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Sample records for adoptive parent groups

  1. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  2. Single Parent Adoptive Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research and reports on a longitudinal study of 15 single-parent adoptive homes over a 14-year period that demonstrated that these homes have the capacity to be successful adoptive placements. Identifies unique characteristics of single-parent adoptive homes, and notes the need for additional research to identify children for whom these…

  3. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  4. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  5. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  6. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  7. Short-term operational evaluation of a group-parenting program for Japanese mothers with poor psychological status: adopting a Canadian program into the Asian public service setting.

    PubMed

    Goto, Aya; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-07-01

    Although parenting practices differ across various sociocultural settings, scientific research on parenting intervention in Asia is scarce. We adopted a Canadian multilanguage group-based parenting program (Nobody's Perfect) into the Japanese public health service setting and evaluated its impact. Our program was feasible as a public service; was well-accepted among the participants with low psychological status, many of whom were first-time mothers; and had a potential positive impact on the mood of mothers and the self-evaluation of their abilities in society. Our results may facilitate and provide direction for similar research in Asia. PMID:20526928

  8. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  9. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  10. Cultural Competence for Transracial Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides a clear conceptual definition of cultural competence for transracial-cultural adoptive (TRA) parents based on an extensive review of the literature and feedback from experts and parents. A three part definition of cultural competence for TRA parents includes: racial awareness, multicultural planning, and survival skills. Implications for…

  11. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  12. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  13. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  14. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  15. The Texas Adoption Project: Adopted Children and Their Intellectual Resemblance to Biological and Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Joseph M.

    1983-01-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar data available from the children's biological mothers. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences in intelligence. (Author/RH)

  16. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  17. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. PMID:26371450

  18. Adoptive Parents, Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura; Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary legal and scholarly debates emphasize the importance of biological parents for children's well-being. Scholarship in this vein often relies on stepparent families even though adoptive families provide an ideal opportunity to explore the role of biology in family life. In this study, we compare two-adoptive-parent families with other…

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massatti, Richard R.; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Gregoire, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provides information on the reliability and validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale (TAPS), a multidimensional 36-item Likert-type scale that measures cultural competence among transracial adoptive (TRA) parents. The TAPS was theoretically developed and refined through feedback from experts in TRA adoption. A…

  20. Psychological Stress in Adoptive Parents of Special-Needs Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlone, Katalina; Santos, Linda; Kazama, Lynne; Fong, Rowena; Mueller, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Examined the nature and extent of parental stress among adoptive parents of special-needs children. Found higher than average levels of stress, particularly on subscales related to parent-child dysfunctional interactions and to raising a difficult child. Identified five stress categories: (1) child characteristics; (2) parent-child interactions;…

  1. Experiences of Black Families as Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Gwendolyn S.; King, Lula T.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted descriptive study in which 12 Black families shared their ideas about adoptive parenthood. Found most common reason for adopting was inability to have children biologically. Found need for post-adoptive services for Black families on an as-needed basis. Recommends adoption agencies and communities build on positive experiences of Black…

  2. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  3. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  4. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option. PMID:27136971

  5. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  6. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  7. Single Parent Adoptions: An Issue of Difficulty and Import for Adoption Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jeffrey

    Little theoretical and empirical knowledge is available in the social work field to guide practitioners in the area of single parent adoption. In the context of demographics, the single parent family is now conventional. However there is not yet conclusive research on the success or failure of single parent households. Research has suggested that…

  8. Parallel Process Issues for Lesbian and Gay Adoptive Parents and Their Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2005-01-01

    Gays and lesbians, both single and coupled, are increasingly turning to adoption to create or expand their families. This manuscript specifically addresses the continuing needs of adoptees and adoptive parents by exploring key issues in the life course of gays and lesbians and their adopted children, and identifying potential parallel development…

  9. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  10. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodine). Newborn metabolic screen up to 2 years. Infectious Diseases PPD or currently recommended testing for tuberculosis exposure ( ... Pediatrics. Medical Evaluation of Internationally Adopted Children for Infectious Diseases. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, ...

  11. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826826

  12. The Impact of Adoption on the New Parents' Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of adoption on parents' marriage. Notes that a general decline in marital satisfaction is related to partners' ability to balance marital and parental roles, to expectations about housework and child-care division, and to time demands. Marriage is also affected by infertility and its investigation. Finds that social…

  13. Predictors of parenting stress in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents during early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z

    2014-04-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured postplacement) and parent and family characteristics (measured preplacement) as predictors of postplacement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year postplacement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children reported more postplacement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the preplacement period had less postplacement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, but it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents' experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690

  14. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families. PMID:25414543

  15. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families. PMID:25414543

  16. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  17. Cultural identity and internationally adopted children: qualitative approach to parental representations.

    PubMed

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  18. Educational Groups for Single Parents: The Parenting after Divorce Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)

  19. Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    Children who are born to or adopted by 1 member of a same-sex couple deserve the security of 2 legally recognized parents. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics supports legislative and legal efforts to provide the possibility of adoption of the child by the second parent or coparent in these families. PMID:11826219

  20. An Evaluation of Informal Parent Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Lori; And Others

    This study examined the effects of an informal parental support network on parents' perceptions of child behavior, discipline style, and satisfaction in parenting. The parent support group consisted of 38 parents (mostly mothers) who met regularly and had an opportunity to discuss parenting concerns and compare experiences with their children;…

  1. Parents who utilize private infant adoption: an ethnographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lobar, S L; Phillips, S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the feelings and perceptions of parents undergoing the process of private infant adoption in Western society. Ten individuals were interviewed and, through ethnographic analysis, categories and themes were derived. Participants moved sequentially through seven phases, from the choice to adopt to receiving the legal birth certificate. Adoptive parents described the phases as laden with fears and anxieties. The participants considered themselves to be risk-takers. Major themes that emerged from this study were uncertainty, unpreparedness, and commitment to an unguaranteed investment. Additional themes were isolation, competition, judgment, and ostracism from a variety of sources. Health professionals can support these parents by assisting them in establishing coping strategies and through educating them during each phase of the process. PMID:8920500

  2. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  3. Post-Adoption Face-to-Face Contact with Birth Parents: Prospective Adopters' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, Selina; Taylor, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The trend in adoption since the 1960s has been away from secrecy and towards greater openness; contact through an intermediary, and direct contact by letter, is now widely accepted. More controversial is the challenge of face-to-face contact with birth parents, and social workers involved in the decision-making process find themselves having to…

  4. Adolescent-to-Parent Violence in Adoptive Families

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Julie; Meakings, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent-to-parent violence (APV) has received little attention in the social work literature, although it is known to be a factor in families whose children are at risk of entry to care. The behaviour patterns that characterise APV include coercive control, domination and intimidation. Crucially, parental behaviours are compromised by fear of violence. This article discusses the unexpected findings from two recent adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. The studies exposed the prevalence of APV in the lives of families who had experienced an adoption disruption and those who were finding parenting very challenging. Two main APV patterns emerged: early onset (pre-puberty) that escalated during adolescence, and late onset that surfaced during puberty and rapidly escalated. The stigma and shame associated with APV delayed help seeking. The response from services was often to blame the adoptive parents and to instigate child protection procedures. There is an urgent need for a greater professional recognition of APV and for interventions to be evaluated with children who have been maltreated and showing symptoms of trauma. PMID:27559224

  5. Medical group adoption of Internet services.

    PubMed

    Coye, M J; Jacks, G; Everett, W E; Akay, L

    2001-10-01

    Physician leaders and office-based practicing physicians in medium and large practice organizations were surveyed regarding their use of administrative and clinical systems enabled by the Internet. More than 85% of medical groups reported using one or more Internet-enabled services and 35 reported use of more than five Internet-enabled services, including both business and clinical applications. Physician leaders and practicing physicians identified six Internet-enabled services as "essential" for the future success of their practice and indicated that reduced administrative costs, faster payments, and improved quality of care are the most important benefits derived from Internet-enabled applications. Ninety-six percent of survey respondents estimated that Internet-enabled technologies will have a significant, positive impact on the practice of medicine in general and will improve the quality of care before 2003. The lack of industrywide standards for health information and the inability of current computer systems to exchange information across health care delivery networks were cited as the most important barriers to the adoption of Internet-enabled applications by physicians. Respondents believed that action by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) or major health plans to require participating physicians to use the Internet for administrative services will be needed to bring about rapid migration to Internet-enabled services. PMID:11680240

  6. Anorexia Nervosa--Parents in Crisis--The Parent Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hueth, Colleen Kirkpatrick

    Parents who live with and deal with anorexia nervosa in a daughter often find themselves in crisis. The parent group is one response to that crisis. This study surveyed 30 Montana treatment centers, the 13 Montana AA high schools, and the 12 Montana colleges, universities, and junior colleges to determine what, if any, parent groups existed and…

  7. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  8. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption. PMID:24818433

  9. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario’s adoption agencies

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Angela A.; Kennedy, V. Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E.; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government’s website. Information relevant to the study’s measures was collected using service providers’ websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option. PMID

  10. Handbook for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook is intended for parents in the Parent Education Program at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. It is designed to help them learn about their role as a participating parent, as an assistant teacher, as a group member, and as a student in a parent education cooperative group. The importance of parent education is emphasized. A…

  11. Perceived Parenting Skill Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were male, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict, and parents who expected to do more child care, experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145

  12. Perceived parenting skill across the transition to adoptive parenthood among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2009-12-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were female, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict and parents who expected to do more child care experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145

  13. Correlates and Predictors of Parenting Stress among Internationally Adopting Mothers: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-,…

  14. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  15. Predictors of parenting stress among gay adoptive fathers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Samantha L; Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2011-08-01

    The authors examined correlates of parenting stress among 230 gay adoptive fathers across the United States through an Internet survey. As with previous research on adoptive parents, results showed that fathers with less social support, older children, and children who were adopted at older ages reported more parenting stress. Moreover, gay fathers who had a less positive gay identity also reported more parenting stress. These 4 variables accounted for 33% of the variance in parenting stress; effect sizes were medium to large. Our results suggest the importance of social support and a positive gay identity in facilitating successful parenting outcomes among gay adoptive fathers. PMID:21688901

  16. 22 CFR 96.48 - Preparation and training of prospective adoptive parent(s) in incoming cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and impediments to finalization of an adoption; (7) Information on the long-term implications for a... 2000 (IAA) Standards for Convention Accreditation and Approval Standards for Cases in Which A Child Is... person provides such training before the prospective adoptive parent(s) travel to adopt the child or...

  17. Orientation Booklet for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

    This booklet provides parents with information to help them get the most from their enrollment in parent education cooperative groups. Orientation information is presented for both the Parent Walkabout/Parent Toddler Programs and the Parent Cooperative Preschool Programs at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Informative material on the…

  18. Parent-Offspring Resemblance for Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project: Biological, Adoptive, and Control Parents and One-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from the Colorado Adoption Project, a longitudinal study initiated in 1975, are reported. The cognitive ability of parents and measures of one-year olds' mental development were significantly correlated for all three parent/child comparisons. Caldwell's HOME Responsibility measure was correlated with infant intelligence in adoptive and…

  19. Origins of Familial Similarity in Parenting: A Study of Twins and Adoptive Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoya, Sandra H.; Callor, Suzanne; Rowe, David C.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    1997-01-01

    Parents who were identical twins, fraternal twins, or adopted siblings completed questionnaires assessing attitudes toward parenting and specific parenting practices, the emotional atmosphere of the home, and parental personality. Model-fitting results implicated modest genetic effects on affect-related aspects of parenting, such as parental…

  20. Transracial Adoption of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Focus on Parental and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Carrie; Evans, Joi N.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Flaherty, Evelyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined adjustment of families who had adopted children with disabilities. Compared 34 families who had adopted a child transracially with 63 families who had adopted a same-race child and 13 families who had adopted both transracially and inracially. Found few differences in family functioning between transracial and inracial adoptive parents.…

  1. Adoption Agency Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Prospective Parents: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.; Vaziri, Mahnoush

    2002-01-01

    A nation-wide survey of adoption agencies examined policies, practices, and attitudes regarding lesbian/gay prospective adoptive parents. Attitudes and practices were found to vary as a function of agency religious affiliation. Many adoption professionals were willing to work with lesbian/gay prospective parents, and nearly 38 percent of…

  2. Preadoptive Child Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Moves in Care, Adoption Disruptions, and Inconsistent Adoptive Parent Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Howard, Jeanne A.; Smith, Susan Livingston

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To date, little empirical attention has been given to the impact of preadoptive child sexual abuse (CSA) on adoption adjustment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether preadoptive CSA was associated with more placement moves, adoption disruption, and inconsistent parental commitment compared to adopted…

  3. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

  4. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 months. Adoptive fathers’ lower structured parenting at age 18 months predicted subsequent elevation in child social wariness. Birth mothers’ history of fear-related anxiety disorders was not associated with child social wariness. Findings highlight the role of dynamic family transactions in the development of social wariness during toddlerhood. PMID:23448430

  5. Comparison of relative and non-relative adoptive parent health status.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P

    2015-03-01

    Across the United States, kinship parents, extended family members and close friends, render care to the 2.7 million children who have been removed from their birth parents' care. However, differences between relative and non-relative parents reported health statuses have not been explored. The National Survey of Adoptive Parents data were used to investigate the health status of relative (n = 469) and non-relative (n = 1,599) adoptive parents. Perceived happiness in the parent-child relationship and the parents' ability to cope appear to affect parental health status. Only non-related mothers of children younger than 6 years reported better emotional health than those mothers who were related to their children. With this exception, and despite caring for children who have a greater likelihood of abuse, neglect, and exposure to drugs and alcohol prior to birth, the reported health statuses of relative parents did not differ from non-relative parents. PMID:24249305

  6. Predicting Parents’ School Engagement Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents of Kindergarteners

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents’ self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child’s good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child’s behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent–teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children’s schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents’ relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children’s schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

  7. The Adoption of E-Learning across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaher, James; Wentling, Tim L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of professional group membership on the rate of adoption of e-learning. The sample consisted of Engineering, Finance, Human Resources, Legal, and Marketing professionals from a Fortune 500 manufacturing company. Professional groups were categorized based on Rogers (1995) five categories of…

  8. An Evaluation of Consultation Sessions for Foster Carers and Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Cara; Alfano, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether consultation sessions provided by educational psychologists (EPs) offer a useful way of supporting foster and adoptive parents. Feedback was collected from 101 EPs and 78 foster and adoptive parents through the use of a short questionnaire at the end of each session. As might be expected, educational…

  9. Parent Strategies for Addressing the Needs of Their Newly Adopted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda G.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Miller, Laurie C.; Bedell, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe reflections of nine American parents on the strengths, challenges, and strategies in parenting young children newly adopted from another country. Eight mothers and one father with an adopted child aged less than 3 years and home for less than 3 months completed standardized assessments measuring the…

  10. Parent Support Groups to Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)

  11. Our Own: Adopting and Parenting the Older Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskew, Trish

    Children adopted when they are older come with histories, fully formed personalities, and intense anger over what they have lost. Drawing on stories of families who have adopted older children, as well as research, interviews with professionals, and opinions of adults who were adopted as children, this book explores the joys and challenges of…

  12. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  13. Determinants of Parental Stress in Families Adopting Children from Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sources of variation in parents' assessment of parental stress and the effects of early institutionalization. Participants included 109 mother-father pairs who adopted children from Eastern Europe. Significant differences between mothers and fathers were obtained on child- and parent-related stress. Results indicated that children's…

  14. Predictors of psychological adjustment in early placed adopted children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2013-06-01

    Little research has focused on predictors of psychological adjustment among early placed adopted children. Additionally, the research on adopted children in lesbian or gay parent-families is sparse. The current study examined 40 female same-sex, 35 male same-sex, and 45 different-sex parent families with adopted children, all of whom were placed in their adoptive homes under the age of 18 months. We explored aspects of children's preadoptive and postadoptive contexts (measured at 3 months postplacement) in relation to children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms (measured at 2 years postplacement; M age = 2.33 years). Findings revealed that lack of parental preparation for the adoption, and parental depressive symptoms, were associated with higher parent-reported levels of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, parents' relationship conflict was associated with higher levels of parent- and partner-reported internalizing symptoms. Children's adjustment outcomes did not differ by family type. Our findings point to the importance of considering the adoptive family context (including parent and couple subsystems) in predicting later adjustment in early placed adopted children, in diverse family contexts. PMID:23750525

  15. Gifted Parent Groups: The SENG Model. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Arlene R.; Webb, James T.

    2007-01-01

    This manual provides the essential information for persons wishing to conduct SENG Model parent support groups for parents of gifted children. Each week, parents in the group read a chapter of "A Parent's Guide to Gifted Children," and then discuss the concepts in the chapter, led by the group facilitator. Parents support one another in practicing…

  16. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... needed, evidence of the date of adoption; (b) If the widow or widower adopted the child after the insured... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and...

  17. Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the school selection considerations and school-related experiences of sexual-minority parents with young children. The sample consisted of 210 parents in 105 couples, including 35 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 40 heterosexual couples, all of whom had adopted a child three years earlier. We found that parents with less income were more likely to consider cost in choosing a preschool, and parents with less education were more likely to consider location. More educated parents tended to emphasize racial diversity and the presence of adoptive families, and, among sexual-minority parents, the presence of other lesbian/gay parents. Sexual-minority parents were more likely to consider racial diversity than heterosexual parents. In reporting on their experiences with schools, heterosexual parents were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their adoptive status than sexual-minority parents, and sexual-minority parents living in less gay-friendly communities were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their sexual orientation than sexual-minority parents living in more gay-friendly communities. Our findings have implications for early childhood educators and administrators seeking to create an inclusive learning community for all types of families. PMID:27110062

  18. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  19. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  20. Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparents but not with adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Euser, Eveline M; Prinzie, Peter; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2009-11-01

    Does child maltreatment occur more often in adoptive and stepfamilies than in biological families? Data were collected from all 17 Dutch child protective services (CPS) agencies on 13,538 cases of certified child maltreatment in 2005. Family composition of the maltreated children was compared to a large national representative sample of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS). Larger families, one-parent families, and families with a stepparent showed elevated risks for child maltreatment. Adoptive families, however, showed significantly less child maltreatment than expected. The findings are discussed in the context of parental investment theory that seems to be applicable to stepparents but not to adoptive parents. PMID:19657136

  1. Guia para Padres: Acceso a los Grupos de Padres (Accessing Parent Groups: A Parent's Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This guide, in Spanish, notes the value of parent groups for parents of children with disabilities, as they offer parents a place and a means to share information, give and receive emotional support, and work as a team to address common concerns. Typical activities of a parent group are listed, and ways of identifying parent groups that exist…

  2. 25 CFR 23.83 - Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child... biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption. Upon the request of a child placement... biological parents or prior Indian custodians of an adopted Indian child whose adoption has been...

  3. 25 CFR 23.83 - Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child... biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption. Upon the request of a child placement... biological parents or prior Indian custodians of an adopted Indian child whose adoption has been...

  4. 25 CFR 23.83 - Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child... biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption. Upon the request of a child placement... biological parents or prior Indian custodians of an adopted Indian child whose adoption has been...

  5. 25 CFR 23.83 - Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child... biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption. Upon the request of a child placement... biological parents or prior Indian custodians of an adopted Indian child whose adoption has been...

  6. 25 CFR 23.83 - Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in locating biological parents of Indian child... biological parents of Indian child after termination of adoption. Upon the request of a child placement... biological parents or prior Indian custodians of an adopted Indian child whose adoption has been...

