiotemporal intensities are taken to test the readiness of cloud computing to support geosciences. Three popular and representative cloud platforms including Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure, and NASA Nebula as well as a traditional cluster are utilized in the study. Results illustrates that cloud is ready to some degree but more research needs to be done to fully implemented the cloud benefit as advertised by many vendors and defined by NIST. Specifically, 1) most cloud platform could help stand up new computing instances, a new computer, in a few minutes as envisioned, therefore, is ready to support most computing needs in an on demand fashion; 2) the load balance and elasticity, a defining characteristic, is ready in some cloud platforms, such as Amazon EC2, to support bigger jobs, e.g., needs response in minutes, while some are not ready to support the elasticity and load balance well. All cloud platform needs further research and development to support real time application at subminute level; 3) the user interface and functionality of cloud platforms vary a lot and some of them are very professional and well supported/documented, such as Amazon EC2, some of them needs significant improvement for the general public to adopt cloud computing without professional training or knowledge about computing infrastructure; 4) the security is a big concern in
In this article, the author shares his experience when he converted his linear algebra course notes into an open-source textbook. This textbook began, in large measure, as a demonstration project to answer the following questions: (1) Could an individual, simply as a content expert, use computers and networks for the creation and distribution of a…
Cameron, Kim S.; Ireland, R. Duane; Lussier, Robert N.; New, J. Randolph; Robbins, Stephen P.
Four management textbook authors react to the metaphor of textbooks as propaganda. All write to support managerial ideology and are aware of the market, but believe their role in shaping the field is limited. Includes two responses: "Propaganda, Trusteeship, and Artifact" (Daniel R. Gilbert) and "The Hegemonic Discourse of Management Texts" (Ali…
The lack of cultural content, low interest level, and crowdedness of second language textbooks arise because every textbook represents a compromise: between the publisher's need to sell a book and the author's need to address specific pedagogical issues, and between the need to explain grammatical points fully and the need to explain them briefly.…
Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…
Filner, Robert E.; Basile, Donald D.
Noting that college history teachers must often contend with student reading problems, the article recommends ways of improving student comprehension of textbooks. Methods center on selecting a proper textbook and on having students preview, paraphrase, analyze, and review. Journal available from Loren E. Pennington, Division of Social Sciences,…
Zadoks, R.I.; Ratner, J.A.
This paper discusses a new approach to the development of engineering education materials. The ``Electronic Textbook`` represents the logical progression of the printed textbook in the Electronic Age. The concept behind this approach is simple; to place all of the information contained in a textbook in electronic form. Currently, paper texts exist on the market with electronic supplements, however, this Electronic Textbook would include supplements fully integrated in the whole text. The computer hardware and software needed to make this advance possible have existed for nearly ten years, and they have been readily available to engineering educators and students for over three years. Computer based ``tools`` in engineering textbooks as are prevalent today range from computer styled algorithms and code snippets, to fully developed software applications with graphical user interfaces on floppy disks attached to the back covers of books. The next logical step in publishing is to dispense with the paper book entirely, by distributing textbooks via electronic media such as CD-ROM. Electronic Textbooks use the full range of multi-media technologies in the learning and teaching process including video clips, computer animations and fully functional numerical engines as integral parts of the textbook material. This is very appealing since interactive media provide teaching tools that appeal to divergent learning styles. The advantages of Electronic Textbooks lead to several challenges. Special attention must be paid to the development of user interfaces; navigation is of particular importance when non- linear exploration is encouraged. These issues are being addressed at the Sandia National Laboratories by an electronic documentation development team. This team includes experts in engineering, in human factors, and in computer hardware and software development. Guidelines for the development of electronic textbooks based on the experiences of this team are provided.
Berczi, Sz.; Hargitai, H.; Horvath, A.; Illes, E.; Kereszturi, A.; Mortl, M.; Sik, A.; Weidinger, T.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.
Planetary science education needs new forms of teaching. Our group have various initiatives of which a new atlas series about the studies of the Solar System materials, planetary surfaces and atmospheres, instrumental field works with robots (landers, rovers) and other beautiful field work analog studies. Such analog studies are both used in comparative planetology as scientific method and it also plays a key role in planetary science education. With such initiatives the whole system of the knowledge of terrestrial geology can be transformed to the conditions of other planetary worlds. We prepared both courses and their textbooks in Eötvös University in space science education and edited the following educational materials worked out by the members of our space science education and research group: (1): Planetary and Material Maps on: Lunar Rocks, Meteorites (2000); (2): Investigating Planetary Surfaces with the Experimental Space Probe Hunveyor Constructed on the Basis of Surveyor (2001); (3): Atlas of Planetary Bodies (2001); (4): Atlas of Planetary Atmospheres (2002); (5): Space Research and Geometry (2002); (6): Atlas of Micro Environments of Planetary Surfaces (2003); (7): Atlas of Rovers and Activities on Planetary Surfaces (2004); (8): Space Research and Chemistry (2005); (9): Planetary Analog Studies and Simulations: Materials, Terrains, Morphologies, Processes. (2005); References:  Bérczi Sz., Hegyi S., Kovács Zs., Fabriczy A., Földi T., Keresztesi M., Cech V., Drommer B., Gránicz K., Hevesi L., Borbola T., Tóth Sz., Németh I., Horváth Cs., Diósy T., Kovács B., Bordás F., Köll˝ Z., Roskó F., Balogh Zs., Koris A., o 1 Imrek Gy. (Bérczi Sz., Kabai S. Eds.) (2002): Concise Atlas of the Solar System (2): From Surveyor to Hunveyor. How we constructed an experimental educational planetary lander model. UNICONSTANT. Budapest-Pécs-Szombathely-Püspökladány.  Bérczi Sz., Hargitai H., Illés E., Kereszturi Á., Sik A., Földi T., Hegyi S
McIntyre, Kenneth M.
This guide, developed by a panel of teacher consultants, is a correlation of educational media resources with the "North Carolina Curricular Bulletin for Eighth Grade Earth and Space Science" and the state adopted textbook, pModern Earth Science." The three major divisions are (1) the Earth in Space (Astronomy), (2) Space Exploration, and (3)…
Johnsen, Egil Borre
Contends that an author's contribution to a textbook may be more or less significant, depending on how much importance is attached to curricula, publishers, consultants, and the school environment. Discusses the changing role of textbook authors in Norway and other nations. Reviews research on textbook development and textbook writing. (CFR)
Orgill, MaryKay; Bodner, George M.
Science instructors and textbook authors often use analogies to help their students use information they already understand to develop an understanding of new concepts. This study reports the results of an analysis of the use of analogies in eight biochemistry textbooks, which included textbooks written for one-semester survey biochemistry courses…
Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana
This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…
Herman, Deborah M.
The history of textbooks is a history of contested territory. Science and history textbooks for K-12 students are particularly vulnerable to protests from various constituencies. What is the history of potentially controversial, sociopolitical material in Spanish language textbooks? Are today's students presented with a nuanced and complex vision…
Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…
Flodin, Veronica S.
The purpose of this study is to analyze variations in how the gene concept is used and conceived in different sub-disciplines in biology. An examination of the development of subject matter and the use of the gene concept in a common college biology textbook shows that the gene concept is far from presented in a consistent way. The study describes…
A comparison is made between six state-adopted fourth-grade California history textbooks dating from 1940-1965 and seven textbooks adopted since 1980. The author's observations suggest that although overall changes between older and newer texts have been dramatic, the new books vary widely among themselves. Changes between older and newer texts…
Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca
This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…
Callahan, Leroy G.; Passi, Sneh Lata
Three popular textbooks were analyzed for level of cognitive processes used, and implications were drawn regarding supplementary activities if the English primary school model is to be transplanted" in America. (MM)
Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.
Smitten, Paige Dayton
Presents annotations of 179 writing textbooks (new texts or new editions of previously published texts) having a 1993 copyright date. Includes developmental and ESL writing texts, first-year writing texts, advanced writing texts, special texts, and professional texts. (RS)
A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class
Eardley, Julie Anne
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p < .05. Examining research factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from
The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the portrayal of American Indians in U.S. textbooks selected for review in Hillsborough County, Florida's 2012 textbook adoption. The study identified which of the textbooks under consideration contained the greatest amount of information dedicated to American Indians. The study then…
This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…
This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. One strand is developed by teachers of psychology-first as a general approach for investigating textbooks in a pedagogical setting, and then later upgraded into a full history of psychology textbooks in America. The other strand follows a more familiar perspective of historians of science and historians of psychology who build on various post-Kuhnian and post-Foucauldian perspectives on textbooks. I make an argument for integrating these two views for a more comprehensive historiography of textbooks in psychology, recasting textbooks as objects of research and sources that are interesting sui generis for historians of psychology in their investigations. PMID:27152736
Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon
There has been much research into the nature and uses of school geography textbooks as teaching resources, yet the perceptions of their authors have been neglected. This study investigated the perspectives of a sample of authors of English primary and secondary school geography textbooks on their experiences as textbook authors. It enquired into…
Culyer, A. J.
Many things are wrong with college level economics textbooks. For example, they are too ahistorical, too particularist, or unsystematically eclectic. The requirements of a good college economics textbook are examined. (RM)
Al Fraidan, Abdullah
This paper evaluated two ESP textbooks using the evaluation of McDonough and Shaw (2003) based on external and internal evaluation. The first textbook is "Business Objectives" (1996) by Vicki Hollett, and the second textbook is "Business Studies, Second Edition" (2002) by Alain Anderton. To avoid repetition, I will use BO and…
Science teaching continues to move away from teaching science as merely a body of facts and figures to be memorized to a process of exploring and drawing conclusions. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasize eight science and engineering practices that ask students to apply scientific and engineering reasoning and explanation. This…
Davis, Joe C.
Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)
Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty
Textbook censorship cases from Tennessee and Alabama have been brought before the U.S. Supreme Court. In east Tennessee, fundamentalist families objected to a 1983 Holt, Rinehart, and Winston reading series for grades 1-8. Federal District Judge Thomas G. Hull held that Hawkins County Schools had violated the families' First Amendment rights and…
As community colleges seek to be as accessible as possible to students and attempt to retain low enrollment fees, manageable parking fees, and waiver of fees for those with financial needs, an additional and significant cost ? for textbooks and supplies ? has not been addressed systematically. While fees for a full-time student are $390 per…
Blum, Christopher O.
Asserts that when college mathematics is taught as one of the liberal arts, Euclid's Elements of Geometry, which is one of the oldest math textbooks, may still be the best, because it helps students understand what is "lovely about mathematics". Suggests that "Elements of Geometry" promotes the mental exercise that comes from careful reading and…
Hauck, George F.
Lists engineering textbooks that use SI units. Includes author(s), title, publisher, year, and author's or publisher's comments on the use of the SI units. Books are categorized by topic, such as engineering mechanics, mechanics of materials, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, structural design, and hydrology. (CS)
Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.
This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…
Despite their growing popularity, digital alternatives to conventional textbooks are stirring up controversy. With the introduction of tablet computers, and the growing trend toward "cloud computing" and "open source" software, the trend is accelerating because costs are coming down and free or inexpensive materials are becoming more available.…
Gareis, Elisabeth; Allard, Martine; Saindon, Jackie
The use of authentic literature, especially novels, has proven electrifying for teachers as well as students: a development mirrored in the success of related methodologies and the increasing availability of materials accompanying literature. The benefits of using novels as textbooks are numerous. Research consistently shows the benefits of…
Moore, Robert B.
Discusses controversy surrounding the equal-protection rights of students versus the freedom of expression rights of authors. This author pleads the side of the students and supports the Civil Rights Commission's endeavor to learn what sex and race bias guidelines textbook publishers use. Gives suggestions for parents and teachers. (BC)
Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.
In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…
Webb, Suzanne S.
Provides annotations of 164 textbooks for developmental and ESL writing, freshman writing, advanced writing, professional writing, and software and computer-assisted instruction. Lists handbooks, rhetorics, workbooks, readers, special texts, composition/literature texts, and business/technical writing texts carrying a 1992 copyright date. (PRA)
Collado, Mariangeles De La Caba; Atxurra, Rafael Lopez
The present contribution analyses how Spanish textbooks deal with activities requiring primary-school pupils to work in groups. The sample comprised 24 social science, natural science and technology textbooks written for primary school children (6?12 years old). Having coded the information, the authors followed a two-fold methodology geared…
Hilton, John Levi, III.; Gaudet, Donna; Clark, Phil; Robinson, Jared; Wiley. David
The high cost of textbooks is of concern not only to college students but also to society as a whole. Open textbooks promise the same educational benefits as traditional textbooks; however, their efficacy remains largely untested. We report on one community college's adoption of a collection of open resources across five different …
Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana; dos Santos, Vanessa Carvalho; Joaquim, Leyla Mariane; El-Hani, Charbel N.
The aim of this paper is to investigate in a systematic and comparative way previous results of independent studies on the treatment of genes and gene function in high school textbooks from six different countries. We analyze how the conceptual variation within the scientific domain of Genetics regarding gene function models and gene concepts is transformed via the didactic transposition into school science textbooks. The results indicate that a common textbook discourse on genes and their function exist in textbooks from the different countries. The structure of science as represented by conceptual variation and the use of multiple models was present in all the textbooks. However, the existence of conceptual variation and multiple models is implicit in these textbooks, i.e., the phenomenon of conceptual variation and multiple models are not addressed explicitly, nor its consequences and, thus, it ends up introducing conceptual incoherence about the gene concept and its function within the textbooks. We conclude that within the found textbook-discourse ontological aspects of the academic disciplines of genetics and molecular biology were retained, but without their epistemological underpinnings; these are lost in the didactic transposition. These results are of interest since students might have problems reconstructing the correct scientific understanding from the transformed school science knowledge as depicted within the high school textbooks. Implications for textbook writing as well as teaching are discussed in the paper.
Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David
Coalition-based efforts that use a science-based approach to prevention can improve the wellbeing of community youth. This study measured several coalition capacities that are hypothesized to facilitate the adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in communities. Using data from 12 coalitions participating in a community-randomized trial of the prevention strategy Communities That Care (CTC), this paper describes select measurement properties of five salient coalition capacities (member substantive knowledge of prevention, member acquisition of new skills, member attitudes toward CTC, organizational linkages, and influence on organizations), as reported by coalition members, and examines the degree to which these capacities facilitated the community leader reports of the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. Findings indicated that the five coalition capacities could be reliably measured using coalition member reports. Meta-regression analyses found that CTC had a greater impact on the adoption of a science-based prevention approach in 12 matched pairs of control and CTC communities where the CTC coalition had greater member (new skill acquisition) and organizational capacities (organizational linkages). PMID:25323784
Shapiro, Valerie B; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David
Coalition-based efforts that use a science-based approach to prevention can improve the wellbeing of community youth. This study measured several coalition capacities that are hypothesized to facilitate the adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in communities. Using data from 12 coalitions participating in a community-randomized trial of the prevention strategy Communities That Care (CTC), this paper describes select measurement properties of five salient coalition capacities (member substantive knowledge of prevention, member acquisition of new skills, member attitudes toward CTC, organizational linkages, and influence on organizations), as reported by coalition members, and examines the degree to which these capacities facilitated the community leader reports of the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. Findings indicated that the five coalition capacities could be reliably measured using coalition member reports. Meta-regression analyses found that CTC had a greater impact on the adoption of a science-based prevention approach in 12 matched pairs of control and CTC communities where the CTC coalition had greater member (new skill acquisition) and organizational capacities (organizational linkages).
Kang, Ji Hei; Everhart, Nancy
Introduction: A legislative mandate to adopt digital textbooks in Florida provides an opportunity to identify concerns school librarians have regarding digital textbook implementation. Method: The stages of concern questionnaire was used to identify stages of concern among Florida school librarians about their potential role in this…
Jitendra, Asha; Nolet, Victor; Gomez, Ophelia; Xin, Yan Ping
A study examined geography texts to evaluate their adequacy for meeting the diverse needs of students and to recommend modifications that will address specific deficits. Four geography textbooks were selected based on consultations with publishers, teachers, and school administrators to be representative of geography textbooks adopted in the…
This dissertation develops and estimates a model of switching costs in the market for college textbooks. First, in a theoretical setting, this paper characterizes the professor's adoption decision, which includes a trade-off between time and course quality. The professor faces a time cost when he switches textbooks. This switching cost leads…
Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.
Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)
Pomerance, Herbert H
The dedication of this volume states:To the physicians and nurses who care for children in many different circumstances throughout the world and who, by their efforts and commitment, make the world a better place for children.I have used the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics since its third edition. It remains a source of amazement to me, as I witness the evolution of the book and of the knowledge that dictates its scope. From the days when a textbook was written by 1 or 2 authors, we have progressed to the point where this would be impossible. Three editors preside over this volume; they are also counted among the 212 contributors that lend special expertise to the work, continuing the volume as one of the traditions of pediatrics.The tremendous and rapid explosion in the amount of knowledge in pediatrics made a revision of the total material and even of.
Niaz, Mansoor; Costu, Bayram
Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general chemistry textbooks published in Turkey based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. Criteria used referred to the atomic models of…
De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael
This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis:…
The subjects for this study were 81 freshman students who were taking courses in the social sciences at Herbert H. Lehman College in New York. A Nelson Denny Reading Test showed their average reading grade level to be 10.4 Twenty-three books in the social science areas were selected for appraisal, using such procedures as the application of a…
Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Aksela, Maija; Meisalo, Veijo
This paper analyses the use of various communication channels in science teachers' professional development project aiming to develop versatile uses for ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in science teaching. A teacher network was created specifically for this project, and the researchers facilitated three forms of communication…
Although studies have been done in China's large cities on education policy issues, research is lacking on China's smaller towns, which are more indicative of the situations throughout China. This article presents lessons learned from studying Chinese English teachers at four different schools that were adopting new English textbooks, in…
Nelson, Loui Lord; Arthur, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, William R.; Van Horn, George
In 2008, the Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation began the social studies textbook adoption process. Concurrently, the Indiana State Board of Education wrote a memo encouraging schools to look at digital resources; BCSC did not hesitate. This article describes why BCSC chose to move to a digital format at the secondary level, the process…
The author's quasi-experimental study compares undergraduate students' academic performance and experiences as a function of using electronic (n = 117) versus traditional (n = 116) textbooks in a developmental psychology course. Student exam scores did not differ significantly as a function of textbook format. Students who used the traditional…
Kerber, Robert C.