  7. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  8. Child-Parent Relationship Therapy for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes-Holt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children may present with a wide range of disruptive behaviors making it difficult to implement holistic therapeutic interventions. The number of primary caregivers, disrupted placements, and repeated traumatic events contribute to the overall mental health of the adoptee and greater number of occurrences increases the risk of…

  9. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic influence, and very modest shared environmental influence. No gender differences were evident. There were significant genetic influences common to IQ and parental expectations of educational attainment, parenting and engagement in school, school grades and engagement in school, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment and school grades, and IQ and school grades. A possible interpretation of the common genetic influences involving parenting is that parents use their own experience with school in shaping the ways in which they parent their offspring. PMID:19081831

  10. Language Learning as Culture Keeping: Family Language Policies of Transnational Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…

  11. The Division of Labor in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual New Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Little research has investigated the division of child care and housework in adoptive or lesbian/gay parent families, yet these contexts "control for" family characteristics such as biological relatedness and parental gender differences known to be linked to family work. This study examined predictors (measured preadoption) of the division of…

  12. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  13. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  15. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children’s Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically-Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829

  16. Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348

  17. "A Space to Float with Someone": Recovering Play as a Field of Repair in Work with Parents of Late-Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on play as a social rather than a solitary domain. Play is a stage on which conflicts and wishes may be expressed to a responsive and containing other. As a group, late-adopted latency children show high levels of inhibition, regression and catastrophe in play, and adoptive parents may find this hard to engage…

  18. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  19. Parent-adolescent communication in foster, inter-country adoptive, and biological Italian families: Gender and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Rosnati, Rosa; Iafrate, Raffaella; Scabini, Eugenia

    2007-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies aimed at comparing how parents and children in different family structures cope with the challenges posed by the adolescence transition; in particular, there are few studies aimed at comparing adoptive and foster families. In order to partially fill this gap, the principal aims of the present study were to verify whether there are differences in parent-child communication among foster, intercountry adoptive, and biological families according to the adolescents' gender, and to compare the perceptions of parents and adolescents concerning parent-child communication. Data were elaborated on two levels: a generational level (adolescent's and his/her parents' perceptions among the three family groups) and a dyadic level (mother-child and father-child perceptions). The sample was composed of 276 Italian families with adolescents aged between 11 and 17 (81 foster, 98 international adoptive, and 97 biological families). Subjects (mothers, fathers, and children) filled out a questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1985 ). Results highlighted that in foster families, parent-child communication showed more difficulties from both the adolescent's and the parents' point of view. Adoptive adolescents, however, reported a more positive communication with both their parents than did their peers living in biological and foster families. At a dyadic level, some differences emerged among the three groups. In biological families, a more pronounced distance emerged between parents and children. In adoptive families, father and adolescent shared more similar perceptions, whereas a significant discrepancy emerged between mother and child. A higher level of perceptual congruence between adolescents and parents was found in foster families. Gender differences were also seen: Mothers experienced a more open communication with their children than did fathers, and adolescents, and above all females, communicated better

  20. An Ethnographic-Discursive Approach to Parental Self-Help Groups: The Case of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Mutual aid groups have become a common form of help in the mental health field. Although self-help groups are associated with a range of health and social benefits, they remain poorly understood in terms of the dynamics of their interactions. Adopting an ethnographic-discursive approach, we conducted a 6-month observation of the meetings of a self-help group of parents with children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to analyze the discursive dynamics of the interactions that characterized the group. Using a set of discursive strategies and practices, the parents promoted a homogeneity of viewpoints and experiences within the group and constructed a shared and consensual narrative to endorse a specific understanding of ADHD. The production of both homogeneity within the group and a shared narrative served to absolve parents of guilt, helped parents to signify their experience within a blaming social context, and preserved their identities as "good parents." PMID:25987584

  1. First Parent-Child Meetings in International Adoptions: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Radjack, Rahmeth; Sibeoni, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    International adoptions involve approximately 30000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from the analysis of the interviews were: the scene when the child is entrusted to the parents, the discovery of the child's body, and the first parent-child interaction. Within these three principal themes, several subthemes dealt with difficult experiences: moments of solitude and anxiety, shocking images of the children's living conditions, lack of preparation and of information about the child, poor health, parental reactions of rejection, worry about the child's body, aggressive reactions by the child, worry about the child's reactions, and contrast with the expected interaction. Thirty-two interviews included at least one of these subthemes. At the structural level of the discourse; the characteristics of 33 interviews are those described in the literature as significantly more frequent in traumatized than in non-traumatized subjects. These results raise questions about the consequences of difficult, possibly traumatic experiences, at the moment of meeting the child, and they underline the need for work on preparation and prevention before the parents leave on their journey. PMID:24086500

  2. Predictors of relationship dissolution in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi

    2015-06-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a noninfant (i.e., older child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, 3 months postadoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low or very high preadoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053348

  3. [Caregiver Stress in Foster and Adoptive Parents of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver Stress in Foster and Adoptive Parents of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Foster and adoptive parents of 71 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) report on developmental and behavioral characteristics, family stress, coping resources and their satisfaction with support. The data reveal an elevated rate of social and emotional problems in the children. In spite positive individual and social resources, the foster and adoptive parents feel a high level of caregiver stress. 30 % of them rate the support they receive from pediatric, therapeutic or educational services as lower than expected. Specifically, they miss early information on the diagnosis, professional knowledge and support for the special challenges of education and managing behavioral problems in their collaboration with social support agencies. PMID:25524036

  4. Educators and Parents Working Together to Develop Special Education Parent Support Groups. Statewide Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duganne, Mary Ann; And Others

    This handbook documents the ingredients necessary to create successful school-sponsored special education parent support groups. Common characteristics observed in parent groups are outlined, along with principles of effective group functioning, benefits accruing to parents, and benefits for school systems. Also discussed is the assistance offered…

  5. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  6. The Parenting Questionnaire: An Inventory for Assessing Outcomes of Adlerian Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Jeanne; Tollefson, Nona

    This study field tests and evaluates the Parenting Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess parental attitudes and behavior, based on the child-raising theories of Dreikurs and Dinkmeyer and the Adlerian model for parent study groups. Dreikurs and Adler stress the purposive nature of children's behavior or misbehavior, and teach parents to…

  7. Technical report: coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Ellen C

    2002-02-01

    A growing body of scientific literature demonstrates that children who grow up with 1 or 2 gay and/or lesbian parents fare as well in emotional, cognitive, social, and sexual functioning as do children whose parents are heterosexual. Children's optimal development seems to be influenced more by the nature of the relationships and interactions within the family unit than by the particular structural form it takes. PMID:11826220

  8. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  9. Educational Advocacy among Adoptive Parents of Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll Ann; Stodel, Emma J.; Fullarton, Stephanie; Hagglund, Karras

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the educational advocacy experiences of 36 adoptive parents of adolescents and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The participants responded to a questionnaire and 29 of them also engaged in an in-depth individual interview. Data were analysed inductively. Emerging from…

  10. Are Associations between Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment Genetically Mediated? An Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Caspi, Avshalom; DeFries, John C.; Plomin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from Colorado Adoption Project were used to examine hypothesis that association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors. Findings for psychopathology were consistent with an environmentally mediated explanation for the association. Findings for achievement and social adjustment were consistent with a…

  11. Community Attitudes toward Birth Fathers Motives for Adoption Placement and Single Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Community attitudes toward birth fathers were examined using 82 exploratory qualitative interviews and 706 survey respondents in Canada. Community attitudes were more positive toward birth fathers raising their children over adoption, when birth mothers were unable or unwilling to parent the child. Overall, respondents considered birth fathers…

  12. Parental Stress and Factors for Success in Older-Child Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Linda

    1986-01-01

    Argues that success in placing the emotionally disturbed older child depends less on the nature and extent of the child's psychopathology than an identifiable configuration of parental characteristics allowing successful adopters to incorporate the child without an intolerable level of family pain or chronic crisis. (Author)

  13. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  14. Parent Ratings of Executive Functioning in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that post-institutionalized (PI) children are particularly susceptible to attention problems and perform poorly on executive functioning (EF) lab tasks. Methods: Parent ratings of EF were examined in 288 school-age and 130 preschool-age children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that…

  15. Controversial attachments: the indirect treatment of fostered and adopted children via Parent Co-Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hart, A; Thomas, H

    2000-12-01

    Fostered and adopted children often show a large array of psychosocial problems and are conceptualized as having attachment disorders. It can be necessary to engage such children in direct mental health treatment, in addition to interventions set up to deal with their problems through agencies such as Education and Social Services. In order to protect children from a multitude of treating professionals, thereby potentially further weakening the emerging parental attachments, a model is proposed of indirect treatment of children, with the adoptive parents as co-therapists. This elevates the status of parents and is controversial in child mental health work as it challenges traditional hierarchies. We refer to this model, based on a single case study, as Parent Co-Therapy (PCT). It is proposed that this may be a suitable treatment model for fostered and adopted children, particularly in the early years of placement. The model has the potential to strengthen the children's attachments to the parents and vice versa, with a concomitant reduction in symptomatology. PMID:11708221

  16. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    PubMed

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  17. Group Parent Training Combined with Follow-Up Coaching for Parents of Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Lissman, Dana Cohen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between group training using an abbreviated version of the Incredible Years parent training with family coaching and positive parenting practices. Two at-­risk mothers and their young children with disabilities participated in the study. Both mothers were enrolled in a group parent training…

  18. Children Who Lose Their Parents to HIV/AIDS: Agency Guidelines for Adoptive and Kinship Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel-Holguin, Lisa

    Across the United States and world, children who lose their parents to HIV/AIDS are one of the fasted emerging groups affected by this epidemic. Increasingly, child welfare and family service agencies are helping infected parents to secure legal and permanent care arrangements for their children. These guidelines address the issues of placing…

  19. Sand Tray and Group Therapy: Helping Parents Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Linda; Martin, Don

    2002-01-01

    Sand tray with group therapy can be an effective treatment approach for parents coping with adolescent substance abuse and/or dependency. Excerpts of parent sand trays are presented to demonstrate pretreatment tasks that decrease denial, reduce reactive anger, stop enabling behaviors, and build support systems. Parent-child relational issues,…

  20. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  1. Separation and Relating in a Parent-Toddler Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navridi, Evanthia; Navridis, Klimis; Midgley, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Parent-toddler groups constitute a primary intervention programme whose target is to support and encourage the parent-toddler relationship. Toddlerhood is a developmental period when major, crucial changes take place regarding how children function, as well as their relationship to their parents (especially to their mother). The present paper…

  2. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  3. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness. PMID:24962269

  4. Contact Between Birth and Adoptive Families During the First Year Post-Placement: Perspectives of Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual orientation. Most reported some birth mother contact, most had legally finalized their adoption, and few described plans to withhold information from children. We discuss implications for clinical practice, policy, and research. PMID:26843808

  5. The description of gay and lesbian families in second-parent adoption cases.

    PubMed

    Connolly, C

    1998-01-01

    Lesbians and gay men are turning to the courts to recognize their family relationships. In this article every reported court decision where a lesbian or gay couple has successfully completed a second-parent adoption is reviewed to analyze the presentation and judicial analysis of the petitioning parties in conjunction with the current debates within family theory. Traditional family theorists argue that the contemporary family is in transition but will always be recognizable as the traditional family; postmodern theorists argue that the traditional "family" is a fiction. Results from this study indicate that judges in second-parent adoption cases rely on a traditional definition and vision of the family in evaluating the gay and lesbian petitioners before them. PMID:9658562

  6. The Benefits of Parenting Self-Help Groups for Rural Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wituk, Scott; Commer, Amy; Lindstrom, Julie; Meisen, Greg

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 118 rural, mostly female, Latino participants in Parents Helping Parents (PHP)--a Kansas network of parenting self-help groups--found high satisfaction with PHP. PHP provided support and information concerning child rearing and child development, improved family communication, and increased the use of alternative means of discipline.…

  7. A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

  8. Are Fathers Necessary in Parent Training Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Philip; And Others

    This report describes an attempt to implement a cost-effective social learning intervention program for home use in which behavior modification techniques were taught to parents of 12 conduct-problem children (ages between 3 and 11 years) by psychologists at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Mother and father and mothers-only treatment…

  9. Development and Validation of the "Attitudes toward Adoption Scale" and the "Gay and Lesbian Parents' Adoption Scale."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate newly developed measures of attitudes about adoption. The Attitudes toward Adoption Scale was developed, based on research literature, to investigate the attitudes of people with and without experience with adoption toward adoption. Eighty-six college students completed this scale and made open-ended comments…

  10. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11–13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families (N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation. PMID:27122960

  11. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  12. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  13. Group Treatment of Separated Parent and Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Leary, Joy D.; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.; Shibano, Matsujiro

    2005-01-01

    Effective child-behavior management is an important characteristic in facilitating positive parent and child interaction. The current study examines the impact of a behavioral parent-training group methodology on problem behaviors and goals for a single mother and two young boys. Results indicate that the procedures were valuable for enhancing…

  14. Group Work with Parents of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnari, Olga

    Topics include the role of the family in the development and growth of the mentally handicapped (MH) child, the psychological impact of the MH child on the family, parental attitudes, and the need for guidance and counseling of parents of MH children. Also of concern are the agency framework, the goals aimed at by the group guidance program, the…

  15. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. Results: The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Conclusions: Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles. PMID:27462627

  16. Open Groups: Adaptations in Implementing a Parent Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Donna-Jean P.; Marek, Lydia I.; Matteo-Kerney, Cheryl; Bagby, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Programs that focus on positive parenting have been shown to improve parental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, and increase parent and child bonding. These programs are typically conducted in a closed group for­mat. However, when individual or community needs are more immediate, programmers sometimes opt for an open group format. To determine the effectiveness of this adaptation to an open group format, the present study compared both groups on parental out­comes. Methods: Both closed and open group formats were offered and implemented between January 2009 and December 2012. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to determine demographic differences between the two groups and gain scores were calculated from the pre- and post-test AAPI-2 scales within a mixed MANOVA to determine group format effectiveness. Results: Though open groups contained higher risk families; parental outcome improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated the same statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. Conclusion: Findings provide support for adapting group formats when necessary to fit community and individual needs. PMID:24688972

  17. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. PMID:25373684

  18. Gender-Typed Play Behavior in Early Childhood: Adopted Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Smith, JuilAnna Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-typed play of young children varies as a function of family structure. Using a sample of 126 couples (44 lesbian couples, 34 gay male couples, and 48 heterosexual couples) located throughout the United States, with an adopted child between the age of 2 and 4 years old (mean = 2.5 years), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior utilizing the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993). Findings revealed that the perceived play behaviors of boys and girls in same-gender parent families were more similar (i.e., less gender-stereotyped) than the perceived play behavior of boys and girls in heterosexual-parent families (which were more divergent; that is, gender-stereotyped). Sons of lesbian mothers were less masculine in their play behavior than sons of gay fathers and sons of heterosexual parents. Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents. PMID:23420542

  19. Gender-Typed Play Behavior in Early Childhood: Adopted Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kashy, Deborah A; Smith, Juilanna Z

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether the gender-typed play of young children varies as a function of family structure. Using a sample of 126 couples (44 lesbian couples, 34 gay male couples, and 48 heterosexual couples) located throughout the United States, with an adopted child between the age of 2 and 4 years old (mean = 2.5 years), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior utilizing the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993). Findings revealed that the perceived play behaviors of boys and girls in same-gender parent families were more similar (i.e., less gender-stereotyped) than the perceived play behavior of boys and girls in heterosexual-parent families (which were more divergent; that is, gender-stereotyped). Sons of lesbian mothers were less masculine in their play behavior than sons of gay fathers and sons of heterosexual parents. Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents. PMID:23420542

  20. Microaggressions, Feelings of Difference, and Resilience Among Adopted Children with Sexual Minority Parents.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Crain, Emily E; Oakley, M K; Cashen, Krystal K; Garber, Karin J

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists about the unique experiences and possible marginalization of children with sexual minority parents. From a larger longitudinal project of diverse adoptive families, we examined cross-sectional data using mixed methods from interviews with 49 adopted children (M age = 8 years; 47% female) in 27 two-father and 22 two-mother families. Using thematic analysis, we coded themes of awareness of difference, microaggressions, and resilience (i.e., coping and positive family conceptualizations). Children experienced "feeling different" and microaggressions from peers, but generally at a low to medium intensity and with neutral (not negative) emotion. More instances of resilience and positive family conceptualizations were reported than microaggressions or feelings of difference, suggesting that children develop positive perceptions of their family and navigate experiences of difference with resilience. Filling important gaps in the literature, we discuss implications of our results for practice and policy. PMID:26374241

  1. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  2. HIV/AIDS Education Planning Kit for Parents and Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Parent Teacher Association, Wheat Ridge.

    In line with the National PTA's support of various health topics in the school curricula, the Colorado PTA and Colorado Department of Education formulated this educational booklet for parents and parent groups. Included is general information on the nature of HIV/AIDS and how it is transmitted. Current statistics on AIDS cases in Colorado and the…

  3. Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Child HPA Regulation: Independent and Moderated Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…

  4. Counseling Group Curriculum for Parents on Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanna, John; Shillingford, M. Ann; Parrish, Mary-Frances; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of bullying on K-12 students and the importance of collaborative partnerships between home and school in decreasing the dramatic effects of student bullying behaviors. The authors present a six-week, research-based, small group curriculum specifically developed for professional school counselors to support parents…

  5. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. AIM: To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus group discussions. SETTING: Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. METHODS: Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. RESULTS: All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and

  6. Parents' experiences of parental groups in Swedish child health-care: Do they get what they want?

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2016-03-01

    Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. PMID:25171811

  7. Parent, Community Groups Pressed to Fill K-12 Budget Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on how cash-strapped school districts turn to outside groups for help in paying for staff and academic essentials, prompting frustration from some. In states and school districts still struggling to recover from recession-induced funding cuts, parent and community groups are feeling the pressure to raise money for instructional…

  8. Organizing Parent Discussion Groups in Preschools (A How To Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousey, Carol G.

    This series of discussion sessions and suggestions for further reading, was designed to serve as a guide for discussion groups made up of parents of preschool children. The first chapter discusses the organization of groups, leaders' qualifications, the general format of sessions, recordkeeping, and suggestions for the first and final sessions.…

  9. Food parenting measurement issues: working group consensus report.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Frankel, Leslie A; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on childhood obesity. Six subgroups were formed to address key measurement issues. The conceptualization subgroup proposed to define and distinguish constructs of general parenting styles, feeding styles, and food parenting practices with the goal of understanding interrelating levels of parental influence on child eating behaviors. The observational subgroup identified the need to map constructs for use in coding direct observations and create observational measures that can capture the bidirectional effects of parent-child interactions. The self-regulation subgroup proposed an operational definition of child self-regulation of energy intake and suggested future measures of self-regulation across different stages of development. The translational/community involvement subgroup proposed the involvement of community in the development of surveys so that measures adequately reflect cultural understanding and practices of the community. The qualitative methods subgroup proposed qualitative methods as a way to better understand the breadth of food parenting practices and motivations for the use of such practices. The longitudinal subgroup stressed the importance of food parenting measures sensitive to change for use in longitudinal studies. In the creation of new measures, it is important to consider cultural sensitivity and context-specific food parenting domains. Moderating variables such as child temperament and child food preferences should be considered in models. PMID:23944928

  10. Influence of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Toddler Behaviors: An Emerging Developmental Cascade of Genetic and Environmental Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, Caroline K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers’ behavior problems through the longitudinal and multi-generational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9-months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways. PMID:20883583

  11. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households. PMID:23039344

  12. Behavior problems and group-based parent education programs.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J; Stewart-Brown, S

    2000-10-01

    Behavior problems in children are an important social, educational, and health issue. The prevalence of these problems, their stability over time, their poor prognosis, and their costs to both individuals and the society, all point to the need for primary prevention and early effective interventions. A systematic review examined the effectiveness of group parent education programs that aimed to improve behavior problems in 3- to 10-year-old children. The phrase "parent education program" is used here to refer to group-based programs with a standardized format aimed at enhancing parenting skills. The term "behavior problems" is used to refer to children exhibiting externalizing problems such as temper tantrums, aggression, and noncompliance. It does not include children diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This review focused explicitly on measures of child behavioral outcomes, which are only small, albeit important, outcomes of parent education programs. Reviews focusing on other clinically relevant outcomes are also needed, including parental well-being and attitudes towards parenting. Other reviews are also needed to collate evidence concerning the effectiveness of parent education programs with other age-groups, i.e., preschoolers and adolescents, and in improving other aspects of child well-being. The review included published studies only and as such may have been influenced by a "publication bias." Inclusion criteria comprised the use of a waiting list, a no-treatment or placebo control group, and at least one standardized measure assessing the child's behavior. Only studies published after 1970 that included at least one "group-based" parent education program were included. A total of 255 primary studies were identified, but only 16 of these and 2 follow-up studies met all of the specified inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal of these 16 studies revealed considerable heterogeneity in the interventions, the populations studied, and

  13. Food Parenting Measurement Issues: Working Group Consensus Report

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on childhood obesity. Six subgroups were formed to address key measurement issues. The conceptualization subgroup proposed to define and distinguish constructs of general parenting styles, feeding styles, and food parenting practices with the goal of understanding interrelating levels of parental influence on child eating behaviors. The observational subgroup identified the need to map constructs for use in coding direct observations and create observational measures that can capture the bidirectional effects of parent–child interactions. The self-regulation subgroup proposed an operational definition of child self-regulation of energy intake and suggested future measures of self-regulation across different stages of development. The translational/community involvement subgroup proposed the involvement of community in the development of surveys so that measures adequately reflect cultural understanding and practices of the community. The qualitative methods subgroup proposed qualitative methods as a way to better understand the breadth of food parenting practices and motivations for the use of such practices. The longitudinal subgroup stressed the importance of food parenting measures sensitive to change for use in longitudinal studies. In the creation of new measures, it is important to consider cultural sensitivity and context-specific food parenting domains. Moderating variables such as child temperament and child food preferences should be considered in models

  14. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption. PMID:16154473

  15. The Impact of Previous Type of Abuse and Sibling Adoption upon Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-two parents of adopted children with histories of abuse or neglect were interviewed. Parents of children with histories of physical and sexual abuse reported lower family functioning than parents of children with histories of neglect. Also, parents who adopted sibling groups reported fewer child externalizing behavior problems but lower…

  16. Individual and group based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Bennett, Cathy; Huband, Nick; Jones, Hannah; Coren, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenting programmes are a potentially important means of supporting teenage parents and improving outcomes for their children, and parenting support is a priority across most Western countries. This review updates the previous version published in 2001. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and developmental outcomes in their children. Search methods We searched to find new studies for this updated review in January 2008 and May 2010 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, CINAHL, DARE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Citation Index. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in May 2005 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database in May 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials assessing short-term parenting interventions aimed specifically at teenage parents and a control group (no-treatment, waiting list or treatment-as-usual). Data collection and analysis We assessed the risk of bias in each study. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. Main results We included eight studies with 513 participants, providing a total of 47 comparisons of outcome between intervention and control conditions. Nineteen comparisons were statistically significant, all favouring the intervention group. We conducted nine meta-analyses using data from four studies in total (each meta-analysis included data from two studies). Four meta-analyses showed statistically significant findings favouring the intervention group for the following outcomes: parent responsiveness to the child post-intervention (SMD −0.91, 95% CI −1.52 to −0.30, P = 0.04); infant responsiveness to mother at follow-up (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.25 to −0.06, P = 0.03); and an overall measure of parent

  17. Compositions of group IVB iron meteorites and their parent melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Andrew J.; Humayun, Munir

    2005-10-01

    The concentrations of P, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in the group IVB iron meteorites Cape of Good Hope, Hoba, Skookum, Santa Clara, Tawallah Valley, Tlacotepec, and Warburton Range have been measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data were fitted to a model of fractional crystallization of the IVB parent body core, from which the composition of the parent melt and metal/melt distribution coefficients for each element in the system were determined, for a chosen value of D(Ni). Relative to Ni and chondritic abundances, the parent melt was enriched in refractory siderophiles, with greatest enrichment of 5× chondritic in the most refractory elements, and was strongly volatile-depleted, down to 0.00014× chondritic in Ge. Comparison to an equilibrium condensation sequence from a gas of solar composition indicates that no single temperature satisfactorily explains the volatility trend in the IVB parent melt; a small (<1%) complement of ultrarefractory components added to metal that is volatile-depleted but otherwise has nearly chondritic abundances (for Fe, Co and Ni) best explains the volatility trend. In addition to this volatility processing, which probably occurred in a nebular setting, there was substantial oxidation of the metal in the IVB parent body, leading to loss of Fe and other moderately siderophile elements such as Cr, Ga, and W, and producing the high Ni contents that are observed in the IVB irons. By assuming that the entire IVB parent body underwent a similar chemical history as its core, the composition of the silicate that is complementary to the IVB parent melt was also estimated, and appears to be similar to that of the angrite parent.