Addresses the growing size of college organic chemistry textbooks. Notes that at the current rate of growth, average textbooks will be 1544 pages long in year 2000. Suggests methods to reduce textbook size. (ML)
Nock, Steven L.
Responds to previous article by Stolley and Hall (this issue) on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. Contends that Stolley and Hall have constructed the issue as involving but two options (abortion and adoption). Asserts that abortion and adoption are but two of several related topics. Considers…
Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho
Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general physics textbooks often lack detail about the history and philosophy of science. This result is quite similar to those published for the USA. Furthermore, chemistry textbooks published in the USA, Turkey and Venezuela are quite similar to the physics textbooks. This is a cause for concern as textbooks present theories as facts and ignore the historical reconstructions based on the development of scientific theories that frequently involve controversies and conflicts among scientists. The inclusion of historical reconstructions of ideas about atomic structure can provide students with a better appreciation of the dynamics of scientific progress.
Aagaard, Lola; Skidmore, Ronald L.
It has been reported (Aagaard & Skidmore, 2004; Sikorski et al., 2002) that only a minority of college students actually read the course textbook in preparation for examinations. Although professors widely lament students' propensity to ignore the carefully chosen textbooks, research specifically investigating why this phenomenon occurs…
Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta
This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…
Wilcox, George K.
An analysis of the syntax of economics textbooks was undertaken to (1) provide real-language examples of the difficult grammatical structures being taught in an advanced economics reading course, and (2) construct a factual database of the nature of economics textbooks. Five texts representative of those typically used in introductory economics…
Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.
Intended for college bound students, this booklet explores textbook components to help students in their approach to studying technical information. After defining technical material and describing how to recognize it, the booklet discusses (1) symbols, (2) equations, (3) formulas, (4) theorems, (5) placement of symbols in textbooks, (6) tables,…
Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)
Azzi, Angelo; Zingg, Jean-Marc
Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, but in more than 60 years many new findings have added to the early one. However, its description in many textbooks has not been proportionally updated. The result is an inaccurate, incomplete, and often incorrect description of the function of this vitamin. In some other textbooks, vitamin E is absolutely…
Glenn, Norval D.
In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these works…
Zekiros, Astair; Wiley, Marylee
Based on an examination of 50 general social studies textbooks, the report discusses the most frequently found biases, misconceptions, omissions, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations. Criteria for judging the textbooks include: readable and suitable materials; accurate and current content; presentation of Africa as a diverse continent; open…
Waters, John K.
After traveling a long, tortuous road, the much-anticipated e-book revolution has finally arrived. So where is the revolution in the "e-textbook" market? According to the National Association of College Stores (NACS), digital books currently account for less than 3 percent of textbook sales. NACS expects that percentage to reach 10 to 15 percent…
Padian, Kevin; Matzke, Nicholas
ID ('intelligent design') is not science, but a form of creationism; both are very different from the simple theological proposition that a divine Creator is responsible for the natural patterns and processes of the Universe. Its current version maintains that a 'Designer' must intervene miraculously to accomplish certain natural scientific events. The verdict in the 2005 case Kitzmiller, et al. v. Dover School District, et al. (in Harrisburg, PA, U.S.A.) was a landmark of American jurisprudence that prohibited the teaching of ID as science, identified it as religiously based, and forbade long-refuted 'criticisms of evolution' from introduction into public school classes. Much of the science of the trial was based on biochemistry; biochemists and other scientists have several important opportunities to improve scientific literacy and science education in American public schools ('state schools') by working with teachers, curriculum developers and textbook writers.
Padian, Kevin; Matzke, Nicholas
ID ('intelligent design') is not science, but a form of creationism; both are very different from the simple theological proposition that a divine Creator is responsible for the natural patterns and processes of the Universe. Its current version maintains that a 'Designer' must intervene miraculously to accomplish certain natural scientific events. The verdict in the 2005 case Kitzmiller, et al. v. Dover School District, et al. (in Harrisburg, PA, U.S.A.) was a landmark of American jurisprudence that prohibited the teaching of ID as science, identified it as religiously based, and forbade long-refuted 'criticisms of evolution' from introduction into public school classes. Much of the science of the trial was based on biochemistry; biochemists and other scientists have several important opportunities to improve scientific literacy and science education in American public schools ('state schools') by working with teachers, curriculum developers and textbook writers. PMID:19061485
Rodriguez, Uxio Perez; Lires, Maria Alvarez; Solino, Jorge Prieto
This article analyzes how science textbooks used in secondary education (ages 12 and 13) in Spain have treated the subject of the historical evolution of the Universe. We have discovered many very important errors in the different textbooks that we reviewed. We focus on the errors that are committed most frequently. (Contains 1 table and 1 note.)
Searle, Barbara W.; And Others
The primary, secondary, and higher education textbooks used in China today date from the late 1970s which makes them inadequate for the current stress on science and technology in education. While 70 percent of the higher education textbooks are mimeographed, unedited manuscripts, the majority of published books are printed on newsprint quality…
Osterlund, Lise-Lotte; Berg, Anders; Ekborg, Margareta
We have investigated how chemistry textbooks use models of redox reactions in different subject areas, how they change models between and within the topics, and how they deal with specific learning difficulties identified in the literature. The textbooks examined were published for use in the natural science programme in Swedish upper secondary…
Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis
Examined are the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources in 10 middle school science textbooks. Less than two percent of text pages were devoted to these issues and no significant differences were found between textbook series. (Author/YP)
This paper is a study of textbooks in chemical technology in Sweden during the industrialisation in the 19th century. In this period, teaching in technological education in general became more and more founded on science. However, there existed very few textbooks in chemical technology, and it is argued that the reason was that the essentials of…
Roseman, Jo Ellen; Stern, Luli; Koppal, Mary
Because textbooks have the potential to be powerful catalysts for improving science teaching and learning, having reliable methods for analyzing important textbook features, such as their coherence, is essential. This study reports on the development of a method in which trained reviewers, following a set of guidelines defining the ideas to be…
Allen, Marcus D.; Wallace, Sherri L.
Political science students learn the fundamental principles and values about the American political system from American government/politics textbooks. Most of the major textbooks used in these courses utilize the traditional institutional and behavioral approaches to the study of American government and politics, which examines institutions and…
Johnson High School, Huntsville, Alabama started an international magnet program in 1987. One of the courses in the curriculum was in space science. They appealed to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) when they couldn't find a suitable textbook, nor locate other classes in space science to provide a guideline. MSFC agreed to help and placed the school under an official 'Adopt-A-School' program. MSFC's chief scientist and others at the space center helped prepare a very comprehensive space science program. Examples of the subjects covered include problems of space travel, materials processing in space, technology utilization, robotics, space colonization, etc. MSFC followed up by working with Johnson High to determine if the curriculum is generally usable and workable. If it is, MSFC may make it available to other schools. MSFC not only developed the space science curriculum; they continue to support the program by sponsoring hands- on activities and tours of space research facilities.
In the U.S.-affiliated Pacific, the U.S. Department of Education (U.S. ED) and the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) are responsible for assisting State educational agencies (SEAs) in the development of planning and accountability systems to meet the requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) requirements and similar DOI…
Lacefield, James Anderson
Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and
Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Johnson, Nadia L.
Emily Martin's ("Signs J Women Cult Soc" 16(31):485-501, 1991) article, "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles," was published in "Signs" over 20 years ago. In this groundbreaking article, she discusses how gender roles are often projected onto…
You, Li-Ching; Schallert, Diane L.
As part of a larger project aimed at exploring how students' conceptual growth results from interacting with the teacher and the assigned readings associated with a course, this study focused on how prospective elementary teachers conceptualized two concepts, evaporation and condensation in a Concepts in Earth Science Course. In the conceptual…
Much research has been done and reform is suggested relating to teachers' implementation of student-oriented learning environments, yet research on the role, beliefs, pedagogy, and knowledge of teachers simultaneously in classroom environments has been minimal (Kyle, 1994, "Journal of Research in Science Teaching", 31, 785-786). This case study…
McDonald, Paige L.; Lyons, Laurie B.; Straker, Howard O.; Barnett, Jacqueline S.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Cotton, Linda; Corcoran, Mary A.
For disciplines heavily reliant upon traditional classroom teaching, such as medicine and health sciences, incorporating new learning models may pose challenges for students and faculty. In an effort to innovate curricula, better align courses to required student learning outcomes, and address the call to redesign health professions education,…
Russell, Jae-eun; Van Horne, Sam; Ward, Adam S.; Bettis, Arthur, III.; Sipola, Maija; Colombo, Mariana; Rocheford, Mary K.
This study investigated students' attitudes, engagement, satisfaction, and performance in Introduction to Environmental Science after it was transformed from a typical large lecture to a student-centered learning environment. The instructors of the course collaborated with the Office of Teaching, Learning & Technology and radically redesigned…
Koch, James V.
Between 1986 and 2004, textbook prices rose 186 percent in the United States, or slightly more than six percent per year. Meanwhile, other prices rose only about three percent per year. This paper examines the economic reasons why textbook prices have escalated so briskly and what reasonable alternatives are available that might slow down these…
Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca
This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.
Thompson, Patricia J.
These are the reflections of a textbook author in the course of revising a secondary school textbook. While the average life of a textbook is five years, many stay in schools for much longer. A textbook author or editor must therefore attempt to produce a book that will be relevant and meaningful for children years in the future. This involves the…
An ethnographic study was conducted with the goal of comparing the botanical knowledge of nine sixth grade students with the botanical concepts developed in the elementary textbook series, Science, by Silver Burdett, 1985. The extent to which the child's conceptual framework resembles that of the scientist and the extent to which the textbook…
Korfiatis, Kostas J.; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Paraskevopoulos, Stephanos
In this article, the environmental content of the textbooks used for the teaching of natural sciences in Greek primary schools was examined. Specifically, by employing the method of content analysis, both representational (metaphors, depictions, values, etc.) and cognitive ecological concepts) elements, building images of nature, and shaping our…
Gordin, Michael D
Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.
Thompson, Thomas M.; Wiggins, Kenneth L.
There has been much recent discussion concerning the content of the standard calculus course for students majoring in mathematics and the sciences. Some of this discussion has focused on the available textbooks. One weakness noted in some of these books involves the definitions of limit and continuity for functions of several variables. A…
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 618.455 Section 618.455 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... curricular material. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or...
Lackstrom, John E.
Undergraduate students of English for Science and Technology (EST) are confronted, in their English textbooks, with a variety of rhetorical forms intended to convey a variety of information, including specialized rhetorics of definition, classification, and argumentation. The rhetorical form of EST argumentation is the organization of written…
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 618.455 Section 618.455 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... curricular material. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 618.455 Section 618.455 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... curricular material. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 618.455 Section 618.455 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... curricular material. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or...
Maxwell, Nan L.
Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)
Provides step-by-step procedures for developing an index which uses the Gunning Fog technique to evaluate the level of reading difficulty of textbooks. Cites examples, illustrations, and several warnings in the discussion. (RT)
Squires, Daniel D; Gumbley, Stephen J; Storti, Susan A
Underutilization of evidence-based treatments for substance abuse represents a longstanding problem for the field and the public health of our nation. Those who would most benefit from research advances (community treatment agencies and the clients they serve) have historically been the least likely to be exposed to innovative evidence-based methods for substance abuse treatment. To help address this gap, the Addiction Technology Transfer Center of New England (ATTC-NE), located at Brown University, has adapted and implemented an organizational change strategy intended to equip substance abuse treatment organizations and their employees with the skills needed to adopt evidence-based treatment practices. Since 2003, the ATTC-NE has worked with 54 community-based substance abuse treatment agencies from across New England using this model, which is called Science to Service Laboratory (SSL). Twenty-eight of 54 agencies completed all of the SSL components, and 26 of these 28 completer agencies (96%) successfully adopted and implemented contingency management as a result. Survey data comparing completer and dropout agencies' satisfaction with the quality, organization, and utility of the SSL indicate that both groups rated the SSL favorably. However, differences emerged with respect to organizational characteristics between completer and dropout agencies. Specifically, dropout agencies were more likely to report turnover in staff positions vital to training effort. Future directions for the model are discussed.
Guyton, Arthur C.
Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)
Storey, Richard D.
Glaring and basic textbook errors and misconceptions about photosynthesis are discussed. The Calvin Cycle, photosynthetic products, alternative cycles, and plants as producers are considered. Included are observations of both college and secondary textbooks. (CW)
Larsen, Kristine M.
Discusses the reasons for identifying the contributions of women astronomers in introductory textbooks. The evolution of inclusion over the past 4 decades is explored by examining the rates of inclusion of 10 women astronomers in textbooks. Contains 100 references. (DDR)
Develops a perspective based on the history and philosophy of science considerations (rational reconstruction) in order to understand the postulation of the covalent bond by Lewis. Formulates four criteria based on the perspective and evaluates of 27 textbooks based on the four criteria. Shows that most textbooks lacked a history and philosophy of…
Joseph, Christine M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how writing in mathematics is treated in one 4th grade National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded mathematics textbook titled "Everyday Mathematics" and one publisher-generated textbook titled "enVision MATH." The developed framework provided categories to support each of the research…
Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.
This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.
This article analyzes a textbook collection project that spanned three semesters at the University of Minnesota. The project consisted of collecting extra copies from professors in several departments and placing the items on reserves for short term circulation; there was a small amount of money dedicated to the project. An analysis of circulation…
Woody, William Douglas; Daniel, David B.; Baker, Crystal A.
Previous research has demonstrated that the experience of reading e-books is not equivalent to reading textbooks. This study examines factors influencing preference for e-books as well as reported use of e-book content. Although the present student cohort is the most technologically savvy to ever enter universities, students do not prefer e-books…
Knoblauch, A. Abby
This essay examines the definitions and practices of argument perpetuated by popular composition textbooks, illustrating how even those texts that appear to forward expansive notions of argument ultimately limit it to an intent to persuade. In doing so, they help perpetuate constricted practices of argument within undergraduate composition…
Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David
The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties for learners, especially for accelerating objects where the scale reading is different from the gravitational force. But while the underlying physical constructs behind the two referents for the term weight (and their relation to each other) are well understood scientifically, it is unclear how the concept of weight should be introduced to students and how the language ambiguities should be dealt with. We investigated treatments of weight in a sample of twenty introductory college physics textbooks, analyzing and coding their content based on the definition adopted, how the distinct constructs were dealt with in various situations, terminologies used, and whether and how language issues were handled. Results indicate that language-related issues, such as different, inconsistent, or ambiguous uses of the terms weight, "apparent weight," and "weightlessness," were prevalent both across and within textbooks. The physics of the related constructs was not always clearly presented, particularly for accelerating bodies such as astronauts in spaceships, and the language issue was rarely addressed. Our analysis of both literature and textbooks leads us to an instructional position which focuses on the physics constructs before introducing the term weight, and which explicitly discusses the associated language issues.
Young, Jeffrey R.
Textbook publishers argue that their newest digital products should not even be called "textbooks." They are really software programs built to deliver a mix of text, videos, and homework assignments. But delivering them is just the beginning. No old-school textbook was able to be customized for each student in the classroom. The books never graded…
Hsu, Shan-Hui; Chepyator-Thomson, Rose
The purpose of the study focused on how textbook authors in secondary school physical education used multicultural education concepts, using Banks' (2006a) dimensions and Sleeter and Grant's (1999) approaches. Data collection methods included examination of textbooks' chapters, indexes, and references in five textbooks. Constant comparison method…
Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi
In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Fike, David; Fike, Renea
The primary focus of this study was to determine if student learning outcomes in an undergraduate Statistics course differed based upon the type of textbook used (e-textbook or hardcopy). Fifty-six students enrolled in the course were allowed to choose textbook type. After controlling for student demographics and academic preparedness, student…
Masalski, Kathleen Woods
Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…
Siler, Carl R.
Using content analysis, presents a study of 14 U.S. history textbooks. Analyzes textbook treatment of the Declaration of Independence, the atomic bomb, and the Holocaust. Examines nontextual materials. Finds errors of omission, boring writing styles, and a basic similarity between the textbooks. (RW)
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
It has been 13 years since the last objective analysis of full-length introductory psychology textbooks was published and 15 years since the textbook copyright period used in that study, 1995-1997. Given the importance of informed textbook evaluation and selection to the introductory course but the difficulty of this task because of the large…
Czeglédy, István; Kovács, András
Creating of this article was motivated by the change of the new situation in connection with the Hungarian mathematics textbooks. Nowadays the teachers of Hungary could choose among the textbooks without restriction. The number of the textbooks is growing more and more. But our mathematics teachers have not any didactical support for the choice.…
Sagafi-nejad, Tagi; Limaye, Aditya
As a field of study, international business (IB) has evolved with accelerated tempo in the last four decades. The subject has brought with it an increasing plethora of textbooks. We analyze the contents of major textbooks, both classic and new, to find the extent to which these textbooks cover the various components of the common body of knowledge…
van der Vlies, Tina
This article aims to contribute to the field of textbook research by exploring a new approach in textbook analysis. Inspired by Michael Rothberg's concept of multidirectional memory, this article examines multidirectional narratives in history textbooks: narratives that combine different histories, places and times in a productive way. They…
Graydon, Benjamin; Urbach-Buholz, Blake; Kohen, Cheryl
Textbooks too often hinder rather than help students because of their prohibitively expensive prices. Colleges and universities facing intense pressure to lower education expenses while increasing access, retention, and achievement now find addressing the textbook problem more and more urgent. Used textbook sales have grown dramatically over the…
Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato
Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.