  18. What are parents' perspectives on psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Carraro, Valter; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most developed countries do not have compulsory immunisation requirements, but instead issue recommendations. Although parents are expected to make an informed, autonomous (ie, empowered) decision regarding their children's vaccinations, there is no evidence about how parents' interpret this demand nor on the latitude of their decision-making. The goal of this study is to gain insights from parents residing in a low measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) uptake area on what constitutes feelings of empowerment in the decision they have to make on their child's MMR vaccination. Design A qualitative study employing focus group interviews. Setting 11 vaccination centres and hospitals in the Province of Trento, Italy. Participants 24 mothers and 4 fathers of children for whom the MMR vaccination decision was still pending participated in 6 focus groups. Results Autonomy and competence were salient themes in relation to empowerment, and were further connected with beliefs regarding legal responsibility and ethics of freedom concerning the decision, parents' relationship with the paediatrician (trust), feelings of relevance of the decision and related stress, and seeking, avoidance, or fear of vaccination-related information. Competence was interpreted as medical knowledge and information-seeking skills, but it was also related to the extent parents perceived the paediatrician to be competent. Conclusions Since parents' interpretation of empowerment goes beyond mere perceptions of being informed and autonomous and differs across individuals, it is important that this construct be correctly interpreted and implemented by best practice, for instance by explicitly adopting a relational conception of autonomy. Knowing whether parents want to make an empowered decision and what their information and autonomy needs are might help health professionals adapt their communication about immunisation, and promote parental perception of making an informed, autonomous decision. PMID

  19. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  20. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  1. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at 29 CFR 1630.2(h), (i), and (j), issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption, foster care, son or daughter on active duty or call to...

  2. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at 29 CFR 1630.2(h), (i), and (j), issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption, foster care, son or daughter on active duty or call to...

  3. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at 29 CFR 1630.2(h), (i), and (j), issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption, foster care, son or daughter on active duty or call to...

  4. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child…

  5. The Impact of Gestalt Group Psychotherapy on Parents' Perceptions of Children Identified as Problematic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Linda F.

    Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…

  6. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  7. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  8. Adopting and Advocating for the Special Needs Child: A Guide for Parents and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, L. Anne; Laws, Rita

    A 1980 federal law made adopting and raising special needs children affordable even for persons with limited means. However, many prospective adopters never complete the adoption process because of red tape, regulations, and institutional lethargy; among the adults who complete a home study or placement, lack of support services and advocacy…

  9. A model parent group for enhancing aggressive children's social competence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hui

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a semi-structured psychoeducational model of group work for parents of aggressive children based on concepts of co-parenting and bidirectionality. The group was developed for enhancing five Taiwanese aggressive children's social competence by promoting positive interactions within family. Topics covered in the group included identifying parenting styles, forming parental alliances, fostering parent-child mutual initiations/mutual compliances, establishing parent-child co-regulation, and responding to aggressive children's negative emotions. Pre- and post-group comparisons suggested the effectiveness of the group model. PMID:19548787

  10. Transracially adoptive parents' color-blind attitudes and views toward socialization: Cross-racial friendships as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Langrehr, Kimberly J

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating role of transracially adoptive parents' cross-racial friendships in the relationship between their color-blind attitudes and views toward cultural and racial socialization. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and the Johnson-Neyman technique, it was hypothesized that parents' color-blind attitudes would significantly account for 3 different dimensions of socialization beliefs (i.e., prejudice awareness, ethnic pride, and egalitarian socialization) and that self-reported cross-racial friendships would moderate the effects of color-blind attitudes. Results suggest that having several cross-racial friendships minimized the effects of participants' color-blind attitudes on their ethnic pride and egalitarian socialization beliefs, whereas having few cross-racial friendships enhanced the effects of color-blind attitudes on both socialization variables. The importance of transracially adoptive families creating diverse and multiracial social networks is discussed. PMID:25111542

  11. Reducing preschoolers' disruptive behavior in public with a brief parent discussion group.

    PubMed

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of problem child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles and parents' confidence in the parenting role. No group differences were found for parental adjustment or conflict over parenting. Intervention gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Results are discussed within a primary care and public health framework. PMID:19633952

  12. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  13. 20 CFR 219.39 - Evidence of relationship by legal adoption-parent or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... child after the employee's death, the evidence described in paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section; the...-parent or child. 219.39 Section 219.39 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... of relationship by legal adoption—parent or child. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence...

  14. Coming out of the closet: opening agencies to gay and lesbian adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Scott D; Pearlmutter, Sue; Groza, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Gay men and lesbians often encounter barriers when they pursue adoption. Adoption workers are expected to make decisions regarding child placement using the best interest standard. However, this decision-making model does not adequately consider intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that affect the use of the standard. This article examines the best interest standard and makes practice recommendations to increase the accessibility of adoptions for gay and lesbian applicants. PMID:14964521

  15. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  16. Group management of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: feasibility and impact on adoption.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Shannon; Bowe, Thomas; Harris, Alex H S

    2013-01-01

    One of the barriers to initiating patients on medications for alcohol dependence is concern about the work involved in providing ongoing medication management. In this brief report, we describe our initial experiences with a medication management group, initially implemented to provide continued access during a staffing shortage. We describe the group structure and functioning, and provide initial analysis of the groups' impact on access and adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results of an interrupted time series analysis in one Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility provide support for the notion that the group format is not only feasible but can actually increase access to these under-utilized medications (e.g., naltrexone and acamprosate). The number of patients receiving these medications was already increasing in this facility before the switch to group appointments, but this rate of initiation increased almost 3-fold after the onset of the groups. PMID:23932227

  17. Logging On: Evaluating an Online Support Group for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Tessen; Minnes, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Twenty mothers participated in an online support group for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Twenty-five unrelated parents participated in a no-treatment control group. The participants completed online questionnaires prior to and following the 4-month support group, to evaluate changes in mood, anxiety, parenting stress, and…

  18. School-Based Mutual Support Groups for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Jane M.

    Parental involvement in schooling has been shown to bolster student performance. However, eliciting parents' participation in their children's schooling has proven to be an elusive task, particularly among parents from lower socio-economic and ethnic minority backgrounds. To encourage parent involvement in the school setting, an intervention that…

  19. Coming out of the Closet: Opening Agencies to Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Scott D.; Pearlmutter, Sue; Groza, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Gay men and lesbians often encounter barriers when they pursue adoption. Adoption workers are expected to make decisions regarding child placement using the best interest standard. However, this decision-making model does not adequately consider intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that affect the use of the standard. This…

  20. Effectiveness of a Multiple Family Group Intervention for Juvenile First Offenders in Reducing Parent Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Christopher Les; Horne, Arthur M.; Davidson, Bernard; Quinn, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Parenting practices are major influences on incidents of juvenile delinquency. Stress experienced by parents of children with behavioral problems is a leading contributor to parenting practices. We investigated the extent to which parental stress was reduced by participation in an established multiple group family intervention, the Family…

  1. 20 CFR 219.39 - Evidence of relationship by legal adoption-parent or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from another person or organization; and if the widow or widower had a deemed valid marriage with the employee, evidence of that marriage (see § 219.33). (b) Other evidence of legal adoption. In some...

  2. 20 CFR 219.39 - Evidence of relationship by legal adoption-parent or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from another person or organization; and if the widow or widower had a deemed valid marriage with the employee, evidence of that marriage (see § 219.33). (b) Other evidence of legal adoption. In some...

  3. 20 CFR 219.39 - Evidence of relationship by legal adoption-parent or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from another person or organization; and if the widow or widower had a deemed valid marriage with the employee, evidence of that marriage (see § 219.33). (b) Other evidence of legal adoption. In some...

  4. User involvement: children's participation in a parent-baby group.

    PubMed

    Maconochie, Heloise; McNeill, Fiona

    2010-08-01

    According to the National Service Framework, children have a right to participate in the development of healthcare services and yet research suggests that young children are at risk of exclusion from user involvement initiatives. This paper outlines the findings of a participatory action research project conducted with families attending a health visitors' parent-baby group. A combination of participatory research methods were used to ascertain the infants' perspectives of the service and this led to a number of changes in terms of professional attitudes, service provision and working practices. Changes in professional attitudes included acknowledging the importance of social interaction to the children, recognising young children's views as embodied and produced within social interactions, and respecting children as active contributors and not simply as passive recipients of healthcare services. Changes in service provision resulted in redistributing resources, structures and spaces to take account of children's perspectives. Finally, reciprocity and responsiveness were seen as key components in enhancing young children's participation. PMID:20722326

  5. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  6. The Effects of a Humanistic-Relational Parent Education Group on Neurologically Impaired Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Harley V. Fine, Marvin

    1978-01-01

    The article focuses on a humanistic-relational model for parent education groups in families with neurologically impaired children. The author presents the case for educating parents, stating the need which exists for trained personnel to work with impaired children, and the need to educate the whole family unit to effect change with the child.…

  7. Effects of Group Parent-Training with Online Parent-Teacher Communication on the Homework Performance of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Homework Improvement Program, a 5-week group-formatted parent training program, in enhancing the homework performance of children experiencing homework difficulties. The study was conducted in an elementary school with a sample consisting of the parents of seven students (N = 7)…

  8. Group Action Planning As a Support Strategy for Hispanic Families: Parent and Professional Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue-Banning, Martha J.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-eight Hispanic parents of children (ages 6-26) with developmental disabilities and 22 professionals participated in focus group interviews on group action planning. Both constituency groups identified advantages and disadvantages to group action planning. Parents indicated this type of planning process could increased the quality and…

  9. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  10. Goal Setting during Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences: A Comparison of Three Groups of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication and partnerships are important in children's early years. This study compared goal setting, conducted in English, during Head Start parent-teacher conferences with native Spanish speaking, Latino bilingual, and native English speaking parents and their children's teachers. To understand conference…

  11. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with…

  12. Increases in Parent Attendance to Behavioral Parent Training Due to Concurrent Child Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Scott A.; Grimes, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Though behavioral parent training has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for child behavior problems, it continues to suffer from high attrition rates. Few variables have been found to predict or decrease high attrition rates from parent training classes. The present study found 43-52% increases in attendance rates for parents whose…

  13. Supporting Students with Incarcerated Parents in Schools: A Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Caroline; Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2007-01-01

    Although it is clear that parental incarceration has adverse effects on children, there is limited information about effective services for helping this population. With an increase in the number of parents of minor children in jail, there is a need for schools to assist affected students in a structured and comprehensive manner. The purpose of…

  14. Food parenting measurement issues: Working group consensus report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those cons...

  15. Learning from the Experts: A Thematic Analysis of Parent's Experiences of Attending a Therapeutic Group for Parents of Children with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June

    2016-01-01

    The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…

  16. Support Group for Parents Coping with Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    PATE, Tanja; RUTAR, Miha; BATTELINO, Tadej; DROBNIČ RADOBULJAC, Maja; BRATINA, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. Active parental involvement, parental support in the diabetes management and family functioning are associated with optimal diabetes management and glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to assess parental satisfaction with participation in the group and their perceptions of the impact of the intervention on living and coping with childrens T1D. Methods A sample of 34 parents of children with T1D participated in this trend study. The participants’ experience and satisfaction with support group was measured by a self- evaluation questionnaire, designed for the purpose of the present study. Results Quantitative data show that parents were overall satisfied with almost all measured items of the evaluation questionnaire (wellbeing in the group, feeling secure, experiencing new things, being able to talk and feeling being heard) during the 4-year period. However, parents from the second and third season, on average, found that the support group has better fulfilled their expectations than the parents from the first season (p = 0,010). The qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses to the open-ended questions was underpinned by four themes: support when confronting the diagnosis, transformation of the family dynamics, me as a parent, exchange of experience and good practice and facing the world outside the family. Discussion The presented parent support group showed to be a promising supportive, therapeutic and psychoeducative space where parents could strengthen their role in the upbringing of their child with T1D.

  17. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  18. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    PubMed

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. PMID:25746170

  19. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  20. Reliability of the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Scale across Gender and Parent Status Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Debra A.; Anderson, Donnah L.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotional and social competence are critical to a child's current and future well-being. A. D. Paterson et al. (2012) studied a sample of mothers and proposed that an adult's approach to the socialization of a child's emotions can be summarized in his or her parenting style as measured by the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles…

  1. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study with 125 early adopted adolescents, we examined continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence and the role of parental sensitive support in explaining continuity or discontinuity of attachment. Assessments of maternal sensitive support and infant attachment (Strange Situation Procedure) were completed when infants were 12 months old. When the children were 14 years old, we observed mothers' sensitive support during a conflict discussion. The adolescents' attachment representations were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Mothers of secure adolescents showed significantly more sensitive support during conflicts than did mothers of insecure adolescents. Overall, no continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence was found. However, maternal sensitive support in early childhood and adolescence predicted continuity of secure attachment from 1 to 14 years, whereas less maternal sensitive support in early childhood but more maternal sensitive support in adolescence predicted children's change from insecurity in infancy to security in adolescence. We conclude that both early and later parental sensitive support are important for continuity of attachment across the first 14 years of life. PMID:22369333

  2. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. PMID:27269493

  3. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  4. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  5. Padres Maltratadores: Grupos de Autoayuda (Abusive Parents: Self-Help Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intebi, Irene V.; Groisman, Adriana E.

    1991-01-01

    Causes of child abuse by parents are discussed. A therapy program in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for abusive parents is described. The program utilizes self-help groups as part of the therapeutic plan and has found them to be promising. Referral, types of interactions with the groups, and short-, medium-, and long-term objectives are discussed. (BRM)

  6. School-Based Mutual Support Groups (For Parents, Staff, Older Students). A Technical Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Jane, Comp.

    Mutual support groups in schools can be developed as part of strategies to provide assistance for parents or other family members, students, or school staff. These groups can also be used to provide support for newcomers and others in periods of transition. This technical aid packet describes the process as used with parents, but the procedures…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Psychoeducational Groups for Preschoolers and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Teaching parents and their young children about ways to avoid harm can be accomplished with much success in a group setting. Parents as Teachers of Safety (PaTS) is a multi-family educational group which instructs families on environmental and personal body safety rules, with an emphasis on improving knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse…

  8. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  9. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Parents and Children At-Risk for Physical Abuse: An Initial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…

  10. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  11. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  12. Basic Training: A Determined Group of Parents Fight for a Traditional School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudell, Lee Sherman

    1997-01-01

    After Deer Valley School District (Arizona) adopted a whole-language, discovery-based curriculum, parents who believed in a traditional "basics" curriculum established Valley Academy, a charter K-9 school serving 455 students. After struggling through administrative and financial problems, bad publicity, and interpersonal conflict, the principal…

  13. Group Parent Training with Immigrant Chinese Families: Enhancing Engagement and Augmenting Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Yung, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    Parent training (PT) is a well supported treatment for reducing and preventing child conduct problems and abusive parenting. However, questions have been raised about the dissemination of PT to culturally diverse families who hold different views on childrearing and family structure. This article describes the application of group PT in two Chinese immigrant families to illustrate dual strategies for addressing potential cultural barriers. The Incredible Years program builds in many therapeutic process elements to address cultural concerns about PT skills to enhance parental engagement. In addition, augmenting basic PT with additional skills training can help parents manage stressors common in immigrant families in order to facilitate uptake of new parenting skills. Our implementation experience suggests that high risk immigrant Chinese parents can be effectively engaged in group PT even when they are not in treatment voluntarily. PMID:20564684

  14. Case Study of Implementation of Flexible Grouping in One School Framed within the Change Based Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaydon, Donda

    2013-01-01

    This case study was designed to investigate the implementation of flexible grouping at one elementary school framed within the Change Based Adoption Model. Using interviews and observations, data were compiled to answer research questions related to the steps taken to implement flexible grouping, challenges faced, overall effects of flexible…

  15. Effect of Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy on Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Izadi- Mazidi, Maryam; Riahi, Frough; Khajeddin, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the various problems of children with autism, their families and especially their mothers become exposed to stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavior group therapy on parenting stress of mothers of children with autism. Materials and Methods: The sample of this research consisted of sixteen mothers of children with autism. The measurement tools were the Abidin Parenting Stress questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. The samples participated in seven sessions of cognitive behavior group therapy. The data were analyzed using the repeated measures test. Results: The findings indicated significant differences between scores of pretest and posttest considering parenting stress (P = 0.03) and subscales of parenting distress (P = 0.01), yet there weren’t significant differences in the other subscales (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Cognitive behavior group therapy could be an important part of interventions used to decrease parenting stress of mothers of children with autism. PMID:26576170

  16. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  17. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  18. School-Based Mutual Support Groups for Low-Income Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Jane M.; Adelman, Howard S.

    1993-01-01

    School-based mutual support groups (MSGs) are proposed to enhance school involvement of parents from lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds. A school-based MSG format is presented with results of a survey of interests from 62 parents (36 respondents and 26 nonrespondents) and a discussion of a pilot demonstration in 3 urban elementary…

  19. School-Based Mutual Support Groups for Parents: An Intervention Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Jane M.