Chinarova, L. L.
Electronic textbook for members and supervisors of the Youth Academy of Sciences; schoolars and teachers; students of the first courses. Total volume of the printed version is 86pp. The textbook is devoted to 100-th Anniversary of Prof. V.P.Tsessevich (1907-1983). It contains the chapters: "Birth and Life of Stars"; "Main Types of Binary Stars and Their Characteristics"; "Complex Interactions in Close Binary Stars"; "Evolution of Binary Stars"; "Symbiotic Stars"; "Cataclysmic Variables"; "Literature". This textbook (in Russian) is freely accessible at the Internet site http://chinarova.pochta.ru.
Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.
Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…
Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard
New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…
McInnis, Edward Cromwell
Many scholars have argued that history education during the antebellum period in the United States supported conservative values and sought to produce close-minded citizens. History textbooks of that era, they frequently posit, cast Americans as God's chosen people and present the past in a style that reaffirms established social conventions. Ruth…
The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)
This review of a 1981 interim report on the United States' and the Soviet Union's distortion of events in history and geography textbooks is intended to encourage educators in both countries to depict the other side more honestly, less aggressively, and more appreciative of each other's virtues and flaws. Organized into two major sections,…
Peiser, Andrew C.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether one area of United States history--Populism and Populists--is accurately presented in nine widely used current American history high school textbooks. Another objective was to devise a system that could be used to make such a determination for any history text. (Author)
Arnold, Robert D.; And Others
Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…
Alkalesi, Yasin M.
This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport,…
Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.
Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)
Peace Corps, Rabat (Morocco).
The textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers learning the variety of Arabic mostly widely spoken in Morocco. It contains 10 lessons, each consisting of a dialogue, vocabulary list, grammar notes, a popular proverb, and supplementary dialogue and/or idiomatic and socially correct expressions. Dialogue topics include introductions and…
Despite repeating claims that Canadians are less nationalistic than members of other nations, English as a second language (ESL) textbooks often participate in banal repetitions of nation-ness and nationalism. This banal nationalism takes the form of the marking of nation through flags, maps, routine deixis, and nationalized symbols. This study…
Examines the historical circumstances, prevailing from the early nineteenth century onward, under which the textbook-centered culture of Indian education developed. Discusses conditions associated with colonial rule, teachers' service conditions and professional status, the examination system, and imposition of a foreign language as they…
Brown, Jack Davis
Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…
Meurant, Robert C.
EFL/ESL departments periodically face the problem of textbook selection. Cogent issues are that non-native speakers will use L2 English mainly to communicate with other non-native English speakers, so an American accent is becoming less important. L2 English will mainly be used in computer-mediated communication, hence the importance of L2 Digital Literacy. The convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting Second Language Acquisition, which is integrating web-hosted Assessment and Learning Management Systems. EFL/ESL textbooks need to be compatible with blended learning, prepare students for a globalized world, and foster autonomous learning. I summarize five papers on EFL/ESL textbook evaluation and selection, and include relevant material for adaptation. Textbooks are major sources of contact with the target language, so selection is an important decision. Educators need to be systematic and objective in their approach, adopting a selection process that is open, transparent, accountable, participatory, informed and rigorous.
Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.
To engage students in a more meaningful discussion of course material and prompt their higher thinking skills, most instructors expect students to read the course textbook for initial exposure to the course content before class. However, as many instructors are aware, most students do not read their textbook throughout the quarter.1,2 At California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona) we have adopted web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs) as prelecture assignments to help students to prepare for the class activities. The MLMs place lecture contents into the hands and control of the learners; similar to "flipped"3 or "inverted"4 classroom approaches, this method allows students to receive key course content outside of class and apply and analyze the content actively during class. In addition to initial exposure to basic principle, the MLMs provide additional worked examples that cannot be thoroughly covered in class.
Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman
The present study aimed at exploring the concepts of the security education in the textbooks of the national and civic education of the higher primary stage in Jordan. It adopted the descriptive analytical method. The study sample consisted of the textbooks of the national and civic education for the basic eighth, ninth and tenth grades. To…
A comprehensive view of science and technology in curricular reforms and materials is needed to promote public understanding and participation in science issues. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in science curricular materials in India. Textbook sections on the conceptions of…
Points out old-dated information provided in textbooks and recommends using current events to close the knowledge gap between the real world and textbooks. Uses year-long journal writings in which students choose a science article and analyze it. Provides an example of the activity sheet. (YDS)
Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...
Do Carmo, Ricardo Santos; Nunes-Neto, Nei Freitas; El-Hani, Charbel Niño
Gaia theory proposes that a cybernetic system including the biota and the physicochemical environment regulates environmental variables at a global scale, keeping them within a range that makes Earth inhabitable by living beings. One can argue that this theory can play an important role in school science, since it bears upon current environmental problems, contributes to cross-disciplinary learning, and may help students understand the nature of science. Nevertheless, discourses about Gaia include both scientific and non-scientific ideas, and, consequently, this theory has been seen as pseudoscience, or even antiscience, as an unwarranted view, entangled with mysticism. But an informed view about the contributions and risks associated with Gaia as part of science education depends on a general analysis about the treatment of this theory in school knowledge. Here, we offer the first analysis of this sort, critically evaluating how Gaia is addressed in a representative sample of Brazilian textbooks ( n = 18). We present data about the presence or not of Gaia theory among the contents covered by the textbooks, the presence of the claim that Earth is living, whether and how they use analogies to justify this claim, the discussion of evidence for and against Gaia, and the treatment of its relevance to current issues. Gaia theory is explicitly addressed in ca. 39% of the analyzed textbooks. There is a general script that the textbooks that explicitly name the theory follow when discussing Gaia. First, they argue that life affects the environment, and support this argument by means of examples, then, explain what the Gaia theory proposes, discuss evidence in favor either of the idea that Earth is living or Gaia theory in general, introduce one or more analogies to justify the claim of a living Earth, and, finally, offer remarks on the current importance of Gaia. Three analogies used by Lovelock himself were found in the analyzed textbooks, Gaia as a superorganism, the
Rudolph, Alexander L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
During educational sessions at astronomy meetings, especially during Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) Teaching Excellence workshops, which I have attended and now help present, one of the questions everyone wants to discuss is which textbook to use to teach Astro 101 classes (general education astronomy courses for non-science majors). Some instructors have a favorite. Others will claim that they are all the same and that it doesn't matter. Increasingly, however, the discussions turn to the question of whether any textbook is needed at all. Some of this discussion has been driven by the increase in the use of interactive learning strategies such as Think-Pair-Share questions, Lecture-Tutorials, and Ranking Tasks. These activities provide students a learning modality very different from the traditional lecture supplemented by homework, and raises the question of whether the learning that takes place during such interactive activities is enough to teach students what we wish them to know about astronomy. I had been teaching an Astro 101 class for almost three years using a full suite of interactive learning strategies, when I decided to teach it without requiring the students to purchase a textbook. Comparison of test scores before and after this change shows that there is no statistical difference in student achievement whether a textbook is required or not. Details on the course and methodology used to reach this conclusion will be presented. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE), and Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho
Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…
Levin, Florence; Lindbeck, Joy S.
Five secondary school biology textbooks were selected for this study: the 1973 edition of the BSCS Blue Version, "Biological Science, Molecules to Man"; the 1973 edition of the BSCS Green Version, "Biological Science, An Ecological Approach"; the 1973 edition of the BSCS Yellow Version, "An Inquiry into Life"; the 1973 edition of "Modern Biology"…
New York State School Boards Association, Albany.
Textbooks have come under a barrage of criticism ranging from overall textbook quality to changing costs. Litigation in the federal courts has challenged textbook content. New York State school boards need to examine the issues in the textbook problem. This paper explains New York State's textbook selection process, which is based on local…
Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008
Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo
The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os
Apple, Michael W.
The textbook dominates curricula at the elementary, secondary, and even college levels. The ideological, political, and economic sources of its production, distribution, and reception are examined. (RM)
Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.
A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.
Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.
With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…
Tarrayo, Veronico Nogales
Adhering to the notion that language learning is necessarily a culture-learning process, this paper explores the issue of sexism in six Philippine preschool English language textbooks. The study adopts the qualitative-quantitative approach in examining the following categories: gender visibility (illustrations), "firstness",…
Kesselring, Linda J.
Compares the style, emphasis, and tone in textbook chapters on trauma care written for and by doctors and nurses. Discusses ways physicians' and nurses' roles are mirrored in the writing. Notes that doctors' prose is focused, with attention given to injuries and their repair; whereas nurses' prose adopts a holistic view, caring for patients'…
Badua, Frank; Sharifi, Mohsen; Mendez Mediavilla, Francis
The factors involved in the selection of accounting textbooks are under-investigated, and most of the research is survey-based, largely ignoring the information that could be analyzed by direct inspection of textbook content and its impact on textbook selection. In this study the authors fill this lacuna by deploying content analysis of the…
DeRose, John J.
Old textbooks are one resource for teaching about the evolution of historical interpretation. Some libraries contain collections of U.S. history textbooks spanning multiple years and some schools even keep older textbooks used in past years. Recently, the author used a book by Kyle Ward entitled "History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How…
Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat
This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…
Reviews 21 one-semester economics textbooks using Kenneth E. Boulding's ideas for introductory textbooks. Lists 240 concepts and topic areas in macroeconomics, microeconomics, public policy, and international economics that may be covered in a textbook. (NL)
Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…
Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia
In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…
Thomas Kuhn draws the distinction between textbook history of science and history of science proper. The question addressed in the paper is whether Kuhn recommends the inclusion of distortive textbook history in science education. It is argued, pace Fuller, that Kuhn does not make normative suggestions. He does not urge the teaching of bad history…
A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…
Vann, Allan S.
Many classroom teachers and administrators ignore state education departments' curriculum guides and depend heavily on textbooks. Curriculum committees should devote considerable time to textbook review so that teachers have opportunity to examine books from many publishers or create their own units. Principals and supervisors must share…
Students still obtain most educational content through textbooks and other printed materials. But as technology has changed, they are able to gain access to more of that content digitally, and often illegally. As textbook costs have increased, students have begun scanning and illegally sharing books over peer-to-peer file-sharing networks to save…
During the first-ever Digital Learning Day, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and Federal Communications Commission chief Julius Genachowski unveiled an ambitious plan earlier this year to get schools to switch from print to digital textbooks by 2017. Dubbed the Digital Textbook Playbook, it's a recommendation for how schools could transform…
Savage, blood-thirsty, drunk, monosyllabic, naked, and primitive are the stereotypes of Native Americans in textbooks. These stereotypes are so pervasive that they tend to be accepted uncritically by the rest of society. The evidence suggests that many textbooks are biased and, in a large number of cases, outright racist. The concept of "errors by…
Barojas, Jorge; Trigueros, Maria
The planning of an introductory calculus textbook in classical mechanics is shown as an example of an approach to textbook design that uses four main cognitive categories: sources of learning, instruments of learning, processes of knowing, and mechanisms of knowing. The aspects, domains, description, and elements of each section of the textbook…
Discusses the four previous editions of the biochemistry medical textbooks called the "Nationwide Unified Textbooks." Notes the new (1989) edition is much smaller, is organized differently, has new material, has a reorganized Dynamic Biochemistry core, and shows great importance to clinical biochemistry. (MVL)
Hassan, Nik R.; Becker, Jack D.
This study performs an exploration of the relationship between introductory IS textbooks and the body of knowledge represented by the set of "super classic" IS publications. Textbooks play a critical role of introducing the IS field to IS majors, describing what constitutes mainstream IS knowledge and communicating to other disciplines and their…
Savova, Lilia, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…
With 27 million users, Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, WA) is the most common business data analysis software. However, audits show that almost all complex spreadsheets have errors. The author examined textbooks to understand why responsible data analysis is taught. A purposeful sample of 10 textbooks was coded, and then compared against…
Considering the spiritual needs of patients is an important aspect of holistic patient care. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and spirituality is not strongly featured as a key part of holistic care in core nursing textbooks. The author argues that guidance given by nursing textbooks needs to be more applicable to practice. PMID:27654568
Waters, Barbara A.
Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world history, and…
Kailin, Clarence S.; Sylvester, Mary Jean, Ed.
The chronicle provides an accurate and balanced representation of the history of the black experience in an effort to counteract misinformation presented in most textbooks. American history textbooks used in Wisconsin school districts ignore or distort the cultural experiences and contributions of blacks, often omitting important information,…
McLeod, P. J.; Harden, R. M.
Reports on a content analysis of 14 textbooks on endocrinology. Using thyrotoxicosis as the content maker, the study indicated major differences between books with regard to the information provided and the number of words devoted to the subject. Suggests that medical teachers selecting textbooks be aware of such differences. (TW)
McCain, Roger A.
Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work in progress."…
Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…
Immigrant success stories found in English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in government-funded language instruction in Canada imagine Canada as a redeemer of immigrant newcomers. Through a critical discourse analysis of ESL textbooks used in Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada classes in Ontario, I identify two primary…
Jackson, Sherri L.; Lugo, Susan M.; Griggs, Richard A.
Presents an analysis of undergraduate methods course textbooks (n=26) published in the United States with copyright dates from 1995-1999. Examines aspects of the textbooks, such as demographic qualities, use of pedagogical aids and illustrative material, and topic coverage. Includes the results in detail. (CMK)
Many introductory microeconomics textbook authors derive the law of demand from the assumption of diminishing marginal utility. Authors of intermediate and graduate textbooks derive demand from diminishing marginal rate of substitution and ordinal preferences. These approaches are not interchangeable; diminishing marginal utility for all goods is…
Described are results from a study of college general biology textbooks determining significant increases or decreases in human-interest level and/or grade-level readability. In an analysis of eight textbooks used in 56 colleges, it was concluded that neither readability nor interest level has changed from 1960 to 1978. (CS)
Foster, Andrea L.
Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. To get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely distribute 1,000…
This thesis examines how discourses of biology textbooks can work to constitute various kinds of subjectivities. Using a Foucauldian archaeological approach to discourse analysis I examine how four Ontario secondary school biology textbooks discursively delimit what can be thought and acted upon, and in the process work to partially constitute students/teachers as sex/gendered; neocolonial; neoliberal (and a subject of work), and ethical subjects and subjectivities. This thesis engages the topic of how discourse can constitute subjectivity in science in three basic ways: First, on a theoretical level, in terms of working out an understanding of subject constitution/interpellation that would also be useful when engaging with other sociopolitical and ethical questions in science education. Secondly, in terms of an empirically based critical discourse analysis that examines how various statements within these four textbooks could set limits on what is possible for students to think and act upon in relation to themselves, science, and the world. Thirdly, this thesis represents a narrative of scholarly development that moves from an engagement of my personal experiences in science education and current science education literature towards the general politico-philosophical topic of subjectivity and biopolitics. This thesis begins with a discussion of my experiences as a science teacher, a review of relevant science education literature, and considerations of subjectivity that relate specifically ii to the specific methodological approach I employ when examining these textbooks. After this I present five chapters, each of which can be thought of as a somewhat separate analysis concerning how the discourses of these textbooks can work to constitute specific subjectivities (each involving different theoretical/methodological considerations). I conclude with a reflection/synthesis chapter and a call to see science education as a site for biopolitical struggle.
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Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Defu
Using Wenjin Search of the National Library of China, it was found that 895 genetics textbooks for Chinese colleges, including 588 (67.5%) theoretical books, 122 (13.6%) experimental books and 185 (20.7%) teaching reference books, have been published since College Entrance Examination resumed. Most of these books belong to medical genetics, followed by general genetics, while the books on plant genetics, animal genetics or microbial genetics are relatively few. In these search results, 91 had the same name of Medical Genetics, professor Ji Zuo is the most productive author, who edited 9 genetics textbooks, and Science Press Ltd. is the most productive press, which published 179 (20%) genetics textbooks. The questionnaire survey showed that "Genetics" (Second Edition) edited by Zhuohua Dai is the most widely used textbooks in the Chinese colleges, while the mainly used experimental books are the handouts or self-edited textbooks. Finally, we analyzed the problems currently existed in the textbooks, such as slowly updating cycle, less supports, lots of books with the same name, lack of scientific stories, very rare and unique illustrations, too full printed pages, and also provided the proposed solution.