    This handbook focuses on steps and tasks related to establishing mutual support groups for parents in a school setting. A sequential approach is described that involves: working within the school to get started; recruiting members; training parents how to run their own meetings; and offering off-site consultation as requested. The first section…

  20. Immediate and Short-Term Outcomes of the "COPEing with Toddler Behaviour" Parent Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Background: Controlling, uninvolved, and rejecting parenting in early childhood are strong predictors of later disruptive behavior disorders. However, there have been no evaluations of non-targeted groups for parents of very young children, despite their potential advantages. Methods: We randomly assigned 79 mothers of 12- to 36-month-olds to an…

  1. Pivotal Response Group Treatment Program for Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minjarez, Mendy Boettcher; Williams, Sharon E.; Mercier, Emma M.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders is increasing, necessitating the development of efficient treatment models. Research has demonstrated that parent-delivered behavioral interventions are a viable treatment model; however, little research has focused on teaching parents in groups. The aim of this study was to…

  2. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  3. A therapeutic group for parents of transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Edgardo J; Rodnan, Leslie A

    2011-10-01

    Therapy for transgender, transsexual, and gender variant persons has traditionally assisted individuals in the process of adjusting to their newly adopted gender role. Increasingly, younger gender variant patients,teens and preteens, present to the clinical consultation raising the need to develop therapeutic interventions that better address the psychosocial needs of minors. The Gender and Sexuality Development Program at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington,DC (http://www.childrensnational.org/gendervariance), provides outpatient psychosocial evaluations and therapeutic services for children,adolescents, and their families. PMID:22051009

  4. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  5. Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N = 83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N = 24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to

  6. Who Participates in Support Groups for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? The Role of Beliefs and Coping Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Tessen; Minnes, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    One hundred forty-nine parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) completed online questionnaires measuring their beliefs about support groups and ASD, coping style, social support, mood, and use of support groups. Those currently using parent support groups (PSGs) reported using more adaptive coping strategies than both parents who…

  7. Who Joins Support Groups among Parents of Children with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Salzer, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with support group participation among families of children with autism. A survey was administered to 1005 caregivers of children with autism in Pennsylvania. Two-thirds of respondents (66.4%) had ever participated in an autism-specific support group. In adjusted analyses, demographic characteristics,…

  8. The Role of Parenting in the Prediction of Criminal Involvement: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Youth and a Sample of Adopted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Schwartz, Joseph A.; Connolly, Eric J.; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar

    2015-01-01

    The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological…

  9. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  10. A Place Called HOPE: Group Psychotherapy for Adolescents of Parents with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Marianne; Crandles, Sheila; Williams, Gillian; Swain, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes Project HOPE (New York), a psycho-social support program for noninfected children of HIV-positive parents, including the challenges of starting and implementing the program's psychotherapy group for grieving adolescents and clinical examples of group process and effective interventions in group leadership. Explicates the four stages in…

  11. Conceptual Understanding of Screen Media Parenting: Report of a Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Hingle, Melanie; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Gorely, Trish; Hinkley, Trina; Jago, Russell; Lanigan, Jane; Pearson, Natalie; Thompson, Darcy A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activity contexts, however few measures are available to assess parenting practices regarding children's screen media use. A working group of screen media and parenting researchers convened at the preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) annual meeting, “Parenting Measurement: Current Status and Consensus Reports,” to identify and prioritize issues in assessing screen media parenting practices. The group identified that screen media use can pose different risks for children, depending on their age and developmental stage, across physiologic, psychosocial, and development outcomes. With that in mind, a conceptual framework of how parents may influence their child's screen-viewing behaviors was proposed to include the screen media content, context of viewing, and amount viewed. A research agenda was proposed to prioritize a validation of the framework and enhance the ability of researchers to best assess parenting influences across the three domains of content, context and amount of children's screen media use. PMID:23944919

  12. Conceptual understanding of screen media parenting: report of a working group.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Hingle, Melanie; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Gorely, Trish; Hinkley, Trina; Jago, Russell; Lanigan, Jane; Pearson, Natalie; Thompson, Darcy A

    2013-08-01

    Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activity contexts, however few measures are available to assess parenting practices regarding children's screen media use. A working group of screen media and parenting researchers convened at the preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) annual meeting, "Parenting Measurement: Current Status and Consensus Reports," to identify and prioritize issues in assessing screen media parenting practices. The group identified that screen media use can pose different risks for children, depending on their age and developmental stage, across physiologic, psychosocial, and development outcomes. With that in mind, a conceptual framework of how parents may influence their child's screen-viewing behaviors was proposed to include the screen media content, context of viewing, and amount viewed. A research agenda was proposed to prioritize a validation of the framework and enhance the ability of researchers to best assess parenting influences across the three domains of content, context and amount of children's screen media use. PMID:23944919

  13. Identifying Characteristics in Low SES and Bicultural Parent Groups That Enhance Their Capacity to Enact Successful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between bicultural parents, low socio-economic parents and the public school system is made tenuous in large part by cultural disparities between school officials and parents. The greater the disparity, the more likely parent groups are to be silenced and the more likely they are to refrain from the role of change agents or…

  14. The role of parenting in the prediction of criminal involvement: findings from a nationally representative sample of youth and a sample of adopted youth.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar

    2015-03-01

    The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological limitations-mainly genetic confounding-of the parental socialization literature. The current study addressed this limitation by analyzing a sample of adoptees to assess the association between 8 parenting measures and 4 criminal justice outcome measures. The results revealed very little evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal behavior before controlling for genetic confounding and no evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal involvement after controlling for genetic confounding. PMID:25602937

  15. Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Darcy D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy intervention on premature infants' and full term infants' developmental responses and parents' responsiveness. Subjects (n=56) were parent-infant dyads who attended developmental music groups or a control condition assessing responsiveness during toy play. All subjects were matched according to developmental age and were also matched by group for socioeconomic status and for maternal depression. Types of infant play and parent responsiveness were measured using observation of a standardized toy play for parent-infant dyads. Observations were coded with the number of seconds spent in each behavior using the SCRIBE observation program. Parents completed a questionnaire on the perception of their infant's general development, interpretations of their child's needs, the purpose of using music with their child, and their child's response to music. The infants attending the developmental music groups with their parents demonstrated significantly more social toy play (p < .05) during the standardized parent-infant toy play than infants who did not attend the music groups. While not significant, graphic analysis of parent responsiveness showed parents who attended the developmental music groups engaged in more positive and less negative play behaviors with their infants than parents who did not attend the music groups. This study demonstrates the first findings of positive effects of developmental music groups on social behaviors for both premature and full term infants under 2 years old. PMID:19256731

  16. Predictors of bereaved parents' satisfaction with group support: an Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Geron, Yael; Ginzburg, Karni; Solomon, Zahava

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluates various aspects of group work with bereaved parents who lost a child during military service. More specifically, it assesses the unique and cumulative contributions of various features of group work to the participants' satisfaction with the group support. One hundred and thirty-eight bereaved parents, who participated in 16 support groups, answered a battery of questionnaires tapping 3 aspects of the group work: their motives for joining the group, the interpersonal relations among the group members, and the group leadership style. In addition, the participants were asked to evaluate the contribution of the intervention to their adjustment. The findings indicate that the supportive elements of the intervention were associated with the groups' perceived contribution. The clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:12793450

  17. Online Group Course for Parents With Mental Illness: Development and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Paula AM; Arntz, Karlijn SE; Onrust, Simone A

    2010-01-01

    Background Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children’s well-being by strengthening children’s protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. Objective This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. Method The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen’s d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. Results The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P < .01) and on the OOO Feelings of Incompetence and Competence subscales (P < .01) in analysis

  18. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n = 60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory. PMID:24341406

  19. Parents' conceptualization of adolescents' mental health problems: who adopts a psychiatric perspective and does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2011-02-01

    How parents give meaning to the problems of adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders and receiving treatment is likely related to important outcomes including parental well-being and commitment to treatment, as well as their own behaviors and reactions to their child. The aim of this cross-sectional, mixed-method study of 70 parents of adolescents receiving wraparound mental health services is to examine: (1) how parents conceptualize their child's MH problems; (2) factors related to parents' conceptualization of youths' problems using medical model terms; and (3) associations between parents' problem conceptualization and their emotional or coping responses to their child having psychiatric problem(s). Content analysis indicated that 54.3% of parents definitively conceptualized adolescents' problems using psychiatric terms, 37.1% reported uncertainty about the nature of their child's problems, and 8.6% gave alternative, non-psychiatric explanations for their child's problems. We found significant relationships between parents' problem conceptualization and their attitudes and experience with MH treatment, demographics, as well as with adolescents' clinical characteristics. Parents who conceptualized problems using psychiatric terminology were more likely to express sadness and pessimism relative to other parents, though there were no differences in expressions of worry, guilt, pragmatism and optimism by problem conceptualization. PMID:19847647

  20. [Cognitive level and behaviour in nutritional health education in a group of parents].

    PubMed

    Indrei, L L; Cărăuşu, Mihaela Elena; Mihăilă, C B; Foia, Iolanda

    2002-01-01

    In the last years, the education for health developed itself rapidly, due to the close relationship between scientific development and social life dynamics. The relation between the cognitive level, behaviour and nutrition was assessed in a group of parents with children 9 to 12 years of age. The majority of the parents, and also of children, have an adequate cognitive level, knowing very well the basic principles of a sanogenic diet. Many parents give as their information source the mass-media, and especially the television, the education for nutritional health must be reconsidered, in order to have a greater impact in preserving the health status of the individual. PMID:14974231

  1. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Mucchetti, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468–478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5–8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84–96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

  2. Evaluating a Psychoeducational, Therapeutic Group for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleese, Aisling; Lavery, Christine; Dyer, Kevin F. W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to review and evaluate a three-session psychoeducational and psychotherapeutic group programme for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The group programme was facilitated through an ASD diagnostic and intervention service within a Northern Ireland Health and Social Care Trust over a 12-month period,…

  3. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Robine; van Empelen, Pepijn; Vogel, Ineke; Raat, Hein; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Korfage, Ida J

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch parents and 1 group of only Turkish parents. Discussions followed a semi-structured question route. Results showed that some parents used an approach of systematically seeking information as a way to prepare a decision, whereas others merely relied on trust in the message source. In general, parents believed that it was important to protect their child against negative outcomes that could result from vaccinating or not, and they felt that it is their responsibility to decide about uptake. Perceived susceptibility, vaccine effectiveness, and possibility of serious side effects were most important in the HPV vaccination decision-making process. In conclusion, parents perceived a lack of information and felt insecure about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness. This may result in ambivalent feelings toward HPV vaccination, which, in turn, may lead to postponing decisions about uptake. To facilitate informed decision making, which requires central processing, personally relevant messages about the knowns and unknowns regarding the effects of HPV vaccination should be provided. PMID:23521231

  4. Outcomes for Drug-Exposed Children Four Years Post-Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Needell, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Prenatally drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children adopted as infants and older children were compared four years after adoption on a range of outcome indicators. Drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children were alike on most outcome indicators, and parental satisfaction with the adoption was high and equivalent for parents of both groups. (TJQ)

  5. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  6. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  7. Supporting Special-Needs Adoptive Couples: Assessing an Intervention to Enhance Forgiveness, Increase Marital Satisfaction, and Prevent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Rhody, Margaret; Schoolmeesters, Shannon; Ellingson, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    An educational group intervention focusing on forgiveness and marriage education was implemented with adoptive parents. Couples qualified by having adopted at least one special-needs child. Data were examined for 112 adoptive parents: 54 from a treatment group that immediately received a 36-contact hour intervention and 58 from a waiting list…

  8. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  9. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  10. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  11. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  12. Successful Reach and Adoption of a workplace health promotion RCT targeting a group of high-risk workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cleaners are rarely introduced to workplace health promotion programs. The study's objective was to evaluate the reach and adoption of a workplace randomized controlled trial (RCT) among cleaners in Denmark. Methods Cleaning businesses with at least 30 employees, that could offer a weekly 1-hour intervention during working hours, were invited to participate. Employees working at least 20 hours/week were invited to answer a screening questionnaire and consent to participate. Analyses determined the differences in health variables between responders and non-responders, consenters and non-consenters, participants and non-participants and between participants of the RCT's three groups: physical coordination training, cognitive-behavioural theory-based training and reference group. Results From 16 eligible workplaces, a representative sample of 50% adopted the trial. Of 758 eligible employees, 78% responded to the screening questionnaire and 49% consented to participate. Consenters and participants differed from non-consenters and non-participants by having higher BMI, more chronic diseases and poorer musculoskeletal health. Conclusions This study indicates that workplace health promotion programs directed at health risk factors among cleaners enable significant adoption and reach to a high-risk subgroup of the Danish workforce. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:20546592

  13. The "Paradox of Empowerment" in Parent Education: A Reflexive Examination of Parents' Pedagogical Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ching Man; Kwong, Wai Man

    2012-01-01

    In an action research project designed to develop a new paradigm for parent education in alignment with the "strengths perspective," a social constructionist epistemology, and the empowerment discourse, it was found that parents joining two parent groups actually valued and sought expert knowledge. Seeking to empower these parents by adopting a…

  14. Group action planning as a support strategy for Hispanic families: parent and professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Blue-Banning, M J; Turnbull, A P; Pereira, L

    2000-06-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to obtain participants' preliminary reactions to the responsiveness of group action planning, a person-centered planning approach, as a support strategy for Hispanic families of individuals with disabilities. Focus group participants were 38 Hispanic parents of youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and 22 professionals who provided support services to Hispanic youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and their families. Both constituency groups identified advantages and disadvantages of group action planning. We focus our key recommendations on the implications of this information for education and human service systems as well as directions for future research. PMID:10900934

  15. Impact of Pivotal Response Training Group Therapy on Stress and Empowerment in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minjarez, Mendy Boettcher; Mercier, Emma M.; Williams, Sharon E.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with autism are increasingly being considered as primary agents of intervention for their children. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether participating in a pivotal response training (PRT) group therapy program for parents of children with autism influenced related aspects of parents' lives, namely, their levels…

  16. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  17. A Parent-Only Group Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thienemann, Margo; Moore, Phoebe; Tompkins, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Working to optimize treatment outcome and use resources efficiently, investigators conducted the first test of an existing parent-only group cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol to treat 24 children 7 to 16 years old with primary anxiety disorder diagnoses. Method: Over the course of 7 months, the authors evaluated a manual-based…

  18. Developing and Maintaining Mutual Aid Groups for Parents and Other Family Members: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise; And Others

    This 60-item bibliography, a compilation of abstracts of books, articles, handbooks, conference proceedings, and newsletters published from 1978 through 1989, addresses various aspects of groups, programs and other self-help resources for parents and other family members of people with disabilities. Literature in the first section provides…

  19. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  20. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  1. Effects of Individualized Video Feedback Combined with Group Parent Training on Inappropriate Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaneuf, Leah; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of adding individualized video feedback (IVF) to Webster-Stratton's (2000, 2001) group-based parent training program (GT) were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads. During all phases of the study, inappropriate maternal behavior was recorded from videotapes of playtime with their preschoolers with…

  2. A Review of the Research on Pinkston's Single-Parent Group Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Cox, Wendell H.; Sharkey, Caroline N.; Briggs, Adam C.; Black, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to chronicle the extent to which the Pinkston and colleagues model is utilized in single-parent training group (SPG) interventions in the home environment for children aged 5 to 12 or preadolescent school-aged children. Methods: Several databases were searched electronically and independent full reviews were…

  3. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…

  4. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected. PMID:18803842

  5. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  6. Formative evaluation for promoting adoption of the DGA, 2005 among African American parents and children in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formative research was conducted to increase adherence to the healthful food and physical activity patterns set forth in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (DGA, 2005) and thereby reduce weight gain and risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases in African American parents and their c...

  7. The Importance of Parenting in the Development of Disorganized Attachment: Evidence from a Preventive Intervention Study in Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: As infant disorganized attachment is a serious risk factor for later child psychopathology, it is important to examine whether attachment disorganization can be prevented or reduced. Method: In a randomized intervention study involving 130 families with 6-month-old adopted infants, two attachment-based intervention programs were…

  8. Neurodevelopmental and Psychological Assessment of Adolescents Born to Drug-Addicted Parents: Effects of SES and Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; Daka, Lulu; Goldzweig, Gil; Gil, Yoni; Mjen, Ludmila; Levit, Shabtai; Shufman, Emi; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal exposure to heroin may have long-term consequences for development during early and middle childhood. The present research studied the cognitive, social, and emotional functioning of adolescents exposed to drugs prenatally, and investigated the extent to which the early adoption of children exposed prenatally to drugs would…

  9. Internet parent support groups for primary caregivers of a child with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Baum, Lynda S

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of Internet Parent Support Groups (IPSGs). This exploratory study describes factors related to use of Internet Parent Support Groups (IPSGs) by primary caregivers of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). An Internet survey was administered to 114 participants using stress and coping theory as a guide for measuring perceived satisfaction, stressors, social support, personal characteristics, appraisal, positive and negative emotion, coping, timing, somatic health, physical functioning, family relationships, and well-being. The majority of participants not only obtained what they sought, but found more than expected in terms of insight and people to trust. The strongest outcome factor related to satisfaction was improved caregiver-CSHCN relationship, and nearly 90% of the sample suggested participating in an IPSG as soon as possible. Nurses may want to consider IPSGs as an adjunct for social support in this population. PMID:15587531

  10. Early results of pediatric appendicitis after adoption of diagnosis-related group-based payment system in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative to the existing fee-for-service (FFS) system, a diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment system has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the early results of pediatric appendicitis treatment under the DRG system, focusing on health care expenditure and quality of health care services. Patients and methods The medical records of 60 patients, 30 patients before (FFS group), and 30 patients after adoption of the DRG system (DRG), were reviewed retrospectively. Results Mean hospital stay was shortened, but the complication and readmission rates did not worsen in the DRG. Overall health care expenditure and self-payment decreased from Korean Won (KRW) 2,499,935 and KRW 985,540, respectively, in the FFS group to KRW 2,386,552 and KRW 492,920, respectively, in the DRG. The insurer’s payment increased from KRW 1,514,395 in the FFS group to KRW 1,893,632 in the DRG. For patients in the DRG, calculation by the DRG system yielded greater overall expenditure (KRW 2,020,209 vs KRW 2,386,552) but lower self-payment (KRW 577,803 vs KRW 492,920) than calculation by the FFS system. Conclusion The DRG system worked well in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in terms of cost-effectiveness over the short term. The gradual burden on the national health insurance fund should be taken into consideration. PMID:26648734

  11. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  12. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.

    This document contains 11 articles which are concerned with the education and development of people who are, or will be, parents. The term "parenting" is used to emphasize the need to help fathers and mothers to deal effectively with their own children. Also, the term reflects the growing awareness that child rearing is the function of many…

  13. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  14. CenteringParenting: an innovative dyad model for group mother-infant care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Joanna; Rising, Sharon Schindler

    2013-01-01

    CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites. PMID:24406037

  15. Cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: a multivariate genetic analysis of parent-offspring and sibling data.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, S J; DeFries, J C; Fulker, D W; Plomin, R

    1995-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the etiology of covariation among measures of cognitive ability and academic achievement is due at least in part to shared genetic influences, data from 198 adoptive and 220 nonadoptive families participating in the Colorado Adoption Project were subjected to multivariate behavioral genetic analyses. Data on measures of cognitive ability (verbal comprehension and perceptual organization) and academic achievement (reading recognition and mathematics achievement) from related and unrelated sibling pairs tested at age 7, as well as from adoptive and nonadoptive parents, were analyzed. Phenotypic analyses confirmed previous findings of moderate correlations among measures of cognitive ability and achievement, averaging about .35. Although 54% of the covariation between reading and mathematics achievement was due to influences shared with verbal ability, a significant proportion of this covariation was independent of the cognitive ability measures. Heritabilities for the various measures were moderate, ranging from .21 to .37. Moreover, genetic influences accounted for 33-64% of their phenotypic covariation; for example, 33-60% of the observed correlations between verbal comprehension and the achievement measures, 64% of those between perceptual organization and the achievement measures, and 63% of that between reading recognition and mathematics achievement were due to shared genetic influences. Similar to the results of the phenotypic analysis, nearly half of the genetic covariance between reading and mathematics achievement was independent of cognitive ability. Their remaining covariance was due primarily to nonshared environmental influences. PMID:7755514

  16. Couples groups for parents of preschoolers: ten-year outcomes of a randomized trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Cowan, Philip A.; Barry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 10-year follow-up of two variations of a couples group preventive intervention offered to couples in the year before their oldest child made the transition to kindergarten. 100 couples were randomly assigned to (1) a low-dose control condition, (2) a couples group meeting for 16 weeks that focused more on couple relationship issues among other family topics, or (3) a couples group meeting for 16 weeks that focused more on parenting issues among other family issues, with an identical curriculum to condition (2). Earlier papers reported that both variations of the intervention produced positive results on parent-child relationships and on the children’s adaptation to kindergarten and 1st grade, and that the groups emphasizing couple relationships also had additional positive effects on couple interaction quality. The present paper uses growth curve analyses to examine intervention effects extending from the children’s transition to kindergarten to the transition to high school – ten years after the couples groups ended. There were 6-year positive effects of the pre-kindergarten interventions on observed couple interaction and 10-year positive effects on both parents’ marital satisfaction and the children’s adaptation (hyperactivity and aggression). Discussion includes a focus on the implications of these results for family policy, clinical practice, and the need to include a couples focus in preventive interventions to strengthen family relationships and enhance children’s adaptation to school. PMID:21480703

  17. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  18. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior. PMID:23241718

  19. An Evaluation of a Group Intervention for Parents with Aggressive Young Children: Improvements in Child Functioning, Maternal Confidence, Parenting Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, S.; Menna, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group intervention with the mothers of aggressive, non-compliant children (aged three to six years). The intervention consisted of a parenting program, Helping Encourage Affect Regulation. Mothers who attended the program were compared with a waitlist control group. The sample consisted of 35 children…

  20. Developing School-Based Bmi Screening and Parent Notification Programs: Findings from Focus Groups with Parents of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Young; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle

    2007-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been advanced as an obesity prevention strategy. However, little is known about how to develop and implement programs. This qualitative study explored the opinions and beliefs of parents of elementary school students concerning school-based BMI screening programs,…

  1. Adoptions Without Agencies: A Study of Independent Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; And Others

    The purposes of this national study of independent, nonagency adoptions were: (1) to determine the experience of the parties involved (biological parents, adoptive parents, agencies, intermediaries, and law enforcement agents); (2) to identify agency policies, procedures and resources that deter agency adoptions and thus encourage independent…