Reviews Books: IGCSE physics textbooks from CIE and Edexcel Book: Three Steps to the Universe CD: ASE/SEP CD for Heads of Science and Principal Teachers Book: Exposed! Ouija, Firewalking and other Gibberish Book: Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction Software: ROBOLAB 2.9 and NXT-G 2.0 Book: The Language of Physics: A Foundation for University Study Apparatus: Mini Magdeburgs Web Watch
WE RECOMMEND IGCSE Physics (for the CIE course) A clear, approachable textbook for the new course ASE/SEP CD for Heads of Science and Principal Teachers An excellent resource to help those new to authority Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction Well written summary of a complex subject ROBOLAB 2.9 Versatile datalogging software for Lego MINDSTORMS The Language of Physics: A Foundation for University Study Book closes the gap between A-level and degree-level physics Mini Magdeburgs Fun apparatus that can be used for teaching and play WORTH A LOOK Edexcel IGCSE Physics An up-to-date but uninspiring new textbook Three Steps to the Universe A book crammed full of space science Exposed! Ouija, Firewalking and other Gibberish Science explains why not to believe in pseudo-science HANDLE WITH CARE NXT-G 2.0 Very limited datalogging software for Lego MINDSTORMS WEB WATCH Virtual experiments have their place but cannot replace real practical work in the classroom
Furió-Más, Carlos; Calatayud, María Luisa; Guisasola, Jenaro; Furió-Gómez, Cristina
This paper investigates the views of science and scientific activity that can be found in chemistry textbooks and heard from teachers when acid base reactions are introduced to grade 12 and university chemistry students. First, the main macroscopic and microscopic conceptual models are developed. Second, we attempt to show how the existence of views of science in textbooks and of chemistry teachers contributes to an impoverished image of chemistry. A varied design has been elaborated to analyse some epistemological deficiencies in teaching acid base reactions. Textbooks have been analysed and teachers have been interviewed. The results obtained show that the teaching process does not emphasize the macroscopic presentation of acids and bases. Macroscopic and microscopic conceptual models involved in the explanation of acid base processes are mixed in textbooks and by teachers. Furthermore, the non-problematic introduction of concepts, such as the hydrolysis concept, and the linear, cumulative view of acid base theories (Arrhenius and Brönsted) were detected.
Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Guntrum, S.K.
Since the authors have become associated with contamination control technology they have repeatedly found themselves searching for technical information that was either never documented and therefore never reached a technical journal or was too specific to appear in a technical article. On countless occasions they have found other workers frustrated over the same lack of concise and up to date information in the relatively broad and interdisciplinary field of surface science, surface cleaning, and clean room operation and design. It is for these reasons that the authors wish to suggest formally that those engineers, chemists, technicians, and surface scientists working in this field collectively create a textbook that they may use as their first reference and teaching book. The text of this paper suggests a topical outline for a book and gives examples of the kinds of information that it should contain and the types of questions it should address. Included is an extensive bibliography recently collected showing the diversity of disciplines that those working in contamination control must be knowledgeable of and the variety of publications and journals in which these reports and articles are generally found.
This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.
Paeglis, Roberts; Orlovska, Madara; Bluss, Kristaps
We report that pages with color illustrations elicit more homogeneous duration of fixations in 12 elementary school children. For six first graders, we compared the reading of the color cover and a greyscale illustrated text page of an abcbook. For six second grade pupils, we demonstrated a color and a greyscale fairytale book page. The fixations we recorded are concordant with the duration for preschoolers reported elsewhere. Average duration of fixations on a page with color elements are shorter than on greyscale ones, 425 (SE=13.4) and 461 (18.3) ms, respectively. The correlation analysis lends support that a color page is processed differently than its greyscale version. Fixation duration for color and greyscale condition was correlated neither for text (r=.567, p=.241) nor for images (r=.517, p=.294) for the second graders. Our research suggests that color elements on textbook pages encourage emergent readers to perform better in acquisition.
Miller, Jon R.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori
The rising cost of college textbooks over the last decade provides an opportunity for alternatives. Electronic or online textbooks are an effective substitute to the traditional paper-based textbooks, although students have been slow to transition to the new method. A custom, professor-written online textbook not only addresses the reduction in…
O'Keeffe, Lisa; O'Donoghue, John
In current textbook analysis research, there is a strong focus on the content, structure and expectation presented by the textbook as elements for analysis. This research moves beyond such foci and proposes a framework for textbook language analysis which is intended to be integrated into an overall framework for mathematics textbook analysis. The…
Porter, Paula L.
Current versions of electronic textbooks mimic the format and structure of printed textbooks; however, the electronic capabilities of these new versions of textbooks offer the potential of embedding interactive features of web-based learning within the context of a textbook. This dissertation research study was conducted to determine if student…
Dennis, Alan R.; Abaci, Serdar; Morrone, Anastasia S.; Plaskoff, Joshua; McNamara, Kelly O.
With additional features and increasing cost advantages, e-textbooks are becoming a viable alternative to paper textbooks. One important feature offered by enhanced e-textbooks (e-textbooks with interactive functionality) is the ability for instructors to annotate passages with additional insights. This paper describes a pilot study that examines…
Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.
It is important to assess periodically how introductory textbooks portray our discipline because introductory psychology is the most popular psychology course, almost all teachers use textbooks for it, and textbooks play a major role in defining the course for students. To do so, past studies have used textbook citation analyses. We analyzed…
Rickman, Jon T.; Von Holzen, Roger; Klute, Paul G.; Tobin, Teri
At most universities a student typically goes to a bookstore to purchase the textbook recommended by the professor for a course. The student may choose to purchase a new or used textbook, or, as occurs more frequently now, an e-textbook. Nearly 40% of college students choose not to purchase textbooks at all, however, due to the costs. Generally,…
Romanowski, Michael H.
Current history textbooks include Christianity when discussing U.S. history. A study systematically examined the content of 10 secondary U.S. history textbooks to evaluate how Christianity is portrayed. Selection of the textbooks was based upon information supplied by the Texas Education Agency and the American Textbook Council and represented the…
Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.
Most general chemistry textbooks consider the oil drop experiment as a classic experiment, characterized by its simplicity and precise results. A review of the history and philosophy of science literature shows that the experiment is difficult to perform (even today!) and generated a considerable amount of controversy. Acceptance of the…
Watkins, Beverly T.
Course Technology Inc. has developed 10 products combining textbooks with commercial software for college accounting, business, computer science, and statistics courses. Five of the products use Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. The products have been positively received by teachers and students. (DB)
Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don
The photoelectric effect is an important part of general physics textbooks. To study the presentation of this phenomenon, we have reconstructed six essential, history and philosophy of science (HPS)-related aspects of the events that culminated in Einstein proposing his hypothesis of lightquanta and the ensuing controversy within the scientific…
Using course materials to promote visual literacy skills is an important aspect of undergraduate science education. A comparison study was undertaken to determine the composition of visual representations, specifically representations of data generated from experimental research, found in general biology and discipline-specific textbooks compared…
Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa A.
The basic aim of this study is to investigate the content of textual and pictorial material of Slovenian science textbooks and notebooks on topic states of matter. The paper presents the results of the analysis of educational material from two randomly selected publishers for students aged 6 to 14 in the Slovenian primary and the lower secondary…
Compared with a couple of years ago, children in many California schools have one less tome to lug in their backpacks. Instead of standard textbooks, they use what publisher Pearson Education Inc. calls its "digital path" to California's elementary history and social sciences curriculum. Since the state school board approved it in November 2005,…
Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd
In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…
Bazzul, Jesse; Sykes, Heather
While education communities have well defined commitments to protect their learners from oppressive instructional materials, discourses of science education are often left unexamined. This analysis/critique employs queer theory as a perspective to look at how one widely used textbook in Ontario schools conceptualizes notions of gender and…
Hippensteel, Scott P.
Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…
Kao, Kung-yi; And Others
An intermediate-level textbook intended for those who have had at least 2 1/2 years of Chinese language study is presented. The objective of the text is to assist in developing the reading and conversational skills required for dealing with general topics in the pure and applied sciences. Common terms and concepts from three general fields (Life…
In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.
Baek, Eun-Ok; Monaghan, James
eTextbooks have steadily and recently more rapidly penetrated the textbook market. In order to effectively support students' learning, it is important to comprehend students' experiences using eTextbooks. This survey study was designed to gain an understanding of students' experiences in using eTextbooks and variables that impact…
Fulford, Janice Marie; Rudge, David Wÿss
The phenomenon of industrial melanism (IM) became widely acknowledged as a well-documented example of natural selection largely as a result of H.B.D. Kettlewell's pioneering research on the subject in the early 1950s. It was quickly picked up by American biology textbooks starting in the early 1960s and became ubiquitous throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. While recent research on the phenomenon broadly supports Kettlewell's explanation of IM in the peppered moth, which in turn has strengthened this example of natural selection, textbook IM entries have actually declined in recent years in favor of other examples. In a previous paper, we drew attention to the pivotal role visual aspects played in the introduction of IM into (and its subsequent removal from) textbook accounts. The present article continues this investigation by analyzing textual passages on industrial melanism within a stratified random sample of textbooks from the 1960s to the 2000s. The fact that this example of natural selection was included by multiple publishers independently, in a short period of time, makes it uniquely qualified for a textbook study of this kind. The purpose of the present project was to determine whether these textbooks contain what has come to be known as the standard peppered moth story. Three complete series were also inspected for change across time. Our analysis focused on (1) the amount of text devoted to industrial melanism; (2) what specific science content elements were present; and (3) what, if any, nature of science (NOS) aspects were included. The study documents an increase in the amount of text devoted to industrial melanism over the decades. In spite of this increase, only modest changes in science content and NOS aspects were found.
Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis
The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth- and seventh-grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages of content devoted to each issue, and the degree of depth in which issues were treated. Differences between grade levels were also explored. Of the 4,393 pages of content analyzed, less than 2 percent was devoted to these issues identified as the most serious human problems. No significant differences were found between textbook series. Significant differences were found in the number of pages of content presented on each issue. Most of the content fell into the categories of water resources, population growth, air quality, and atmosphere. The issue of war technology had the least amount of content. Distribution of content did not vary by grade level. Both levels addressed the issues of population growth, air quality, and water resources with a greater degree of depth than the issue of world hunger or war technology. The study concludes that the most widely used textbooks at the sixth- and seventh-grade levels avoid serious discussion of major global problems. And like the career indecision of a recent Miss America contestant, purchasers don't seem to be able to decide whether they want science textbooks to be a brain surgeon or a movie actress. Implications stemming from this dichotomy and its relationship to future science education curricular are also explored.
Mennenga, Heidi A
Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.
Mennenga, Heidi A
Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print. PMID:27209871
Basile, Donald D.
Suggests that college reading instructors should use an integrated approach (rather than a series of activities) to teach textbook reading and discusses previewing, reading for meaning, paraphrasing, analyzing, and reviewing. (JM)
Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral
This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…
Reading Teacher, 2010
Teach students to use their literacy skills in the content areas. Textbook circles are a great way to make the most of the skills students learn during literature circles and help them transfer these skills to assigned content area texts.
Dickison, L. R.
The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.
... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...
... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...
Roth, Kathleen J.
In order to study why students have difficulty learning from science textbooks, this study investigated how middle school students use textbooks and how their thinking about one science concept (photosyntheis) was influenced by the reading of three different science texts. One of the texts used was an experimental one written to challenge and…
This paper is part of a larger study that was carried out to investigate the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the self-directed professional development on the self-directed professional development (SDPD) of mathematics and science teachers in Zimbabwe. The educational context provides an example of how teachers…
Koul, Ravinder; Dana, Thomas M.
Discusses science education in India, arguing that a contextualized curriculum is a powerful means of improvement. The paper presents results from an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in current Indian textbooks and uses India's controversial Sadar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project as a case example. (SM)
South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has revealed two main flaws: First, the textbooks' contents present historically fallacious backgrounds regarding the origin of this theory because of a blind dependence on popular undergraduate textbooks, which ignore the revolutionary aspects of the theory in physics. And second, the current ingredients of teaching this theory are so simply enumerated and conceptually confused that students are not provided with good opportunities to develop critical capacities for evaluating scientific theories. Reviewing textbooks used in South Korea, I will, first, claim that the history of science contributes to understand not merely the origins but also two principles of this theory. Second, in addition to this claim, I argue that we should distinguish not only hypotheses from principles but also phenomena from theoretical consequences and evidence. Finally, I suggest an alternative way in which theory testing occurs in the process of evaluation among competitive theories on the basis of data, not in the simple relation between a hypothesis and evidence.
Gibson, Stephanie B.
Using a sample issue of the "Journal of Communication" as a point of comparison, a study examined the content of 10 introductory textbooks for the field of communication. Results indicated that textbooks scarcely ever acknowledge methodological pluralism, and when they do, they simply cite it as an existing factor in the field of communication and…
Gionfriddo, Jeanne Jarema
Three readability formulas were applied to chapters from six textbooks to determine (1) if there was a significant difference in readability of three consecutive textbook editions of a seventh grade and of an eighth grade text over a 12-year period (1968-1980), and (2) whether eighth grade students would perform equally to the same content from a…
Pavao, Joyce Maguire
This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…
Argues that adoption should be included in strategies to help children, teen parents, and other women with difficult pregnancies because adolescents are not equipped to raise children. Discusses the need for longitudinal research on adoption, adoption education in secondary schools, and studying mass media impact on adoption. (FMW)
Schifellite, Carmen James
This thesis is about Sociobiology, especially human sociobiological discourse, and its emergence as a paradigm especially through the formulations of E. O. Wilson. It asks two distinct and related questions. The first question asks why and how has the general project of Wilsonian or determinist human sociobiology has maintained its appeal and continued to garner popularity and support despite the many cogent and detailed critiques. The second question, covered in part two of this thesis, asks how the sociobiological controversy is presented in three Biology textbooks. Part one of this work examines the development of human sociobiology and its related disciplines and the debates that have arisen around this paradigm. It chronicles how this Wilsonian human sociobiological discourse constructs its legitimacy, the major issues critics have raised and recent developments in human sociobiology and related fields. It also suggests modified epistemological positions and avenues of critique. As such, this work utilizes theory developed within utilizes theory developed within science studies, hegemony studies, discourse theory, textual analysis, and science education. Part Two examines three textbooks used in Ontario Academic Courses (OAC's) in Biology in high school in grade thirteen in Ontario. These texts are similar if not identical to textbooks used in introductory biology courses in universities in North America. This textual analysis, examines how the textbooks portray sociobiology and the related fields of Genetics, Evolutionary theory and the Nature of Science itself. This analysis provides a way both to gauge the influence of Wilsonian human and non-human sociobiological discourse and to gauge the ways in which this controversial issue is handled by the texts. This analysis finds that all three textbooks fail to use sociobiology as an example of a scientific controversy to engage students in a discussion of this topic. They also fail to engage students in any of
Sawyer, Donald T.
There are significant misconceptions within the chemical community and molecular science, particularly in the undergraduate curriculum and the associated textbooks. Some of the misconceptions are described, which give poor basis to understand molecular bonding and structure, and reaction mechanisms.
This study explores how grammar instruction is conceptualized and applied in published Spanish materials. It sought to answer the following questions: What are the approaches to grammar instruction in current, college-level, beginning Spanish textbooks? How do they reflect current perspectives on grammar teaching? Six widely adopted Spanish…
Kraishan, Osama M.; Almaamah, Ismail
This study aimed at evaluating the science textbook of the third grade primary school in Jordan from the point of view of the teachers who have taught this textbook, in order to find out how suitable and relevant this textbook is to the structure of the curriculum and its guidelines, by trying to answer this question: What is the evaluation of…
Wellner, Karen L.
Biology textbooks are everybody's business. In accepting the view that texts are created with specific social goals in mind, I examined 127 twentieth-century high school biology textbooks for representations of animal development. Paragraphs and visual representations were coded and placed in one of four scientific literacy categories: descriptive, investigative, nature of science, and human embryos, technology, and society (HETS). I then interpreted how embryos and fetuses have been socially constructed for students. I also examined the use of Haeckel's embryo drawings to support recapitulation and evolutionary theory. Textbooks revealed that publication of Haeckel's drawings was influenced by evolutionists and anti-evolutionists in the 1930s, 1960s, and the 1990s. Haeckel's embryos continue to persist in textbooks because they "safely" illustrate similarities between embryos and are rarely discussed in enough detail to understand comparative embryology's role in the support of evolution. Certain events coincided with changes in how embryos were presented: (a) the growth of the American Medical Association (AMA) and an increase in birth rates (1950s); (b) the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) and public acceptance of birth control methods (1960s); (c) Roe vs. Wade (1973); (d) in vitro fertilization and Lennart Nilsson's photographs (1970s); (e) prenatal technology and fetocentrism (1980s); and (f) genetic engineering and Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum (1980s and 1990s). By the end of the twentieth century, changing conceptions, research practices, and technologies all combined to transform the nature of biological development. Human embryos went from a highly descriptive, static, and private object to that of sometimes contentious public figure. I contend that an ignored source for helping move embryos into the public realm is schoolbooks. Throughout the 1900s, authors and publishers accomplished this by placing biology textbook embryos and
Background The consistency of treatment recommendations of evidence-based medical textbooks with more recently published evidence has not been investigated to date. Inconsistencies could affect the quality of medical care. Objective To determine the frequency with which topics in leading online evidence-based medical textbooks report treatment recommendations consistent with more recently published research evidence. Methods Summarized treatment recommendations in 200 clinical topics (ie, disease states) covered in four evidence-based textbooks–UpToDate, Physicians’ Information Education Resource (PIER), DynaMed, and Best Practice–were compared with articles identified in an evidence rating service (McMaster Premium Literature Service, PLUS) since the date of the most recent topic updates in each textbook. Textbook treatment recommendations were compared with article results to determine if the articles provided different, new conclusions. From these findings, the proportion of topics which potentially require updating in each textbook was calculated. Results 478 clinical topics were assessed for inclusion to find 200 topics that were addressed by all four textbooks. The proportion of topics for which there was 1 or more recently published articles found in PLUS with evidence that differed from the textbooks’ treatment recommendations was 23% (95% CI 17-29%) for DynaMed, 52% (95% CI 45-59%) for UpToDate, 55% (95% CI 48-61%) for PIER, and 60% (95% CI 53-66%) for Best Practice (χ 2 3=65.3, P<.001). The time since the last update for each textbook averaged from 170 days (range 131-209) for DynaMed, to 488 days (range 423-554) for PIER (P<.001 across all textbooks). Conclusions In online evidence-based textbooks, the proportion of topics with potentially outdated treatment recommendations varies substantially. PMID:23220465
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...
Gallagher, Ursula M.
Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)
Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)