  2. The burden of care: a focus group study of healthcare practitioners in Scotland talking about parental drug misuse.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Anne; Williams, Nigel; Chandler, Amy; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; McGorm, Kelly; Mathews, Gillian

    2016-09-01

    Parenting and family support are key prevention and intervention strategies for improving outcomes for children and families affected by parental drug misuse. However, little is known about the delivery of parenting support for drug-dependent parents, particularly within universal healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the way healthcare practitioners engage with this challenging agenda. Four multidisciplinary focus groups involving a purposive sample of 18 experienced healthcare professionals were conducted in Scotland. Participants included general practitioners, midwives, public health nurses and addiction staff who work together to provide care for vulnerable families. A focus group topic guide was developed to explore the views and experiences of these healthcare professionals in relation to providing parenting support for drug-using parents, predominantly those receiving opioid substitution therapy. Data were analysed using a constant comparison method and thematic approach. The overarching narrative which united the focus group discussions was about the 'burden of care' that these families pose for frontline healthcare professionals. Recurring themes centred on three key issues: the problematic nature of drug-using parents themselves; clinical challenges in living up to the ideals of professional practice; and the wider context in which current practice is governed. Professionals expressed ambivalence over their parenting support role; anxiety over responsibility for intervening with this 'hard-to-engage' population; and concern over 'dwindling' resources and lack of organisational support. Nevertheless, strategies and opportunities for providing parenting support were acknowledged and there was consensus about the need for further skills training. Despite a proliferation of policy and good practice guidance on the delivery of parenting support for drug-dependent parents, the findings of this study suggest that significant challenges remain

  3. Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Families of Depressed Parents: 18- and 24-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C.; Keller, Gary; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Cole, David A.; Potts, Jennifer; H. Watson, Kelly; Rakow, Aaron; Colletti, Christina; Reeslund, Kristen; Fear, Jessica; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Merchant, M. J.; Roberts, Lorinda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (Compas et al., 2009) to examine the effects at 18- and 24-month follow-ups of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for mental health outcomes for children and parents from families (N = 111) of parents with a history of major depressive disorder…

  4. Gender-Related Processes and Drug Use: Self-Expression with Parents, Peer Group Selection, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzino, Brian E.; Ribordy, Sheila C.; Grant, Kathryn; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bowden, Blake S.; Zeisz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in communication with parents, peer group selection, and academic motivation as related to drug use among adolescents (290 girls, 237 boys; age range = 12-19 years). For girls, increased self-expression with parents was associated with greater academic motivation, more academically motivated friends,…

  5. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  6. Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

  7. "Emotions Are a Window into One's Heart": A Qualitative Analysis of Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred, Jr.; Thompson, Julie A.; Beale, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents' beliefs about the role of emotions in the…

  8. Group Motivation in a Nutrition Project for Pregnant and Parenting Teens and Their Spouses by Use of an Incentive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Gloria

    A child care agency located in the southeastern United States serving homeless youth up to the age of 21 years provided pregnant and parenting teenagers with shelter and support services and provided individual and group counseling sessions focusing on health and nutrition, parenting and child care, sexuality and pregnancy, family support services…

  9. Self-Reported Needs and Expectations of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Participate in Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Vaya; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Many parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participate in support groups, but very few studies have explored their motives to do so. The present study aims to explore the self-reported needs and expectations that parents express according to their gender and education and according to the age and gender of their child with ASD.…

  10. The Efficacy of Parent Counseling and Support Groups on the Stress Levels, Self-Esteem and Degree of Coping of Parents of Developmentally Delayed or Handicapped Children Who Are Involved in an Infant Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Fountain, Rebecca; Geoffroy, Kevin

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect that a parent support group and a counseling group had on the stress levels, self-esteem, and degree of coping of parents (N=48) of developmentally delayed or handicapped infants enrolled in an infant intervention program. It was hypothesized that, compared to parents in the control group, parents…

  11. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  12. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  13. Child and parental outcomes of a group parenting intervention for Latino families: A pilot study of the CANNE program

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Jean E.; Arriaga, Ximena; Begle, Angela Moreland

    2010-01-01

    CANNE – Criando a Nuestros Niños hacia el Éxito, is the Spanish adaptation of PACE – Parenting Our Children to Excellence. A pilot study conducted with 124 parents of preschoolers (mostly recent Mexican immigrants) provides preliminary evidence for the community acceptability and efficacy of CANNE. Eighty-eight of the 124 parents who enrolled in the program attended one or more of the 8 sessions (17% attended 1 session, 11% attended 2-4 sessions, and 72% attended 5 or more sessions), participated actively in sessions, and expressed high degrees of program satisfaction. Over time, parents improved on measures of harsh/inconsistent discipline, and children improved on social competence and social/communication skills. When high versus low attenders were compared, high attenders (parents who attended 4 sessions or more) reported greater increases than low attenders in their appropriate/positive parenting practices and clear expectations, and in their children's social competence and communication skills, and greater decreases in their harsh/inconsistent discipline and in their children's aggressiveness and hyperactivity. Some of these changes were evident by the end of the program, whereas others became apparent (or stronger) over a 3-month follow up period. These encouraging results point to the need for an efficacy study that assesses how well CANNE can help larger numbers of Latino parents in the important task of bringing up their young children in the U.S. PMID:21341903

  14. Coping and Parenting: Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention with Families of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measured at 12-month follow-up. Significant differences favoring the family intervention as compared with a written information comparison condition were found for changes in composite measures of parent-adolescent reports of adolescents’ use of secondary control coping skills and direct observations of parents’ positive parenting skills. Changes in adolescents’ secondary control coping and positive parenting mediated the effects of the intervention on depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms accounting for approximately half of the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Further, reciprocal relations between children’s internalizing symptoms and parenting were found from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Implications for the prevention of psychopathology in offspring of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:20873898

  15. The emotional aftermath of adoption.

    PubMed

    Nadelson, C C

    1976-09-01

    Adopted children are emotionally vulnerable. Adoptive parents must cope with more complex problems than biologic parents. The family physician can provide valuable counseling. Preadoption counseling focuses on motivation and ambivalence. After adoption, however, serious, sometimes predictable, issues arise, such as: how and when to tell the child he is adopted; the child's search for knowledge; the problem of subsequent divorce; the birth of a natural sibling, and the involvement of other family members. New concepts include "open adoption" and "single parent adoption." PMID:961560

  16. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

  17. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  18. Developing a Parent-Professional Team Leadership Model in Group Work: Work with Families with Children Experiencing Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Kuhn, Mary T.; Evans, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Building on the respective strengths of parent-led and professional-led groups, a parent-professional team leadership model for group interventions was developed and evaluated for families of youths with emotional and behavioral problems. The model was developed based on feedback from 26 parents in focus group sessions and recommendations from…

  19. Parent Training With High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lori Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudiño, Omar G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families. Parents were eligible for intervention if they were Chinese-speaking immigrants referred from schools, community clinics, or child protective services with concerns about parenting or child behavior problems. Retention and engagement were high with 83% of families attending 10 or more sessions. Results revealed that the treatment was efficacious in reducing negative discipline, increasing positive parenting, and decreasing child externalizing and internalizing problems. Treatment effects were larger among families with higher levels of baseline behavior problems and lower levels of parenting stress. Further augmentation of PT to address immigrant parent stress may be warranted. Qualitative impressions from group leaders suggested that slower pacing and increased rehearsal of skills may improve efficacy for immigrant parents unfamiliar with skills introduced in PT. PMID:21658524

  20. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  1. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  2. Measuring Parental Support for Children’s Physical Activity in White and African American Parents: The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG)

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Li, Kaigang; Baskin, Monica L.; Cox, Tiffany; Affuso, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The Activity Support Scale (ACTS) was expanded for use with African American families. Its factorial invariance and internal reliability were examined for non-Hispanic white and African American parents. Methods The ACTS was modified to improve its applicability to African American families based on information from five focus groups with 27 African American parents of elementary school-aged children. Between 2006 and 2008, the revised scale was administered to 119 African American and 117 non-Hispanic white parents in northeastern NY and Alabama. Its factorial invariance across race/ethnicity and internal consistency were examined. Results Factor analysis of the revised scale, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), identified four parenting factors in white and African American parents including logistic support, modeling, use of community resources to promote physical activity (PA), and restriction of sedentary behaviors. Results supported the scale’s internal reliability and factorial invariance across race/ethnicity. Conclusion The ACTS-MG is appropriate for use with non-Hispanic white and African American families and will enable the extension of current research with white families to the examination of strategies supporting PA in African American families. Additional psychometric work with the ACTS-MG is encouraged. PMID:21111755

  3. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

    PubMed Central

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797

  4. Differences in influence patterns between groups predicting the adoption of a solar disinfection technology for drinking water in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-08-01

    The lack of safe drinking water is one of the major problems faced by developing countries. The consequences of contaminated water are diseases such as diarrhea, one of the main causes of infant mortality. Because of its simplicity, solar water-disinfection technology provides a good way of treating water at the household level. Despite its obvious advantages and considerable promotional activities, this innovation has had rather a slow uptake. We conducted a field survey in which 644 households in Bolivia were interviewed in order to gain insights on motivations that resulted in adopting the technology. The aim was to examine possible differences in the predictors for adopting this technology during the diffusion process using the theory of innovation diffusion. Our findings indicate that early adoption was predicted by increased involvement in the topic of drinking water and that adoption in the middle of the diffusion process was predicted by increased involvement by opinion leaders and by recognition of a majority who supported the technology. Finally, late adoption was predicted by recognition that a majority had already adopted. Suggestions for future promotional strategies are outlined. PMID:18508169

  5. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  6. Efficacy of a group-based parenting program on stress and self-efficacy among Japanese mothers: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Sally; Bloomfield, Linda; Appleton, Jane; Kitaoka, Kazuyo

    2013-12-01

    Early child development and the impact of parenting on later life are of global concern. The rise in child abuse and maltreatment in Japan suggests that measures to increase self-efficacy and reduce stress would benefit Japanese parents. In this study, we explored if Japanese parents attending a 123Magic parenting program reported reduced stress and enhanced self-efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from 49 mothers attending a parenting program conducted in public nursery schools in one prefecture in Japan. There were significant changes in parenting self-efficacy scores (P < 0.001) and parenting stress scores (P < 0.01). Focus groups with 16 parents also found that there were benefits to parents in terms of increased confidence and less stress. The findings provide support for the role of public health nurses in delivering group-based parenting support in Japan. PMID:23725544

  7. A unique case of extra-group infant adoption in free-ranging Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus).

    PubMed

    Dunham, Noah Thomas; Opere, Paul Otieno

    2016-04-01

    Infant adoption has been reported in a variety of primate taxa both in captive and natural settings. Adoption by females may be adaptive by increasing inclusive fitness via shared genes between adoptive mother and adoptee or by providing valuable maternal practice which, in turn, may increase the female's future reproductive success. Others have argued that adoption may be non-adaptive and the result of a general attraction toward infants. Our study examines a unique case of adoption by an adult female Angola black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus) who adopted an extra-group infant alongside her own biological infant. We compare infant behaviors and mother-infant interactions between biological infant and adoptee and then compare both biological infant and adoptee behavioral profiles to those of infants under normal circumstances. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 on three habituated groups in the Diani Forest of Kenya. Scan sampling and pooled data were used to create daily and monthly behavioral profiles for the biological infant and adoptee, as well as a mean monthly profile of four infants under normal circumstances. Data include time spent (1) clinging to mother/adoptive mother, (2) clinging to another individual, (3) behaving independently, and (4) behaving in close proximity to mother/adoptive mother. Initially, the adoptee struggled to achieve behavioral profiles consistent with those of the biological infant and normal colobus infants of the same age as he spent significantly more time moving independently and significantly less time clinging to the adoptive mother. After the mysterious death of the biological infant in mid-January 2015, the adoptee assumed a behavioral profile similar to that of infants under normal conditions. This case does not support adaptive hypotheses for adoption (i.e., inclusive fitness or learning to mother). Instead, because the biological infant died, possibly due to the presence of the

  8. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    PubMed

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences. PMID:293182

  9. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful. PMID:16802072

  10. Increasing the Use of Group Interventions in a Pediatric Rehabilitation Program: Perceptions of Administrators, Therapists, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Chantal; Tetreault, Sylvie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceptions related to increased utilization of group interventions as a part of the service reorganization within a pediatric rehabilitation program. Methods: Individual interviews with program administrators (n = 13) and focus groups with therapists (n = 19) and parents of children with disabilities (n = 5) were conducted.…

  11. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  12. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...

  13. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  14. Parent-Training Groups for Fathers of Head Start Children: A Pilot Study of Their Feasibility and Impact on Child Behavior and Intra-Familial Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfenbaum-Kun, Elana D.; Ortiz, Camilo

    2007-01-01

    Group parent-training interventions for the treatment and prevention of externalizing problems in young children have been empirically validated almost exclusively with mother-only groups or with groups where the majority of participants are mothers. One reason for this focus has been the difficulty in attracting fathers to parent-training groups.…

  15. Factors That Influence Vaccination Decision-Making by Parents Who Visit an Anthroposophical Child Welfare Center: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Irene A.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Paulussen, Theo G. W.; Mollema, Liesbeth; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified anthroposophists as critical parents with lower vaccination coverage, no research has been done to explore the beliefs underlying their childhood vaccination decision-making. We conducted a qualitative study using three focus groups (n = 16) of parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center. Our findings show that participants did not refuse all vaccinations within the Dutch NIP, but mostly refused the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccination decisions are influenced by participants' lifestyle, perception of health, beliefs about childhood diseases, perceptions about the risks of diseases, perceptions about vaccine effectiveness and vaccine components, and trust in institutions. Parents indicated that they felt a need for more information. Sufficient references should be provided to sources containing more information about childhood vaccination, especially about the effectiveness of vaccines and vaccine components and the risks, such as possible side effects and benefits of vaccination. This may satisfy parents' information needs and enable them to make a sufficiently informed choice whether or not to vaccinate their child. PMID:23209917

  16. Mom Power: Preliminary Outcomes of a Group Intervention to Improve Mental Health and Parenting Among High-Risk Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Alfafara, Emily A.; Schuster, Melisa M.; Miller, Nicole M.; Waddell, Rachel M.; Kohler, Emily Stanton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child’s early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age <6 years old), focused on enhancing mothers’ mental health, parenting competence and engagement in treatment. Methods Mothers were referred from community health providers for a Phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty and single parenthood. 99 mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post- self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and PTSD), parenting and intervention satisfaction. Results Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70% of the 10 groups (completers; N=68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N=12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Conclusions Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads

  17. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age <6 years old), focused on enhancing mothers' mental health, parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among

  18. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adoption Directory Search National Foster Care & Adoption Directory Search Many concerned individuals have expressed the desire to ... how to become a foster or adoptive parent. Search results for this category include contact information for: ...

  19. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  20. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:24951436

  1. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Methods Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Results Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Conclusions Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study

  2. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    PubMed

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time. PMID:22309066

  3. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  4. Conflict Resolution in the Parent-Child, Marital, and Peer Contexts and Children's Aggression in the Peer Group: A Process-Oriented Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…

  5. Increasing Parent Involvement among Head Start Families: A Randomized Control Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoatche, Kendall Jeffries; Bradley-Klug, Kathy L.; Ogg, Julia; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) during preschool has been linked with strong pre-literacy skills, acquisition of mathematical skills, well-developed social skills, and positive attitudes toward school. Parents' active involvement in their children's learning is a recommended strategy in engaging families in children's education experiences. The purpose of…

  6. A Psychoeducational Group for Parents of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Omar A.; Evans, Kathy M.

    2014-01-01

    While literature abounds on the experience of the adolescent in the "coming out" process and the impact that the event has on the family system, few interventions that are designed specifically to assist parents have been proposed. Parents of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents face challenges that they may never have anticipated and,…

  7. Conceptual understanding of screen media parenting: Report of a working group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activi...

  8. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  9. The outcome of group parent training for families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant/aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Danforth, Jeffrey S; Harvey, Elizabeth; Ulaszek, Wendy R; McKee, Tara Eberhardt

    2006-09-01

    The effects of group parent training on parent behavior, and on the behavior of 45 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant aggressive behavior, were evaluated with a pre-post design. Parent training included didactics on the features and etiology of ADHD and its relationship to defiant/aggressive behavior, as well as parenting skills that adhered to parameters established in the Behavior Management Flow Chart (BMFC). The logic that guided the construction of the program and the unique aspects in the form and content of the parent training are identified. Outcome data show that training reduced childrens' hyperactive, defiant, and aggressive behavior, improved parenting behavior, and reduced parent stress. These data are comparable to previous outcome research evaluating the efficacy of parent training with the BMFC. The advantages of programs that are efficacious in group settings are discussed. PMID:16112077

  10. Associations and Costs of Parental Symptoms of Psychiatric Distress in a Multi-Diagnosis Group of Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, S.; Paul, L.; Loney, P.; Ye, C.; Wong, M.; Browne, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Families supporting children with complex needs are significantly more distressed and economically disadvantaged than families of children without disability and delay. What is not known is the associations and costs of parental psychiatric distress within a multi-diagnosis group of special needs children. Methods: In this…

  11. Perceptions of Parents of Students with Autism towards the IEP Meeting: A Case Study of One Family Support Group Chapter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Wade W.

    2006-01-01

    This case study investigated parental perceptions of students with autism towards the IEP meeting from one family support group chapter in the north Texas area. Participants were asked to share their experiences of previous IEP meetings and to provide input regarding not only measures that school districts may take towards improving IEP meetings,…

  12. It All Starts at Home: Hispanic Parents Speak out on Preventing Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report describes data from focus groups on teen pregnancy involving Hispanic parents of adolescents in four states. Participants wanted a good education for their children and positive, loving relationships with them. They wanted to communicate with their children and be closely involved in their lives. Most believed that to help prevent teen…

  13. Emotions are a window into one's heart”: a qualitative analysis of parental beliefs about children's emotions across three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alison E; Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred; Thompson, Julie A; Beale, Karen S

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents’ beliefs about the role of emotions in the family and how cultural or ethnic background may influence those beliefs. Based on philosophical traditions and previous research, three dimensions of parental beliefs were predicted: Value of Emotion, Socialization of Emotion, and Controllability of Emotion. We expected new themes to emerge during the focus groups.Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 parents from the three cultural groups mentioned above. Groups met for two sessions scheduled 2 weeks apart. Focus group discussions were led by same-ethnicity moderators. Aninductive analysis was conducted; key themes and subthemes were identified.All three theoretically derived dimensions were well represented in each focus group. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included children’s appropriate expression of negative emotions, role of emotion in the home, children’s capacity for controlling emotions, and parents’ role in socialization of emotion. Cultural variations included concern about parents’ expression of negative emotion, children’s modulation of positive emotion, the role emotions play in behavior, and choice in emotional experience. Two new dimensions also emerged: Relational Nature of Emotions and Changeability of Emotions. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included emphasis on emotional connections with children, emotional contagion in families, developmental change in children’s emotions, and intergenerational change in emotion socialization. Cultural variation included discussion of emotions as guides for action and children’s emotional privacy. Dimensions and the themes and subthemes within them

  14. Parental Academic Socialization: Effects of Home-Based Parental Involvement on Locus of Control across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Soon, Kokyung

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relations between three academic socialisation processes and late adolescents' internal locus of control. A sample of 249 college students from four ethnic groups completed three measures. Three factors explained 46.44% of the variance in academic socialisation, and the following differences were found: emotional…

  15. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  16. Gay and Lesbian Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... The AAP supports civil marriage for all parents. Adoption. In adoptive and married homes, the AAP recommends ...

  17. Efficacy and Moderators of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Keller, Gary; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Rakow, Aaron; Bettis, Alexandra; Reising, Michelle; Cole, David; Sterba, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Building on an earlier study (Compas et al., 2011), tests of main effects and potential moderators of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for children of parents with a history of depression are reported in a sample of 180 families (242 children ages 9-15 years) in a randomized controlled trial assessed at 2-, 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-months after baseline. Significant effects favoring the FGCB intervention over a written information (WI) comparison condition were found on measures of children's symptoms of depression, mixed anxiety/depression, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems, with multiple effects maintained at 18- and 24-months, and on incidence of child episodes of major depressive disorder over the 24-months. Effects were stronger for child self-reports than for parent-reports. Minimal evidence was found for child age, child gender, parental education, parental depressive symptoms, or presence of a current parental depressive episode at baseline as moderators of the FGCB intervention. The findings provide support for sustained and robust effects of this preventive intervention. PMID:26009786

  18. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  19. Family reactions and their management in a parents group with beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Tsiantis, J; Xypolita-Tsantili, D; Papadakou-Lagoyianni, S

    1982-01-01

    The parents of children with beta-thalassaemia displayed various patterns of emotion (guilt, death anxiety, denial of feelings) and their behaviour towards the child was inappropriate (overprotective, conspiracy of silence); this could affect his psychosocial development and lead to tension within the family. Some parents were overdemanding and even hostile to hospital staff, thus making the management of cases difficult. The therapeutic team has tried to concentrate on these problems in order to clarify them and give support to the families. This has facilitated communication within the family as well as between the family and hospital staff, and had diminished the problems. PMID:7149759

  20. Family reactions and their management in a parents group with beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Tsiantis, J; Xypolita-Tsantili, D; Papadakou-Lagoyianni, S

    1982-11-01

    The parents of children with beta-thalassaemia displayed various patterns of emotion (guilt, death anxiety, denial of feelings) and their behaviour towards the child was inappropriate (overprotective, conspiracy of silence); this could affect his psychosocial development and lead to tension within the family. Some parents were overdemanding and even hostile to hospital staff, thus making the management of cases difficult. The therapeutic team has tried to concentrate on these problems in order to clarify them and give support to the families. This has facilitated communication within the family as well as between the family and hospital staff, and had diminished the problems. PMID:7149759

  1. "You must eat the salad because it is nutritious". Argumentative strategies adopted by parents and children in food-related discussions at mealtimes.

    PubMed

    Bova, Antonio; Arcidiacono, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    At mealtimes, the evaluation of the appropriate (or not appropriate) behavior concerning the food is often assumed as a topic of discourse. The aim of this study is to single out the argumentative strategies used by parents with their children and by children with their parents in order to convince the other party to eat or not to eat a certain food. Within a data corpus constituted by 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families, we selected a corpus of 77 argumentative discussions between parents and children arisen around a food-related issue. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions that were found within the data corpus and analyzed through the pragma-dialectical model of critical discussion. The results of this study show that the feeding practices in families with young children during mealtimes are argumentatively co-constructed by participants. In most cases parents put forward arguments based on the quality (e.g., very good, nutritious, salty, or not good) and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much) of food to convince their children to eat. Similarly, children put forward arguments based on the quality and quantity of food to convince their parents to change their standpoint, although their view on the issue is the opposite of that of their parents. PMID:24216487

  2. Assessing whether measurement invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across child-parent dyad depends on the child gender: a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children's and parents' perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child's gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children's physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents' viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  3. Tip Sheet for SEAs: Engaging Parents and Family Members in Postschool Outcome Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Involving parents and other family representatives in the Indicator B-14 Post-School Outcomes (PSO) Survey activities can help State Education Agencies (SEAs) develop strategies to increase annual response rates, communicate results to stakeholders, and build support for program improvement and systems change. Perspectives expressed by families of…

  4. Parental ideas of normal and deviant child behaviour. A comparison of two ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hackett, L; Hackett, R

    1993-03-01

    The parents of Gujarati and English children were interviewed and their attitudes to a wide range of child behaviour elicited. Differences in their ideas of normal and deviant behaviour were found in areas such as conduct and bedwetting, but not in self-care. PMID:8453430

  5. Large group community-based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behaviour disorders: utilization, cost effectiveness, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Bremner, R; Boyle, M

    1995-10-01

    A significant percentage of children with disruptive behavior disorders do not receive mental health assistance. Utilization is lowest among groups whose children are at greatest risk. To increase the availability, accessibility, and cost efficacy of parent training programs, this prospective randomized trial compared a large group community-based parent training program to a clinic-based individual parent training (PT) programs. All families of junior kindergartners in the Hamilton public and separate school boards were sent a checklist regarding problems at home. Those returning questionnaires above the 90th percentile were block randomly assigned to: (1) a 12-week clinic-based individual parent training (Clinic/Individual), (2) a 12-week community-based large group parent training (Community/Group), or (3) a waiting list control condition. Immigrant families, those using English as a second language, and parents of children with severe behaviour problems were significantly more likely to enroll in Community/Groups than Clinic/Individual PT. Parents in Community/Groups reported greater improvements in behaviour problems at home and better maintenance of these gains at 6-month follow-up. A cost analysis showed that, with groups of 18 families, Community/Groups are more than six times as cost effective as Clinic/Individual programs. PMID:8847377

  6. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  7. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  8. University Students from Homes with Alcoholic Parents: Considerations for Therapy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Withers, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Presents descriptive data collected during 1988-89 academic year from three adult children of alcoholics groups offered by a university counseling center. Describes group members, structured group activities, and recommendations for therapy groups for young adult children of alcoholics. (Author/NB)

  9. Do Evidence-Based Group Parenting Programs for High-Risk or Maltreating Parents Include Content about Psychological Maltreatment?: A Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy; Schniederman, Mel; Brassard, Marla R.; Donnelly, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is a widespread form of child maltreatment, both in high-risk and maltreating parents, yet there are no intervention programs that target it directly. In this study, the content of parenting programs for high-risk and maltreating parents was assessed to determine whether the program manuals include content on PM.…

  10. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  11. Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Attachment, and Temperament in Early Childhood Predict Adjustment in Middle Childhood: The Case of Adopted Children and Their Biologically Unrelated Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2002-01-01

    Followed from infancy to age 7 internationally adopted children placed before 6 months. Found that girls were better adjusted than boys, except in cognitive development, and that easy temperament related to higher levels of social, cognitive, and personality development and fewer behavior problems. Attachment security and maternal sensitivity…

  12. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant items across girl-parent dyad were mostly detected in the psychological well-being and the social support and peers domains. Moreover, the boys and their parents differed mainly in the autonomy and parent relation domain. Detecting different non-invariant items across the girl-parent dyad compared to the boy-parent dyad underlines the importance of taking the child’s gender into account when assessing measurement invariance between children and their parents and consequently deciding about children’s physical, psychological or social well-being from the parents’ viewpoint. PMID:25169000

  13. Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Families of Depressed Parents: 18- and 24-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C.; Keller, Gary; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Cole, David A.; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Rakow, Aaron; Colletti, Christina; Reeslund, Kristen; Fear, Jessica; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Merchant, M.J.; Roberts, Lorinda

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (Compas et al., 2009), to examine the effects at 18- and 24-month follow-ups of a Family Group Cognitive Behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for mental health outcomes for children and parents from families (N = 111) of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Parents with a history of MDD and their 9 to 15-year-old children were randomly assigned to a FGCB intervention or a Written Information (WI) comparison condition. Children’s internalizing, externalizing, anxiety/depression, and depressive symptoms, episodes of MDD and other psychiatric diagnoses, and parents’ depressive symptoms and episodes of MDD were assessed at 18- and 24-months after randomization. Results Children in the FGCB condition were significantly lower in self-reports of anxiety/depression and internalizing symptoms at 18-months and significantly lower in externalizing symptoms at 18- and 24-months. Rates of MDD were significantly lower for children in the FGCB intervention over the 24-month follow-up (odds ratio = 2.91). No significant effects were found for parents’ symptoms of depression or episodes of MDD. Conclusions Support was found for a FGCB preventive intervention for children of parents with a history of MDD significantly reducing children’s episodes of MDD over a period of 2 years. Significant effects for the FGCB intervention were also found on internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with stronger effects at 18- than at 24-month follow-up. PMID:21707137

  14. Effect of Instructing Care Program Through Group Discussion on the Quality of Life of the Parents of the Children Afflicted With Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Noughabi, Fariba Asadi; Iranpoor, Daryoush; Yousefi, Hadi; Abrakht, Hakimeh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Children long-term involvement with cancer may have a negative impact on the quality of life their parents. Design and implementation of training programs for parents whose children have been diagnosed with leukemia, as the primary caregivers of children, will have a special significance and can contribute to better taking care of such children. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of conducting group discussion, as care program training, on the quality of life parents whose children were suffering from leukemia. Methods: This quasi-experimental before-after intervention study encompassed two groups of parents (in total 41) of leukemia children. To collect data, a demographic questionnaire and the shortened version of SF-36 questionnaire were used to determine the quality of life of parents. Both groups completed the quality of life questionnaires before and two months after the intervention. Results: Comparison of the parents’ quality of life mean scores, obtained before and two months after training, showed that promotion in 6 domains of bodily pain, general health, emotional health, role limitation due to emotional problems, social functioning, and vitality were occurred. (P <0.05) Conclusions: Considering the important role of parents in taking care of children suffering from leukemia, introduction of care program training can be a positive step to help these parents and empower them to manage their children’s problems more systematically and will ultimately lead to improved quality of life of parents. PMID:26652069

  15. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual foster parents: strengths and challenges for the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Downs, A Chris; James, Steven E

    2006-01-01

    Historically, a shortage of skilled and dedicated foster parents has existed in America. Lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LBG) foster parents have received little attention in the published literature. This article documents the challenges and successes of a group of 60 LGB foster parents. All participants provided foster parenting for public (state or county) agencies. The primary successes of this group included meaningful and gratifying parenting and successful testing of whether adoption might be a natural next step after foster parenting. The primary challenges included insensitive, inappropriate, and difficult social workers; state or local laws that worked against successful foster parenting by LGB adults; failure to recognize parents' partners; and lack of support by the system to acknowledge the important role of LGB parents. Numerous recommendations are identified for improving how LGB foster parents are supported within child welfare systems including foster parent and social worker training in LGB issues. PMID:16846116

  16. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  17. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  18. Evidence for a dynamo in the main group pallasite parent body.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Nimmo, Francis; Hopkins, Julianna; Voronov, Julia; Erickson, Austen; Blackman, Eric; Scott, Edward R D; McKinley, Robert

    2012-11-16

    Understanding the origin of pallasites, stony-iron meteorites made mainly of olivine crystals and FeNi metal, has been a vexing problem since their discovery. Here, we show that pallasite olivines host minute magnetic inclusions that have favorable magnetic recording properties. Our paleointensity measurements indicate strong paleomagnetic fields, suggesting dynamo action in the pallasite parent body. We use these data and thermal modeling to suggest that some pallasites formed when liquid FeNi from the core of an impactor was injected as dikes into the shallow mantle of a ~200-kilometer-radius protoplanet. The protoplanet remained intact for at least several tens of millions of years after the olivine-metal mixing event. PMID:23161997

  19. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  20. Coping and Parenting: Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention with Families of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers, 14% fathers; 86% Caucasian, 5% African-American, 3% Hispanic, 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 4% mixed ethnicity), changes in adolescents' (mean age = 11 years; 42% female, 58% male) coping and parents' parenting…

  1. A questionnaire on survival of kittens depending on the blood groups of the parents.

    PubMed

    Axnér, Eva

    2014-10-01

    Cats more than 2 months of age have alloantibodies against the blood type antigen that they do not possess. Maternal antibodies, including alloantibodies against blood groups, are transferred to the kittens' systemic circulation when they suckle colostrum during the first 12-16 h after birth. If kittens with blood group A or AB nurse from a mother with blood group B they may develop neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI). Breeders can prevent kittens at risk of NI from nursing during the first 16-24 h; after this period it is safe to let them nurse. Kittens depend, however, on the passive transfer of antibodies from the colostrum for early protection against infections. Although it is known that kittens deprived of colostrum will also be deprived of passive systemic immunity, it is not known if this will affect their health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kitten mortality in litters with B-mothers and A-fathers compared to litters with A-mothers. In addition, the aim was to evaluate the effects of colostrum deprivation on the health of the mothers, and the breeders' opinions and experiences of these combinations of breedings. A web-based questionnaire was constructed and distributed to breeders. The results indicate that there is no difference in mortality between planned litters that have mothers with blood group A and litters with mothers that have blood group B and fathers that have blood group A. When managing blood group incompatibility in cat all factors affecting the health of the cats, including genetic variation, should be considered. PMID:24423812

  2. Handbook for Prospective Single Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Hope

    This handbook for prospective single adoptive parents provides information on locating and adopting a child, necessary clothing and supplies for children of various ages, health and day care arrangements, expenses incurred after adoption, various financial benefits and subsidies available to the adoptive parent, and legal and financial provisions…

  3. The effects and costs of the universal parent group program – all children in focus: a study protocol for a randomized wait-list controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, parents have been involved in programs that aim to improve parenting style and reduce child behavior problems. Research of preventive parenting programs has shown that these interventions generally have a positive influence on both parents and children. However, to our knowledge there is a gap in the scientific literature when it comes to randomized controlled trials of brief, manual-based structured programs which address general parenting among the population, and focus on promoting health. A four-session universal health promotion parent group program named All Children in Focus was developed. It aims at promoting parental competence and children’s positive development with the parent–child relationship as the target. There is currently no randomized controlled trial existing of the program. Methods/Design A prospective multicenter randomized wait-list controlled trial is being conducted. Approximately 600 parents with children ranging in age from 3–12 years have been recruited in eleven municipalities and city districts in the County of Stockholm, Sweden. Parents are randomized at baseline to an intervention group, which receives the program directly, or to a waiting-list control group, which participates in the program six months later. Changes in parenting and child health and development are assessed with measures immediately post-intervention and six months after the baseline. Observations of a minor group of parents and children are conducted to explore possible relations between parental reports and observed behaviors, as well as changes in the interaction between parent and child. Further, data collected within the evaluation will also be applied to evaluate the possible cost-effectiveness of the program. Discussion This paper describes a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Except for the quantitative outcome measures to evaluate the effectiveness of All Children in Focus, this protocol also describes

  4. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  5. Attitudes about the use of internet support groups and the impact among parents of children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Cara N; Conway, Laura J; Mehta, Devanshi; Krantz, Ian D; Noon, Sarah E

    2016-06-01

    There is an abundance of information in the literature on patient experiences with Internet support groups (ISGs). However, studies exploring these experiences in a rare disease population are scarce, even though these families are often at a disadvantage for resources, reliable information, and support. The aim of the current study was to explore the experiences with ISGs for parents of children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a rare genetic diagnosis, in order to better understand the impact on emotional support and their child's medical care. Focus groups were conducted to inform the design of a large-scale internet survey. The survey asked parents closed- and open-ended questions regarding experiences with ISGs, with a focus on the psychosocial, medical, and logistical aspects. The survey found that 141/170 (82.6%) respondents have visited an Internet-based support group to find support or information about their child's CdLS diagnosis. The majority of respondents (71.7%) reported that ISGs have been helpful in finding emotional support, with the most common areas impacted as a result of ISG participation being behavior toward their children and family dynamic. Regarding medical care, most respondents (63.9%) reported that ISGs have been helpful in finding medical information and support, with the most commonly impacted areas of their child's care including day-to-day management, diet, therapy interventions, and healthcare providers. These findings provide a greater understanding of the role of Internet networking in healthcare and may inform future approaches to medical care and psychosocial support for rare, complex genetic diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27163126

  6. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  7. The Family Hour Focus Groups: Children's Responses to Sexual Content on TV and Their Parents' Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    With regard to sexual content, an argument is often made that sexual jokes, innuendoes, and behavior on television "go over kids' heads." To address this issue, focus groups were conducted with children between the ages of 8 and 13. Children viewed a tape of a selection of clips containing sexual content from programs aired in 1996 during the…

  8. [Health-related problems in adopted children].

    PubMed

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit H

    2006-10-01

    International research shows that the standard of health among children adopted from abroad, especially those adopted by single parents, is not as good as that of other children. Danish studies indicate similar problems. The causes could be several, such as poor development in the embryonic and fetal stages, low birth weight, starvation, neglect, infections, and the lack of the natural bonds between mother and child. Surveys indicate that many adoptive parents, single parents in particular, receive children with health problems. There is no Danish research available, but it is important to be aware of these issues in order for both adoptees and adoptants to receive the most support. PMID:17059801

  9. An evaluation of the Parents Plus - Parenting When Separated programme.

    PubMed

    Keating, Adele; Sharry, John; Murphy, Michelle; Rooney, Brendan; Carr, Alan

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated theParents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programme, an intervention specifically designed to address the needs of separated parents in an Irish context. In a randomized control trial, 82 separated parents with young children were assigned to theParents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programmetreatment group and 79 to a waiting-list control group. They were assessed on measures of client goals, parenting satisfaction, child and parental adjustment and interparental conflict at baseline (Time 1) and 6 weeks later (Time 2), after the treatment group completed the Parents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programme. From Time 1 to 2, significant goal attainment, increases in parenting satisfaction and decreases in child behaviour problems, parental adjustment problems and interparental conflict occurred in the Parents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programme group, but not in the control group. These results supported the effectiveness of Parents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programme, which should be made more widely available to separated parents. PMID:25911347

  10. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  11. Social support, locus of control, and parenting in three low-income groups of mothers: black teenagers, black adults, and white adults.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J H

    1988-06-01

    Mother's social support, their instrumental use of extended family members and of professionals for help, and their sense of personal control were examined as predictors of parenting skill in 3 groups of low-income women. Separate regression models were generated for black adult mothers, white adult mothers, and black teen mothers, all of whom had at least 1 infant. Black teen and white adult mothers who sought help with child-rearing problems from extended family members were more skillful parents. Among white mothers, use of professionals for help with child-rearing problems and mothers' sense of internal control were also significant predictors. Black adult mothers' parenting skill was predicted only by locus of control. These prediction models suggest that in 2 of the groups, social ties to significant others were the linkages through which child-rearing information flowed to affect parenting behavior. PMID:3383672

  12. A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of a group-delivered sleep management intervention for parents of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Sue; Beecham, Jeni; Curtis, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sleep problems are more prevalent and severe among children with intellectual disabilities and autism compared to typically developing children. Training parents in behavioural approaches to manage sleep problems is advocated. However, delivering such interventions via groups is novel. This article reports the findings from a preliminary evaluation of a group-delivered intervention routinely delivered by a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Learning Disability team in England. For this purpose, parents (n = 23) of children with intellectual disabilities were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Parents' Sense of Competence Scale and parent-set goals captured outcomes at pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Intervention delivery costs were collected. Take-up was high (86%), and no parent dropped out. Statistically significant improvements in night wakings, parent-set goals and parents' sense of efficacy were observed. The estimated mean cost of delivering each intervention was British (GBP) £1570. Findings suggest the intervention is a low-cost, acceptable service warranting further evaluation. PMID:25792540

  13. Where Are the Adults? The Attitudes of Parents, Teachers, Clergy, Coaches, and Youth Workers on Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    In 1997, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy convened nine focus groups of parents of teens and other adults who work with teens such as teachers, clergy, coaches, youth recreation specialists, youth-serving organization staff, and community outreach workers. This report publishes the results of these focus groups, which involved 57…

  14. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  15. Sexual Risk Attitudes and Intentions of Youth Aged 12-14 Years: Survey Comparisons of Parent-Teen Prevention and Control Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Regina P.; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention…

  16. Protocol Evaluating the effectiveness of a school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: the ‘PArents, Teachers and CHildren WORKing Together (PATCHWORK)’ cluster RCT protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David; James, Marilyn; Yang, Min; Batty, Martin J; Taylor, John A; Pass, Sarah; Sampson, Christopher James; Sellman, Edward; Valentine, Althea; Hollis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early intervention for childhood behavioural problems may help improve health and educational outcomes in affected children and reduce the likelihood of developing additional difficulties. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common childhood behavioural disorder, recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of these problems. Parents of children with high levels of hyperactivity and inattention may benefit from intervention programmes involving behavioural management and educational approaches. Such interventions may be further enhanced by providing training and feedback to teachers about the strategies discussed with parents. In relation to children with high levels of hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention, we aim to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a parenting programme (with and without an accompanying teacher session) in primary schools. Methods and analysis This clustered (at the level of school) randomised controlled trial (RCT) focuses on children in their first four school years (ages 4–8 years) in the East Midlands area of England. Parents will complete a screening measure, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, to identify children with high levels of hyperactivity/inattention. Three approaches to reducing hyperactivity and attention problems will be compared: a group programme for parents (parent-only intervention); group programme for parents combined with feedback to teachers (combined intervention); and waiting list control (no intervention). Differences between arms on the short version of Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales Revised will be compared and also used to inform the sample size required for a future definitive cluster RCT. A preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination The outcomes of this study will inform policy makers about the

  17. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  19. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  20. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  1. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  2. Executive function and mental health in adopted children with a history of recreational drug exposures.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Corbett, Selena M; Birkett, Melissa A; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  3. Executive Function and Mental Health in Adopted Children with a History of Recreational Drug Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Gray, Hilary M.; Corbett, Selena M.; Birkett, Melissa A.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  4. Adoption: Pediatric, Legislative and Social Issues

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.

    1981-01-01

    Physicians may find themselves involved in many phases of the adoption process, ranging from advising infertile couples who wish to adopt a child to caring for adopted children, adolescents or adults. Recent legislation has been aimed at making it possible for children to be adopted who have been receiving foster care and at providing financial assistance to implement the adoption of children with handicaps and with medical problems. The adoption process is becoming more open. Adoptees are searching for and finding their biological parents and all parties in the “adoption triangle” are developing relationships with one another. PMID:7257384

  5. The IVA Parent Body: Evidence from Silicate-Bearing Group IVA Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulff-Moller, F.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    1992-07-01

    The IVA iron meteorites Steinbach (SB), Sao Joao Nepomuceno (SJN), Gibeon and Bishop Canyon are unusual in their contents of silicates. SB is particularly rich in silicates (ca. 50 wt%) and was long classified as a stony iron (Dorfler et al., 1965) but the metal fraction is typical of group IVA iron meteorites (Schaudy et al., 1972). The SB and SJN contain low-Ca pyroxene and tridymite in roughly equal proportions, whereas only tridymite is found in the two other meteorites. Reid et al. (1974) found that coexisting orthopyroxene and clinopyroxenes in SB (En 85) were formed in a narrow two-phase field at 1200 degrees C and preserved by comparatively rapid cooling. We present cooling rate estimates as well as minor element data for the silicates obtained by electron microprobe and trace elements (REE and siderophiles) for the bulk silicate fraction by INAA. The coarse granular texture of the silicates and the presence of finely dispersed sulfide inclusions in the pyroxenes might suggest a cumulate origin, but the high proportion of tridymite combined with MgO-rich pyroxene is unusual if a chondritic magma is assumed. One way of forming excess tridymite is by extreme reduction of a pallasite-type metal/olivine mixture. Our INAA data on SB bulk silicates show a pattern of REE and Sc, Cr, and Mn, which is qualitatively consistent with orthopyroxene that crystallized from a moderately evolved magma with chondritic REE levels. The incompatible elements (including Cr!) in SB pyroxene are correlated and vary up to a factor of 5 (eg., Ti and Al), whereas Ca shows a bimodal variation corresponding roughly to the coexisting orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. The minor element variations in SB pyroxene thus resemble magmatic zoning. The SJN pyroxene is marginally more MgO-rich (En 86) and shows a similar bimodal Ca distribution although it is possibly one phase. If correct, this suggests slower cooling at a higher temperature than SB. References: Dorfler G., Hecht F. and

  6. The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King-White, Dakota L.

    2012-01-01

    A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…

  7. Parental control over mate choice to prevent marriages with out-group members: a study among mestizos, Mixtecs, and Blacks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Dubbs, Shelli

    2012-09-01

    The present research examined how a preference for influencing the mate choice of one's offspring is associated with opposition to out-group mating among parents from three ethnic groups in the Mexican state of Oaxaca: mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and blacks (n = 35). Nearly all of the men in this study were farmworkers or fishermen. Overall, the level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was higher than in Western populations, but lower than in Asian populations. Only among the Mixtecs were fathers more in favor of parental influence on the mate choice of children than mothers were. As predicted, opposition to out-group mating was an important predictor of preferred parental influence on mate choice, more so among fathers than among mothers, especially in the mestizo group-the group with the highest status. In addition, women, and especially mestizo women, expressed more opposition to out-group mating than men did. PMID:22875548

  8. Attitudes about AIDS education and condom availability among parents of high school students in New York City: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Y; Radosh, A

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes parents' views of the New York City Public High School's AIDS Education and Condom Availability Program. It presents findings from 12 focus groups with 81 parents of students at six representative high schools. Focus groups were conducted as part of an independent, comprehensive 3-year evaluation of the program, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative components. Participants were mostly supportive of the program, citing intense concern about AIDS among adolescents, fear that teenagers do not adequately perceive themselves as being vulnerable, and personal experiences with infected relatives and friends. Implications of these findings for program development are discussed and recommendations for social policy changes are presented. PMID:9083588

  9. Community Engaged Parent Education: Strengthening Civic Engagement among Parents and Parent Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Jacob, Jenet; Cutting, Beth

    2009-01-01

    We introduce Community Engaged Parent Education as a model for civic engagement in parent education. In Community Engaged Parent Education, the parent educator weaves the public dimensions of parenting into the everyday practice of group parent education. It is not a curriculum but a community-collaborative way of teaching all parenting topics by…

  10. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…

  11. 42 CFR 436.224 - Individuals under age 21 who are under State adoption assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... parent(s) is in effect; (2) Who, the State agency responsible for adoption assistance has determined... methodologies of the foster care program were used without employing the threshold title IV-A eligibility... adoption assistance agreement between the State and the adoptive parent(s). (2) The agency must deem...

  12. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  13. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  14. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  15. The Process of Adapting an Australian Antenatal Group-Based Parenting Program to Japanese and Vietnamese Public Service Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tsutomi, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tu Van Thi; Yamazaki, Sachiko; Okazaki, Keiko; Nguyen, Tuyet Hong Thi; Hoang, Hoa Quoc; Yasumura, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal maternal mental health status not only predicts postpartum mental status, but also influences family health. In Asia, however, little scientific research has been conducted on antenatal parenting intervention to date, nor has there been much emphasis on fathers in considerations of parenting support. Building upon our past research…

  16. Adapting Webster-Stratton's Incredible Years Parent Training for Children with Developmental Delay: Findings from a Treatment Group Only Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are more likely than typically developing children to experience behaviour problems. Parent training, such as the Incredible Years Parent Training (IYPT) series, has been a widely used intervention to support families with children with or at-risk for behaviour problems;…

  17. Parent Attitudes to Children's L1 Maintenance. A Cross-Sectional Study of Immigrant Groups in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmen, Anne; And Others

    This paper focuses on parents' attitudes about their children's maintenance of their native language (L1). It is part of an inter-nordic study of immigrant languages between generation one and generation two, that interviewed 276 parents of North American, Finnish, Turkish, and Vietnamese origin, residing in Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden.…

  18. The Relationship Between Parental Involvement as Social Capital and College Enrollment: An Examination of Racial/Ethnic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura Walter; Titus, Marvin A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between parental involvement and college enrollment, this study draws on the work of Bourdieu (1986), Coleman (1988), and Lin (2001a, 2001b) to conceptualize parental involvement as a form of social capital that provides individuals with access to resources that may facilitate college enrollment. The conceptual model…

  19. The Peer Group as a Context: Moderating Effects on Relations between Maternal Parenting and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…

  20. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  1. A Three Year Project of Training of Social Workers in Parent Group Education Leadership, 1963-64-65. Terminal Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Study Association of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    The three year project which trained social caseworkers for Parent Group Education Leadership was sponsored by the Child Study Association (responsible for training), and the Family Service Association of America which acted as an intermediary between various family agencies involved. The first year three-week training session emphasized the…

  2. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  3. Increasing the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Exposed to Domestic Violence through Interpersonal-Cognitive Group Counseling and Parenting Education (Project REAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Deborah

    Project REAL (Relationship skills, Education on violence prevention, Academics, Leadership and decision-making skills) was a practicum designed to increase the academic achievement of middle school students exposed to domestic violence. Eleven students and their parents participated in a 12-week interpersonal-cognitive counseling group and its…

  4. Academic achievement of legal immigrants' children: the roles of parents' pre- and postmigration characteristics in origin-group differences.

    PubMed

    Pong, Suet-ling; Landale, Nancy S

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the New Immigrant Survey, a study based on a nationally representative sample of legal immigrants, the present study extends prior research on the academic outcomes of immigrants' children by examining the roles of pre- and postmigration parental characteristics and the home environment. An analysis of 2,147 children aged 6-12 shows that parents' premigration education is more strongly associated with children's academic achievement than any other pre- or postmigration attribute. Premigration parental attributes account for the test score disadvantage of Mexican-origin children of legal immigrants, relative to their non-Latino counterparts. The findings reveal continuities and discontinuities in parental socioeconomic status and demonstrate that what parents bring to the United States and their experiences after arrival influence children's academic achievement. PMID:22966922

  5. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  6. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians. PMID:16846118

  7. Building the Bonds of Adoption: From Separation and Deprivation toward Integration and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Carol Cohen; Avni-Singer, Ravit

    2005-01-01

    The number of children who are adopted from foreign orphanages is on the rise in the U.S. Children who are reared in orphanages face a host of challenges to their healthy development and to their ability to form close, satisfying attachments with their new parents. The authors describe a group intervention used by the Yale International …

  8. Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

  9. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers. This review is applicable to parents and carers of children up to three years eleven months although some studies included children up to five years old. Objectives To: establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children three years of age or less (i.e. maximum mean age of 3 years 11 months);assess the role of parenting programmes in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC. The searches were originally run in 2000 and then updated in 2007/8. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment. Data collection and analysis The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Main results Eight studies were included in the review. There were sufficient data from six studies to combine the results in a meta-analysis for parent-reports and from three studies to combine the results for independent assessments of children’s behaviour post-intervention. There was in addition, sufficient information from three studies to conduct a meta-analysis of both parent-report and independent follow-up data. Both parent-report (SMD −0.25; CI −0.45 to −0.06), and independent observations (SMD

  10. Managing repetitive behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): pilot randomised controlled trial of a new parent group intervention.

    PubMed

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took part in the pilot RCT. A range of primary and secondary outcome measures were collected on four occasions (baseline, 10, 18 and 24 weeks) to capture both independent ratings and parent-reported changes in RRB. This pilot established that parents were willing to be recruited and randomised, and the format and content of the intervention was feasible. Fidelity of delivery was high, and attendance was 90 %. A fully powered trial is now planned. PMID:26036646

  11. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    PubMed

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group. PMID:26645774

  12. Care and Commitment: Foster Parent Adoption Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Shireman, Joan F.

    Foster homes have traditionally been considered transitional homes, where children receive good care for a limited time period. However, in recent years, many children have been drifting in foster care. Child welfare agencies are using new criteria for evaluating services, including the 1970s permanency planning idea--asserting the importance of…

  13. “We don’t know her history, her background”: Adoptive parents’ perspectives on whole genome sequencing results

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shankar, Aditi G.; Tabor, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing (ES/WGS) can provide parents with a wide range of genetic information about their children, and adoptive parents may have unique issues to consider regarding possible access to this information. The few papers published on adoption and genetics have focused on targeted genetic testing of children in the pre-adoption context. There are no data on adoptive parent perspectives about pediatric ES/WGS, including their preferences about different kinds of results, and the potential benefits and risks of receiving results. To explore these issues, we conducted four exploratory focus groups with adoptive parents (N=26). The majority lacked information about their children’s biological family health history and ancestry, and many viewed WGS results as a way to fill in these gaps in knowledge. Some expressed concerns about protecting their children’s future privacy and autonomy, but at the same time stated that WGS results could possibly help them be proactive about their children’s health. A few parents expressed concerns about the risks of WGS in a pre-adoption context, specifically about decreasing a child’s chance of adoption. These results suggest that issues surrounding genetic information in the post-adoption and ES/WGS contexts need to be considered, as well as concerns about risks in the pre-adoption context. A critical challenge for ES/WGS in the context of adoption will be balancing the right to know different kinds of genetic information with the right not to know. Specific guidance for geneticists and genetic counselors may be needed to maximize benefits of WGS while minimizing harms and prohibiting misuse of the information in the adoption process. PMID:25011977

  14. Child adoption in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Peters, H R; Kemiki, A D; Vince, J D

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology of child adoption in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. A prospective case-control study of 100 adopted and 100 control children matched by age and sex was done in 1995. The age at the time of adoption ranged from 7 days to 8 years with 64 being adopted in the neonatal period. 28 were adopted because the biological mother had died, 23 because the adoptive mothers had been unable to bear children and 16 because the biological mother was unmarried or 'too young'. Only 11 adopted children were not blood relatives of the adoptive mother; 10 children had been abandoned and 1 had been bought for cash. 97 adoptive mothers were married. The majority (61%) had no formal education and 95% were not in paid employment. Compared with the mothers of the control children fewer adoptive mothers had received any formal education and more of them smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol or chewed betelnut. Social characteristics of the adoptive fathers were similar to the fathers of the control children. Of the 66 living biological mothers for whom information was available, 39 (59%) were married, 16 (24%) single, 8 (12%) divorced and 3 (5%) widowed. For 21 (32%) of the biological mothers the adopted baby was their first. 19 adopted babies were breastfed, 8 exclusively, 6 with the addition of non-human milk and 5 with additional solid feeds. Two-thirds of the adopted children and only 5 controls were bottle-fed. There were no significant differences in nutritional status between the two groups and immunization status was similar. There was widespread ignorance about legal adoption procedures. Only 8 adoptive mothers had any knowledge of and only 2 had followed formal adoption procedures. In this group of adopted children it appeared that most were well cared for, as their nutritional status and immunization status were similar to non-adopted children. There have, however, been suggestions that adoption is a risk factor for child

  15. “I Want to be There When He Graduates:” Foster Parents Show Higher Levels of Commitment than Group Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Albert; Roben, Caroline K.P.; Maier, Collin; Fabian, Kim; Shauffer, Carole; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Group care is a frequent placement for adolescents placed in out of home care when their birth parents’ care is deemed unsafe. In the present study, we assessed whether foster parents show greater commitment to children than group care providers. Given that group care represents a number of living arrangements, we considered both shift care (where staff work shifts and do not live with the children) and cottage care (where staff live for extended periods of time with the children in a group living context). Commitment was assessed using the This Is My Child Interview (adapted for adolescents). Thirty-one foster parents, 18 shift workers, and 28 cottage care providers were interviewed. As predicted, foster parents showed higher levels of commitment than both shift care workers and cottage care providers, and the associations held when children’s externalizing behaviors and the number of children the caregivers had cared for were controlled. The results suggest that foster care promotes greater commitment among caregivers than other out of home placements, and add to other findings that favor foster care as the out of home placement of choice for adolescents. PMID:25937687

  16. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  17. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of wedlock... has stated that he or she is not the natural parent of the child. (v) Since the soldier is not...

  19. Leveraging Text Messaging and Mobile Technology to Support Pediatric Obesity-Related Behavior Change: A Qualitative Study Using Parent Focus Groups and Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Eileen M; Horan, Christine M; Price, Sarah; Marshall, Richard; Hacker, Karen; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) is a widely accessible and potentially cost-effective medium for encouraging behavior change. Few studies have examined text messaging interventions to influence child health behaviors or explored parental perceptions of mobile technologies to support behavior change among children. Objective Our aim was to examine parental acceptability and preferences for text messaging to support pediatric obesity-related behavior change. Methods We conducted focus groups and follow-up interviews with parents of overweight and obese children, aged 6-12 years, seen for “well-child” care in eastern Massachusetts. A professional moderator used a semistructured discussion guide and sample text messages to catalyze group discussions. Seven participants then received 3 weeks of text messages before a follow-up one-on-one telephone interview. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a framework analysis approach, we systematically coded and analyzed group and interview data to identify salient and convergent themes. Results We reached thematic saturation after five focus groups and seven follow-up interviews with a total of 31 parents of diverse race/ethnicity and education levels. Parents were generally enthusiastic about receiving text messages to support healthy behaviors for their children and preferred them to paper or email communication because they are brief and difficult to ignore. Participants anticipated high responsiveness to messaging endorsed by their child’s doctor and indicated they would appreciate messages 2-3 times/week or more as long as content remains relevant. Suggestions for maintaining message relevance included providing specific strategies for implementation and personalizing information. Most felt the negative features of text messaging (eg, limited message size) could be overcome by providing links within messages to other media including email or websites

  20. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  1. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gniadek, Agnieszka; Cepuch, Grażyna; Ochender, Katarzyna; Salamon, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant civilization advancement, parasitic diseases still pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Children's susceptibility to these infections stems from their immature immune system and lack of basic hygiene routines. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge which parents of preschool children's possess about parasitic diseases in their children's environment. The study was carried out in the group of 151 parents of preschool children living both in the city and in the country. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. To make the evaluation even more objective, a special scale was created in which parents could score points for their answers (0 - wrong answer, 1 - correct answer). The total number of points ranging from 0 to 9 indicated an unsatisfactory level of knowledge, from 10 to 13 - satisfactory level, from 14 to 16 - good level and from 17 to 20 - very good level of parents' awareness. The results of the study reveal that the level of parents' knowledge about parasitic diseases is only satisfactory. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the variables such as education and sex. The higher education, the higher level of knowledge. Moreover, women were more knowledgeable in the field of parasitic diseases than men were. Financial status of the family did not influence the level of parents' awareness. Well-planned educational programmes might have a positive influence on developing proper hygiene routines in families, which, in turn, will limit the risk of spreading parasitoses in the population of children. PMID:26342507

  2. Adoption and the Guatemalan Journey to American Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    Examining the adoption of Guatemalan children by US citizens, this article argues that adoptive parents make meanings and form identities through their participation in the adoption process and in their production of both Internet-based and spoken narratives about adoption. Using theories of globalization and narrative theory, the article…

  3. How To Adopt Internationally: A Guide for Agency-Directed and Independent Adoptions. 2000-2002 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Erichsen, Jean; Erichsen, Heino R.

    Many potential adoptive parents seeking international adoption find the process to be extremely complex. This guide details the international adoption process, including organizing a home study and fulfilling state requirements as well as selecting a country from which to adopt, working through emigration and immigration agencies, and traveling…

  4. A New Parenting-Based Group Intervention for Young Anxious Children: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; McNally, Deb; Field, Andy P.; Rust, Stewart; Laskey, Ben; Dixon, Clare; Gallagher, Bridie; Harrington, Richard; Miller, Chloe; Pemberton, Kathryn; Symes, Wendy; White, Caroline; Woodham, Adrine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite recent advances, there are still no interventions that have been developed for the specific treatment of young children who have anxiety disorders. This study examined the impact of a new, cognitive-behaviorally based parenting intervention on anxiety symptoms. Method: Families of 74 anxious children (aged 9 years or less) took…

  5. A Support Group for Parents of Children on a Waiting List for an Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Micaela; Gersch, Irvine

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children waiting for a diagnostic assessment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience distress and anxiety while they wait. The present small-scale study took place in a multi-disciplinary therapeutic service in Ireland for children with ASD and was run between April and September 2011. The first author, an educational psychologist…

  6. Igneous Evolution of the Core and Mantle in the Parent Body of Group IVA Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; McCoy, T. J.; Haack, H.; Taylor, G. J.

    1992-07-01

    Group IVA is comprised of 52 irons lacking silicates, two with trace amounts of silica (Gibeon and Bishop Canyon) and two stony irons (Steinbach and Sao Joao Nepomuceno), which have high but varied proportions of a pyroxene-tridymite intergrowth (Prinz et al., 1984). Despite their remarkable composition, these stony irons are not geological freaks lacking cosmochemical significance but important clues to the complexity of asteroidal processes. Metal: Our crystallization models for Fe-Ni-S magmas using distribution coefficients from Jones and Malvin (1990) with minor modifications from Haack and Scott (1992) show that the IVA irons formed by fractional crystallization of a melt with about 1-3 wt% S. Unlike previous authors we are able to model the Ir, Au, Ga, Ge, and P vs Ni trends in IVA concurrently. We include the formation of a second S-rich immiscible liquid during crystallization and find that our models can match IVA trends as well as those of group IIIAB, which has a higher S content. Siderophile concentrations in Steinbach and Sao Joao metal are, surprisingly, entirely appropriate for IVA irons with 9.1 and 8.0% Ni, showing that they formed in two separate places in the IVA body by mixing of silicates with metal that was fractionally crystallizing. Silicates: Steinbach and Sao Joao contain 10-60 vol% of SiO2 and ortho- and clinobronzite. In the sponge-like silicate- metal intergrowths, typical pore sizes are 2-6 mm though metal crystals are larger. Textures suggest co-crystallization of silicates from a liquid. Slight compositional differences between the two pyroxenes exist in both meteorites, with Steinbach pyroxenes being more FeO-rich. Formation of all the pyroxene by reaction between olivine and SiO2 (Prinz et al., 1984) fails to account for the minor elemental abundances in pyroxene, e.g. 0.25 wt% Al2O3. But the occurrence of SiO2 without pyroxene suggests that the SiO2-pyroxene intergrowths did not form entirely from SiO2-pyroxene eutectic or

  7. Examining the role of methamphetamine in permanency: A competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship, and adoption.

    PubMed

    Akin, Becci A; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-03-01

    Parental methamphetamine use has drawn significant attention in recent years. Despite prior research that shows that parental substance abuse is a risk factor for lengthy foster care stay, little is known about the effect of specific types of substance use on permanency. This study sought to compare the impact of parental methamphetamine use to alcohol use, other drug use, and polysubstance use on the timing of 3 types of permanency: reunification, guardianship, and adoption. Using an entry cohort of 16,620 children who had entered foster care during a 5-year period, competing risks event history models were conducted for each permanency type. Findings showed that, after controlling for several case characteristics, parent illicit drug use significantly impacted the timing of the 3 types of permanency, but alcohol use did not. Methamphetamine, other drug, and polysubstance with methamphetamine use were associated with lower rates of reunification and higher rates of adoption. Guardianship was also predicted by other drug and polysubstance use without methamphetamine; however, methamphetamine use was not associated with guardianship. Notably, the methamphetamine groups comprised the youngest children and had the shortest median time to adoption. Results suggest that type of parental substance use is predictive of permanency exits and that parental illicit drug use may require tailored strategies for improving permanency outcomes. Further implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25822603

  8. 42 CFR 435.227 - Individuals under age 21 who are under State adoption assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (other than an agreement under title IV-E) between the State and the adoptive parent(s) is in effect; (2... foster care program were used without employing the threshold title IV-A eligibility determination. (b... agreement between the State and the adoptive parent(s). (2) The agency must deem the requirements...

  9. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  10. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  11. The limits of intimate citizenship: reproduction of difference in Flemish-Ethiopian 'adoption cultures'.

    PubMed

    De Graeve, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    The concept of 'intimate citizenship' stresses the right of people to choose how they organize their personal lives and claim identities. Support and interest groups are seen as playing an important role in the pursuit of recognition for these intimate choices, by elaborating visible and positive cultures that invade broader public spheres. Most studies on intimate citizenship take into consideration the exclusions these groups encounter when negotiating their differences with society at large. However, much less attention is paid to the ways in which these groups internalize the surrounding ideologies, identity categories and hierarchies that pervade society and constrain their recognition as full citizens. In contrast, this paper aims to emphasize the reproduction of otherness within alternative spheres of life, and to reveal the ambiguities and complexities involved in their dialectic relationship with society at large. To address this issue, the paper focuses on the role that 'adoption cultures' of Flemish adoptive parents with children from Ethiopia play in the pursuit of being recognized as 'proper' families and full citizens. The ethnographic research among adoptive parents and adoption professionals shows a defensive discourse and action that aims at empowering against potential problems, as well as a tendency to other the adoptive child by pathologizing its non-normativity. By showing the strong embeddedness of adoptive families' practices of familial and cultural construction in larger cultural frames of selfing and othering, characterized by biologism and nativism, one begins to understand the limits of their capacity to realize full citizenship. PMID:20690920

  12. Changing Family Patterns and the Adoption of Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Arnold R.; Feigelman, William

    This study is based upon a mailed questionnaire taken from a nationwide sample of adoptive parents, and is part of a larger on-going study of contemporary trends in adoption. A question of interest is that whether those parents who have renounced more traditional conceptions of family life have become more receptive toward "hard-to-place"…

  13. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors. PMID:24608701

  14. Race-Conscious Adoption Choices, Multiraciality, and Color-Blind Racial Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of interview data illustrates how White adoptive parents rationalize choices regarding adoptee race. Parents who were willing to adopt children of color stressed unwillingness to adopt Black children. The preference for adopting multiracial children goes against the prevalent method of racial classification, hypodescent, by defining…

  15. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  16. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  17. Adoption: Three Alternatives. A Comparative Study of Three Alternative Forms of Adoptive Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    This is the second report in a longitudinal study designed to examine experiences of black children adopted by white couples, black couples and single parents. Begun in 1970, the study plan is to follow a cohort of black children, adopted as infants or toddlers, through their childhood years until the age of 20. The present report, based on…

  18. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change. PMID:18603656

  19. Adoption and Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Byung Hoon

    1989-01-01

    Because of Korean attitudes towards adoption and other reasons, attempts to promote intracountry adoption have met with limited success, and intercountry adoption is used as an alternative way of meeting children's needs. (RJC)

  20. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  1. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  2. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  3. Post-Adoption Depression: Clinical Windows on an Emerging Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speilman, Eda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of post-adoption depression--with both parallels and differences from postpartum depression--has emerged as a salient descriptor of the experience of a significant minority of newly adoptive parents. This article offers a clinical perspective on post-adoption depression through the stories of several families seen in…

  4. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024

  5. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  6. Parent Education: Reaching Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John M.; And Others

    Most current parent education programs tend to involve parents who are proficient readers, who are capable of thinking abstractly, and who have had sufficient social experience to behave constructively within a group. Yet, there are large numbers of parents whose motivation may be less obvious, who often lack emotional support, and who tend to see…

  7. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  8. Openness in adoption and the level of child participation.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, G M; Ayers-Lopez, S; Grotevant, H D; McRoy, R G; Friedrick, M

    1996-10-01

    There is great controversy regarding the impact of openness in adoption, especially the impact of such an arrangement on adopted children. Three indicators of the level of child participation in the openness arrangement were examined: (a) level of openness reported by adoptive parents, (b) level of information adopted children reported having about their birthparents, and (c) whether adoptive parents have withheld any pertinent information gained through communication with the birthmother from the adopted child. 171 children (90 males, 81 females; mean age = 7.99) wee studied to assess how that participation influenced their conceptual understanding of what adoption means, general self-worth, satisfaction with level of openness, and curiosity about birthparents. Overall it does not appear that providing information about a child's birthparents will confuse the child about the meaning of adoption or lower the child's self-esteem, but neither will it move them to levels of understanding that are beyond their cognitive capabilities to reach. PMID:9022246

  9. Patterns and Predictors of Adoption Openness and Contact: 14 Years Postadoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Thomas M.; Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to open adoption arrangements between birth parents and adopted children and families. This study examines openness and contact among 469 adoptions at 14 years postadoption from the fourth wave of the California Long-Range Adoption Study (CLAS) and 378 adoptions matched across all waves. The proportion of families…

  10. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION.... (c) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for the prospective adoptive parent... adopting parent(s) who reside in another State. If so, all provisions of this section apply. (f) The...

  11. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  12. Cultural Socialization in Families With Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2008-01-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultural socialization. Individual variations in cultural socialization also are discussed in terms of child development and shifting adoption attitudes and practices. PMID:17176191

  13. Attitude, interest, and motivation for adoption and foster care.

    PubMed

    Tyebjee, Tyzoon

    2003-01-01

    This survey compares prospective foster and adoptive parents' attitudes, willingness, and motivations, and discusses implications for media campaigns. The results show that demographic profiles of targets for adoption and foster placements are the same, an opportunity exists to shape positive attitudes toward foster care in immigrant populations, the most compelling way to attract parents is to focus on the child in need, and testimonials of personal experiences of foster and adoptive parents should address perceived barriers to adopting or fostering. Political, religious, and environmental ideology were unrelated to attitudes or willingness to adopt or foster. Respondents with strong identifications with gay or lesbian lifestyles exhibited a higher than average willingness to adopt or foster. PMID:14736030

  14. Thermal and impact histories of reheated group IVA, IVB, and ungrouped iron meteorites and their parent asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.; Pham, T.; McCoy, T. J.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- The microstructures of six reheated iron meteorites—two IVA irons, Maria Elena (1935), Fuzzy Creek; one IVB iron, Ternera; and three ungrouped irons, Hammond, Babb’s Mill (Blake’s Iron), and Babb’s Mill (Troost’s Iron)—were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine their thermal and shock history and that of their parent asteroids. Maria Elena and Hammond were heated below approximately 700-750 °C, so that kamacite was recrystallized and taenite was exsolved in kamacite and was spheroidized in plessite. Both meteorites retained a record of the original Widmanstätten pattern. The other four, which show no trace of their original microstructure, were heated above 600-700 °C and recrystallized to form 10-20 μm wide homogeneous taenite grains. On cooling, kamacite formed on taenite grain boundaries with their close-packed planes aligned. Formation of homogeneous 20 μm wide taenite grains with diverse orientations would have required as long as approximately 800 yr at 600 °C or approximately 1 h at 1300 °C. All six irons contain approximately 5-10 μm wide taenite grains with internal microprecipitates of kamacite and nanometer-scale M-shaped Ni profiles that reach approximately 40% Ni indicating cooling over 100-10,000 yr. Un-decomposed high-Ni martensite (α2) in taenite—the first occurrence in irons—appears to be a characteristic of strongly reheated irons. From our studies and published work, we identified four progressive stages of shock and reheating in IVA irons using these criteria: cloudy taenite, M-shaped Ni profiles in taenite, Neumann twin lamellae, martensite, shock-hatched kamacite, recrystallization, microprecipitates of taenite, and shock-melted troilite. Maria Elena and Fuzzy Creek represent stages 3 and 4, respectively. Although not all reheated irons contain evidence for shock, it was probably the main

  15. A Comparison of Biological and Adoptive Mothers and Fathers: The Relevance of Biological Kinship and Gendered Constructs of Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Used qualitative interviews to examine beliefs and values about biological and adoptive parents. Considered how biological kinship, gender, and actual parenting behavior affect the assessments respondents made of the emotional bonding between parents and children. Found that biological and adoptive parents viewed motherhood as instinctive and…

  16. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  17. Support for the Parents of Adolescents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricson, Clem; Roker, Debi

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parent-adolescent relationships, with a particular focus on strategies to offer support to this group of parents. Review covers three main areas: approaches to parenting, including an examination of parenting style; models of parent support; and examples of parent support programs, including group-based parenting courses.…

  18. Stages of Parental Engagement in a Universal Parent Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Manuel; Meidert, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings on parental engagement in a community-based parent training intervention. As part of a randomized trial, 821 parents were offered group-based Triple P as a parenting skills prevention program. Program implementation was conducted by practitioners. The intervention was implemented between Waves 1 and 2 of a longitudinal…

  19. Communicating across Cultures: The Deaf Parent to Hearing Parent Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lynda Rae; Hulsebosch, Pat

    The Deaf Parent to Hearing Parent project was developed to utilize the resources of the Deaf community to support the knowledge, skills, and networks of hearing parents raising deaf children. First, six deaf parents of deaf children met for focus group sessions to brainstorm the knowledge, strategies, and skills they had gained from personal…

  20. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  1. The Latino Parents-Learning about College (LaP-LAC) Program: Educational Empowerment of Latino Families through Psychoeducational Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, José A.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Hines, Erik M.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement is crucial to facilitating a child's high school success and enhancing their post-secondary opportunities. Unfortunately, the ability for Latina/o parents and guardians to engage in parental involvement is hindered by a general lack of familiarity with U.S. educational systems and post-secondary options. With these…

  2. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  3. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood. PMID:24016275

  4. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  5. Parental Warmth Amplifies the Negative Effect of Parental Hostility on Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man-Kit; Hancock, Donna L.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has documented the positive association between parental hostility and offspring involvement in intimate partner violence. Researchers, practitioners, and parents typically adopt the standpoint that parental warmth may counter these negative lessons. However, Straus and colleagues argue that parents foster IPV to the extent that they…

  6. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  7. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  8. Practical Parenting: A Jewish Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Gail Josephson

    Based on the clinical expertise of social workers at Jewish Family Services of Central Maryland, this book presents practical advice for parents of all faiths, with each of 34 chapters exploring a specific parenting issue. The book is divided into five sections: (1) "Many Kinds of Families," dealing with only children, sibling struggles, adoption,…

  9. Parenting in a Technological Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedts, Geertrui

    2008-01-01

    Technology is not just a tool but an amalgam of conceptual, institutional, and interactional issues that occupy the space of technical reason. In this space, parents' identity is becoming narrowed according to a limited conception in which the place of "caring" is in danger of being lost. Parents are increasingly required to adopt knowledge on…

  10. Crack Children in Foster Care: Re-examining the Balance between Children's Rights and Parent's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; LI. M., J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect that fetal exposure to cocaine and other drugs is having on infants and small children. Disputes the most widely cited estimate of the numbers of crack babies. Calls for restructuring foster care, group home placement, adoption, and general social welfare provision. Termination of parental rights is difficult but probably…

  11. Career Choices in Engineering: The Influence of Peers and Parents Implication for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between parental and peer group influence on career choice in engineering profession among adolescents. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. One research question and one…

  12. Tourette's Syndrome and the School Experience: A Qualitative Study of Children's and Parents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Russell, Cherry

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on research exploring the school experiences of 26 children (aged between 8 and 15.5 years) diagnosed with Tourette's Syndrome. The research adopted a qualitative methodology, and is reported here from the perspective of both the parents and the children themselves. Three different groups of families emerged: those who were…

  13. Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Ed

    The paper discusses the rationale and guidelines for parent involvement in HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) projects. Ways of assessing parents' needs are reviewed, as are four types of services to meet the identified needs: parent education, direct participation, parent counseling, and parent provided programs. Materials and…

  14. Themes of Hope and Healing: Infertile Couples' Experiences of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.; Hurtig-Mitchell, Joss

    2003-01-01

    Using qualitative approach, authors explored the experiences of becoming parents through adoption after unsuccessful infertility treatments. Analysis of data revealed three overarching themes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for counselors who work with infertile couples considering adoption, clients engaged in adoption…

  15. The Structure of Families who Adopt Children from Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

    2008-12-01

    The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) gave incentives to states to expedite the adoption of children from foster care. Administrative data describe the changes in adoptive families from 1996 to 2003 in terms of the marital status and sex of the household head and in terms of the relationship of the parents to the child prior to adoption. Patterns in the way children with special needs were matched with different kinds of families are described. The data show that agencies have tapped the resources of families headed by single parents to provide permanency for older children and that older children adopted by fathers have spent more time as legal orphans than children adopted by single mothers. PMID:19890459

  16. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: A qualitative study using nominal group technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...

  17. Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

  18. A Pilot Study Exploring the Educational and Social/Emotional Benefits of Web-Based Groups for Parents of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experience more feelings of isolation, depression and stress than those of children with other disorders including ADHD and Down Syndrome. While these feelings are especially elevated in parents living in rural communities who may have limited access to services,…

  19. Home-Based Parental Involvement in Young Children's Education: Examining the Effects of Maternal Education across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home-based parental involvement in young children's education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children's activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables…

  20. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin

    2013-01-01

    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  1. Transracial Adoption: How It Is 17 Years Later. Family Life Project: A Longitudinal Adoption Study/Phase V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroegh, Karen S.

    In 1970, as part of an effort to meet the needs of black children waiting for adoption by two-parent black families, the Chicago (Illinois) Child Care Society launched a longitudinal study of the growth, development, and family life of transracial adoptees (TRAs), or black and mixed-race children adopted by white families, and inracial adoptees…

  2. Going to the Courts Twice: A Critical Appraisal of the UK's Policy of Re-Adoption for Intercountry Adoptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The policy of re-adoption for UK-citizen parents of intercountry adopted children is designed to protect children and safeguard their best interests, but in fact may breach a variety of rights and international Conventions, and when applied to specific cases can lead to more harm than good. In this review, I want to argue that the policy of…

  3. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. PMID:25752207

  4. Single Adoptive Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Sharon Ann

    1978-01-01

    In view of the increasing number of single women who adopt children, the social work profession has an obligation to learn more about this group of mothers. This article is based on a research study to identify characteristics of single adoptive mothers and their children and to learn what community supports the mothers believe would be helpful.…

  5. Single-Parent Families in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ken

    1978-01-01

    Presenting national statistics on single-parent families, this article illustrates the need for serious study of this phenomenon, suggesting that changing divorce laws, increased single-parent adoptions, and an increase in the number of supportive services for single-parent families are contingencies having significant bearing upon the…

  6. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  7. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  8. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  9. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  10. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  11. Inherited and Environmental Influences on a Childhood Co-Occurring Symptom Phenotype: Evidence From an Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Fisher, Philip A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers’ processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers’ processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers’ uninvolved parenting, birth mothers’ slower processing speed, and the birth mothers’ slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers’ higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group. PMID:25851306

  12. Inherited and environmental influences on a childhood co-occurring symptom phenotype: Evidence from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie E; Fisher, Philip A; Shaw, Daniel S; Kim, Hyoun K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Natsuaki, Misake N; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-02-01

    Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers' processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers' processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers' uninvolved parenting, birth mothers' slower processing speed, and the birth mothers' slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers' higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group. PMID:25851306

  13. "Just beyond my front door": public discourse experiences of children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Vashchenko, M; D'Aleo, M; Pinderhughes, E E

    2012-03-01

    The phenotypic differences between children and their adoptive parents in transracial adoptions make the child's adoptive status readily apparent in public. Consequently, adoptees field more frequent questions and comments about the adoption. The present study examines the nature of public conversations about ethnicity and adoption of 41 elementary school age girls adopted from China and the ecological factors related to less frequent occurrences of such conversations and to the positive nature of these experiences. Results indicate that family structure (single parent vs. two parents) and parental bicultural competence predict membership in the favorable condition (reporting fewer public interaction experiences and reporting more positive experiences, respectively). Child's age and racial diversity of the town of residence do not predict these outcomes. Implications for families, adoption professionals, teachers and researchers are discussed. PMID:21553096

  14. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-adoption

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar et al., 2013; Kreppner, O’Connor, & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad et al., 2008). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M= 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M= 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into 4 groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = −0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = −.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. PMID:25070881

  15. Building healthcare workers' confidence to work with same-sex parented families.

    PubMed

    von Doussa, Henry; Power, Jennifer; McNair, Ruth; Brown, Rhonda; Schofield, Margot; Perlesz, Amaryll; Pitts, Marian; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of barriers and access to healthcare for same-sex attracted parents and their children. Focus groups were held with same-sex attracted parents to explore their experiences with healthcare providers and identify barriers and facilitators to access. Parents reported experiencing uncomfortable or anxiety-provoking encounters with healthcare workers who struggled to adopt inclusive or appropriate language to engage their family. Parents valued healthcare workers who were able to be open and honest and comfortably ask questions about their relationships and family. A separate set of focus groups were held with mainstream healthcare workers to identity their experiences and concerns about delivering equitable and quality care for same-sex parented families. Healthcare workers reported lacking confidence to actively engage with same-sex attracted parents and their children. This lack of confidence related to workers' unfamiliarity with same-sex parents, or lesbian, gay and bisexual culture, and limited opportunities to gain information or training in this area. Workers were seeking training and resources that offered information about appropriate language and terminology as well as concrete strategies for engaging with same-sex parented families. For instance, workers suggested they would find it useful to have a set of 'door opening' questions they could utilize to ask clients about their sexuality, relationship status or family make-up. This article outlines a set of guidelines for healthcare providers for working with same-sex parented families which was a key outcome of this study. PMID:25736035

  16. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  17. Why are children still having preventable extractions under general anaesthetic? A service evaluation of the views of parents of a high caries risk group of children.

    PubMed

    Olley, R C; Hosey, M T; Renton, T; Gallagher, J

    2011-04-23

    Introduction Despite overall improvements in oral health, the number of children admitted to hospital for extraction of teeth due to caries under general anaesthesia (GA) has been reported as increasing dramatically in England. The new UK government plans to transform NHS dentistry by improving oral health.Aim To evaluate the dental care received by children who required caries-related extractions under GA and obtain the views of their parents or guardians on their experiences of oral health services and the support they would like to improve their child's oral health, to inform future planning.Method An interview questionnaire was designed and piloted to collect data from a consecutive sample of 100 parents or guardians during their child's pre-operative assessment appointment. This took place at one London dental hospital between November 2009 and February 2010.Results Most children were either white (43%) or black British (41%); the average age was seven years (range 2-15, SD 3.1, SE 0.31) and the female:male ratio was 6:5. Most (84%) had experienced dental pain and 66% were referred by a general dental practitioner (GDP). A large proportion of parents or guardians (47%) reported previous dental treatment under GA in their children or child's sibling/s. Challenges discussed by parents in supporting their child's oral health included parenting skills, child behaviour, peer pressure, insufficient time, the dental system and no plans for continuing care for their child. Three out of four parents (74%) reported that they would like support for their child's oral health. Sixty percent of all parents supported school/nursery programmes and 55% supported an oral health programme during their pre-assessment clinic.Discussion These findings suggest that the oral health support received by high caries risk children is low. Health promotion programmes tailored to this cohort are necessary and our findings suggest that they would be welcomed by parents. PMID:21508990

  18. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child's fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation and moderation analyses, child fruit consumption was regressed on parental fruit consumption, parenting style, parental education and ethnicity. Participating children consumed on average 7.5 pieces of fruit per week. Fourteen percent met the recommended Dutch norm of two pieces of fruit per day. Parental and child fruit consumption were positively associated. The association was more pronounced under higher levels of psychological control and behavioural control, and among ethnic groups. Additionally, parental education and child fruit consumption were positively associated. Parental fruit consumption partially mediated this association. Interventions are needed to increase child fruit consumption. Interventions should focus on increasing parental fruit consumption and positive parental modelling, with particular focus on low-SES families. Additionally, interventions that combine positive modelling with positive general parenting skills (e.g. increasing behavioural control) may be more effective than interventions that focus on parental modelling alone. PMID:22094182

  19. A Videotape Parent Education Program for Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Judith S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a parent education program based on group discussions of a videotape series, "Hugs 'n' Kids'" for abusive and high-risk-for-abuse parents. Over 200 parents have participated in the program, conducted by the San Fernando Valley (California) Child Guidance Clinic. (Author/DB)

  20. Adoption in the age of reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A

    2001-05-01

    The choice of adoption over genetic parenthood was investigated in 105 women retrospectively by questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: female/male subfertility; female subfertility; male subfertility; and female/male fertility. Half the sample (59/105) answered the question about the importance of a genetic link. Women who failed to adopt thought a genetic link was important, as did those who were less likely to disclose alternative reproductive conceptions to their child. First thoughts following diagnosis were more focused and actions more centered on adoption in the female/male subfertile group compared to the other groups. Communication of the child's origins was least prevalent in the female/male subfertile group, followed by the male subfertile group, although all groups would disclose adoption. The choice of adoption was determined by a number of factors, not all associated with infertility resolution. Although it is unlikely that resolution to infertility can be achieved in any population attempting to overcome infertility, the cognitive dissonance identified in this population is likely to be generalizable to those choosing other options to overcome infertility. Cultural and counselling acknowledgement of postmodern family theory principles is likely to ease cognitive consistency regarding the status of adoptive familyhood, and dispel the importance of reproductive options emphasizing a genetic link. PMID:12449936